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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 July 1644English Civil War: Battle of Marston Moor.

    Battle of Marston Moor

    The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646.[a] The combined forces of the English Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax and the Earl of Manchester and the Scottish Covenanters under the Earl of Leven defeated the Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the Marquess of Newcastle.

    During the summer of 1644, the Covenanters and Parliamentarians had been besieging York, which was defended by the Marquess of Newcastle. Rupert had gathered an army which marched through the northwest of England, gathering reinforcements and fresh recruits on the way, and across the Pennines to relieve the city. The convergence of these forces made the ensuing battle the largest of the civil wars.

    On 1 July, Rupert outmanoeuvred the Covenanters and Parliamentarians to relieve the city. The next day, he sought battle with them even though he was outnumbered. He was dissuaded from attacking immediately and during the day both sides gathered their full strength on Marston Moor, an expanse of wild meadow west of York. Towards evening, the Covenanters and Parliamentarians themselves launched a surprise attack. After a confused fight lasting two hours, Parliamentarian cavalry under Oliver Cromwell routed the Royalist cavalry from the field and, with Leven's infantry, annihilated the remaining Royalist infantry.

    After their defeat the Royalists effectively abandoned Northern England, losing much of the manpower from the northern counties of England (which were strongly Royalist in sympathy) and also losing access to the European continent through the ports on the North Sea coast. Although they partially retrieved their fortunes with victories later in the year in Southern England, the loss of the north was to prove a fatal handicap the next year, when they tried unsuccessfully to link up with the Scottish Royalists under the Marquess of Montrose.

    1. ^ Carte 1739, p. 56.

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 July 1844 – The last pair of great auks is killed.

    Great auk

    The great auk (Pinguinus impennis) is an extinct species of flightless alcid that became extinct in the mid-19th century. It was the only modern species in the genus Pinguinus. It is not closely related to the birds now known as penguins, which were discovered later and so named by sailors because of their physical resemblance to the great auk.

    It bred on rocky, isolated islands with easy access to the ocean and a plentiful food supply, a rarity in nature that provided only a few breeding sites for the great auks. When not breeding, they spent their time foraging in the waters of the North Atlantic, ranging as far south as northern Spain and along the coastlines of Canada, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway, Ireland, and Great Britain.

    The great auk was 75 to 85 cm (30 to 33 in) tall and weighed about 5 kg (11 lb), making it the largest alcid to survive into the modern era, and the second-largest member of the alcid family overall (the prehistoric Miomancalla was larger).[5] It had a black back and a white belly. The black beak was heavy and hooked, with grooves on its surface. During summer, great auk plumage showed a white patch over each eye. During winter, the great auk lost these patches, instead developing a white band stretching between the eyes. The wings were only 15 cm (5.9 in) long, rendering the bird flightless. Instead, the great auk was a powerful swimmer, a trait that it used in hunting. Its favourite prey were fish, including Atlantic menhaden and capelin, and crustaceans. Although agile in the water, it was clumsy on land. Great auk pairs mated for life. They nested in extremely dense and social colonies, laying one egg on bare rock. The egg was white with variable brown marbling. Both parents participated in the incubation of the egg for around 6 weeks before the young hatched. The young left the nest site after 2–3 weeks, although the parents continued to care for it.

    The great auk was an important part of many Native American cultures, both as a food source and as a symbolic item. Many Maritime Archaic people were buried with great auk bones. One burial discovered included someone covered by more than 200 great auk beaks, which are presumed to be the remnants of a cloak made of great auk skins. Early European explorers to the Americas used the great auk as a convenient food source or as fishing bait, reducing its numbers. The bird's down was in high demand in Europe, a factor that largely eliminated the European populations by the mid-16th century. Scientists soon began to realize that the great auk was disappearing and it became the beneficiary of many early environmental laws, but this proved ineffectual.

    Its growing rarity increased interest from European museums and private collectors in obtaining skins and eggs of the bird. On 3 June 1844, the last two confirmed specimens were killed on Eldey, off the coast of Iceland, ending the last known breeding attempt. Later reports of roaming individuals being seen or caught are unconfirmed. A record of one great auk in 1852 is considered by some to be the last sighting of a member of the species. The great auk is mentioned in several novels and the scientific journal of the American Ornithologists' Union is named The Auk in honour of this bird.

    1. ^ "PBDB". paleobiodb.org.
    2. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pinguinus impennis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
    3. ^ Grieve, Symington (1885). The Great Auk, or Garefowl: Its history, archaeology, and remains. Thomas C. Jack, London.
    4. ^ Parkin, Thomas (1894). The Great Auk, or Garefowl. J.E. Budd, Printer. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
    5. ^ Smith, N. 2015. Evolution of body mass in the Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): the effects of combining neontological and paleontological data. Paleobiology. doi: 10.1017/pab.2015.24
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 July 1881 – In Alabama, the Tuskegee Institute opens.

    Tuskegee University

    Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university (HBCU) located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. It was established by Lewis Adams and Booker T. Washington. The campus is designated as the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site by the National Park Service. The university was home to scientist George Washington Carver and to World War II's Tuskegee Airmen.

    Tuskegee University offers 40 bachelor's degree programs, 17 master's degree programs, a 5-year accredited professional degree program in architecture, 4 doctoral degree programs, and the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. The university is home to over 3,100 students from the U.S. and 30 foreign countries. Tuskegee University was ranked among 2018's best 379 colleges and universities by The Princeton Review and 6th among the 2018 U.S. News & World Report best HBCUs.

    The university's campus was designed by architect Robert Robinson Taylor, the first African American to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in conjunction with David Williston, the first professionally trained African-American landscape architect.[4]

    1. ^ NAICU – Member Directory Archived 2015-11-09 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-05-27. Retrieved 2018-05-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    3. ^ Visual identity and COmmunications Policies for Tuskegee University (PDF). 2012-08-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2016-09-07.
    4. ^ "First African-American landscape architect launched career at Cornell". Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 July 1934 – "Bloody Thursday": Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco.

    1934 West Coast waterfront strike

    The 1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike (also known as the 1934 West Coast Longshoremen's Strike, as well as a number of variations on these names) lasted eighty-three days, and began on May 9, 1934 when longshoremen in every US West Coast port walked out. The strike peaked with the death of two workers on "Bloody Thursday" and the San Francisco General Strike which stopped all work in the major port city for four days and led ultimately to the settlement of the West Coast Longshoremen's Strike.

    The result of the strike was the unionization of all of the West Coast ports of the United States. The San Francisco General Strike of 1934, along with the Toledo Auto-Lite Strike of 1934 led by the American Workers Party and the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934 led by the Communist League of America, were important catalysts for the rise of industrial unionism in the 1930s, much of which was organized through the Congress of Industrial Organizations.[3]

    1. ^ Preis, Art (1974). Labor's giant step: twenty years of the CIO. Pathfinder Press. pp. 31–33.
    2. ^ Kimeldorf, Howard (1988-11-04). Reds or Rackets?: The Making of Radical and Conservative Unions on the Waterfront. University of California Press. p. 101. ISBN 9780520912779.
    3. ^ Preis, Art (1974). Labor's giant step: twenty years of the CIO. Pathfinder Press. pp. 31–33.
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 July 1560 – The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed by Scotland and England.

    Treaty of Edinburgh

    The Treaty of Edinburgh (also known as the Treaty of Leith) was a treaty drawn up on 5 July 1560 between the Commissioners of Queen Elizabeth I of England with the assent of the Scottish Lords of the Congregation, and the French representatives of King Francis II of France (husband of Mary Queen of Scots) to formally conclude the Siege of Leith and replace the Auld Alliance with France with a new Anglo-Scottish accord, while maintaining the peace between England and France agreed by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis.

  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 July 1980 – Institution of sharia law in Iran.


    Sharia (/ʃəˈrə/, Arabic: شريعة[ʃaˈriːʕa]), Islamic law or Sharia law is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.[1] It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations.[2][3][4] The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim fundamentalists and modernists.[5][1]

    Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: the Quran, sunnah (authentic hadith), qiyas (analogical reasoning),[note 1] and ijma (juridical consensus).[7] Different legal schools—of which the most prominent are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari—developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad.[2][3] Traditional jurisprudence (fiqh) distinguishes two principal branches of law, ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics.[2][4] Its rulings are concerned with ethical standards as much as with legal norms,[8][9] assigning actions to one of five categories: mandatory, recommended, neutral, abhorred, and prohibited.[2][3][4] Thus, some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God’s will.[3]

    Classical jurisprudence was elaborated by private religious scholars, largely through legal opinions (fatwas) issued by qualified jurists (muftis). It was historically applied in sharia courts by ruler-appointed judges, who dealt mainly with civil disputes and community affairs.[2][4] Sultanic courts, the police and market inspectors administered criminal justice, which was influenced by sharia but not bound by its rules.[10][4] Non-Muslim (dhimmi) communities had legal autonomy to adjudicate their internal affairs.[3] Over the centuries, Sunni muftis were gradually incorporated into state bureaucracies,[11] and fiqh was complemented by various economic, criminal and administrative laws issued by Muslim rulers.[12] The Ottoman civil code of 1869–1876 was the first partial attempt to codify sharia.[13]

    In the modern era, traditional laws in the Muslim world have been widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models.[3][14] Judicial procedures and legal education were likewise brought in line with European practice.[3] While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws.[3] Legislators who codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence.[3][13] The Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia, including hudud corporal punishments, such as stoning.[3][13] In some cases, this resulted in traditionalist legal reform, while other countries witnessed juridical reinterpretation of sharia advocated by progressive reformers.[3][13][15] Some Muslim-minority countries recognize the use of sharia-based family laws for their Muslim populations.[16][17] Sharia also continues to influence other aspects of private and public life.

    The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world.[3] Introduction of sharia-based laws sparked intercommunal violence in Nigeria[18][19] and may have contributed to the breakup of Sudan.[3] Some jurisdictions in North America have passed bans on use of sharia, framed as restrictions on religious or foreign laws.[20] There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with democracy, human rights, freedom of thought, women's rights, LGBT rights, and banking.[21][22][23]

    1. ^ a b "British & World English: sharia". Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
    2. ^ a b c d e John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Islamic Law". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Vikør 2014.
    4. ^ a b c d e Calder 2009.
    5. ^ Amanat 2009: "Muslim fundamentalists [...] claim that Shari’a and its sources [...] constitute a divine law that regulates all aspects of Muslim life, as well as Muslim societies and Muslim states [...]. Muslim modernists, [...] on the other hand, criticize the old approaches to Shari’a by traditional Muslim jurists as obsolete and instead advocate innovative approaches to Shari’a that accommodate more pluralist and relativist views within a democratic framework."
    6. ^ Schneider 2014.
    7. ^ John L. Esposito, Natana J. DeLong-Bas (2001), Women in Muslim family law, p. 2. Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085. Quote: "[...], by the ninth century, the classical theory of law fixed the sources of Islamic law at four: the Quran, the Sunnah of the Prophet, qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (consensus)."
    8. ^ Coulson & El Shamsy 2019.
    9. ^ Hallaq 2010, p. 145.
    10. ^ Ziadeh 2009c.
    11. ^ Dallal & Hendrickson 2009.
    12. ^ Stewart 2013, p. 500.
    13. ^ a b c d Mayer 2009.
    14. ^ Otto 2008, p. 19.
    15. ^ Rabb 2009d.
    16. ^ Otto 2008, pp. 18–20.
    17. ^ Stahnke, Tad and Robert C. Blitt (2005), "The Religion-State Relationship and the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Comparative Textual Analysis of the Constitutions of Predominantly Muslim Countries." Georgetown Journal of International Law, volume 36, issue 4; also see Sharia Law profile by Country, Emory University (2011)
    18. ^ Staff (3 January 2003). "Analysis: Nigeria's Sharia Split". BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2011. "Thousands of people have been killed in fighting between Christians and Muslims following the introduction of sharia punishments in northern Nigerian states over the past three years [...] human rights' groups have complained that these religious laws are archaic and unjust, and create an atmosphere of intimidation against Christians - even though they are not subject to the Sharia.".
    19. ^ Harnischfeger, Johannes (2008).
       • p. 16. "When the Governor of Kaduna announced the introduction of Sharia, although non-Muslims form almost half of the population, violence erupted, leaving more than 1,000 people dead."
       • p. 189. "When a violent confrontation loomed in February 200, because the strong Christian minority in Kaduna was unwilling to accept the proposed sharia law, the sultan and his delegation of 18 emirs went to see the governor and insisted on the passage of the bill."
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference thomas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ An-Na'im, Abdullahi A (1996). "Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights". In Witte, John; van der Vyver, Johan D. (eds.). Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives. pp. 337–59. ISBN 978-9041101792.
    22. ^ Hajjar, Lisa (2004). "Religion, State Power, and Domestic Violence in Muslim Societies: A Framework for Comparative Analysis". Law & Social Inquiry. 29 (1): 1–38. doi:10.1111/j.1747-4469.2004.tb00329.x. JSTOR 4092696.
    23. ^ Al-Suwaidi, J. (1995). Arab and western conceptions of democracy; in Democracy, war, and peace in the Middle East (Editors: David Garnham, Mark A. Tessler), Indiana University Press, see Chapters 5 and 6; ISBN 978-0253209399[page needed]

    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 July 1889 – The first issue of The Wall Street Journal is published.

    The Wall Street Journal

    The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp. The newspaper is published in the broadsheet format and online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, and Charles Bergstresser.

    The Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies (including nearly 1,590,000 digital subscriptions) as of June 2018,[1] compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, which was originally launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, which has been accessible only to subscribers since it began.[2]

    The newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, and has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes (as of 2019).[3][4] The editorial pages of the Journal are typically conservative in their position.[5][6][7] The Journal editorial board has promoted pseudoscientific views on the science of climate change, acid rain, and ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke, pesticides and asbestos.[8]

    1. ^ a b "Form 10-K June, 2018". SEC. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
    2. ^ Salwen, Michael B.; Garrison, Bruce; Driscoll, Paul D. (December 13, 2004). Online News and the Public. Routledge. ISBN 9781135616793.
    3. ^ "The Wall Street Journal". dowjones.com. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
    4. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes – What's New". pulitzer.org. Archived from the original on February 24, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
    5. ^ Ember, Sydney (March 22, 2017). "Wall Street Journal Editorial Harshly Rebukes Trump" – via NYTimes.com.
    6. ^ Bowden, John (January 11, 2019). "Wall Street Journal editorial: Conservatives 'could live to regret' Trump emergency declaration". TheHill.
    7. ^ Vernon, Pete (March 22, 2017). "Unpacking WSJ's 'watershed' Trump editorial". Columbia Journalism Review. ISSN 0010-194X. Archived from the original on June 21, 2017.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference handful was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 July 1816Argentina declares independence from Spain.

    Argentine Declaration of Independence

    What today is commonly referred as the Independence of Argentina was declared on July 9, 1816 by the Congress of Tucumán. In reality, the congressmen who were assembled in Tucumán declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America, which is still today one of the legal names of the Argentine Republic. The Federal League Provinces,[1] at war with the United Provinces, were not allowed into the Congress. At the same time, several provinces from the Upper Peru that would later become part of present-day Bolivia, were represented at the Congress.

    Allegory of the Declaration of Independence, by Luis de Servi.
    1. ^ The Argentine Littoral provinces Santa Fé, Entre Ríos and Corrientes, along with the Eastern Province (present-dayUruguay)
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 July 1943 – World War II: Operation Husky begins in Sicily

    Allied invasion of Sicily

    The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany). It began with a large amphibious and airborne operation, followed by a six-week land campaign, and initiated the Italian Campaign.

    Husky began on the night of 9–10 July 1943, and ended on 17 August. Strategically, Husky achieved the goals set out for it by Allied planners; the Allies drove Axis air, land and naval forces from the island and the Mediterranean sea lanes were opened for Allied merchant ships for the first time since 1941. The Italian leader, Benito Mussolini, was toppled from power in Italy and the way was opened for the Allied invasion of Italy. The German leader, Adolf Hitler, "canceled a major offensive at Kursk after only a week, in part to divert forces to Italy", resulting in a reduction of German strength on the Eastern Front.[12] The collapse of Italy necessitated German troops replacing the Italians in Italy and to a lesser extent the Balkans, resulting in one fifth of the entire German army being diverted from the east to southern Europe, a proportion that would remain until near the end of the war.[13]

    1. ^ Gaujac, p. 68
    2. ^ Royal Australian Navy – the corvettes/minesweepers HMAS Cairns, Cessnock, HMAS Gawler, HMAS Geraldton, HMAS Ipswich, HMAS Lismore, HMAS Maryborough, and HMAS Wollongong.
      Royal Australian Air ForceNo. 3 Squadron RAAF (fighters), No. 450 Squadron RAAF (fighters), No. 458 Squadron RAAF (maritime patrol), and No. 462 Squadron RAAF (heavy bombers).
      Sources: RAN, n.d., Sicily 1943 and Australian War Memorial, n.d., Sicily 1943 (23 September 2018).
    3. ^ Mitcham & von Stauffenberg (2007), p. 63
    4. ^ a b Mitcham & von Stauffenberg (2007), p. 307
    5. ^ Le Operazioni in Sicilia e in Calabria (Luglio-Settembre 1943), Alberto Santoni, p.400, Stato maggiore dell'Esercito, Ufficio storico, 1989
    6. ^ Including Navy and Air Force personnel.
    7. ^ Shaw, p.119
    8. ^ Dickson(2001) p. 201
    9. ^ a b Hart, Basil H. Liddel (1970). A History of the Second World War. London, Weidenfeld Nicolson. p. 627.
    10. ^ a b Ufficio storico dello Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito (USSME) (1993). Le operazioni in Sicilia e in Calabria. Rome. pp. 400–401.
    11. ^ "La guerra in Sicilia". SBARCHI ALLEATI IN ITALIA.
    12. ^ Atkinson 2007, p. 172
    13. ^ Charles T. O'Reilly. "Forgotten Battles: Italy's War of Liberation, 1943-1945." Lexington Books, 2001. Pages 37-38.
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 July 1848Waterloo railway station in London opens.

    London Waterloo station

    Waterloo station (/ˌwɔːtərˈl/), also known as London Waterloo, is a central London terminus on the National Rail network in the United Kingdom, located in the Waterloo area of the London Borough of Lambeth. It is connected to a London Underground station of the same name and is adjacent to Waterloo East station on the South Eastern main line. The station is the terminus of the South Western main line to Weymouth via Southampton, the West of England main line to Exeter via Salisbury, the Portsmouth Direct line to Portsmouth Harbour and the Isle of Wight, and several commuter services around West and South West London, Surrey, Hampshire and Berkshire. Many services stop at Clapham Junction and Woking.

    The station was first opened in 1848 by the London and South Western Railway, and replaced the earlier Nine Elms as it was closer to the West End. It was never designed to be a terminus, as the original intention was to continue the line towards the City of London, and consequently the station developed in a haphazard fashion leading to difficulty finding the correct platform. The station was rebuilt in the early 20th century, opening in 1922, and included the Victory Arch over the main entrance, which commemorated World War I. Waterloo was the last London terminus to provide steam-powered services, which ended in 1967. The station was the London terminus for Eurostar international trains from 1994 until 2007, when they were transferred to St. Pancras International.

    Waterloo is the busiest railway station in the UK, with nearly a hundred million entries & exits from the station every year. It is also the country's largest station in terms of floor space and has the greatest number of platforms. When combined with the Underground and Waterloo East stations, it is the busiest station complex in Europe.

    1. ^ "London and South East" (PDF). National Rail. September 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009.
    2. ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (XLS). Transport for London. May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012.
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Station usage estimates". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation. Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year.
    4. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 215.
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 July 1848Waterloo railway station in London opens.

    London Waterloo station

    Waterloo station (/ˌwɔːtərˈl/), also known as London Waterloo, is a central London terminus on the National Rail network in the United Kingdom, located in the Waterloo area of the London Borough of Lambeth. It is connected to a London Underground station of the same name and is adjacent to Waterloo East station on the South Eastern main line. The station is the terminus of the South Western main line to Weymouth via Southampton, the West of England main line to Exeter via Salisbury, the Portsmouth Direct line to Portsmouth Harbour and the Isle of Wight, and several commuter services around West and South West London, Surrey, Hampshire and Berkshire. Many services stop at Clapham Junction and Woking.

    The station was first opened in 1848 by the London and South Western Railway, and replaced the earlier Nine Elms as it was closer to the West End. It was never designed to be a terminus, as the original intention was to continue the line towards the City of London, and consequently the station developed in a haphazard fashion leading to difficulty finding the correct platform. The station was rebuilt in the early 20th century, opening in 1922, and included the Victory Arch over the main entrance, which commemorated World War I. Waterloo was the last London terminus to provide steam-powered services, which ended in 1967. The station was the London terminus for Eurostar international trains from 1994 until 2007, when they were transferred to St. Pancras International.

    Waterloo is the busiest railway station in the UK, with nearly a hundred million entries & exits from the station every year. It is also the country's largest station in terms of floor space and has the greatest number of platforms. When combined with the Underground and Waterloo East stations, it is the busiest station complex in Europe.

    1. ^ "London and South East" (PDF). National Rail. September 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009.
    2. ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (XLS). Transport for London. May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012.
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Station usage estimates". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation. Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year.
    4. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 215.
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 July 1776 – Captain James Cook begins his third voyage.

    Third voyage of James Cook

    The route of Cook's third voyage shown in red, blue shows route after his death.

    James Cook's third and final voyage (12 July 1776 – 4 October 1780) took the route from Plymouth via Cape Town and Tenerife to New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands, and along the North American coast to the Bering Strait.

    Its ostensible purpose was to return Omai, a young man from Raiatea, to his homeland, but the Admiralty used this as a cover for their plan to send Cook on a voyage to discover the Northwest Passage. HMS Resolution, to be commanded by Cook, and HMS Discovery, commanded by Charles Clerke, were prepared for the voyage which started from Plymouth in 1776.

    Omai was returned to his homeland and the ships sailed onwards, discovering the Hawaiian Archipelago, before reaching the Pacific coast of North America. The two charted the west coast of the continent and passed through the Bering Strait when they were stopped by ice from sailing either east or west. The vessels returned to the Pacific and called briefly at the Aleutians before retiring towards Hawaii for the winter.

    At Kealakekua Bay, a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians culminating in Cook's death in a violent exchange on 14 February 1779. The command of the expedition was assumed by Charles Clerke who tried in vain to find the passage before his own death. Under the command of John Gore the crews returned to a subdued welcome in London in October 1780.

  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 July 1985 – The Live Aid benefit concert takes place in London and Philadelphia, as well as other venues such as Moscow and Sydney.

    Live Aid

    Live Aid was a dual-venue benefit concert held on Saturday 13 July 1985, and an ongoing music-based fundraising initiative. The original event was organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine. Billed as the "global jukebox", the event was held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London, England, United Kingdom (attended by 72,000 people) and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States (attended by about 100,000 people).[1]

    On the same day, concerts inspired by the initiative happened in other countries, such as the Soviet Union, Canada, Japan, Yugoslavia, Austria, Australia and West Germany. It was one of the largest-scale satellite link-ups and television broadcasts of all time; an estimated audience of 1.9 billion, across 150 nations, watched the live broadcast,[2] nearly 40% of the world population.[3]

    The impact of Live Aid on famine relief has been debated for years. One aid relief worker stated that following the publicity generated by the concert, "humanitarian concern is now at the centre of foreign policy" for western governments.[4] Geldof states, “We took an issue that was nowhere on the political agenda and, through the lingua franca of the planet – which is not English but rock 'n' roll – we were able to address the intellectual absurdity and the moral repulsion of people dying of want in a world of surplus.”[5] He adds, Live Aid "created something permanent and self-sustaining", but also asked why Africa is getting poorer.[4] The organisers of Live Aid tried, without much success, to run aid efforts directly, so channelled millions to the NGOs in Ethiopia, much of which went to the Ethiopian government of Mengistu Haile Mariam – a brutal regime the UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher wanted to "destabilise"[6] – and was spent on guns.[4][7]

    1. ^ Live Aid on Bob Geldof's official site Archived 5 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference CNN was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
    4. ^ a b c "Cruel to be kind?". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
    5. ^ "Live Aid index: Bob Geldof". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
    6. ^ "Margaret Thatcher demanded UK find ways to 'destabilise' Ethiopian regime in power during 1984 famine". The Independent. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
    7. ^ "Live Aid: The Terrible Truth". Spin. 13 July 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 July 2016A terrorist vehicular attack in Nice, France kills 86 civilians and injures over 400 others.

    2016 Nice truck attack

    On the evening of 14 July 2016, a 19-tonne cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people[2] and the injury of 458 others.[4] The driver was Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, a Tunisian resident of France.[5][6] The attack ended following an exchange of gunfire, during which Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was shot and killed by police.

    Islamic State claimed responsibility for the attack, saying Lahouaiej-Bouhlel answered its "calls to target citizens of coalition nations that fight the Islamic State". On 15 July, François Molins, the prosecutor for the Public Ministry, which is overseeing the investigation, said the attack bore the hallmarks of jihadist terrorism.[7]

    On 15 July, French President François Hollande called the attack an act of Islamic terrorism, announced an extension of the state of emergency (which had been declared following the November 2015 Paris attacks) for a further three months, and announced an intensification of French airstrikes on ISIL in Syria and Iraq.[8][9] France later extended the state of emergency until 26 January 2017.[10] The French government declared three days of national mourning starting on 16 July. Thousands of extra police and soldiers were deployed while the government called on citizens to join the reserve forces.

    On 21 July, prosecutor François Molins said that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel planned the attack for months and had help from accomplices.[11][12][13] By 1 August, six suspects had been taken into custody on charges of "criminal terrorist conspiracy", three of whom were also charged for complicity in murder in relation to a terrorist enterprise. On 16 December three further suspects, allegedly involved in the supply of illegal weapons to Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, were charged.[14][15][16] The attack has been classified as jihadist terrorism by Europol.[17]

    1. ^ Breeden, Aurelien (15 July 2016). "News of the Attack in Nice, France". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016. In the truck's cabin, officials said, the police discovered an automatic 7.65 mm pistol, a cartridge clip, several used and unused 7.65 mm cartridges, as well as a fake automatic pistol, two fake assault rifles — a replica AK-47 and a replica M-16 — a grenade, a mobile phone and documents.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
    2. ^ a b "Death toll from France truck attack rises to 85". BNO News. 4 August 2016.
    3. ^ "Nice truck attack claims 86th victim". Star Tribune. 19 August 2016. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
    4. ^ "Le bilan de l'attentat de Nice porté à 86 morts" [The results of the Nice attack increased to 86 dead] (in French). 19 August 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.[dead link]
    5. ^ "Attentat de Nice : ce que l'on sait du chauffeur, Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel". Nouvel Obs (in French). Retrieved 15 July 2016.
    6. ^ "Attentat à Nice : le suspect a été formellement identifié" (in French). Europe1. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
    7. ^ "France lorry attack: As it happened (all updates from start until 15 July, 21:54)". BBC. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference monde15Jul was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference nrc15Jul,address was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ "Temporary Reintroduction of Border Control". European Commission. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
    11. ^ "Nice attacker plotted for months with 'accomplices'". CNN. 21 July 2016.
    12. ^ "Nice attack: Prosecutor says suspect had accomplices". BBC. 21 July 2016. Archived from the original on 21 July 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
    13. ^ "Nice truck killer had support, accomplices for carefully planned attack". France24. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
    14. ^ "Truck attack in Nice: Three more people charged with helping killer". Sky News. 17 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
    15. ^ "Attentat de Nice: trois suspects présentés à la justice". Libération (in French). 16 December 2016. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
    16. ^ "Attentat de Nice: trois suspects mis en examen et écroués". La Dépêche du Midi (in French). 18 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
    17. ^ "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2017". EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat). Europol: 22–28. 2017. ISBN 978-92-95200-79-1.
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 July 1834 – The Spanish Inquisition is officially disbanded after nearly 356 years.

    Spanish Inquisition

    The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Spanish: Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition, which was under Papal control. It became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Catholic Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The "Spanish Inquisition" may be defined broadly, operating in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands, the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, and all Spanish possessions in North, Central, and South America. According to modern estimates, around 150,000 were prosecuted for various offenses during the three-century duration of the Spanish Inquisition, out of which between 3,000 and 5,000 were executed (3% of all cases).

    The Inquisition was originally intended primarily to identify heretics among those who converted from Judaism and Islam to Catholicism. The regulation of the faith of newly converted Catholics was intensified after the royal decrees issued in 1492 and 1502 ordering Jews and Muslims to convert to Catholicism or leave Castile.[1] The Inquisition was not definitively abolished until 1834, during the reign of Isabella II, after a period of declining influence in the preceding century.

    The Spanish Inquisition is often cited in popular literature and history as an example of religious intolerance and repression. Some historians have come to conclude that many of the charges levied against the Inquisition are exaggerated, and are a result of the Black Legend produced by political and religious enemies of Spain, especially England.[2]

    1. ^ Hans-Jürgen Prien (21 November 2012). Christianity in Latin America: Revised and Expanded Edition. BRILL. p. 11. ISBN 978-90-04-22262-5.
    2. ^ Kamen, Henry (1999). The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300078800.
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 July 1935 – The world's first parking meter is installed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

    Parking meter

    A digital CivicSmart brand parking meter which accepts coins or credit cards

    A parking meter is a device used to collect money in exchange for the right to park a vehicle in a particular place for a limited amount of time. Parking meters can be used by municipalities as a tool for enforcing their integrated on-street parking policy, usually related to their traffic and mobility management policies, but are also used for revenue.

  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 July 1955Disneyland is dedicated and opened by Walt Disney in Anaheim, California


    Disneyland Park, originally Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks built at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California, opened on July 17, 1955. It is the only theme park designed and built to completion under the direct supervision of Walt Disney. It was originally the only attraction on the property; its official name was changed to Disneyland Park to distinguish it from the expanding complex in the 1990s.

    Walt Disney came up with the concept of Disneyland after visiting various amusement parks with his daughters in the 1930s and 1940s. He initially envisioned building a tourist attraction adjacent to his studios in Burbank to entertain fans who wished to visit; however, he soon realized that the proposed site was too small. After hiring a consultant to help him determine an appropriate site for his project, Disney bought a 160-acre (65 ha) site near Anaheim in 1953. Construction began in 1954 and the park was unveiled during a special televised press event on the ABC Television Network on July 17, 1955.

    Since its opening, Disneyland has undergone expansions and major renovations, including the addition of New Orleans Square in 1966, Bear Country (now Critter Country) in 1972, Mickey's Toontown in 1993, and Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge in 2019.[2] Opened in 2001, Disney California Adventure Park was built on the site of Disneyland's original parking lot.

    Disneyland has a larger cumulative attendance than any other theme park in the world, with 726 million visits since it opened (as of December 2018). In 2018, the park had approximately 18.6 million visits, making it the second most visited amusement park in the world that year, behind only Magic Kingdom.[3] According to a March 2005 Disney report, 65,700 jobs are supported by the Disneyland Resort, including about 20,000 direct Disney employees and 3,800 third-party employees (independent contractors or their employees).[4] Disney announced "Project Stardust" in 2019, which included major structural renovations to the park to account for higher attendance numbers.[5]

    Controversy surrounded the park in 2019 as the press revealed that at least half of employees "struggle to make ends meet" and over 10% had been homeless in the previous two years while they were working at the park, caused by the relationship between workers' wages and rents in the Anaheim area, which are some of the highest in the world.[6]

    1. ^ Disneyland Celebrates 56 Years on July 17 « Disney Parks Blog Archived January 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Disneyparks. disney.go.com. Retrieved on September 6, 2013.
    2. ^ Savvas, George (February 7, 2017). "Star Wars-Themed Lands at Disney Parks Set to Open in 2019". Disney Parks Blog. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
    3. ^ "TEA/AECOM 2018 Global Attractions Attendance Report" (PDF). May 23, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
    4. ^ "News from the Disney Board — March 04, 2005". The Walt Disney Company. March 4, 2005. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014.
    5. ^ "Disneyland Resort Celebrates 60 Years of 'Sleeping Beauty'". Disney Parks Blog. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
    6. ^ https://apple.news/AzdLES6OTRUi9oXN6g4SpSw
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 July 1925Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf.

    Mein Kampf

    Mein Kampf (German: [maɪ̯n kampf], My Struggle or My Fight) is a 1925 autobiographical manifesto by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926.[1] The book was edited firstly by Emil Maurice, then by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess.[2][3]

    Hitler began Mein Kampf while imprisoned for what he considered to be "political crimes" following his failed Putsch in Munich in November 1923. Although Hitler received many visitors initially, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book. As he continued, Hitler realized that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume scheduled for release in early 1925. The governor of Landsberg noted at the time that "he [Hitler] hopes the book will run into many editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial."[4][5] After slow initial sales, the book was a bestseller in Germany after Hitler's rise to power in 1933.[6]

    After Hitler's death, copyright of Mein Kampf passed to the state government of Bavaria, which refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany. In 2016, following the expiration of the copyright held by the Bavarian state government, Mein Kampf was republished in Germany for the first time since 1945, which prompted public debate and divided reactions from Jewish groups.

    1. ^ Mein Kampf ("My Fight"), Adolf Hitler (originally 1925–1926), Reissue edition (15 September 1998), Publisher: Mariner Books, Language: English, paperback, 720 pages, ISBN 978-1495333347
    2. ^ Shirer 1960, p. 85.
    3. ^ Robert G.L. Waite, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler, Basic Books, 1977, pp.237–243
    4. ^ Heinz, Heinz (1934). Germany's Hitler. Hurst & Blackett. p. 191.
    5. ^ Payne, Robert (1973). The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler. Popular Library. p. 203.
    6. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 80–81.
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 July 1903Maurice Garin wins the first Tour de France

    1903 Tour de France

    The 1903 Tour de France was the first cycling race set up and sponsored by the newspaper L'Auto, ancestor of the current daily, L'Équipe. It ran from 1 to 19 July in six stages over 2,428 km (1,509 mi), and was won by Maurice Garin.[1]

    The race was invented to boost the circulation of L'Auto, after its circulation started to plummet from competition with the long-standing Le Vélo. Originally scheduled to start in June, the race was postponed one month, and the prize money was increased, after a disappointing level of applications from competitors. The 1903 Tour de France was the first stage road race, and compared to modern Grand Tours, it had relatively few stages, but each was much longer than those raced today. The cyclists did not have to compete in all six stages, although this was necessary to qualify for the general classification.

    The pre-race favourite, Maurice Garin, won the first stage, and retained the lead throughout. He also won the last two stages, and had a margin of almost three hours over the next cyclist. The circulation of L'Auto increased more than sixfold during and after the race, so the race was considered successful enough to be rerun in 1904, by which time Le Vélo had been forced out of business.

    1. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 108.
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 July 1969Apollo program: Apollo 11's crew successfully makes the first manned landing on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin become the first humans to walk on the Moon six and a half hours later.

    Apollo 11

    Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. Commander Neil Armstrong and lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin, both American, landed the Apollo Lunar Module Eagle on July 20, 1969, at 20:17 UTC. Armstrong became the first person to step onto the lunar surface six hours 39 minutes later on July 21 at 02:56 UTC; Aldrin joined him 19 minutes later. They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft, and collected 47.5 pounds (21.5 kg) of lunar material to bring back to Earth. Command module pilot Michael Collins flew the command module Columbia alone in lunar orbit while they were on the Moon's surface. Armstrong and Aldrin spent 21 hours 31 minutes on the lunar surface at a site they named Tranquility Base before lifting off to rejoin Columbia in lunar orbit.

    Apollo 11 was launched by a Saturn V rocket from Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida, on July 16 at 13:32 UTC, and was the fifth crewed mission of NASA's Apollo program. The Apollo spacecraft had three parts: a command module (CM) with a cabin for the three astronauts, and the only part that returned to Earth; a service module (SM), which supported the command module with propulsion, electrical power, oxygen, and water; and a lunar module (LM) that had two stages – a descent stage for landing on the Moon, and an ascent stage to place the astronauts back into lunar orbit.

    After being sent to the Moon by the Saturn V's third stage, the astronauts separated the spacecraft from it and traveled for three days until they entered lunar orbit. Armstrong and Aldrin then moved into Eagle and landed in the Sea of Tranquility. The astronauts used Eagle's ascent stage to lift off from the lunar surface and rejoin Collins in the command module. They jettisoned Eagle before they performed the maneuvers that propelled the ship out of the last of its 30 lunar orbits on a trajectory back to Earth.[4] They returned to Earth and splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on July 24 after more than eight days in space.

    Armstrong's first step onto the lunar surface was broadcast on live TV to a worldwide audience. He described the event as "one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind."[8][9] Apollo 11 effectively ended the Space Race and fulfilled a national goal proposed in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy: "before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."[10]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mission Overview was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b c d e "Apollo 11 Mission Summary". The Apollo Program. National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on August 29, 2013. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
    3. ^ a b Orloff 2000, p. 106.
    4. ^ a b c d Orloff 2000, p. 109.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference ALSJ 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Williams, David R. (December 11, 2003). "Apollo Landing Site Coordinates". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
    7. ^ Orloff 2000, p. 107.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference transcript was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference ALSJ 4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Stenger, Richard (May 25, 2001). "Man on the Moon: Kennedy speech ignited the dream". CNN. Archived from the original on June 6, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2018.
  21. Admin2

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    21 July 1970 – After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt is completed.

    Aswan Dam

    The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970. Its significance largely eclipsed the previous Aswan Low Dam initially completed in 1902 downstream. Based on the success of the Low Dam, then at its maximum utilization, construction of the High Dam became a key objective of the government following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952; with its ability to better control flooding, provide increased water storage for irrigation and generate hydroelectricity the dam was seen as pivotal to Egypt's planned industrialization. Like the earlier implementation, the High Dam has had a significant effect on the economy and culture of Egypt.

    Before the High Dam was built, even with the old dam in place, the annual flooding of the Nile during late summer had continued to pass largely unimpeded down the valley from its East African drainage basin. These floods brought high water with natural nutrients and minerals that annually enriched the fertile soil along its floodplain and delta; this predictability had made the Nile valley ideal for farming since ancient times. However, this natural flooding varied, since high-water years could destroy the whole crop, while low-water years could create widespread drought and associated famine. Both these events had continued to occur periodically. As Egypt's population grew and technology increased, both a desire and the ability developed to completely control the flooding, and thus both protect and support farmland and its economically important cotton crop. With the greatly increased reservoir storage provided by the High Aswan Dam, the floods could be controlled and the water could be stored for later release over multiple years.

    The Aswan Dam was designed by the Moscow-based Hydroproject Institute.[2]

    1. ^ "Aswan High Dam". Carbon Monitoring for Action. Retrieved 2015-01-15.
    2. ^ Smith, Jean Edward (2012). Eisenhower in War and Peace. Random House Publishing Group. p. 694. ISBN 9780679644293.
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 July 1977 – Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping is restored to power.

    Deng Xiaoping

    Deng Xiaoping (/ˈdʌŋ ˌʃˈpɪŋ/, also UK: /ˈdɛŋ, ˈsjpɪŋ/;[1][2][3] courtesy name Xixian;[4] 22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997)[5] was a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1992. After Chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng led China through far-reaching market-economy reforms. However, he is widely criticised for his authoritarian actions during the Tiananmen Square Massacre in 1989, where he cracked down on dissidents.

    Born into a peasant background in Guang'an, Sichuan province, Deng studied and worked in France in the 1920s, where he became a follower of Marxism–Leninism. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1923. Upon his return to China, he joined the party organization in Shanghai, then was a political commissar for the Red Army in rural regions and by the late 1930s was considered a "revolutionary veteran" because he participated in the Long March.[6] Following the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, Deng worked in Tibet and the southwest region to consolidate Communist control.

    As the party's Secretary General in the 1950s, Deng presided over Anti-Rightist Campaigns and became instrumental in China's economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward of 1957–1960. However, his economic policies caused him to fall out of favor with Mao Zedong and was purged twice during the Cultural Revolution.

    Following Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng outmaneuvered the late chairman's chosen successor Hua Guofeng in December 1978. Inheriting a country beset with social conflict, disenchantment with the Communist Party and institutional disorder resulting from the chaotic policies of the Mao era, Deng became the paramount figure of the "second generation" of party leadership.

    While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary (leader of the Communist Party), some called him "the architect"[7] of a new brand of thinking that combined socialist ideology with free enterprise[8] whose slogan was "socialism with Chinese characteristics". Deng opened China to foreign investment and the global market, policies that are credited with developing China into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world for several generations and raising the standard of living of hundreds of millions.[9]

    Deng was the Time Person of the Year in 1978 and 1985, the third Chinese leader (after Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Soong Mei-ling) and the fourth communist leader (after Joseph Stalin, picked twice; and Nikita Khrushchev) to be selected. He was criticized for ordering the crackdown on the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, but praised for his reaffirmation of the reform program in his Southern Tour of 1992 and the reversion of Hong Kong to Chinese control in 1997. Deng died in February 1997, aged 92.

    1. ^ "Deng Xiaoping". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
    2. ^ "Deng Xiaoping" (US) and "Deng Xiaoping". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
    3. ^ "Teng Hsiao-p'ing". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
    4. ^ Xia, Zhengnong (2003). 大辭海. 哲學卷. Shanghai: Shanghai Dictionary Publishing House. p. 38. ISBN 9787532612369.
    5. ^ Hsü, Immanuel C.Y. (2000). The Rise of Modern China (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 974. ISBN 9780195125047.
    6. ^ Cheng Li (2001). China's leaders. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780847694976.
    7. ^ "Deng Xiaoping Is Dead at 92; Architect of Modern China". The New York Times. 20 February 1997.
    8. ^ GREGOR BENTON. "Assessing Deng Xiaoping". jacobinmag.com.
    9. ^ Robert Dernberger (1993). China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping. Sharpe. ISBN 9781563242786. Retrieved 13 March 2010.

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