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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 February 1964The Beatles have their first number one hit in the United States with "I Want to Hold Your Hand".

    I Want to Hold Your Hand

    "I Want to Hold Your Hand" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles. Written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney, and recorded in October 1963, it was the first Beatles record to be made using four-track equipment.

    With advance orders exceeding one million copies in the United Kingdom, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" would have gone straight to the top of the British record charts on its day of release (29 November 1963) had it not been blocked by the group's first million-seller "She Loves You", their previous UK single, which was having a resurgence of popularity following intense media coverage of the group. Taking two weeks to dislodge its predecessor, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" stayed at number 1 for five weeks and remained in the UK top 50 for 21 weeks in total.[1]

    It was also the group's first American number 1 hit, entering the Billboard Hot 100 chart on 18 January 1964 at number 45 and starting the British Invasion of the American music industry. By 1 February it topped the Hot 100, and stayed there for seven weeks before being replaced by "She Loves You". It remained on the Billboard chart for 15 weeks.[2] "I Want to Hold Your Hand" became the Beatles' best-selling single worldwide selling more than 12 million copies.[3] In 2018, Billboard magazine named it the 48th biggest hit of all time on the Billboard Hot 100.[4]

    1. ^ Gambaccini 1991, pp. 27.
    2. ^ Harry 1985, pp. 66.
    3. ^ Harry 2000, p. 561.
    4. ^ "Hot 100 turns 60". Billboard. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 February 1901 – Funeral of Queen Victoria.

    Queen Victoria

    Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire.

    Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After both the Duke and his father died in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, she attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

    Victoria married her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism in the United Kingdom temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. She died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 February 2007 – A Baghdad market bombing kills at least 135 people and injures a further

    3 February 2007 Baghdad market bombing

    The 3 February 2007 Baghdad market bombing was the detonation of a large truck bomb in a busy market in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad on 3 February 2007. The suicide attack killed at least 135 people and injured 339 others.[1]

    The bomb, estimated to be about one ton in weight, brought down at least 10 buildings and coffee shops and obliterated market stalls in a largely Shi‘ite enclave less than a half mile from the Tigris River.[2]

    1. ^ a b "Terror takes toll on market, vendors". The Washington Times. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
    2. ^ Oppel, Jr., Richard A.; Qais Mizher (3 February 2007). "Dozens Killed in Baghdad Bombing". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 February 2007.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 February 1859 – The Codex Sinaiticus is discovered in Egypt.

    Codex Sinaiticus

    Codex Sinaiticus (Greek: Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας, Sinaïtikós Kṓdikas, Hebrew: קודקס סינאיטיקוס‎; Shelfmarks and references: London, Brit. Libr., Additional Manuscripts 43725; Gregory-Alandא [Aleph] or 01, [Soden δ 2]) or "Sinai Bible" is one of the four great uncial codices, ancient, handwritten copies of the Greek Bible. The codex is a celebrated historical treasure.[1]

    The codex is an Alexandrian text-type manuscript written in uncial letters on parchment in the 4th century. Scholarship considers the Codex Sinaiticus to be one of the best Greek texts of the New Testament,[2] along with the Codex Vaticanus. Until Constantin von Tischendorf's discovery of the Sinaiticus text, the Codex Vaticanus was unrivaled.[3]

    The Codex Sinaiticus came to the attention of scholars in the 19th century at Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula, with further material discovered in the 20th and 21st centuries. Although parts of the codex are scattered across four libraries around the world, most of the manuscript is held today in the British Library in London, where it is on public display.[4][5] Since its discovery, study of the Codex Sinaiticus has proven to be useful to scholars for critical studies of biblical text.

    While large portions of the Old Testament are missing, it is assumed that the codex originally contained the whole of both Testaments.[6] About half of the Greek Old Testament (or Septuagint) survived, along with a complete New Testament, the entire Deuterocanonical books, the Epistle of Barnabas and portions of The Shepherd of Hermas.[2]

    1. ^ Sinai: The Site & the History by Mursi Saad El Din, Ayman Taher, Luciano Romano 1998 ISBN 0-8147-2203-2 page 101
    2. ^ a b Aland, Kurt; Barbara Aland (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
    3. ^ Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1875). Six Lectures on the Text of the New Testament and the Ancient Manuscripts. Cambridge. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-4097-0826-1.
    4. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
    5. ^ "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
    6. ^ "Sacred Texts: Codex Sinaiticus". www.bl.uk. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 February 1971 – Astronauts land on the moon in the Apollo 14 mission.

    Apollo 14

    Apollo 14 was the eighth crewed mission in the United States Apollo program, the third to land on the Moon, and the first to land in the lunar highlands. It was the last of the "H missions," targeted landings with two-day stays on the Moon with two lunar EVAs, or moonwalks.

    Commander Alan Shepard, Command Module Pilot Stuart Roosa, and Lunar Module Pilot Edgar Mitchell launched on their nine-day mission on Sunday, January 31, 1971, at 4:03:02 p.m. EST. Liftoff was delayed forty minutes and two seconds, due to launch site weather restrictions, the first such delay in the Apollo program.[2]

    Shepard and Mitchell made their lunar landing on February 5 in the Fra Mauro highlands – originally the target of the aborted Apollo 13 mission. During the two lunar EVAs, 94.35 pounds (42.80 kg) of Moon rocks were collected,[3] and several scientific experiments were performed. Shepard hit two golf balls on the lunar surface with a makeshift club he had brought with him. Shepard and Mitchell spent 33​12 hours on the Moon, with almost 9​12 hours of EVA.

    In the aftermath of Apollo 13, several modifications had been made to the service module electrical power system to prevent a repeat of that accident, including a redesign of the oxygen tanks and the addition of a third tank. The launch had been scheduled for October 1, 1970,[4] and was delayed about four months.[5]

    While Shepard and Mitchell were on the surface, Roosa remained in lunar orbit aboard the command and service module Kitty Hawk, performing scientific experiments and photographing the Moon, including the landing site of the future Apollo 16 mission. He took several hundred seeds on the mission, many of which were germinated on return, resulting in the so-called Moon trees.

    Shepard and Mitchell successfully lifted Antares off the Moon to dock with the command module and, after a total of 34 lunar orbits,[6] the ship was flown back to Earth where the three astronauts landed in the Pacific Ocean on February 9.

    1. ^ Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Table of Contents". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Archived from the original on September 6, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
    2. ^ Wheeler, Robin (2009). "Apollo lunar landing launch window: The controlling factors and constraints". Apollo Flight Journal. NASA. Archived from the original on April 2, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
    3. ^ Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Extravehicular Activity". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. The NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Retrieved August 1, 2013. For some reason, the total reported does not match the sum of the two EVAs.
    4. ^ "Next Moon flight to await solving Apollo's woes". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). UPI. April 18, 1970. p. 1A.
    5. ^ "Astronauts, families visit on launch eve". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. January 30, 1971. p. 1A.
    6. ^ NASA Apollo 14 page
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 January 1947Pan American Airlines becomes the first commercial airline to offer a round-the-world ticket.

    Pan American World Airways

    Pan American World Airways, originally founded as Pan American Airways[1] and commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier and unofficial flag carrier of the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991. It was founded in 1927 as a scheduled air mail and passenger service operating between Key West, Florida and Havana, Cuba. The airline is credited for many innovations that shaped the international airline industry, including the widespread use of jet aircraft, jumbo jets, and computerized reservation systems.[2] It was also a founding member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the global airline industry association.[3]

    Identified by its blue globe logo ("The Blue Meatball"),[4] the use of the word "Clipper" in its aircraft names and call signs, and the white uniform caps of its pilots, the airline was a cultural icon of the 20th century. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority government-owned, it was also the unofficial overseas flag carrier of the United States. During most of the jet era, Pan Am's flagship terminal was the Worldport located at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City.[2]

    1. ^ britannica.com Pan American World Airways, Inc.: American Airline Company
    2. ^ a b Guy Norris & Mark Wagner (September 1, 1997). "Birth of a Giant". Boeing 747: Design and Development Since 1969. Zenith Imprint. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-7603-0280-4.
    3. ^ Airliner World (IATA: A new mandate in a changed world), p. 32, Key Publishing, Stamford, November 2011
    4. ^ Green, Richard P.; Carroll, James J. (2000). Investigating Entrepreneurial Opportunities. SAGE Publications. p. 108. ISBN 9780803959422.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 February 1962 – The United States bans all Cuban imports and exports.

    United States embargo against Cuba

    U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower (left), and leader of Cuba, Fidel Castro (right)

    The United States currently imposes a commercial, economic, and financial embargo against Cuba. The United States first imposed an embargo on the sale of arms to Cuba on March 14, 1958, during the Fulgencio Batista regime. Again on October 19, 1960 (almost two years after the Cuban Revolution had led to the deposition of the Batista regime) the U.S. placed an embargo on exports to Cuba except for food and medicine after Cuba nationalized American-owned Cuban oil refineries without compensation and as a response to Cuba's role in the Cuban missile crisis. On February 7, 1962 the embargo was extended to include almost all exports.[1]

    As of 2018, the Cuban embargo is enforced mainly through six statutes: the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, the Cuban Assets Control Regulations of 1963, the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992, the Helms–Burton Act of 1996, and the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000.[2] The stated purpose of the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 is to maintain sanctions on Cuba as long as the Cuban government refuses to move toward "democratization and greater respect for human rights".[3] The Helms-Burton Act further restricted United States citizens from doing business in or with Cuba, and mandated restrictions on giving public or private assistance to any successor government in Havana unless and until certain claims against the Cuban government were met. In 1999 President Bill Clinton expanded the trade embargo by also disallowing foreign subsidiaries of U.S. companies to trade with Cuba. In 2000 Clinton authorized the sale of "humanitarian" U.S. products to Cuba.

    In Cuba the embargo is called el bloqueo, "the blockade". Despite the term bloqueo (blockade), there has been no physical naval blockade of the country by the United States since the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.[4] The United States does not block Cuba's trade with third parties: other countries are not under the jurisdiction of U.S. domestic laws, such as the Cuban Democracy Act (although, in theory, the U.S. could penalize foreign countries that trade with Cuba, a possibility which has been condemned by the United Nations General Assembly as an "extraterritorial" measure that contravenes "the sovereign equality of States, non-intervention in their internal affairs and freedom of trade and navigation as paramount to the conduct of international affairs"[5]). Cuba can, and does, conduct international trade with many third-party countries;[6] Cuba has been a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1995.[7]

    Beyond criticisms of human rights in Cuba, the United States holds $6 billion worth of financial claims against the Cuban government.[8] The pro-embargo position is that the U.S. embargo is, in part, an appropriate response to these unaddressed claims.[9] The Latin America Working Group argues that pro-embargo Cuban-American exiles, whose votes are crucial in the U.S. state of Florida, have swayed many politicians to adopt views similar to their own.[10] Some business leaders, including James E. Perrella, Dwayne O. Andreas, and Peter Blyth, have opposed the Cuban-American views, arguing that trading freely would be good for Cuba and the United States.[11]

    As of 2018, the embargo, which limits American businesses from conducting trade with Cuban interests, remains in effect and is the most enduring trade embargo in modern history. Despite the existence of the embargo, the United States is the fifth-largest exporter to Cuba (6.6% of Cuba's imports come from the US).[12] Cuba must, however, pay cash for all imports, as credit is not allowed.[13]

    The UN General Assembly has, since 1992, passed a resolution every year condemning the ongoing impact of the embargo and declaring it in violation of the Charter of the United Nations and of international law. In 2014, out of the 193-nation assembly, 188 countries voted for the nonbinding resolution, the United States and Israel voted against and the Pacific Island nations Palau, Marshall Islands and Micronesia abstained.[2][14] Human-rights groups including Amnesty International,[2] Human Rights Watch,[15] and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights[16] have also been critical of the embargo. Critics[which?] of the embargo say that the embargo laws are too harsh, citing the fact that violations can result in up to 10 years in prison.[citation needed]

    1. ^ "Case Studies in Economic Sanctions and Terrorism: US v. Gta 5 (1960– : Castro)" (PDF). Peterson Institute for International Economics. October 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
    2. ^ a b c "The US Embargo Against Cuba: Its Impact on Economic and Social Rights". Amnesty International. September 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
    3. ^ "Cuban Democracy Act of 1992". U.S. Department of State.
    4. ^ "515 - The President's News Conference November 20, 1962". White House Audio Recordings, 1961-1963. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.
    5. ^ "Speakers Denounce Cuban Embargo as 'Sad Echo' of Failed Cold War Politics; General Assembly, for Twentieth Year, Demands Lifting of Economic Blockade". Un.org. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
    6. ^ "European Union, Trade in goods with Cuba" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
    7. ^ "Cuba - Member information". WTO. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
    8. ^ "U.S. Claims Against Cuba Buyer Beware". The Poblete DC, 08/04/08
    9. ^ "Cuba's Economic Sanctions and Property Rights". Focus. May 21, 2012.
    10. ^ "Ignored Majority – The Moderate Cuban-American Community" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2009.
    11. ^ "Eyes on Cuba: U.S. Business and the Embargo". Foreign Affairs.
    12. ^ "Cuba". The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
    13. ^ "End embargo on Cuba, US is urged". BBC News. September 2, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
    14. ^ "For 23rd time, U.N. nations urge end to U.S. embargo on Cuba". Reuters. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
    15. ^ "Cuba: A Step Forward on US Travel Regulations". Human Rights Watch. January 19, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
    16. ^ "IACHR Annual Report 2011". Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 February 1971 – The NASDAQ stock market index opens for the first time.

    NASDAQ

    Redirect to:

    • From a page move: This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name.
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 February 1900 – The Davis Cup competition is established

    Davis Cup

    2018 Davis Cup Final - opening ceremony

    The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format. It is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", and the winners are referred to as the World Champion team.[1] The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between Great Britain and the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition.[2] The most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States (winning 32 tournaments and finishing as runners-up 29 times) and Australia (winning 28 times, including four occasions with New Zealand as Australasia, and finishing as runners-up 19 times). The present champions are Croatia, who beat France to win their second title in 2018.

    The women's equivalent of the Davis Cup is the Fed Cup. Australia, the Czech Republic, and the United States are the only countries to have held both Davis Cup and Fed Cup titles in the same year.

    1. ^ "Andy Murray wins Davis Cup for Great Britain - BBC Sport". BBC Sport.
    2. ^ "Davis Cup Format". www.daviscup.com. Retrieved 20 January 2016. In 2016, 130 nations have entered Davis Cup by BNP Paribas
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 February 1940 – Tom and Jerry make their debut with Puss Gets the Boot.

    Tom and Jerry

    Tom and Jerry is an American animated series of comedy short films created in 1940 by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera. Best known for its 161 theatrical short films by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the series centers on a rivalry between the title characters Tom, a cat, and Jerry, a mouse. Many shorts also feature several recurring characters.

    In its original run, Hanna and Barbera produced 114 Tom and Jerry shorts for MGM from 1940 to 1958.[1] During this time, they won seven Academy Awards for Animated Short Film, tying for first place with Walt Disney's Silly Symphonies with the most awards in the category. After the MGM cartoon studio closed in 1957, MGM revived the series with Gene Deitch directing an additional 13 Tom and Jerry shorts for Rembrandt Films from 1961 to 1962. Tom and Jerry then became the highest-grossing animated short film series of that time, overtaking Looney Tunes. Chuck Jones then produced another 34 shorts with Sib Tower 12 Productions between 1963 and 1967. Three more shorts were produced, The Mansion Cat in 2001, The Karate Guard in 2005, and A Fundraising Adventure in 2014, making a total of 164 shorts.

    A number of spin-offs have been made, including the television series The Tom and Jerry Show (1975), The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show (1980–82), Tom and Jerry Kids (1990–93), Tom and Jerry Tales (2006–08), and The Tom and Jerry Show (2014–present). The first feature-length film based on the series, Tom and Jerry: The Movie, was released in 1992, and 13 direct-to-video films have been produced since 2002, with an upcoming live-action film to be released in 2021. A musical adaptation of the series, titled Tom and Jerry: Purr-Chance to Dream, debuted in Japan in 2019 in advance of Tom and Jerry's upcoming 80th anniversary.

    1. ^ Jones, Paul (February 17, 2015). "Tom and Jerry's 75th anniversary proves cat and mouse games never get old". Radio Times. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 February 1929Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican sign the Lateran Treaty.

    Lateran Treaty

    The Lateran Treaty (Italian: Patti Lateranensi; Latin: Pacta Lateranensia) was one component agreement that made up the Lateran Pacts of 1929, the agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See settling the "Roman Question". The treaty and associated pacts are named after the Lateran Palace, where they were signed on 11 February 1929. The Italian parliament ratified them on 7 June 1929. The Lateran Treaty recognized Vatican City as an independent state under the sovereignty of the Holy See. The Italian government, at the time led by Benito Mussolini as prime minister, also agreed to give the Roman Catholic Church financial compensation for the loss of the Papal States.[1] In 1947, the Lateran Treaty was recognized in the Constitution of Italy[2] as regulating the relations between the state and the Catholic Church.

    1. ^ A History of Western Society (Tenth ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's. p. 900.
    2. ^ Constitution of Italy, article 7.
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 February 1961 – The Soviet Union launches Venera 1 towards Venus.

    Venera 1

    Venera 1 (Russian: Венера-1 meaning Venus 1), also known as Venera-1VA No.2 and occasionally in the West as Sputnik 8 was the first spacecraft to fly past Venus, as part of the Soviet Union's Venera programme.[1] Launched in February 1961, it flew past Venus on 19 May of the same year; however, radio contact with the probe was lost before the flyby, resulting in it returning no data.

    1. ^ "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details - Venera 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 February 1955Israel obtains four of the seven Dead Sea Scrolls.

    Dead Sea Scrolls

    The Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves in the Judaean Desert, near Ein Feshkha on the northern shore of the Dead Sea.[1] Scholarly consensus dates these scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE.[2] The texts have great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Almost all of the Dead Sea Scrolls collection is currently under the ownership of the Government of the State of Israel, and housed in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum.

    Many thousands of written fragments have been discovered in the Dead Sea area. They represent the remnants of larger manuscripts damaged by natural causes or through human interference, with the vast majority holding only small scraps of text. However, a small number of well-preserved, almost intact manuscripts have survived – fewer than a dozen among those from the Qumran Caves.[2] Researchers have assembled a collection of 981 different manuscripts – discovered in 1946/47 and in 1956 – from 11 caves.[3] The 11 Qumran Caves lie in the immediate vicinity of the Hellenistic-period Jewish settlement at Khirbet Qumran in the eastern Judaean Desert, in the West Bank.[4] The caves are located about one mile (1.6 kilometres) west of the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, whence they derive their name. Scholarly consensus dates the Qumran Caves Scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE.[2] Bronze coins found at the same sites form a series beginning with John Hyrcanus (in office 135–104 BCE) and continuing until the period of the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), supporting the radiocarbon and paleographic dating of the scrolls.[5]

    In the larger sense, the Dead Sea Scrolls include manuscripts from additional Judaean Desert sites, dated as early as the 8th century BCE and as late as the 11th century CE.[1]

    Biblical texts older than the Dead Sea Scrolls have been discovered only in two silver scroll-shaped amulets containing portions of the Priestly Blessing from the Book of Numbers, excavated in Jerusalem at Ketef Hinnom and dated c. 600 BCE. The third-oldest surviving known piece of the Torah, the En-Gedi Scroll, consists of a portion of Leviticus found in the Ein Gedi synagogue, burnt in the 6th century CE and analyzed in 2015. Research has dated it palaeographically to the 1st or 2nd century CE, and using the C14 method to sometime between the 2nd and 4th centuries CE.[6]

    Most of the texts use Hebrew, with some written in Aramaic (for example the Son of God text; in different regional dialects, including Nabataean), and a few in Greek.[7] Discoveries from the Judaean Desert add Latin (from Masada) and Arabic (from Khirbet al-Mird) texts.[8] Most of the texts are written on parchment, some on papyrus, and one on copper.[9]

    Archaeologists have long associated the scrolls with the ancient Jewish sect called the Essenes, although some recent interpretations have challenged this connection and argue that priests in Jerusalem, or Zadokites, or other unknown Jewish groups wrote the scrolls.[10][11]

    Owing to the poor condition of some of the scrolls, scholars have not identified all of their texts. The identified texts fall into three general groups:

    1. About 40% are copies of texts from the Hebrew Scriptures.
    2. Approximately another 30% are texts from the Second Temple Period which ultimately were not canonized in the Hebrew Bible, like the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Sirach, Psalms 152–155, etc.
    3. The remainder (roughly 30%) are sectarian manuscripts of previously unknown documents that shed light on the rules and beliefs of a particular group (sect) or groups within greater Judaism, like the Community Rule, the War Scroll, the Pesher on Habakkuk, and The Rule of the Blessing.[12][need quotation to verify]
    1. ^ a b "The Digital Library: Introduction". Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    2. ^ a b c "The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls: Nature and Significance". Israel Museum Jerusalem. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    3. ^ "Hebrew University Archaeologists Find 12th Dead Sea Scrolls Cave". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
    4. ^ Michelle Z. Donahue (10 February 2017). "New Dead Sea Scroll Find May Help Detect Forgeries". nationalgeographic.com.
    5. ^ A. R. C. Leaney, From Judaean Caves: The Story of the Dead Sea Scrolls. p.27, Religious Education Press, 1961.
    6. ^ Michael Segal, Emanuel Tov, William Brent Seales, Clifford Seth Parker, Pnina Shor, Yosef Porath; with an Appendix by Ada Yardeni (2016). "An Early Leviticus Scroll from En-Gedi: Preliminary Publication" (PDF). Textus 26: 1–29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2017. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |journal= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    7. ^ Vermes, Geza (1977). The Dead Sea Scrolls. Qumran in Perspective. London: Collins. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-00-216142-8.
    8. ^ "Languages and Scripts". Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    9. ^ McCarthy, Rory (27 August 2008). "From papyrus to cyberspace". The Guardian.
    10. ^ Ofri, Ilani (13 March 2009). "Scholar: The Essenes, Dead Sea Scroll 'authors,' never existed". Ha'aretz. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
    11. ^ Golb, Norman (5 June 2009). "On the Jerusalem Origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls" (PDf). University of Chicago Oriental Institute.
    12. ^ Abegg, Jr., Martin, Peter Flint, and Eugene Ulrich, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English, San Francisco: Harper, 2002.
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 February 1946 – The Bank of England is nationalized.

    Bank of England

    The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the English Government's banker, and still one of the bankers for the Government of the United Kingdom, it is the world's eighth-oldest bank. It was privately owned by stockholders from its foundation in 1694 until it was nationalised in 1946.[2][3]

    The Bank became an independent public organisation in 1998, wholly owned by the Treasury Solicitor on behalf of the government,[4] but with independence in setting monetary policy.[5][6][7][8]

    The Bank is one of eight banks authorised to issue banknotes in the United Kingdom, has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales and regulates the issue of banknotes by commercial banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.[9]

    The Bank's Monetary Policy Committee has a devolved responsibility for managing monetary policy. The Treasury has reserve powers to give orders to the committee "if they are required in the public interest and by extreme economic circumstances", but such orders must be endorsed by Parliament within 28 days.[10] The Bank's Financial Policy Committee held its first meeting in June 2011 as a macroprudential regulator to oversee regulation of the UK's financial sector.

    The Bank's headquarters have been in London's main financial district, the City of London, on Threadneedle Street, since 1734. It is sometimes known as The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street, a name taken from a satirical cartoon by James Gillray in 1797.[11] The road junction outside is known as Bank junction.

    As a regulator and central bank, the Bank of England has not offered consumer banking services for many years, but it still does manage some public-facing services such as exchanging superseded bank notes.[12] Until 2016, the bank provided personal banking services as a privilege for employees.[13]

    1. ^ Bank of England (2 August 2018). "Monetary Policy Committee voted unanimously to raise Bank Rate to 0.75%". Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
    2. ^ "House of Commons Debate 29th October 1945, Second Reading of the Bank of England Bill". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
    3. ^ "Bank of England Act 1946" (PDF). Retrieved 12 October 2012.
    4. ^ "Freedom of Information – disclosures". Bank of England. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
    5. ^ 1 June 1998, The Bank of England Act 1998 (Commencement) Order 1998 s 2
    6. ^ "BBC On This Day - 6-1997: Brown sets Bank of England free". 6 May 1997. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
    7. ^ "Bank of England - About the Bank". Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
    8. ^ "Bank of England: Relationship with Parliament". Archived from the original on 8 July 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
    9. ^ "The Bank of England's Role in Regulating the Issue of Scottish and Northern Ireland Banknotes". Bank of England website. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
    10. ^ "Act of Parliament gives devolved responsibility to the MPC with reserve powers for the Treasury". Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
    11. ^ Bank of England, "Who is The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street? Archived 15 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine". Accessed 15 January 2018.
    12. ^ "Exchanging old banknotes". Bank of England. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
    13. ^ Topham, Gwyn. "Bank of England to close personal banking service for employees". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 February 1971 – The decimalisation of British coinage is completed on Decimal Day.

    Decimal Day

    An introductory pack of the new currency.

    Decimal Day in the United Kingdom and in Ireland was on 15 February 1971, the day on which each country decimalised its respective £sd currency, of pounds, shillings and pence. In the United Kingdom, the British pound was made up of 20 shillings, each of which was made up of 12 pence, a total of 240 pence. With the decimalisation the pound kept its old value and name, and the only changes were in relation to the subunits. The shilling was abolished and the pound was subdivided into 100 "new pence" (abbreviated "p"), each of which was worth 2.4 "old pence" (abbreviated "d"). In Ireland, the Irish pound had a similar £sd currency structure and similar changes took place.

     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 February 1933 – The Blaine Act ends Prohibition in the United States.

    Prohibition in the United States

    Detroit police with equipment found in a clandestine brewery during the Prohibition era
    Every Day Will Be Sunday When the Town Goes Dry (1918–1919)

    Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.

    During the 19th century, alcoholism, family violence, and saloon-based political corruption prompted prohibitionists, led by pietistic Protestants, to end the alcoholic beverage trade to cure the ill society and weaken the political opposition. One result was that many communities in the late-19th and early-20th centuries introduced alcohol prohibition, with the subsequent enforcement in law becoming a hotly debated issue. Prohibition supporters, called "drys", presented it as a victory for public morals and health.

    Promoted by the "dry" crusaders, the movement was led by pietistic Protestants and social Progressives in the Prohibition, Democratic, and Republican parties. It gained a national grass roots base through the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. After 1900, it was coordinated by the Anti-Saloon League. Opposition from the beer industry mobilized "wet" supporters from the Catholic and German Lutheran communities. They had funding to fight back, but by 1917–18 the German community had been marginalized by the nation's war against Germany, and the brewing industry was shut down in state after state by the legislatures and finally nationwide under the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920. Enabling legislation, known as the Volstead Act, set down the rules for enforcing the federal ban and defined the types of alcoholic beverages that were prohibited. For example, religious use of wine was allowed. Private ownership and consumption of alcohol were not made illegal under federal law, but local laws were stricter in many areas, with some states banning possession outright.

    Criminal gangs were able to gain control of the beer and liquor supply for many cities. By the late-1920s a new opposition mobilized nationwide. Wets attacked prohibition as causing crime, lowering local revenues, and imposing "rural" Protestant religious values on "urban" America.[1] Prohibition ended with the ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, which repealed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 5, 1933. Some states continued statewide prohibition, marking one of the last stages of the Progressive Era.

    Research indicates that alcohol consumption substantially declined due to Prohibition.[2][3] Rates of liver cirrhosis, alcoholic psychosis and infant mortality also declined.[4][2][5] Prohibition has been tied to a growth in organized crime and violence.[6][7][8] As an experiment it lost supporters every year, and lost tax revenue that governments needed when the Great Depression began in 1929.[9]

    1. ^ Margaret Sands Orchowski (2015). The Law that Changed the Face of America: The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 32. ISBN 9781442251373.
    2. ^ a b Mark H. Moore (October 16, 1989). "Actually, Prohibition Was a Success". The New York Times. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
    3. ^ Jack S. Blocker et al. eds (2003). Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 23. ISBN 9781576078334.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    4. ^ MacCoun, Robert J.; Reuter, Peter (August 17, 2001). Drug War Heresies: Learning from Other Vices, Times, and Places. Cambridge University Press. p. 161. ISBN 9780521799973.
    5. ^ Jack S. Blocker, Jr (February 2006). "Did Prohibition Really Work? Alcohol Prohibition as a Public Health Innovation". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (2): 233–243. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.065409. PMC 1470475. PMID 16380559.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference :2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference :3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Hall, Wayne (2010). "What are the policy lessons of National Alcohol Prohibition in the United States, 1920–1933?". Addiction. 105 (7): 1164–1173. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.02926.x. PMID 20331549.
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 February 1867 – The first ship passes through the Suez Canal.

    Suez Canal

    The southern terminus of the Suez Canal at Suez on the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea)

    The Suez Canal (Arabic: قناة السويسqanāt as-suwēs) is a sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, it officially opened on 17 November 1869. The canal offers watercraft a more direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian oceans via the Mediterranean and Red seas, thus avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian oceans and reducing the journey distance from the Arabian Sea to London, for example, by approximately 8,900 kilometres (5,500 mi).[1] It extends from the northern terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez. Its length is 193.30 km (120.11 mi), including its northern and southern access-channels. In 2012, 17,225 vessels traversed the canal (an average of 47 per day).[2]

    The original canal featured a single-lane waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass and the Great Bitter Lake.[3] It contains no lock system, with seawater flowing freely through it. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez.[4]

    The United Kingdom and France owned the canal until July 1956, when the President of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, nationalized it - an event which led to the Suez Crisis of October-November 1956.[5] The canal is owned and maintained by the Suez Canal Authority[6] (SCA) of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag".[7] Nevertheless, the canal has played an important military strategic role as a naval short-cut and choke-point. Navies with coastlines and bases on both the Mediterranean and Red Seas (Egypt and Israel) have a particular interest in the Suez Canal.

    In August 2014 the Egyptian government launched construction to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km (22 mi) to speed the canal's transit-time. The expansion intended to nearly double the capacity of the Suez Canal - from 49 to 97 ships per day.[8] At a cost of $8.4 billion, this project was funded[by whom?] with interest-bearing investment certificates issued exclusively to Egyptian entities and individuals. The "New Suez Canal", as the expansion was dubbed, was opened[by whom?] with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015.[9]

    On 24 February 2016, the Suez Canal Authority officially opened the new side channel. This side channel, located at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal. As the East Container Terminal is located on the Canal itself, before the construction of the new side channel it was not possible to berth or unberth vessels at the terminal while the convoy[which?] was running.[10]

    1. ^ "The Suez Canal - A vital shortcut for global commerce" (PDF). World Shipping Council.
    2. ^ "Yearly Number & Net Tone by Ship Type,Direction & Ship Status". Suez Canal. Archived from the original on 15 February 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
    3. ^ Suez Canal Authority
    4. ^ The Red Sea Pilot. Imray Laurie Norie & Wilson. 1995. p. 266.
    5. ^ Editors, History com. "Suez Crisis". HISTORY. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
    6. ^ "SCA Overview". Suez Canal Authority. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
    7. ^ Constantinople Convention of the Suez Canal of 2 March 1888 still in force and specifically maintained in Nasser's Nationalization Act.
    8. ^ "New Suez Canal project proposed by Egypt to boost trade". caironews.net. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
    9. ^ Tadros, Sherine (6 August 2015). "Egypt Opens New £6bn Suez Canal". Sky News. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
    10. ^ "Egypt opens East Port Said side channel for navigation - Xinhua". News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 February 1954 – The first Church of Scientology is established in Los Angeles.

    Church of Scientology

    The Church of Scientology is a group of interconnected[1] corporate entities and other organizations devoted to the practice, administration and dissemination of Scientology, a new religious movement. The movement has been the subject of a number of controversies, and the church has been described by government inquiries, international parliamentary bodies, law lords, and numerous superior court judgements as both a cult and a manipulative commercial enterprise.[11] In some countries, it has attained legal recognition as a religion.[12]

    The Church of Scientology International (CSI) is officially the Church of Scientology's parent organization, and is responsible for guiding local Scientology churches.[13][14][15] Its international headquarters are located at the Gold Base, in an unincorporated area of Riverside County, California. The location at Gilman Hot Springs is private property and not accessible by the public.[16] Scientology Missions International is under CSI and oversees Scientology missions, which are local Scientology organizations smaller than churches.[17][18] The Church of Spiritual Technology (CST) is the organization which owns all the copyrights of the estate of L. Ron Hubbard.[1]

    All Scientology management organizations are controlled exclusively by members of the Sea Org, which is a legally nonexistent paramilitary organization for the "elite, innermost dedicated core of Scientologists".[1][17] David Miscavige is the highest-ranking Sea Org officer, holding the rank of captain.

    Germany classifies Scientology as an "anti-constitutional sect".[19][20] In France, it has been classified as a dangerous cult by parliamentary reports.[21][22]

    1. ^ a b c Urban, Hugh B. (2015). New Age, Neopagan, and New Religious Movements: Alternative Spirituality in Contemporary America. Univ of California Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0520281172.
    2. ^ Behar, Richard (May 6, 1991). "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power". TIME Magazine. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
    3. ^ Edge, Peter W. (2006). Religion and law: an introduction. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-3048-7.
    4. ^ Anderson, K.V. (1965). Report of the Board of Enquiry into Scientology (PDF) (Report). State of Victoria, Australia. p. 179. Retrieved June 30, 2019. In reality it is a dangerous medical cult
    5. ^ "Scientology (Written answer)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. July 25, 1968. col. 189–191W.
    6. ^ Hunt, John; de Puig, Luis; Espersen, Ole (February 5, 1992). European Council, Recommendation 1178: Sects and New Religious Movements (Report). Council of Europe. Retrieved June 30, 2019. It is a cool, cynical, manipulating business and nothing else.
    7. ^ Cottrell, Richard (1999). Recommendation 1412: Concernant les activités illégales des sectes (Report). Conseil d'Europe.
    8. ^ "Church of Scientology". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Lords. December 17, 1996. col. 1392–1394.
    9. ^ Hubbard and another v. Vosper and another, 1 All ER 1023 (Court of Appeal 19 November 1971).
    10. ^ RE B & G (Minors: Custody), F.L.R. 493 (Court of Appeal 19 September 1984).
    11. ^ [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]
    12. ^ Weird, Sure. A Cult, No. Washington Post By Mark Oppenheimer, August 5, 2007
    13. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (September 2000). The Church of Scientology. Studies in Contemporary Religions, 1. Signature Books in cooperation with CESNUR. Since 1981, all of the churches and organizations of the church have been brought together under the Church of Scientology International. The first Scientology church was incorporated in December 1953 in Camden, New Jersey by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard.
    14. ^ Atack, Jon (1990). A Piece of Blue Sky. New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8184-0499-3.
    15. ^ Hubbard, L. Ron. "Pulpateer". Church of Scientology International. Archived from the original on July 30, 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2006.
    16. ^ Janet Reitman Inside Scientology: The Story of America's Most Secretive Religion, p. 318, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011 ISBN 0547549237, 9780547549231
    17. ^ a b Davis, Derek; Hankins, Barry (2003). New Religious Movements and Religious Liberty in America. Baylor University Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0918954924.
    18. ^ Flinn, Frank K. (2003). "Scientology". In Karen Christensen, and David Levinson (ed.). Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 1209–11.
    19. ^ "Hubbard's Church 'Unconstitutional': Germany Prepares to Ban Scientology - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel Online. spiegel.de. December 7, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
    20. ^ "National Assembly of France report No. 2468". assemblee-nationale.fr. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
    21. ^ A 1995 parliamentary report lists Scientology groups as cults, and in its 2006 report MIVILUDES similarly classified Scientology organizations as a dangerous cult
    22. ^ Le point sur l'Eglise de Scientologie, Le Nouvel Observateur
     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 February 2003 – An Ilyushin Il-76 military aircraft crashes near Kerman, Iran, killing 275.

    2003 Iran Ilyushin Il-76 crash

    The 2003 Iran Ilyushin Il-76 crash occurred on 19 February 2003, when an Ilyushin Il-76 crashed in mountainous terrain near Kerman in Iran. The Aerospace Force of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution aircraft, registration 15-2280, was flying from Zahedan to Kerman when it crashed 35 kilometres (22 mi; 19 nmi) southeast of Kerman.[1] The aircraft was carrying members of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard, a special force that is independent from the Iranian Army, on an unknown mission.[2]

    Strong winds were reported in the region of the crash when the aircraft disappeared from the radar screens; approximately at the same time, villagers in the area described hearing a loud explosion.[3] There were no survivors among the 275 occupants on board the aircraft.[1][nb 1]

    1. ^ a b Accident description for 15-2280 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 24 November 2014.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Fog halts Iran air crash search was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Iranian plane crash kills 302 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Iran plane crash kills 302 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 February 1872 – The Metropolitan Museum of Art opens in New York City.

    Metropolitan Museum of Art

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met",[a] is the largest art museum in the United States. With 6,953,927 visitors to its three locations in 2018, it was the third most visited art museum in the world.[8] Its permanent collection contains over two million works,[9] divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the eastern edge of Central Park along Museum Mile in Manhattan's Upper East Side is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art, architecture, and artifacts from Medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue on the Upper East Side; it extends the museum's modern and contemporary art program.

    The permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt, paintings, and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes, and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries.

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue.

    1. ^ "Today in Met History: April 13". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
    2. ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art: About". Artinfo. 2008. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Met History was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "The world's most popular exhibition? Ancient sculptures in Tokyo versus Modern masters in Paris". The Art Newspaper. March 26, 2018.
    5. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
    6. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
    7. ^ "A New Strategy at The Met". Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
    8. ^ The Art Newspaper, April 2019
    9. ^ "Metropolitan Museum Launches New and Expanded Web Site" Archived November 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, press release, The Met, January 25, 2000


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  21. Admin2

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    21 February 1848Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto.

    The Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 political pamphlet by the German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London just as the Revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.

    The Communist Manifesto summarises Marx and Engels' theories concerning the nature of society and politics, namely that in their own words "[t]he history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism. In the last paragraph of the Manifesto, the authors call for a "forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions", which served as the justification for all communist revolutions around the world.[1][2]

    In 2013, The Communist Manifesto was registered to UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme along with Marx's Capital, Volume I.[3]

    1. ^ "Marx's philosophy and the *necessity* of violent politics – Stephen Hicks, Ph.D." Retrieved 24 September 2019.
    2. ^ Kuromiya, Hiroaki (2017), Pons, Silvio; Smith, Stephen (eds.), "Communism, Violence and Terror", The Cambridge History of Communism, Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–303, doi:10.1017/9781316137024.014, ISBN 9781316137024, retrieved 24 September 2019
    3. ^ "Schriften von Karl Marx: "Das Minifest der Kommunistischen Partei" (1948) und "Das Kapital", ernster Band (1867)". UNESCO.
     
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 February 2011New Zealand's second deadliest earthquake strikes Christchurch, killing 185 people.

    2011 Christchurch earthquake

    An Mw  6.2 (ML  6.3) earthquake occurred in Christchurch on 22 February 2011[2] at 12:51 p.m. local time[9] (23:51 UTC, 21 February).[2] The earthquake struck the Canterbury Region in New Zealand's South Island and was centred 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) south-east of the centre of Christchurch,[10] at the time New Zealand's second-most populous city. The earthquake caused widespread damage across Christchurch, killing 185 people[6][7] in the nation's fifth-deadliest disaster.

    Christchurch's central city and eastern suburbs were badly affected, with damage to buildings and infrastructure already weakened by the magnitude 7.1 Canterbury earthquake of 4 September 2010 and its aftershocks. Significant liquefaction affected the eastern suburbs, producing around 400,000 tonnes of silt. The earthquake was felt across the South Island and parts of the lower and central North Island. While the initial quake only lasted for approximately 10 seconds, the damage was severe because of the location and shallowness of the earthquake's focus in relation to Christchurch as well as previous quake damage. Subsequent population loss saw the Christchurch main urban area fall behind the Wellington equivalent to decrease from second to third most populous area in New Zealand.

    1. ^ a b "M 6.1 - South Island of New Zealand". Earthquake Hazards Program. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
    2. ^ a b c "M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011: Technical". GeoNet. GNS Science. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference GeoNet_Story was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Ice breaks off glacier after Christchurch quake". ABC News. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
    5. ^ "Earthquake causes glacier to calve". Stuff.co.nz. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
    6. ^ a b "Official quake toll rises to 185". Stuff.co. 9 February 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
    7. ^ a b "List of deceased – Christchurch earthquake". New Zealand Police. 8 September 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
    8. ^ "Earthquake death toll reaches 113". Stuff.co.nz. 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
    9. ^ "M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011: Details". GeoNet. GNS Science. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
    10. ^ "M 6.1 - South Island of New Zealand: Regional information". Earthquake Hazards Program. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 February 1934Leopold III becomes King of Belgium.

    Leopold III of Belgium

    The face of Leopold III on a bas-relief by Pierre De Soete.

    Leopold III (3 November 1901 – 25 September 1983) was King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of the heir apparent, his son Baudouin. From 1944 until 1950, Leopold's brother, Charles, served as prince regent while Leopold was declared unable to reign. Leopold's controversial actions during the Second World War resulted in a political crisis known as the Royal Question. In 1950, the debate about whether Leopold could resume his royal functions escalated. Following a referendum, Leopold was allowed to return from exile to Belgium, but the continuing political instability pressured him to abdicate in 1951.

    Leopold was born in Brussels and succeeded to the throne of Belgium on 23 February 1934, following the death of his father King Albert I.

     
  24. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 February 1920 – The Nazi Party is founded.

    Nazi Party

    The National Socialist German Workers' Party Gassing Jews (German: About this soundNationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei , abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party (English: /ˈnɑːtsi, ˈnætsi/),[11] was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920.

    The Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist, racist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany.[12] The party was created to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism.[13] Initially, Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, and anti-capitalist rhetoric, although this was later downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, and in the 1930s the party's main focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes.[14]

    Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community" (Volksgemeinschaft).[15] The party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race (Fremdvölkische).[16] The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the "Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics, broad social welfare programs, and a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people.

    To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani, Poles and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally handicapped. They disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Africans, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents.[17] The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution–an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other targeted victims, in what has become known as the Holocaust.[18]

    Adolf Hitler, the party's leader since 1921, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. Hitler rapidly established a totalitarian regime[19][20][21][22] known as the Third Reich. Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers,[23] who carried out denazification in the years after the war both in Germany and in territories occupied by Nazi forces. The use of any symbols associated with the party is now outlawed in many European countries, including Germany and Austria.

    1. ^ Kershaw 1998, pp. 164-65.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference headquarters was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ McNab 2011, pp. 22, 23.
    4. ^ Gottfried Feder, The Program of the Party of Hitler, Ostara Publications, 2016, p. 35
    5. ^ Germà Bel (13 November 2004). "Against the mainstream: Nazi privatization in 1930s Germany" (PDF). University of Barcelona. IREA. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
    6. ^ Gat, Azar (4 November 2007). The Return of Authoritarian Great Powers.
    7. ^ [1]
    8. ^ [2]
    9. ^ Davidson, Eugene. The Making of Adolf Hitler: The Birth and Rise of Nazism. University of Missouri Press. p. 241. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
    10. ^ Orlow, Dietrich. The Nazi Party 1919–1945: A Complete History. Enigma Books. p. 29. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
    11. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917]. Roach, Peter; Hartmann, James; Setter, Jane (eds.). English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 3-12-539683-2.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference stormtroopers was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference stormtroopers2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference mcdonough was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Majer 2013, p. 39.
    16. ^ Michael Wildt (15 July 2012). Hitler's Volksgemeinschaft and the Dynamics of Racial Exclusion: Violence Against Jews in Provincial Germany, 1919–1939. Berghahn Books. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0-85745-322-8.
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference massachusetts was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Evans 2008, p. 318.
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference totalitarianism was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference totalitarianism3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference totalitarianism4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Cite error: The named reference totalitarianism5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    23. ^ Elzer, Herbert, ed. (2003). Dokumente Zur Deutschlandpolitik. First half band – Appendix B, Section XI, §39. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftverlag. p. 602. ISBN 3-486-56667-9. Archived from the original on 30 November 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
     
  25. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 February 1991 – Cold War: The Warsaw Pact is abolished.

    Warsaw Pact

    The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance,[1] was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven other Eastern Bloc socialist republics of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO[2][3][4][5] in 1955 per the London and Paris Conferences of 1954,[6][7][8][9][10] but it is also considered to have been motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe.[11]

    The Warsaw Pact was established as a balance of power[12] or counterweight[13] to NATO; there was no direct military confrontation between them. Instead, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis and in proxy wars. Both NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of military forces and their integration into the respective blocs.[13] Its largest military engagement was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 (with the participation of all Pact nations except Albania, Romania, and East Germany),[12] which, in part, resulted in Albania withdrawing from the pact less than a month later. The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the Revolutions of 1989 through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland[14] and its electoral success in June 1989.

    East Germany withdrew from the Pact following the reunification of Germany in 1990. On 25 February 1991, at a meeting in Hungary, the Pact was declared at an end by the defence and foreign ministers of the six remaining member states. The USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization shortly thereafter. Throughout the following 20 years, the seven Warsaw Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO (East Germany through its reunification with West Germany; and the Czech Republic and Slovakia as separate countries), as did the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) that had been part of the Soviet Union.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "Text of Warsaw Pact" (PDF). United Nations Treaty Collection. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference NATO Transformed: The Alliance's New Roles in International Security was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference History Channel 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference History Channel 2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ "In reaction to West Germany's NATO accession, the Soviet Union and its Eastern European client states formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955." Citation from: NATO website. "A short history of NATO". nato.int. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference The Future of European Alliance Systems was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference christopher was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference enclopedia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, p. 21–22, 11.02.2015
    10. ^ The Oder-Neisse Line: The United States, Poland, and Germany in the Cold War Debra J. Allen page 158 "Treaties approving Bonn's participation in NATO were ratified in May 1955...shortly thereafter Soviet Union...created the Warsaw Pact to counter the perceived threat of NATO"
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Warsaw Pact: Wartime Status-Instruments of Soviet Control was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ a b Amos Yoder (1993). Communism in Transition: The End of the Soviet Empires. Taylor & Francis. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8448-1738-5. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
    13. ^ a b Bob Reinalda (11 September 2009). Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day. Routledge. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-134-02405-6. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
    14. ^ [1] Archived 23 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine Cover Story: The Holy Alliance By Carl Bernstein Sunday, June 24, 2001
     
  26. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 February 1980 – Egypt and Israel establish full diplomatic relations.

    Egypt–Israel relations

    Egypt–Israel relations are foreign relations between Egypt and Israel. The state of war between both countries which dated back to the 1948 Arab–Israeli War culminated in the Yom Kippur War in 1973, and was followed by the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty a year after the Camp David Accords, mediated by US president Jimmy Carter. Full diplomatic relations were established on January 26, 1980. Egypt has an embassy in Tel Aviv and a consulate in Eilat. Israel has an embassy in Cairo and a consulate in Alexandria.

    Their shared border has two official crossings, one at Taba and one at Nitzana. The crossing at Nitzana is for commercial and tourist traffic only. The two countries' borders also meet at the shoreline of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.

     
  27. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 February 1900 – The British Labour Party is founded.

    Labour Party (UK)

    The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom that has been described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists.[8] The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights.

    The Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century. It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming two minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in the 1920s and early 1930s. Labour served in the wartime coalition of 1940–1945, after which Clement Attlee's Labour government established the National Health Service and expanded the welfare state from 1945 to 1951. Under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan, Labour again governed from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1979. In the 1990s, Tony Blair took Labour closer to the centre as part of his "New Labour" project, which governed the UK under Blair and then Gordon Brown from 1997 to 2010. Since Jeremy Corbyn took over the leadership in 2015 from Ed Miliband, the party has moved leftward.

    Labour is currently the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, having won the second-largest number of seats in the 2017 general election. The Labour Party is currently the largest party in the Welsh Assembly, forming the main party in the current Welsh government. The party is the third-largest in the Scottish Parliament.

    Labour is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, holds observer status in the Socialist International, and sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament. The party includes semi-autonomous Scottish, Welsh branches, and supports the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland, although it still organises there. As of 2017, Labour had the largest membership of any party in Western Europe.[9]

    1. ^ Brivati & Heffernan 2000: "On 27 February 1900, the Labour Representation Committee was formed to campaign for the election of working class representatives to parliament."
    2. ^ Thorpe 2008, p. 8.
    3. ^ Stephen O'Shea and James Buckley (8 December 2015). "Corbyn's Labour party set for swanky HQ move". Retrieved 8 October 2017.
    4. ^ https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN05125
    5. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "United Kingdom". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
    6. ^ Adams, Ian (1998). Ideology and Politics in Britain Today (illustrated, reprint ed.). Manchester University Press. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0-7190-5056-5. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
    7. ^ "Local Council Political Compositions". Open Council Date UK. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
    8. ^ Matthew Worley (2009). The Foundations of the British Labour Party: Identities, Cultures and Perspectives, 1900–39. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-7546-6731-5.
    9. ^ MacAskill, Ewen (27 September 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn's team targets Labour membership of 1 million". the Guardian.
     
  28. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 February 1991 – The first Gulf War ends.

    Gulf War

    The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War, First Iraq War or Iraq War,[25][26][27][a] before the term "Iraq War" became identified instead with the post-2003 Iraq War. The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm.[28][29]

    On 2 August 1990 the Iraqi Army invaded and occupied Kuwait, which was met with international condemnation and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. Together with the UK prime minister Margaret Thatcher, who had resisted the invasion by Argentina of the Falkland Islands a decade earlier,[30] American President George H. W. Bush deployed US forces into Saudi Arabia, and urged other countries to send their own forces to the scene. An array of nations joined the coalition, forming the largest military alliance since World War II. The great majority of the coalition's military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and Egypt as leading contributors, in that order. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost.[31]

    The war marked the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN.[32][33][34]

    The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991, continuing for five weeks. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition ceased its advance and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the ground campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on Saudi Arabia's border. Iraq launched Scud missiles against coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt-syria-double was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Den 1. Golfkrig". Forsvaret.dk. 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    3. ^ Persian Gulf War, the Sandhurst-trained Prince
      Khaled bin Sultan al-Saud was co-commander with General Norman Schwarzkopf
      www.casi.org.uk/discuss
    4. ^ General Khaled was Co-Commander, with US General Norman Schwarzkopf, of the allied coalition that liberated Kuwait www.thefreelibrary.com
    5. ^ Gulf War coalition forces (latest available) by country "www.nationmaster.com". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
    6. ^ Hersh, Seymour (2005). Chain of Command. Penguin Books. p. 181.
    7. ^ a b "Persian Gulf War". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.
    8. ^ 18 M1 Abrams, 11 M60, 2 AMX-30
    9. ^ CheckPoint, Ludovic Monnerat -. "Guerre du Golfe : le dernier combat de la division Tawakalna".
    10. ^ Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 279.
    11. ^ Halberstadt 1991. p. 35
    12. ^ Atkinson, Rick. Crusade, The untold story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. pp. 332–3
    13. ^ Captain Todd A. Buchs, B. Co. Commander, Knights In the Desert. Publisher/Editor Unknown. p. 111.
    14. ^ Malory, Marcia. "Tanks During the First Gulf War – Tank History". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    15. ^ M60 vs T-62 Cold War Combatants 1956–92 by Lon Nordeen & David Isby
    16. ^ "TAB H – Friendly-fire Incidents". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    17. ^ NSIAD-92-94, "Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams". US General Accounting Office, 10 January 1992. Quote: "According to information provided by the Army's Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 20 Bradleys were destroyed during the Gulf war. Another 12 Bradleys were damaged, but four of these were quickly repaired. Friendly fire accounted for 17 of the destroyed Bradleys and three of the damaged ones
    18. ^ a b c d Pike, John. "Operation Desert Storm". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    19. ^ Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990 (Air War). Acig.org. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
    20. ^ a b c d e Bourque P.455
    21. ^ "The Use of Terror during Iraq's invasion of Kuwait". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 24 January 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
    22. ^ "Kuwait: missing people: a step in the right direction". Red Cross.
    23. ^ "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict". Project on Defense Alternatives. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
    24. ^ Fetter, Steve; Lewis, George N.; Gronlund, Lisbeth (28 January 1993). "Why were Casualties so low?" (PDF). Nature. London. 361 (6410): 293–296. doi:10.1038/361293a0.
    25. ^ "Frontline Chronology" (PDF). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
    26. ^ "Tenth anniversary of the Gulf War: A look back". CNN. 17 January 2001. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    27. ^ Kenneth Estes. "ISN: The Second Gulf War (1990–1991) – Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
    28. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, os Estados Unidos e as Relações Internacionais accessed on 29 March 2011.
    29. ^ Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história, access on 27 November 2011.
    30. ^ "George Bush (Sr) Library – Margaret Thatcher Foundation". www.margaretthatcher.org.
    31. ^ Peters, John E; Deshong, Howard (1995). Out of Area or Out of Reach? European Military Support for Operations in Southwest Asia (PDF). RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-2329-2.
    32. ^ "Memória Globo". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), access on 29 March 2011.
    33. ^ "Livraria da Folha – Livro conta como Guerra do Golfo colocou a CNN no foco internacional – 08/09/2010". .folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
    34. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, accessed on 29 March 2011


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 March 1565 – The city of Rio de Janeiro is founded.

    Rio de Janeiro

    Rio de Janeiro (/ˈr di ʒəˈnɛər, - d -, - də -/; Portuguese: [ˈʁi.u d(ʒi) ʒɐˈne(j)ɾu];[3] River of January), or simply Rio,[4] is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.[5]

    Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. Later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, and future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, and then the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília.

    Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country,[6] and 30th largest in the world in 2008,[7] estimated at about R$343 billion (IBGE, 2008) (nearly US$201 billion). It is headquarters to Brazilian oil, mining, and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data.[8] Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, which is considered the safest in the country.[9]

    Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, Carnival, samba, bossa nova, and balneario beaches[10] such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana, Ipanema, and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World; Sugarloaf Mountain with its cable car; the Sambódromo (Sambadrome), a permanent grandstand-lined parade avenue which is used during Carnival; and Maracanã Stadium, one of the world's largest football stadiums. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to ever host the events, and the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city.[11] The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the XV Pan American Games.

    1. ^ "Rio de Janeiro Info ('History')". paralumun.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
    2. ^ "2013 population estimates. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) (1 July 2013)" (PDF). Ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
    3. ^ It is pronounced [ˈʁi.u d(ʒi) ʒaˈnejɾu] in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Rio de Janeiro according to Larousse Concise Dictionary: Portuguese-English, 2008, p. 339. Vowel reduction at /a ~ ɐ/ was added as it is the most often used speech pattern in vernacular, colloquial and educated colloquial modes of speech. [ˈʁi.u dʑi ʑəˈnejɾu] is possibly the way most Brazilians, and particularly most cariocas, would actually pronounce it. The European Portuguese pronunciation is: [ˈʁi.u ðɨ ʒɐˈnɐjɾu].
    4. ^ "Rio de Janeiro: travel guide". Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
    5. ^ "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea". UNESCO. 1 July 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
    6. ^ "Posição ocupada pelos 100 maiores municípios em relação ao Produto Interno Bruto" (PDF). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 16 December 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
    7. ^ "The 150 richest cities in the world by GDP in 2005". City Mayors Statistics. 11 March 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
    8. ^ "Assessoria de Comunicação e Imprensa". Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp). 17 June 2005. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
    9. ^ "As cidades mais pacíficas do Brasil, segundo o IPEA". exame.abril.com.br. EXAME. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
    10. ^ "Rio de Janeiro's Beach Culture" Tayfun King, Fast Track, BBC World News (11 September 2009)
    11. ^ "BBC Sport, Rio to stage 2016 Olympic Games". BBC News. 2 October 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2009.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 March 1565 – The city of Rio de Janeiro is founded.

    Rio de Janeiro

    Rio de Janeiro (/ˈr di ʒəˈnɛər, - d -, - də -/; Portuguese: [ˈʁi.u d(ʒi) ʒɐˈne(j)ɾu];[3] River of January), or simply Rio,[4] is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.[5]

    Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. Later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, and future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, and then the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília.

    Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country,[6] and 30th largest in the world in 2008,[7] estimated at about R$343 billion (IBGE, 2008) (nearly US$201 billion). It is headquarters to Brazilian oil, mining, and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data.[8] Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, which is considered the safest in the country.[9]

    Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, Carnival, samba, bossa nova, and balneario beaches[10] such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana, Ipanema, and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World; Sugarloaf Mountain with its cable car; the Sambódromo (Sambadrome), a permanent grandstand-lined parade avenue which is used during Carnival; and Maracanã Stadium, one of the world's largest football stadiums. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to ever host the events, and the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city.[11] The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the XV Pan American Games.

    1. ^ "Rio de Janeiro Info ('History')". paralumun.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
    2. ^ "2013 population estimates. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) (1 July 2013)" (PDF). Ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
    3. ^ It is pronounced [ˈʁi.u d(ʒi) ʒaˈnejɾu] in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Rio de Janeiro according to Larousse Concise Dictionary: Portuguese-English, 2008, p. 339. Vowel reduction at /a ~ ɐ/ was added as it is the most often used speech pattern in vernacular, colloquial and educated colloquial modes of speech. [ˈʁi.u dʑi ʑəˈnejɾu] is possibly the way most Brazilians, and particularly most cariocas, would actually pronounce it. The European Portuguese pronunciation is: [ˈʁi.u ðɨ ʒɐˈnɐjɾu].
    4. ^ "Rio de Janeiro: travel guide". Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
    5. ^ "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea". UNESCO. 1 July 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
    6. ^ "Posição ocupada pelos 100 maiores municípios em relação ao Produto Interno Bruto" (PDF). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 16 December 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
    7. ^ "The 150 richest cities in the world by GDP in 2005". City Mayors Statistics. 11 March 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
    8. ^ "Assessoria de Comunicação e Imprensa". Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp). 17 June 2005. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
    9. ^ "As cidades mais pacíficas do Brasil, segundo o IPEA". exame.abril.com.br. EXAME. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
    10. ^ "Rio de Janeiro's Beach Culture" Tayfun King, Fast Track, BBC World News (11 September 2009)
    11. ^ "BBC Sport, Rio to stage 2016 Olympic Games". BBC News. 2 October 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2009.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 March 1946Ho Chi Minh is elected the President of North Vietnam.

    Ho Chi Minh

    Hồ Chí Minh (/h mɪn/;[2] Vietnamese: [hò cǐ mīŋ̟] (About this soundlisten), Saigon: [hò cǐ mɨ̄n] (About this soundlisten); Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung,[3][4][5] also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành, Nguyễn Ái Quốc, Bác Hồ ("Uncle Ho") or simply Bác ("Uncle"), was a Vietnamese revolutionary and politician. He served as Prime Minister of North Vietnam from 1945 to 1955 and then its President from 1945 to 1969. Ideologically a Marxist-Leninist, he served as Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.

    Hồ Chí Minh led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, ending the First Indochina War. He was a key figure in the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War, which lasted from 1955-75. North Vietnam was victorious and was reunified with the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) in 1976. Saigon, the former capital of South Vietnam, was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in his honor. Ho officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems and died in 1969.

    Any description of Hồ Chí Minh's life before he came to power in Vietnam is necessarily fraught with ambiguity. He is known to have used at least 50[6]:582 and perhaps as many as 200 pseudonyms.[7] Both his place and date of birth are subjects of academic debate since neither is known with certainty. At least four existing official biographies vary on names, dates, places and other hard facts while unofficial biographies vary even more widely.[8]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brocheux2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Ho Chi Minh". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    3. ^ Trần Quốc Vượng. "Lời truyền miệng dân gian về Hồ Chí Minh". BBC Vietnamese. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
    4. ^ His birth name appeared in a letter from the director of Collège Quốc học, dated 7 August 1908. Vũ Ngự Chiêu. "Vài vấn nạn lịch sử thế kỷ XX: Hồ Chí Minh—Nhà ngoại giao, 1945–1946". Hợp Lưu Magazine. Note: See the document in French, from Centre des archives d'Outre-mer [CAOM] (Aix)/Gouvernement General de l'Indochine [GGI]/Fonds Residence Superieure d'Annam [RSA]/carton R1, and the note in English at the end of the cited article. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
    5. ^ Nguyễn Vĩnh Châu. "Phỏng vấn sử gia Vũ Ngự Chiêu về những nghiên cứu lịch sử liên quan đến Hồ Chí Minh". Hợp Lưu Magazine. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Duiker was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Duncanson, Dennis J. "Ho Chi Minh in Hong Kong 1931–1932". 57 (Jan–Mar 1957). The China Quarterly: 85. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    8. ^ Pike, Douglas (3 August 1976). "Ho Chi Minh: A Post-War Re-evaluation". Mexico City: 30th Annual Congress of Orientalists. Retrieved 21 December 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
     
  32. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 March 1923TIME magazine is published for the first time.

    Time (magazine)

    Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and originally run by Henry Luce. A European edition (Time Europe, formerly known as Time Atlantic) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (Time Asia) is based in Hong Kong. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.[2]

    Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine. The print edition has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of whom are based in the United States. In mid-2012, its circulation was over 3 million,[1][3] which fell to 2 million by late 2017.[4]

    Formerly published by Time Inc., since November 2018 Time has been published by TIME USA, LLC, owned by Marc Benioff.[5]

    1. ^ a b "Consumer Magazines". Alliance for Audited Media. Archived from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
    2. ^ "Time Canada to close". Mastheadonline.com. December 10, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
    3. ^ Byers, Dylan (August 7, 2012). "Time Magazine still on top in circulation". Politico. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
    4. ^ Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. (October 10, 2017). "For Time Inc.'s Magazines, Fewer Copies Is the Way Forward" – via wsj.com.
    5. ^ "Time Magazine Staffs Up Under New Ownership". thewrap.com. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
     
  33. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 March 1351Ramathibodi becomes King of Siam.

    Monarchy of Thailand

    The monarchy of Thailand (whose monarch is referred to as the King of Thailand or historically, King of Siam; Thai: พระมหากษัตริย์ไทย) refers to the constitutional monarchy and monarch of the Kingdom of Thailand (formerly Siam). The King of Thailand is the head of state and head of the ruling Royal House of Chakri.

    Although the current Chakri Dynasty was created in 1782, the existence of the institution of monarchy in Thailand is traditionally considered to have its roots from the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238, with a brief interregnum from the death of Ekkathat to the accession of Taksin in the 18th century. The institution was transformed into a constitutional monarchy in 1932 after the bloodless Siamese Revolution of 1932. The monarchy's official ceremonial residence is the Grand Palace in Bangkok, while the private residence has been at the Dusit Palace.

    The King of Thailand's titles include Head of State, Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces, Adherent of Buddhism and Upholder of religions.[2]

    1. ^ Campbell, Charlie (n.d.). "Thais Face an Anxious Wait to See How Their New King Will Wield His Power". Time. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
    2. ^ The Secretariate of the House of Representatives (November 2007). "Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand B.E 2550" (PDF). The Secretariat of the House of Representatives. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
     
  34. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 March 1943 – First Flight of the Gloster Meteor, Britain's first combat jet aircraft.

    Gloster Meteor

    The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only jet aircraft to achieve combat operations during the Second World War. The Meteor's development was heavily reliant on its ground-breaking turbojet engines, pioneered by Sir Frank Whittle and his company, Power Jets Ltd. Development of the aircraft began in 1940, although work on the engines had been under way since 1936. The Meteor first flew in 1943 and commenced operations on 27 July 1944 with No. 616 Squadron RAF. The Meteor was not a sophisticated aircraft in its aerodynamics, but proved to be a successful combat fighter. Gloster's 1946 civil Meteor F.4 demonstrator G-AIDC was the first civilian-registered jet aircraft in the world.[1]

    Several major variants of the Meteor incorporated technological advances during the 1940s and 1950s. Thousands of Meteors were built to fly with the RAF and other air forces and remained in use for several decades. The Meteor saw limited action in the Second World War. Meteors of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) fought in the Korean War. Several other operators such as Argentina, Egypt and Israel flew Meteors in later regional conflicts. Specialised variants of the Meteor were developed for use in photographic aerial reconnaissance and as night fighters.

    The Meteor was also used for research and development purposes and to break several aviation records. On 7 November 1945, the first official airspeed record by a jet aircraft was set by a Meteor F.3 at 606 miles per hour (975 km/h). In 1946, this record was broken when a Meteor F.4 reached a speed of 616 miles per hour (991 km/h). Other performance-related records were broken in categories including flight time endurance, rate of climb, and speed. On 20 September 1945, a heavily modified Meteor I, powered by two Rolls-Royce Trent turbine engines driving propellers, became the first turboprop aircraft to fly.[2] On 10 February 1954, a specially adapted Meteor F.8, the "Meteor Prone Pilot", which placed the pilot into a prone position to counteract inertial forces, took its first flight.[3]

    In the 1950s, the Meteor became increasingly obsolete as more nations introduced jet fighters, many of these newcomers having adopted a swept wing instead of the Meteor's conventional straight wing; in RAF service, the Meteor was replaced by newer types such as the Hawker Hunter and Gloster Javelin. As of 2018, two Meteors, G-JSMA and G-JWMA, remain in active service with the Martin-Baker company as ejection seat testbeds.[4] One further aircraft in the UK remains airworthy, as does another in Australia.

    1. ^ "gloster meteor – 1974 – 0497 – Flight Archive".
    2. ^ King Flight 27 May 1955, p. 727.
    3. ^ Young 1985, p. 83.
    4. ^ http://martin-baker.com/2018/01/15/raf100-gloster-meteor-martin-baker-mk-1/
     
  35. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 March 1899Bayer registers "Aspirin" as a trademark.

    Aspirin

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.[5] Specific inflammatory conditions which aspirin is used to treat include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever.[5] Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death.[5] Aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent further heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, and blood clots in people at high risk.[5] It may also decrease the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer.[6] For pain or fever, effects typically begin within 30 minutes.[5] Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and works similarly to other NSAIDs but also suppresses the normal functioning of platelets.[5]

    One common adverse effect is an upset stomach.[5] More significant side effects include stomach ulcers, stomach bleeding, and worsening asthma.[5] Bleeding risk is greater among those who are older, drink alcohol, take other NSAIDs, or are on other blood thinners.[5] Aspirin is not recommended in the last part of pregnancy.[5] It is not generally recommended in children with infections because of the risk of Reye syndrome.[5] High doses may result in ringing in the ears.[5]

    A precursor to aspirin found in leaves from the willow tree has been used for its health effects for at least 2,400 years.[7][8] In 1853, chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt treated the medicine sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride to produce acetylsalicylic acid for the first time.[9] For the next fifty years, other chemists established the chemical structure and came up with more efficient production methods.[9]:69–75 In 1897, scientists at the Bayer company began studying acetylsalicylic acid as a less-irritating replacement medication for common salicylate medicines.[9]:69–75[10] By 1899, Bayer had named it "Aspirin" and sold it around the world.[11] Aspirin's popularity grew over the first half of the twentieth century leading to competition between many brands and formulations.[12] The word Aspirin was Bayer's brand name; however, their rights to the trademark were lost or sold in many countries.[12]

    Aspirin is one of the most widely used medications globally, with an estimated 40,000 tonnes (44,000 tons) (50 to 120 billion pills) consumed each year.[7][13] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[14] As of 2014, the wholesale cost in the developing world is US$0.002 to US$0.025 per dose.[15] As of 2015, the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is less than US$25.00.[16] It is available as a generic medication.[5] In 2016, it was the 38th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 19 million prescriptions.[17]

    1. ^ a b Use During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    2. ^ a b c Brayfield, A, ed. (14 January 2014). "Aspirin". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
    3. ^ a b "Zorprin, Bayer Buffered Aspirin (aspirin) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". Medscape Reference. WebMD. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference b92 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Aspirin". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
    6. ^ Patrignani P, Patrono C (August 2016). "Aspirin and Cancer". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 68 (9): 967–76. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.05.083. PMID 27561771.
    7. ^ a b Jones A (2015). Chemistry: An Introduction for Medical and Health Sciences. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-0-470-09290-3.
    8. ^ Ravina E (2011). The Evolution of Drug Discovery: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Drugs. John Wiley & Sons. p. 24. ISBN 978-3-527-32669-3.
    9. ^ a b c Jeffreys D (2008). Aspirin the remarkable story of a wonder drug. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 978-1-59691-816-0. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.:46–48
    10. ^ Dick B (2018). "Hard Work and Happenstance". Distillations. Vol. 4 no. 1. Science History Institute. pp. 44–45. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
    11. ^ Mann CC, Plummer ML (1991). The aspirin wars : money, medicine, and 100 years of rampant competition (1st ed.). New York: Knopf. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-394-57894-1.
    12. ^ a b "Aspirin". Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved 13 August 2007.
    13. ^ Warner TD, Mitchell JA (October 2002). "Cyclooxygenase-3 (COX-3): filling in the gaps toward a COX continuum?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (21): 13371–3. Bibcode:2002PNAS...9913371W. doi:10.1073/pnas.222543099. PMC 129677. PMID 12374850.
    14. ^ "World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019". 2019. hdl:10665/325771. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    15. ^ "Acetylsalicylic Acid". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
    16. ^ Hamilton R (2015). Tarascon pocket pharmacopoeia (2015 deluxe lab-coat ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-284-05756-0.
    17. ^ "The Top 300 of 2019". clincalc.com. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
     
  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 March 1936 – Prelude to World War II: In violation of the Locarno Pact and the Treaty of Versailles, Germany reoccupies the Rhineland.

    Remilitarization of the Rhineland

    Location of the Rhineland (as defined by the Treaty of Versailles) along the River Rhine

    The remilitarization of the Rhineland (German: Rheinlandbesetzung) by the German Army began on 7 March 1936 when German military forces entered the Rhineland. This was significant because it violated the terms of the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Treaties, marking the first time since the end of World War I that German troops had been in this region. The remilitarization changed the balance of power in Europe from France and its allies towards Germany, making it possible for Germany to pursue a policy of aggression in Western Europe that the demilitarized status of the Rhineland had blocked until then. Hitler had officially violated the treaty of Versailles.

     
  37. Admin2

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  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 March 1796Napoléon Bonaparte marries his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais.

    Empress Joséphine

    Joséphine (French: [ʒo.ze.fin də‿bo.aʁ.nɛ]; born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon and the first Empress of the French after he proclaimed himself Emperor.

    Her marriage to Napoleon was her second; her first husband, Alexandre de Beauharnais, was guillotined during the Reign of Terror, and she was imprisoned in the Carmes Prison until five days after his execution. Her two children by Beauharnais became significant to royal lineage. Through her daughter Hortense, she was the maternal grandmother of Napoleon III. Through her son Eugène, she was the great-grandmother of Swedish and Danish kings and queens. The reigning houses of Belgium, Norway and Luxembourg also descend from her. Because she did not bear Napoleon any children, he divorced her in 1810 to marry Marie Louise of Austria.

    Joséphine was the recipient of numerous love letters written by Napoleon, many of which still exist. Her Château de Malmaison was noted for its magnificent rose garden, which she supervised closely, owing to her passionate interest in roses, collected from all over the world.

     
  39. Admin2

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    10 March 1848 – The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is ratified by the United States Senate, ending the Mexican–American War.

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic,[1] is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848). The treaty came into force on July 4, 1848.[2]

    With the defeat of its army and the fall of its capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war. The treaty called for the United States to pay $15 million USD to Mexico and to pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico up to $5 million USD. It gave the United States the Rio Grande as a boundary for Texas, and gave the U.S. ownership of California and a large area comprising roughly half of New Mexico, most of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah and Colorado. Mexicans in those annexed areas had the choice of relocating to within Mexico's new boundaries or receiving American citizenship with full civil rights.

    The U.S. Senate advised and consented to ratification of the treaty by a vote of 38–14. The opponents of this treaty were led by the Whigs, who had opposed the war and rejected manifest destiny in general, and rejected this expansion in particular. The amount of land gained by the United States from Mexico was further increased as a result of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, which ceded parts of present-day southern Arizona and New Mexico to the United States of America.

    1. ^ "Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo [Exchange copy]". NATIONAL ARCHIVES CATALOG. US National Archives. 2 February 1848. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
    2. ^ "Avalon Project – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; February 2, 1848". Avalon.law.yale.edu. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
     
  40. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 March 1864 – The Great Sheffield Flood kills 238 people in Sheffield, England.

    Great Sheffield Flood

    Coordinates: 53°25′25″N 1°37′58″W / 53.42361°N 1.63278°W / 53.42361; -1.63278

    Remains of the Dale Dyke Dam after the flood
    Not to be confused with the floods in Sheffield in 2007.

    The Great Sheffield Flood was a flood that devastated parts of Sheffield, England, on 11 March 1864, when the Dale Dyke Dam broke as its reservoir was being filled for the first time. At least 240 people died[1] and more than 600 houses were damaged or destroyed by the flood. The immediate cause was a crack in the embankment, the cause of which was never determined. The dam's failure led to reforms in engineering practice, setting standards on specifics that needed to be met when constructing such large-scale structures. The dam was rebuilt in 1875.

    1. ^ "The Forgotten Flood: Sheffield's tragic past remembered". BBC. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
     

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