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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 march 1928 – In California, the St. Francis Dam fails; the resulting floods kill 431 people.

    St. Francis Dam

    The St. Francis Dam was a curved concrete gravity dam, built to create a large regulating and storage reservoir for the city of Los Angeles, California. The reservoir was an integral part of the city's Los Angeles Aqueduct water supply infrastructure. It was located in San Francisquito Canyon of the Sierra Pelona Mountains, about 40 miles (64 km) northwest of downtown Los Angeles, and approximately 10 miles (16 km) north of the present day city of Santa Clarita.

    The dam was designed and built between 1924 and 1926 by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, then named the Bureau of Water Works and Supply. The department was under the direction of its General Manager and Chief Engineer, William Mulholland.

    At 11:57 p.m. on March 12, 1928, the dam catastrophically failed, and the resulting flood took the lives of what is estimated to be at least 431 people.[2][3] The collapse of the St. Francis Dam is considered to be one of the worst American civil engineering disasters of the 20th century and remains the second-greatest loss of life in California's history, after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. The disaster marked the end of Mulholland's career.[4]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CHL was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Stansell, Ann (August 2014). Memorialization and Memory of Southern California's St. Francis Dam Disaster of 1928. California State University, Northridge (Thesis).
    3. ^ Stansell, Ann C. (February 2014). "Roster of St. Francis Dam Disaster Victims". Santa Clarita Valley History In Pictures.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference William Mulholland was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 March 1781William Herschel discovers Uranus.


    Uranus (from the Latin name "Ūranus" for the Greek god Οὐρανός) is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have bulk chemical compositions which differ from that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. For this reason, scientists often classify Uranus and Neptune as "ice giants" to distinguish them from the gas giants. Uranus' atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons.[14] It is the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of 49 K (−224 °C; −371 °F), and has a complex, layered cloud structure with water thought to make up the lowest clouds and methane the uppermost layer of clouds.[14] The interior of Uranus is mainly composed of ices and rock.[13]

    Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a ring system, a magnetosphere, and numerous moons. The Uranian system has a unique configuration because its axis of rotation is tilted sideways, nearly into the plane of its solar orbit. Its north and south poles, therefore, lie where most other planets have their equators.[19] In 1986, images from Voyager 2 showed Uranus as an almost featureless planet in visible light, without the cloud bands or storms associated with the other giant planets.[19] Observations from Earth have shown seasonal change and increased weather activity as Uranus approached its equinox in 2007. Wind speeds can reach 250 metres per second (900 km/h; 560 mph).[20]

    Uranus is the only planet whose name is derived directly from a figure from Greek mythology, from the Latinised version of the Greek god of the sky Ouranos.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference OED was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBCOUP was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference nasafact was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference CSeligman was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cite error: The named reference fact was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference meanplane was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference VSOP87 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ a b c d e f g Cite error: The named reference Seidelmann Archinal A'hearn et al. 2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference Jacobson Campbell et al. 1992 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ de Pater, Imke; Lissauer, Jack J. (2015). Planetary Sciences (2nd updated ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-0521853712.
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pearl_et_al_Uranus was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mallama_et_al was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Podolak Weizman et al. 1995 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference Lunine 1993 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Mallama_and_Hilton was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Irwin, Patrick G. J.; et al. (23 April 2018). "Detection of hydrogen sulfide above the clouds in Uranus's atmosphere". Nature Astronomy. 2 (5): 420–427. Bibcode:2018NatAs...2..420I. doi:10.1038/s41550-018-0432-1. hdl:2381/42547.
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lindal Lyons et al. 1987 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Conrath Gautier et al. 1987 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Smith Soderblom et al. 1986 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sromovsky & Fry 2005 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 March 1931Alam Ara, India's first talking film, is released.

    Alam Ara

    Alam Ara (translation: The Ornament of the World) was a 1931 Indian[2][3] film directed by Ardeshir Irani. It was the first Indian sound film.[4][5]

    Irani recognised the importance that sound would have on the cinema, and raced to complete Alam Ara before several contemporary sound films. Alam Ara debuted at the Majestic Cinema in Mumbai (then Bombay) on 14 March 1931.[6] The first Indian talkie was so popular that "police aid had to be summoned to control the crowds."[7] The film was houseful for the next 8 weeks of its release. It was advertised with the tagline "All living. Breathing. 100 per cent talking".[8]

    The film has long been lost and was not available as far back as 1967 according to the National Film Archive of India, Pune.[9]

    1. ^ Alison, Arnold (1992). "Aspects of Production and Consumption in the Popular Hindi Film Song Industry". Asian Music. 24 (1): 122–136. doi:10.2307/834454. Following the commercial success of India's first talkie feature film Alam Ara ("Light of the World", 1931, in Hindi-Urdu)
    2. ^ Naficy, Hamid (16 September 2011). A Social History of Iranian Cinema, Volume 1: The Artisanal Era, 1897–1941. Duke University Press. ISBN 082234775X.
    3. ^ Malik, Iftikhar Haider (2006). Culture and Customs of Pakistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313331268.
    4. ^ Goddard, John. "Missouri Masala Fear not, St. Louisans: You don't need to go to Bombay to get your Bollywood fix" Riverfront Times, St. Louis, Missouri, 30 July 2003, Music section.
    5. ^ Gokulsing, K.; Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian popular cinema: a narrative of cultural change. Trentham Books. p. 24. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.
    6. ^ "Alam Ara: A milestone in Indian cinema". Rediff.com. 14 March 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
    7. ^ Quoted in Chatterji (1999), "The History of Sound."
    8. ^ "India's first Talkie, 'Alam Ara' missing From National Archives". MensXP.com. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
    9. ^ Alam Ara long lost, was never with NFAI: founder-director Indian Express, 17 March 2011, Retrieved:2013-04-26
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 March 1906Rolls-Royce Limited is incorporated.

    Rolls-Royce Limited

    Rolls-Royce's The Spirit of Ecstasy hood ornament

    Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and later an aero engine manufacturing business established in 1904 by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce. Building on Royce's reputation established with his cranes they quickly developed a reputation for superior engineering by manufacturing the "best car in the world". The First World War brought them into manufacturing aero engines. Joint development of jet engines began in 1940 and they entered production.

    Rolls-Royce has built an enduring reputation for development and manufacture of engines for defence and civil aircraft.

    In the late 1960s Rolls-Royce became hopelessly crippled by its mismanagement of development of its advanced RB211 jet engine and the consequent cost over-runs, though it ultimately proved a great success. In 1971 the owners were obliged to liquidate their business. The useful portions were bought by a new government-owned company named Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited which continued the core business but sold the holdings in British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) almost immediately and transferred ownership of the profitable but now financially insignificant car division to Rolls-Royce Motors Holdings Limited. This it sold to Vickers in 1980. Rolls-Royce obtained consent to drop 1971 from its name in 1977.

    The Rolls-Royce business remained nationalised until 1987 when, renaming the owner Rolls-Royce plc, the government sold it to the public. Rolls-Royce plc still owns and operates Rolls-Royce's principal business though since 2003 it is technically a subsidiary of listed holding company Rolls-Royce Holdings plc.

    A marketing survey in 1987 showed that only Coca-Cola was a more widely known brand than Rolls-Royce.[1]

    1. ^ "Rolls-Royce shares will fly". The Times, Wednesday, April 29, 1987; p. 25; Issue 62755
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 March 1976 – British Prime Minister Harold Wilson resigns, citing personal reasons.

    Harold Wilson

    James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, PC, FRS, FSS (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976.

    Entering Parliament in 1945, Wilson was appointed a parliamentary secretary in the Attlee ministry and rose quickly through the ministerial ranks; he became Secretary for Overseas Trade in 1947 and was elevated to Cabinet shortly thereafter as President of the Board of Trade. In opposition to the next Conservative government, he served as Shadow Chancellor (1955–1961) and Shadow Foreign Secretary (1961–1963). Hugh Gaitskell, then Labour leader, died suddenly in 1963 and Wilson was elected leader. Narrowly winning the 1964 general election, Wilson won an increased majority in a snap 1966 election.

    Wilson's first period as Prime Minister coincided with a period of low unemployment and relative economic prosperity, though hindered by significant problems with Britain's external balance of payments. In 1969 he sent British troops to Northern Ireland. After losing the 1970 election to Edward Heath, he spent four years as Leader of the Opposition before the February 1974 election resulted in a hung parliament. After Heath's talks with the Liberals broke down, Wilson returned to power as leader of a minority government until another general election in October, resulting in a narrow Labour victory. A period of economic crisis had begun to hit most Western countries, and in 1976 Wilson suddenly announced his resignation as Prime Minister.

    Wilson's approach to socialism was moderate compared to others in his party at the time, emphasising programmes aimed at increasing opportunity in society, rather than on the controversial socialist goal of promoting wider public ownership of industry; he took little action to pursue the Labour constitution's stated dedication to nationalisation, though he did not formally disown it. Himself a member of the party's "soft left", Wilson joked about leading a cabinet made up mostly of social democrats, comparing himself to a Bolshevik revolutionary presiding over a Tsarist cabinet, but there was arguably little to divide him ideologically from the cabinet majority.[1][2]

    Overall, Wilson is seen to have managed a number of difficult political issues with considerable tactical skill, including such potentially divisive issues for his party as the role of public ownership, membership of the European Community, and the Vietnam War; he refused to allow British troops to take part, while continuing to maintain a costly military presence east of Suez.[3] His stated ambition of substantially improving Britain's long-term economic performance was left largely unfulfilled. He lost his energy and drive in his second premiership, and accomplished little as the leadership split over Europe and trade union issues began tearing Labour apart.[4]

    1. ^ The Labour government, 1974–79: political aims and economic reality by Martin Holmes
    2. ^ The Labour Party since 1945 by Eric Shaw
    3. ^ Goodman, Geoffrey (1 July 2005). "Harold Wilson | Politics". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
    4. ^ Ben Pimlott, Harold Wilson (1992) pp 604–5, 648, 656, 670–77, 689
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 March 1958 – The United States launches the Vanguard 1 satellite.

    Vanguard 1

    Universal newsreel about the launch of Vanguard 1

    Vanguard 1 (ID: 1958-Beta 2

    [3]) was an American satellite that was the fourth artificial Earth orbital satellite to be successfully launched (following Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, and Explorer 1). Vanguard 1 was the first satellite to have solar electric power.[4] Although communication with the satellite was lost in 1964, it remains the oldest man-made object still in orbit, together with the upper stage of its launch vehicle. It was designed to test the launch capabilities of a three-stage launch vehicle as a part of Project Vanguard, and the effects of the space environment on a satellite and its systems in Earth orbit. It also was used to obtain geodetic measurements through orbit analysis. Vanguard 1 was described by the Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev, as "the grapefruit satellite".[5]

    1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Vanguard 1 Satellite details 1958-002B NORAD 00005". N2YO. 23 August 2018. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
    2. ^ "Vanguard 1, Oldest Manmade Satellite, Turns 60 This Weekend". AmericaSpace. Ben Evans. March 18, 2018. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
    3. ^ "U.S. Space Objects Registry". Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
    4. ^ Vanguard I the World's Oldest Satellite Still in Orbit Archived 2015-03-21 at the Wayback Machine, accessed September 24, 2007
    5. ^ "Vanguard I - the World's Oldest Satellite Still in Orbit". Spacecraft Engineering Department, U.S. Navy. Archived from the original on 2008-09-19.
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 March 1850American Express is founded by Henry Wells and William Fargo.

    American Express

    The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center in New York City. The company was founded in 1850 and is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.[4] The company is best known for its charge card, credit card, and traveler's cheque businesses.

    In 2016, credit cards using the American Express network accounted for 22.9% of the total dollar volume of credit card transactions in the US.[5] As of December 31, 2017, the company had 112.8 million cards in force, including 50 million cards in force in the United States, each with an average annual spending of $18,519.[3]

    In 2017, Forbes named American Express as the 23rd most valuable brand in the world (and the highest within financial services), estimating the brand to be worth US$24.5 billion.[6] In 2018, Fortune ranked American Express as the 14th most admired company worldwide,[7] and the 23rd best company to work for.[8]

    The company's logo, adopted in 1958, is a gladiator or centurion[9] whose image appears on the company's traveler's cheques, charge cards and credit cards.

    1. ^ Peter Z. Grossman. American Express: The Unofficial History of the People Who Built the Great Financial Empire. New York: Crown Publishers, 1987. (reprint: Beard Books 2006; ISBN 1-58798-283-8; Chapter 2.)
    2. ^ Noel M. Loomis, Wells Fargo. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1968
    3. ^ a b "US SEC: Form 10-K American Express Company". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
    4. ^ "Dow Jones Industrial Average". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
    5. ^ Comoreanu, Alina (March 7, 2017). "Market Share by Credit Card Network". Wallet Hub.
    6. ^ "Forbes 2017 Rankings - The World's Most Valuable Brands". Archived from the original on March 8, 2018.
    7. ^ Fortune Most Admired Companies : American Express
    8. ^ Fortune Best Companies to Work For : American Express
    9. ^ "American Express Logo Review". Company Logos. 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2011. The initial trademark of 1958 described the gladiator in the American Express logo as a gladiator on a shield whereas the current American Express website lists the logo character as a Gladiator Head Design. However, there are many who believe that the gladiator is a centurion ...
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 March 1861 – The First Taranaki War ends in New Zealand.

    First Taranaki War

    The First Taranaki War was an armed conflict over land ownership and sovereignty that took place between Māori and the New Zealand Government in the Taranaki district of New Zealand's North Island from March 1860 to March 1861.

    The war was sparked by a dispute between the government and Māori landowners over the sale of a property at Waitara, but spread throughout the region. It was fought by more than 3,500 imperial troops brought in from Australia, as well as volunteer soldiers and militia, against Māori forces that fluctuated between a few hundred and about 1,500.[1] Total losses among the imperial, volunteer and militia troops are estimated to have been 238, while Māori casualties totalled about 200, although the proportion of Māori casualties was higher.

    The war ended in a ceasefire, with neither side explicitly accepting the peace terms of the other. Although there were claims by the British that they had won the war, there were widely held views at the time they had suffered an unfavourable and humiliating result. Historians have also been divided on the result.[2] Historian James Belich has claimed that the Māori succeeded in thwarting the British bid to impose sovereignty over them, and had therefore been victorious. But he said the Māori victory was a hollow one, leading to the invasion of the Waikato.

    In its 1996 report to the Government on Taranaki land claims, the Waitangi Tribunal observed that the war was begun by the Government, which had been the aggressor and unlawful in its actions in launching an attack by its armed forces. An opinion sought by the tribunal from a senior constitutional lawyer stated that the Governor, Thomas Gore Browne, and certain officers were liable for criminal and civil charges for their actions.[3] The term "First Taranaki War" is opposed by some historians, who refer only to the Taranaki Wars, rejecting suggestions that post-1861 conflict was a second war.[4] The 1927 Royal Commission on Confiscated Land also referred to the hostilities between 1864 and 1866 as a continuation of the initial Taranaki war.[5]

    1. ^ Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1.
    2. ^ Belich, James (1986). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict (1st ed.). Auckland: Penguin. pp. 115–116. ISBN 0-14-011162-X.
    3. ^ "The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa Tuatahi by the Waitangi Tribunal, chapter 3" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
    4. ^ James Belich, in "The New Zealand Wars" (1986) dismisses as "inappropriate" the description of later conflict as a second Taranaki war (pp. 120).
    5. ^ "The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa Tuatahi by the Waitangi Tribunal, chapter 4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 March 1987 – The Food and Drug Administration approves the anti-AIDS drug, AZT.


    Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.[2] It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals.[2] It may be used to prevent mother-to-child spread during birth or after a needlestick injury or other potential exposure.[2] It is sold both by itself and together as lamivudine/zidovudine and abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine.[2] It can be used by mouth or by slow injection into a vein.[2]

    Common side effects include headaches, fever, and nausea.[2] Serious side effects include liver problems, muscle damage, and high blood lactate levels.[2] It is commonly used in pregnancy and appears to be safe for the baby.[2] ZDV is of the nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) class.[2] It works by inhibiting the enzyme reverse transcriptase that HIV uses to make DNA and therefore decreases replication of the virus.[2]

    Zidovudine was first described in 1964.[3] It was approved in the United States in 1987 and was the first treatment for HIV.[2][4] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[5] It is available as a generic medication.[2] The wholesale cost in the developing world is US$5.10 to $25.60 per month.[6] As of 2015, the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States was more than $200.[7]

    1. ^ "Zidovudine". PubChem Public Chemical Database. NCBI. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Zidovudine". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
    3. ^ Fischer, Janos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 505. ISBN 9783527607495. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017.
    4. ^ Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Derdeyn, Cynthia A. (2007). Entry Inhibitors in HIV Therapy. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 179. ISBN 9783764377830.
    5. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 13, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
    6. ^ "Zidovudine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
    7. ^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 67. ISBN 9781284057560.
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 March 1925 – The Butler Act prohibits the teaching of human evolution in Tennessee.

    Butler Act

    The Butler Act was a 1925 Tennessee law introduced by Tennessee House of Representatives member John Washington Butler prohibiting public school teachers from denying the Biblical account of mankind's origin. It was enacted as Tennessee Code Annotated Title 49 (Education) Section 1922, having been signed into law by Tennessee governor Austin Peay. The law also prevented the teaching of the evolution of man from what it referred to as lower orders of animals in place of the Biblical account.

    The law was challenged later that year in a famous trial in Dayton, Tennessee called the Scopes Trial which included a raucous confrontation between prosecution attorney and fundamentalist religious leader, William Jennings Bryan, and noted defense attorney and religious agnostic, Clarence Darrow.

    It was repealed in 1967.

  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 March 1972 – In Eisenstadt v. Baird, the United States Supreme Court decides that unmarried persons have the right to possess contraceptives.

    Eisenstadt v. Baird

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox SCOTUS case with unknown parameter "SCOTUS" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Eisenstadt v. Baird, 405 U.S. 438 (1972), is a United States Supreme Court case that established the right of unmarried people to possess contraception on the same basis as married couples.

    The Court struck down a Massachusetts law prohibiting the distribution of contraceptives to unmarried people for the purpose of preventing pregnancy, ruling that it violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution.

  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 March 1994 – Aeroflot Flight 593 crashed into the Kuznetsk Alatau mountain, Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, killing 75.

    Aeroflot Flight 593

    Aeroflot Flight 593 was a regular passenger flight from Sheremetyevo International Airport, Moscow, to Kai Tak Airport in Hong Kong. On 23 March 1994, the aircraft operating the route, an Airbus A310-304 flown by Aeroflot – Russian International Airlines, crashed into a mountain range in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, killing all 63 passengers and 12 crew members on board.

    No evidence of a technical malfunction was found.[1] Cockpit voice and flight data recorders revealed the presence of the relief pilot's 12-year-old daughter and 16-year-old son on the flight deck.[2][3][4] While seated at the controls, the pilot's son had unknowingly disengaged the A310's autopilot control of the aircraft's ailerons. The autopilot then disengaged completely causing the aircraft to roll into a steep bank and a near-vertical dive. Despite managing to level the aircraft, the first officer over-corrected when pulling up, causing the plane to stall and enter into a corkscrew dive; the pilots managed to level the aircraft off once more, but by then the plane had lost too much altitude to recover and crashed into the Kuznetsk Alatau mountain range.[5]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference FI1994-8 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Transcript reveals cockpit anarchy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Tape Confirms The Pilot's Son Caused Crash Of Russian Jet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference A310 crash: Conflict over child at controls' report was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference FDR backs A310 crash allegations was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 March 1993 – Discovery of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9.

    Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9

    Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects.[4] This generated a large amount of coverage in the popular media, and the comet was closely observed by astronomers worldwide. The collision provided new information about Jupiter and highlighted its possible role in reducing space debris in the inner Solar System.

    The comet was discovered by astronomers Carolyn and Eugene M. Shoemaker and David Levy in 1993.[5] Shoemaker–Levy 9 had been captured by Jupiter and was orbiting the planet at the time. It was located on the night of March 24 in a photograph taken with the 46 cm (18 in) Schmidt telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California. It was the first comet observed to be orbiting a planet, and had probably been captured by Jupiter around 20–30 years earlier.

    Calculations showed that its unusual fragmented form was due to a previous closer approach to Jupiter in July 1992. At that time, the orbit of Shoemaker–Levy 9 passed within Jupiter's Roche limit, and Jupiter's tidal forces had acted to pull apart the comet. The comet was later observed as a series of fragments ranging up to 2 km (1.2 mi) in diameter. These fragments collided with Jupiter's southern hemisphere between July 16 and 22, 1994 at a speed of approximately 60 km/s (37 mi/s) (Jupiter's escape velocity) or 216,000 km/h (134,000 mph). The prominent scars from the impacts were more easily visible than the Great Red Spot and persisted for many months.

    1. ^ Howell, E. (February 19, 2013). "Shoemaker–Levy 9: Comet's Impact Left Its Mark on Jupiter". Space.com.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Solem1995 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Solem1994 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 Collision with Jupiter". National Space Science Data Center. February 2005. Archived from the original on February 25, 2013. Retrieved August 26, 2008.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference IAU 5725 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 March 1995WikiWikiWeb, the world's first wiki, and part of the Portland Pattern Repository, is made public by Ward Cunningham.


    The WikiWikiWeb is the first-ever wiki, or user-editable website. It was launched on 25 March 1995 by its inventor, programmer Ward Cunningham, to accompany the Portland Pattern Repository website discussing software design patterns. The name WikiWikiWeb originally also applied to the wiki software that operated the website, written in the Perl programming language and later renamed to "WikiBase". The site is frequently referred to by its users as simply "Wiki", and a convention established among users of the early network of wiki sites that followed was that using the word with a capitalized W referred exclusively to the original site.

  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 March 1975 – The Biological Weapons Convention comes into force.

    Biological Weapons Convention

    The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the Biological Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BWC, or Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BTWC) was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.[1]

    The Convention was the result of prolonged efforts by the international community to establish a new instrument that would supplement the 1925 Geneva Protocol. The Geneva Protocol prohibits use but not possession or development of chemical and biological weapons.

    A draft of the BWC, submitted by the British[2] was opened for signature on 10 April 1972 and entered into force 26 March 1975 when twenty-two governments had deposited their instruments of ratification.[3] It commits the 182 states which are party to it as of September 2018 to prohibit the development, production, and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons. However, the absence of any formal verification regime to monitor compliance has limited the effectiveness of the Convention. An additional five states have signed the BWC but have yet to ratify the treaty.

    The scope of the BWC's prohibition is defined in Article 1 (the so-called general purpose criterion). This includes all microbial and other biological agents or toxins and their means of delivery (with exceptions for medical and defensive purposes in small quantities). Subsequent Review Conferences have reaffirmed that the general purpose criterion encompasses all future scientific and technological developments relevant to the Convention. It is not the objects themselves (biological agents or toxins), but rather certain purposes for which they may be employed which are prohibited; similar to Art.II, 1 in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Permitted purposes under the BWC are defined as prophylactic, protective and other peaceful purposes. The objects may not be retained in quantities that have no justification or which are inconsistent with the permitted purposes.

    As stated in Article 1 of the BWC:

    "Each State Party to this Convention undertakes never in any circumstances to develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain:

    • (1) Microbial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes;
    • (2) Weapons, equipment or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict."

    The United States Congress passed the Bioweapons Anti-Terrorism Act in 1989 to implement the Convention. The law applies the Convention's convent to countries and private citizens, and criminalizes violations of the Convention.[4]

    1. ^ The text of the Convention, as well as the key documents from recent meetings can be found on the BWC Implementation Support Unit website.
    2. ^ "History – World Wars: Silent Weapon: Smallpox and Biological Warfare". BBC. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
    3. ^ Trakimavicius, Lukas (24 May 2018). "Is Russia Violating the Biological Weapons Convention?". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
    4. ^ Coen, Bob (2009). Dead Silence: Fear and Terrorism on the Anthrax Trail. Berkeley, California: CounterPoint. p. 205. ISBN 978-1-58243-509-1.

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