Welcome to the Podiatry Arena forums

You are currently viewing our podiatry forum as a guest which gives you limited access to view all podiatry discussions and access our other features. By joining our free global community of Podiatrists and other interested foot health care professionals you will have access to post podiatry topics (answer and ask questions), communicate privately with other members, upload content, view attachments, receive a weekly email update of new discussions, access other special features. Registered users do not get displayed the advertisements in posted messages. Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please, join our global Podiatry community today!

  1. Everything that you are ever going to want to know about running shoes: Running Shoes Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
  2. Have you considered the Critical Thinking and Skeptical Boot Camp, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
  3. Have you considered the Clinical Biomechanics Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
Dismiss Notice
Have you considered the Clinical Biomechanics Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
Dismiss Notice
Have you liked us on Facebook to get our updates? Please do. Click here for our Facebook page.
Dismiss Notice
Do you get the weekly newsletter that Podiatry Arena sends out to update everybody? If not, click here to organise this.

This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 August 1973Mars 7 is launched from the USSR.

    Mars 7

    Mars 7 (Russian: Марс-7), also known as 3MP No.51P was a Soviet spacecraft launched to explore Mars. A 3MP bus spacecraft which comprised the final mission of the Mars programme, it consisted of a lander and a coast stage with instruments to study Mars as it flew past. Due to a malfunction, the lander failed to perform a maneuver necessary to enter the Martian atmosphere, missing the planet and remaining in heliocentric orbit along with the coast stage.

    1. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Interplanetary Probes". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
    2. ^ a b c "Mars 7". US National Space Science Data Centre. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
    3. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
    4. ^ https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/beyond-earth-tagged.pdf
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 August 1948Candid Camera makes its television debut after being on radio for a year as Candid Microphone.

    Candid Camera

    Candid Camera was a popular and long running American hidden camera reality television series. Versions of the show appeared on television from 1948 until 2014. Originally created and produced by Allen Funt, it often featured practical jokes, and initially began on radio as The Candid Microphone on June 28, 1947.

    After a series of theatrical film shorts, also titled Candid Microphone, Funt's concept came to television on August 10, 1948, and continued into the 1970s. Aside from occasional specials in the 1980s and 1990s, the show was off air until making a comeback on CBS in 1996, before moving to PAX in 2001. This incarnation of the weekly series ended on May 5, 2004, concurrent with the selling of the PAX network itself. Beginning on August 11, 2014, the show returned in a new series with hour-long episodes on TV Land, but this incarnation only lasted a single season.

    The format has been revived numerous times, appearing on U.S. TV networks and in syndication (first-run) in each succeeding decade, as either a regular show or a series of specials. Funt, who died in 1999, hosted or co-hosted all versions of the show until he became too ill to continue. His son Peter Funt, who had co-hosted the specials with his father since 1987, became the producer and host. A United Kingdom version of the format aired from 1960 to 1976.

     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 August 1952Hussein bin Talal is proclaimed King of Jordan.

    Hussein of Jordan

    Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: الحسين بن طلال‎, Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) reigned as King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death. According to Hussein, he was a 40th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad as he belonged to the Hashemite family which has ruled Jordan since 1921.

    Hussein was born in Amman as the eldest child of Talal bin Abdullah and Zein Al-Sharaf. Hussein began his schooling in Amman, continuing his education abroad. After Talal became King of Jordan in 1951, Hussein was named heir apparent. The Parliament forced Talal to abdicate a year later due to his illness, and a regency council was appointed until Hussein came of age. He was enthroned at the age of 17 on 2 May 1953. Hussein was married four separate times and fathered eleven children: Princess Alia from Dina bint Abdul-Hamid; Abdullah II, Prince Faisal, Princess Aisha, and Princess Zein from Antoinette Gardiner; Princess Haya and Prince Ali from Alia Touqan; Prince Hamzah, Prince Hashim, Princess Iman, and Princess Raiyah from Lisa Halaby.

    Hussein, a constitutional monarch, started his rule with what was termed a "liberal experiment," allowing, in 1956, the formation of the only democratically elected government in Jordan's history. A few months into the experiment, he forced that government to resign, declaring martial law and banning political parties. Jordan fought three wars with Israel under Hussein, including the 1967 Six-Day War, which ended in Jordan's loss of the West Bank. In 1970 Hussein expelled Palestinian fighters (fedayeen) from Jordan after they had threatened the country's security in what became known as Black September. The King renounced Jordan's ties to the West Bank in 1988 after the Palestine Liberation Organization was recognized internationally as the sole representative of the Palestinians. He lifted martial law and reintroduced elections in 1989 when riots over price hikes spread in southern Jordan. In 1994 he became the second Arab head of state to sign a peace treaty with Israel.

    At the time of Hussein's accession, Jordan was a young nation and controlled the West Bank. The country had few natural resources, and a large Palestinian refugee population as a result of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Hussein led his country through four turbulent decades of the Arab–Israeli conflict and the Cold War, successfully balancing pressures from Arab nationalists, the Soviet Union, Western countries, and Israel, transforming Jordan by the end of his 46-year reign to a stable modern state. After 1967 he increasingly engaged in efforts to solve the Palestinian problem. He acted as a conciliatory intermediate between various Middle Eastern rivals, and came to be seen as the region's peacemaker. He was revered for pardoning political dissidents and opponents, and giving them senior posts in the government. Hussein, who survived dozens of assassination attempts and plots to overthrow him, was the region's longest-reigning leader. The King died at the age of 63 from cancer on 7 February 1999. His funeral was the largest gathering of world leaders since 1995. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Abdullah II.

     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 August 1851Isaac Singer is granted a patent for his sewing machine.

    Isaac Singer

    Isaac Merritt Singer (October 27, 1811 – July 23, 1875) was an American inventor, actor, and businessman. He made important improvements in the design of the sewing machine and was the founder of what became one of the first American multi-national businesses, the Singer Sewing Machine Company.[2]

    Many others, including Walter Hunt and Elias Howe had patented sewing machines[3] before Singer, but his success was based on the practicality of his machine, the ease with which it could be adapted to home use, and its availability on an instalment payment basis.[4]

    Singer died in 1875, a millionaire dividing his $14 million fortune unequally among 20 of his children by his wives and various mistresses; for one son who supported his first wife in her divorce case, only getting $500.[2]

    1. ^ Klepper, Michael; Gunther, Michael (1996), The Wealthy 100: From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates—A Ranking of the Richest Americans, Past and Present, Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group, p. xiii, ISBN 978-0-8065-1800-8, OCLC 33818143
    2. ^ a b Hunter, Clare (2019). Threads of life : a history of the world through the eye of a needle. London: Sceptre (Hodder & Stoughton). pp. 256 - 266 269 -271. ISBN 9781473687912. OCLC 1079199690.
    3. ^ Forsdyke, Graham. "History of the Sewing Machine". International Sewing Machine Collectors Society. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
    4. ^ Все о швейных машинах – История создания корпорации Зингер (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2008-06-12.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 August 2015 – At least 76 people are killed and 212 others are wounded in a truck bombing in Baghdad, Iraq.

    August 2015 Baghdad bombing

    The 2015 Baghdad market truck bombing was a truck bomb attack on 13 August 2015, targeting a Baghdad food market in Sadr City, a predominantly Shi'ite neighborhood.

    1. ^ a b c "Islamic State claims huge truck bomb attack in Baghdad's Sadr City". Reuters. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 August 1975The Rocky Horror Picture Show, the longest-running release in film history, opens in London.

    The Rocky Horror Picture Show

    The Rocky Horror Picture Show is a 1975 musical horror comedy film by 20th Century Fox, produced by Lou Adler and Michael White and directed by Jim Sharman. The screenplay was written by Sharman and actor Richard O'Brien, who is also a member of the cast. The film is based on the 1973 musical stage production The Rocky Horror Show, with music, book, and lyrics by O'Brien. The production is a parody tribute to the science fiction and horror B movies of the 1930s through to the early 1960s. Along with O'Brien, the film stars Tim Curry, Susan Sarandon, and Barry Bostwick and is narrated by Charles Gray with cast members from the original Royal Court Theatre, Roxy Theatre, and Belasco Theatre productions including Nell Campbell and Patricia Quinn.

    The story centres on a young engaged couple whose car breaks down in the rain near a castle where they seek a telephone to call for help. The castle or country home is occupied by strangers in elaborate costumes celebrating an annual convention. They discover the head of the house is Dr. Frank N. Furter, an apparently mad scientist who actually is an alien transvestite who creates a living muscle man in his laboratory. The couple are seduced separately by the mad scientist and eventually released by the servants who take control.

    The film was shot in the United Kingdom at Bray Studios and on location at an old country estate named Oakley Court, best known for its earlier use by Hammer Film Productions. A number of props and set pieces were reused from the Hammer horror films. Although the film is both a parody of and tribute to many kitsch science fiction and horror films, costume designer Sue Blane conducted no research for her designs. Blane stated that costumes from the film have directly affected the development of punk rock fashion trends such as ripped fishnets and dyed hair.[6]

    Although largely critically panned on initial release, it soon became known as a midnight movie when audiences began participating with the film at the Waverly Theater in New York City in 1976. Audience members returned to the cinemas frequently and talked back to the screen and began dressing as the characters, spawning similar performance groups across the United States. At almost the same time, fans in costume at the King's Court Theater in Pittsburgh began performing alongside the film. This "shadow cast" mimed the actions on screen above and behind them, while lip-synching their character's lines. Still in limited release four decades after its premiere, it is the longest-running theatrical release in film history. It is often shown close to Halloween. Today, the film has a large international cult following. It was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress in 2005.

    1. ^ "ROCKY HORROR PICTURE SHOW (AA)". British Board of Film Classification. 17 June 1975. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
    2. ^ Armstrong, Richard; et al. (7 November 2007). The Rough Guide to Film. Rough Guides. p. 506. ISBN 978-1-4053-8498-8.
    3. ^ a b "The Rocky Horror Picture Show". American Film Institute. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
    4. ^ Solomon, Aubrey (1989). Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History. Scarecrow Press. p. 258.
    5. ^ Box Office Information for The Rocky Horror Picture Show. The Numbers. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
    6. ^ Thompson, Dave (1 February 2016). The Rocky Horror Picture Show FAQ: Everything Left to Know About the Campy Cult Classic. Applause Theatre & Cinema Books. p. 1785. ISBN 978-1495007477.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 August 1939 – The Wizard of Oz premieres at Grauman's Chinese Theater in Los Angeles, California.

    The Wizard of Oz (1939 film)

    The Wizard of Oz is a 1939 American musical fantasy film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Widely regarded to be one of the greatest films in cinema history,[5] it is the best-known and most commercially successful adaptation of L. Frank Baum's 1900 children's book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[6] Directed primarily by Victor Fleming (who left the production to take over the troubled Gone with the Wind), the film stars Judy Garland as Dorothy Gale alongside Ray Bolger, Jack Haley, and Bert Lahr.

    Characterized by its legendary use of Technicolor (although not being the first to use it), fantasy storytelling, musical score, and memorable characters, the film has become an American pop culture icon. It was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, but lost to Gone with the Wind, also directed by Fleming. It did win in two other categories: Best Original Song for "Over the Rainbow" and Best Original Score by Herbert Stothart. While the film was considered a critical success upon release in August 1939, it failed to make a profit for MGM until the 1949 re-release, earning only $3,017,000 on a $2,777,000 budget, not including promotional costs, which made it MGM's most expensive production at that time.[3][7][8]

    The 1956 television broadcast premiere of the film on the CBS network reintroduced the film to the public; according to the Library of Congress, it is the most seen film in movie history.[6][9] It was among the first 25 films that inaugurated the National Film Registry list in 1989.[10] It is also one of the few films on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register.[11] The film is among the top ten in the BFI (British Film Institute) list of 50 films to be seen by the age of 14.

    The Wizard of Oz is the source of many quotes referenced in contemporary popular culture. Noel Langley, Florence Ryerson, and Edgar Allan Woolf received credit for the screenplay, but others made uncredited contributions. The songs were written by Edgar "Yip" Harburg (lyrics) and Harold Arlen (music). The musical score and the incidental music were composed by Stothart.

    1. ^ "The Wizard of Oz". American Film Institute. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
    2. ^ "The Wizard of Oz". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved August 25, 2017
    3. ^ a b The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study.
    4. ^ a b "The Wizard of Oz (1939)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
    5. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies". www.afi.com. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
    6. ^ a b Fricke, John (1989). The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 978-0-446-51446-0.
    7. ^ Nugent, Frank S. (August 18, 1939). "The Screen in Review; 'The Wizard of Oz,' Produced by the Wizards of Hollywood, Works Its Magic on the Capitol's Screen – March of Time Features New York at the Music Hall at the Palace". Retrieved August 15, 2014.
    8. ^ King, Susan (March 11, 2013). "How did 'Wizard of Oz' fare on its 1939 release?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
    9. ^ "To See The Wizard Oz on Stage and Film". Library of Congress. December 15, 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
    10. ^ "Complete National Recording Registry Listing – National Recording Preservation Board – Library of Congress".
    11. ^ "The Wizard of Oz (Victor Fleming 1939), produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer". UNESCO Memory of the World Programme. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved September 7, 2009.
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 August 1859 – The Grand Duchy of Tuscany formally deposes the exiled House of Lorraine.

    Grand Duchy of Tuscany

    Coordinates: 43°N 11°E / 43°N 11°E / 43; 11

    The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Italian: Granducato di Toscana; Latin: Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.[2] The grand duchy's capital was Florence. Tuscany was nominally a state of the Holy Roman Empire until the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797.[3]

    Initially, Tuscany was ruled by the House of Medici until the extinction of its senior branch in 1737. While not as internationally renowned as the old republic, the grand duchy thrived under the Medici and it bore witness to unprecedented economic and military success under Cosimo I and his sons, until the reign of Ferdinando II, which saw the beginning of the state's long economic decline. It peaked under Cosimo III. The Medicis' only advancement in the latter days of their existence was their elevation to royalty, by the Holy Roman Emperor, in 1691.

    Francis Stephen of Lorraine, a cognatic descendant of the Medici, succeeded the family and ascended the throne of his Medicean ancestors. Tuscany was governed by a viceroy, Marc de Beauvau-Craon, for his entire rule. His descendants ruled, and resided in, the grand duchy until its end in 1859, barring one interruption, when Napoleon Bonaparte gave Tuscany to the House of Bourbon-Parma. Following the collapse of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the grand duchy was restored. The United Provinces of Central Italy, a client state of the Kingdom of Sardinia, annexed Tuscany in 1859. Tuscany was formally annexed to Sardinia in 1860, as a part of the unification of Italy, following a landslide referendum, in which 95% of voters approved.[4]

    1. ^ United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; House of Commons, John Bowring, 1839, p 6
    2. ^ Strathern, Paul: The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance, Vintage books, London, 2003, ISBN 978-0-09-952297-3, pp. 315–321
    3. ^ The area consisting of the former Republic of Florence to the Empire; and the area formerly consisting of the Republic of Siena to Spain Heraldica.org (see citation number 1)
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Heraldica was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 August 2008 – American swimmer Michael Phelps becomes the first person to win eight gold medals at one Olympic Games.

    Michael Phelps

    Michael Fred Phelps II[5] (born June 30, 1985)[6] is an American retired competitive swimmer and the most successful and most decorated Olympian of all time,[7] with a total of 28 medals. Phelps also holds the all-time records for Olympic gold medals (23),[8] Olympic gold medals in individual events (13), and Olympic medals in individual events (16).[9] When he won eight gold medals at the 2008 Beijing Games, Phelps broke fellow American swimmer Mark Spitz's 1972 record of seven first-place finishes at any single Olympic Games. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Phelps had already tied the record of eight medals of any color at a single Games by winning six gold and two bronze medals. At the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, Phelps won four gold and two silver medals, and at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, he won five gold medals and one silver. This made him the most successful athlete of the Games for the fourth Olympics in a row.[10][11]

    Phelps is the long course world record holder in the men's 400-meter individual medley as well as the former long course world record holder in the 200-meter freestyle, 100-meter butterfly, 200-meter butterfly, and 200-meter individual medley. He has won 82 medals in major international long course competitions, of which 65 were gold, 14 silver, and 3 bronze, spanning the Olympics, the World Championships, and the Pan Pacific Championships. Phelps's international titles and record-breaking performances have earned him the World Swimmer of the Year Award eight times and American Swimmer of the Year Award eleven times, as well as the FINA Swimmer of the Year Award in 2012 and 2016. Phelps earned Sports Illustrated magazine's Sportsman of the Year award due to his unprecedented Olympic success in the 2008 Games.

    After the 2008 Summer Olympics, Phelps started the Michael Phelps Foundation, which focuses on growing the sport of swimming and promoting healthier lifestyles. Phelps retired following the 2012 Olympics, but he made a comeback in April 2014.[12] At the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro,[13] his fifth Olympics, he was selected by his team to be the flag bearer of the United States at the 2016 Summer Olympics Parade of Nations. He announced his second retirement on August 12, 2016,[14] having won more medals than 161 countries. He is often considered the greatest swimmer of all time.

    1. ^ Harris, Nick (August 11, 2008). "'Baltimore Bullet' has history in his sights". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
    2. ^ "'Flying Fish' Phelps largely unknown in China". MSNBC. August 17, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference phelpsbio was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Michael Phelps". London2012.com. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
    5. ^ "Michael Phelps". TV Guide. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
    6. ^ "Michael Phelps Biography: Swimming, Athlete (1985–)". Biography.com (FYI / A&E Networks). Retrieved November 18, 2015.
    7. ^ Walters, Tanner (August 13, 2016). "Michael Phelps: 30 medals in Tokyo? 'I don't think so'". Yahoo. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
    8. ^ "Rio 2016 | Simone Biles dazzles while Phelps wins his 22nd gold on day 6". August 12, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
    9. ^ Gibbs, Robert (August 11, 2016). "Phelps breaks ties for most overall & gold individual medals". Swimswam. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
    10. ^ Anderson, Jared (September 28, 2016). "Phelps named USOC's male athlete of the Rio Olympics". Swimswam. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
    11. ^ Lord, Craig (September 16, 2012). "Franklin Pips Phelps For Top Honour". SwimNews. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
    12. ^ Harris, Beth (April 14, 2014). "Olympic Great Michael Phelps Ending Retirement". NBC Washington. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
    13. ^ Zaccardi, Nick (May 3, 2016). "Michael Phelps left with one meet before Olympic Trials". Olympics on NBC. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
    14. ^ Rogers, Martin. "Michael Phelps on Olympic future: 'I am not coming back in four years'". USA Today. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 August 2008 – American swimmer Michael Phelps becomes the first person to win eight gold medals at one Olympic Games.

    Michael Phelps

    Michael Fred Phelps II[5] (born June 30, 1985)[6] is an American retired competitive swimmer and the most successful and most decorated Olympian of all time,[7] with a total of 28 medals. Phelps also holds the all-time records for Olympic gold medals (23),[8] Olympic gold medals in individual events (13), and Olympic medals in individual events (16).[9] When he won eight gold medals at the 2008 Beijing Games, Phelps broke fellow American swimmer Mark Spitz's 1972 record of seven first-place finishes at any single Olympic Games. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Phelps had already tied the record of eight medals of any color at a single Games by winning six gold and two bronze medals. At the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, Phelps won four gold and two silver medals, and at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, he won five gold medals and one silver. This made him the most successful athlete of the Games for the fourth Olympics in a row.[10][11]

    Phelps is the long course world record holder in the men's 400-meter individual medley as well as the former long course world record holder in the 200-meter freestyle, 100-meter butterfly, 200-meter butterfly, and 200-meter individual medley. He has won 82 medals in major international long course competitions, of which 65 were gold, 14 silver, and 3 bronze, spanning the Olympics, the World Championships, and the Pan Pacific Championships. Phelps's international titles and record-breaking performances have earned him the World Swimmer of the Year Award eight times and American Swimmer of the Year Award eleven times, as well as the FINA Swimmer of the Year Award in 2012 and 2016. Phelps earned Sports Illustrated magazine's Sportsman of the Year award due to his unprecedented Olympic success in the 2008 Games.

    After the 2008 Summer Olympics, Phelps started the Michael Phelps Foundation, which focuses on growing the sport of swimming and promoting healthier lifestyles. Phelps retired following the 2012 Olympics, but he made a comeback in April 2014.[12] At the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro,[13] his fifth Olympics, he was selected by his team to be the flag bearer of the United States at the 2016 Summer Olympics Parade of Nations. He announced his second retirement on August 12, 2016,[14] having won more medals than 161 countries. He is often considered the greatest swimmer of all time.

    1. ^ Harris, Nick (August 11, 2008). "'Baltimore Bullet' has history in his sights". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
    2. ^ "'Flying Fish' Phelps largely unknown in China". MSNBC. August 17, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference phelpsbio was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Michael Phelps". London2012.com. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
    5. ^ "Michael Phelps". TV Guide. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
    6. ^ "Michael Phelps Biography: Swimming, Athlete (1985–)". Biography.com (FYI / A&E Networks). Retrieved November 18, 2015.
    7. ^ Walters, Tanner (August 13, 2016). "Michael Phelps: 30 medals in Tokyo? 'I don't think so'". Yahoo. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
    8. ^ "Rio 2016 | Simone Biles dazzles while Phelps wins his 22nd gold on day 6". August 12, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
    9. ^ Gibbs, Robert (August 11, 2016). "Phelps breaks ties for most overall & gold individual medals". Swimswam. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
    10. ^ Anderson, Jared (September 28, 2016). "Phelps named USOC's male athlete of the Rio Olympics". Swimswam. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
    11. ^ Lord, Craig (September 16, 2012). "Franklin Pips Phelps For Top Honour". SwimNews. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
    12. ^ Harris, Beth (April 14, 2014). "Olympic Great Michael Phelps Ending Retirement". NBC Washington. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
    13. ^ Zaccardi, Nick (May 3, 2016). "Michael Phelps left with one meet before Olympic Trials". Olympics on NBC. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
    14. ^ Rogers, Martin. "Michael Phelps on Olympic future: 'I am not coming back in four years'". USA Today. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 August 1868 – French astronomer Pierre Janssen discovers helium.

    Helium

    Helium (from Greek: ἥλιος, romanizedHelios, lit. 'Sun') is a chemical element with the symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. Helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe (hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant). It is present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. Its abundance is similar to this in both the Sun and in Jupiter. This is due to the very high nuclear binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4, with respect to the next three elements after helium. This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, the vast majority of which was formed during the Big Bang. Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars.

    Helium is named for the Greek Titan of the Sun, Helios. It was first detected as an unknown, yellow spectral line signature in sunlight, during a solar eclipse in 1868 by Georges Rayet,[5] Captain C. T. Haig,[6] Norman R. Pogson,[7] and Lieutenant John Herschel,[8] and was subsequently confirmed by French astronomer, Jules Janssen.[9] Janssen is often jointly credited with detecting the element, along with Norman Lockyer. Janssen recorded the helium spectral line during the solar eclipse of 1868, while Lockyer observed it from Britain. Lockyer was the first to propose that the line was due to a new element, which he named. The formal discovery of the element was made in 1895 by two Swedish chemists, Per Teodor Cleve and Nils Abraham Langlet, who found helium emanating from the uranium ore, cleveite. In 1903, large reserves of helium were found in natural gas fields in parts of the United States, which is by far the largest supplier of the gas today.

    Liquid helium is used in cryogenics (its largest single use, absorbing about a quarter of production), particularly in the cooling of superconducting magnets, with the main commercial application being in MRI scanners. Helium's other industrial uses—as a pressurizing and purge gas, as a protective atmosphere for arc welding and in processes such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers—account for half of the gas produced. A well-known but minor use is as a lifting gas in balloons and airships.[10] As with any gas whose density differs from that of air, inhaling a small volume of helium temporarily changes the timbre and quality of the human voice. In scientific research, the behavior of the two fluid phases of helium-4 (helium I and helium II) is important to researchers studying quantum mechanics (in particular the property of superfluidity) and to those looking at the phenomena, such as superconductivity, produced in matter near absolute zero.

    On Earth it is relatively rare—5.2 ppm by volume in the atmosphere. Most terrestrial helium present today is created by the natural radioactive decay of heavy radioactive elements (thorium and uranium, although there are other examples), as the alpha particles emitted by such decays consist of helium-4 nuclei. This radiogenic helium is trapped with natural gas in concentrations as great as 7% by volume, from which it is extracted commercially by a low-temperature separation process called fractional distillation. Previously, terrestrial helium—a non-renewable resource, because, once released into the atmosphere it readily escapes into space—was thought to be in increasingly short supply.[11][12] However, recent studies suggest that helium produced deep in the earth by radioactive decay can collect in natural gas reserves in larger than expected quantities,[13] in some cases, having been released by volcanic activity.[14]

    1. ^ Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
    2. ^ Shuen-Chen Hwang, Robert D. Lein, Daniel A. Morgan (2005). "Noble Gases". Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. pp. 343–383. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0701190508230114.a01.
    3. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
    4. ^ Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
    5. ^ Rayet, G. (1868) "Analyse spectral des protubérances observées, pendant l'éclipse totale de Soleil visible le 18 août 1868, à la presqu'île de Malacca" (Spectral analysis of the protuberances observed during the total solar eclipse, seen on 18 August 1868, from the Malacca peninsula), Comptes rendus ... , 67 : 757–759. From p. 758: " ... je vis immédiatement une série de neuf lignes brillantes qui ... me semblent devoir être assimilées aux lignes principales du spectre solaire, B, D, E, b, une ligne inconnue, F, et deux lignes du groupe G." ( ... I saw immediately a series of nine bright lines that ... seemed to me should be classed as the principal lines of the solar spectrum, B, D, E, b, an unknown line, F, and two lines of the group G.)
    6. ^ Captain C. T. Haig (1868) "Account of spectroscopic observations of the eclipse of the sun, August 18th, 1868," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 17 : 74–80. From p. 74: "I may state at once that I observed the spectra of two red flames close to each other, and in their spectra two broad bright bands quite sharply defined, one rose-madder and the other light golden."
    7. ^ Pogson filed his observations of the 1868 eclipse with the local Indian government, but his report wasn't published. (Biman B. Nath, The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics (New York, New York: Springer, 2013), p. 8.) Nevertheless, Lockyer quoted from his report. From p. 320 of Lockyer, J. Norman (1896) "The story of helium. Prologue," Nature, 53 : 319–322 : "Pogson, in referring to the eclipse of 1868, said that the yellow line was "at D, or near D." "
    8. ^ Lieutenant John Herschel (1868) "Account of the solar eclipse of 1868, as seen at Jamkandi in the Bombay Presidency," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 17 : 104–120. From p. 113: As the moment of the total solar eclipse approached, " … I recorded an increasing brilliancy in the spectrum in the neighborhood of D, so great in fact as to prevent any measurement of that line till an opportune cloud moderated the light. I am not prepared to offer any explanation of this." From p. 117: "I also consider that there can be no question that the ORANGE LINE was identical with D, so far as the capacity of the instrument to establish any such identity is concerned."
    9. ^ In his initial report to the French Academy of Sciences about the 1868 eclipse, Janssen made no mention of a yellow line in the solar spectrum. See: However, subsequently, in an unpublished letter of 19 December 1868 to Charles Sainte-Claire Deville, Janssen asked Deville to inform the French Academy of Sciences that : "Several observers have claimed the bright D line as forming part of the spectrum of the prominences on 18 August. The bright yellow line did indeed lie very close to D, but the light was more refrangible [i.e., of shorter wavelength] than those of the D lines. My subsequent studies of the Sun have shown the accuracy of what I state here." (See: (Launay, 2012), p. 45.)
    10. ^ Rose, Melinda (October 2008). "Helium: Up, Up and Away?". Photonics Spectra. Retrieved February 27, 2010. For a more authoritative but older 1996 pie chart showing U.S. helium use by sector, showing much the same result, see the chart reproduced in "Applications" section of this article.
    11. ^ Connor, Steve (23 August 2010). "Why the world is running out of helium". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
    12. ^ Siegel, Ethan (12 December 2012). "Why the World Will Run Out of Helium". Starts with a Bang. Scienceblogs.com. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
    13. ^ Szondy, David. "We may not be running out of helium after all". www.gizmag.com. Retrieved 2016-04-01.
    14. ^ Sample, Ian (28 June 2016). "Huge helium gas find in east Africa averts medical shortage". The Guardian.
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 August 1854 – The First Sioux War begins when United States Army soldiers kill Lakota chief Conquering Bear and in return are massacred.

    Sioux Wars

    The Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people which occurred in the later half of the 19th century. The earliest conflict came in 1854 when a fight broke out at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, when Sioux warriors killed several American soldiers in the Grattan Massacre, and the final came in 1890 during the Ghost Dance War.

    1. ^ Libby, Orin G. (1920): The Arikara Narrative. Bismarck.
    2. ^ Kappler, Joseph C. (1904): Indian Affairs. Laws and Treaties. Vol. 2. pp. 1008–1011: Treaty with the Crows, May 7, 1868.
    3. ^ Dunlay, Thomas W. (1982). Wolves for the Blue Soldiers. Indian Scouts and Auxiliaries with the United States Army, 1860–90. Lincoln and London. p. 113.
    4. ^ Hoxie, Frederick E. (1995): Parading Through History. The Making of the Crow Nation in America, 1805–1935. Cambridge. p. 108 and map p. 99.
    5. ^ Medicine Crow, Joseph (1992): From the Heart of the Crow Country. The Crow Indians' Own Stories. New York. Map facing p. xxi.
    6. ^ Kappler, Joseph C. (1904): Indian Affairs. Laws and Treaties. Vol. 2. p. 595.
    7. ^ Linderman, Frank B. (1962): Plenty Coups. Chief of the Crows. Lincoln and London. p. 155.
     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 August 1882Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture debuts in Moscow, Russia.

    1812 Overture

    A performance of the Overture, complete with cannon fire, performed at the 2005 Classical Spectacular in Melbourne, Australia

    The Year 1812 Solemn Overture, festival overture in E major, Op. 49, popularly known as the 1812 Overture,[1] is a concert overture written in 1880 by Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to commemorate the successful Russian defence against Napoleon's invading Grande Armée in 1812.

    The overture debuted in Moscow on August 20, 1882,[2] conducted by Ippolit Al'tani under a tent near the then-unfinished Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, which also memorialized the 1812 defence of Russia.[3] Tchaikovsky himself conducted another performance at the dedication of Carnegie Hall in New York City.[4] That was one of the first times a major European composer visited the United States.[5]

    The 15 minute overture is best known for its climactic volley of cannon fire, ringing chimes, and brass fanfare finale. It has also become a common accompaniment to fireworks displays on the United States' Independence Day. The 1812 Overture went on to become one of Tchaikovsky's most popular works, along with his ballet scores to The Nutcracker, The Sleeping Beauty, and Swan Lake.[6]

    1. ^ "Tchaikovsky Research : The Year 1812, Op. 49 (TH 49)". Retrieved June 21, 2015.
    2. ^ Lax, Roger; Frederick Smith (1989). The Great Song Thesaurus. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-19-505408-8.
    3. ^ Felsenfeld, Daniel. Tchaikovsky: A Listener's Guide, p. 54. Amadeus Press, 2006.
    4. ^ Cross, Milton (1969). The Milton Cross New Encyclopedia of the Great Composers and Their Music, Volume 2. Doubleday. p. 1034.
    5. ^ Ewen, David (1978). Musicians since nineteen hundred: performers in concert and opera. Hw Wilson Company. p. 186. ISBN 0-8242-0565-0.
    6. ^ Robinson, Harlow (2012). Rzhevsky, Nicholas (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Modern Russian Culture. Cambridge University Press. p. 268. ISBN 1-107-00252-4.
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 August 1991 – Coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev collapses.

    1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt

    The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (Russian: Августовский путч, tr. Avgustovskiy Putch "August Putsch"), was an attempt made by members of the government of the USSR to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. The coup leaders were hard-line members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) who were opposed to Gorbachev's reform program and the new union treaty that he had negotiated which decentralized much of the central government's power to the republics. They were opposed, mainly in Moscow, by a short but effective campaign of civil resistance[10] led by Russian president Boris Yeltsin, who had been both an ally and critic of Gorbachev. Although the coup collapsed in only two days and Gorbachev returned to power, the event destabilized the USSR and is widely considered to have contributed to both the demise of the CPSU and the dissolution of the USSR.

    After the capitulation of the State Committee on the State of Emergency (GKChP), popularly referred to as the "Gang of Eight", both the Supreme Court of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev described their actions as a coup attempt.

    1. ^ a party led by the nationalist politician Vladimir Zhirinovskyhttp://www.lenta.ru/lib/14159799/full.htm. Accessed 13 September 2009. Archived 16 September 2009-.
    2. ^ a b Ольга Васильева, «Республики во время путча» в сб.статей: «Путч. Хроника тревожных дней». // Издательство «Прогресс», 1991. (in Russian). Accessed 14 June 2009. Archived 17 June 2009.
    3. ^ Solving Transnistria: Any Optimists Left? by Cristian Urse. p. 58. Available at http://se2.isn.ch/serviceengine/Files/RESSpecNet/57339/ichaptersection_singledocument/7EE8018C-AD17-44B6-8BC2-8171256A7790/en/Chapter_4.pdf
    4. ^ a b "Би-би-си - Россия - Хроника путча. Часть II". news.bbc.co.uk.
    5. ^ Р. Г. Апресян. Народное сопротивление августовскому путчу (recuperato il 27 novembre 2010 tramite Internet Archive)
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference SovietCoup_Intl was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gupta was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ https://www.upi.com/Archives/1991/08/26/Third-Soviet-official-commits-suicide/5619683179200/ . Retrieved 7 March 2019.
    9. ^ https://www.deseretnews.com/article/179916/THE-CENTRAL-COMMITTEE-CHIEF-OF-ADMINISTRATION-KILLS-HIMSELF.html . Retrieved 7 March 2019.
    10. ^ Mark Kramer, "The Dialectics of Empire: Soviet Leaders and the Challenge of Civil Resistance in East-Central Europe, 1968–91", in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009 pp. 108–09.
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 August 1851 – The first America's Cup is won by the yacht America.

    America's Cup

    The America's Cup, affectionately known as the Auld Mug, is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two sailing yachts. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club that currently holds the America's Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club that is challenging for the cup. The timing of each match is determined by an agreement between the defender and the challenger. The America's Cup is the oldest international sporting trophy.[1][2][3] It will next be raced for in the southern summer, in the early part of 2021.[4]

    The cup was originally awarded in 1851 by the Royal Yacht Squadron for a race around the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom, which was won by the schooner America. Originally known as the 'R.Y.S. £100 Cup', the trophy was renamed the 'America's Cup' after the yacht and was donated to the New York Yacht Club (NYYC) under the terms of the Deed of Gift, which made the cup available for perpetual international competition.

    Any yacht club that meets the requirements specified in the deed of gift has the right to challenge the yacht club that holds the cup. If the challenging club wins the match, it gains stewardship of the cup.

    The history and prestige associated with the America's Cup attracts not only the world's top sailors and yacht designers but also the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs and sponsors. It is a test not only of sailing skill and boat and sail design, but also of fundraising and management skills. Competing for the cup is expensive, with modern teams spending more than $US100 million each;[5] the 2013 winner was estimated to have spent $US300 million on the competition.[6]

    The trophy was held by the NYYC from 1857 (when the syndicate that won the cup donated the trophy to the club) until 1983. The NYYC successfully defended the trophy twenty-four times in a row before being defeated by the Royal Perth Yacht Club, represented by the yacht Australia II. The NYYC's reign was the longest winning streak (in terms of date) in the history of all sports.[7]

    From the first defence of the cup in 1870 through the twentieth defence in 1967, there was always only one challenger. In 1970, for the first time, there were multiple challengers, so the NYYC agreed that the challengers could run a selection series with the winner becoming the official challenger and competing against the defender in the America's Cup match. Since 1983, Louis Vuitton has sponsored the Louis Vuitton Cup as a prize for the winner of the challenger selection series.

    Early matches for the cup were raced between yachts 65–90 ft (20–27 m) on the waterline owned by wealthy sportsmen. This culminated with the J-Class regattas of the 1930s. After World War II and almost twenty years without a challenge, the NYYC made changes to the deed of gift to allow smaller, less expensive 12-metre class yachts to compete; this class was used from 1958 until 1987. It was replaced in 1990 by the International America’s Cup Class which was used until 2007.

    After a long legal battle, the 2010 America's Cup was raced in 90 ft (27 m) waterline multihull yachts in a best of three "deed of gift" match in Valencia, Spain. The victorious Golden Gate Yacht Club then elected to race the 2013 America's Cup in AC72 foiling, wing-sail catamarans. Golden Gate Yacht Club successfully defended the cup. The 35th America's Cup match was announced to be sailed in 50 ft foiling catamarans.[8]

    The history of the America's Cup has included legal battles and disputes over rule changes including most recently over the rule changes for the 2017 America's Cup.[9]

    The America's Cup is currently held by the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron,[10] who will stage the 36th defence of the Cup in 2021.

    1. ^ "A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE AMERICA'S CUP". America's Cup Event Authority LLC. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
    2. ^ "America's Cup". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
    3. ^ "About America's Cup". Sir Peter Blake Trust. 2 August 2014. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015.
    4. ^ "36th America's Cup Announcement". Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
    5. ^ Newton, Casey (3 September 2013). "Billionaire death race: inside America's Cup and the world's most dangerous sailboat". The Verge. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
    6. ^ "America's Cup: The rising cost of sailing's ultimate prize". Boat International. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
    7. ^ John Rousmaniere (1983). The America's Cup 1851–1983. Pelham Books. ISBN 978-0-7207-1503-3.
    8. ^ BBC Staff Reporters (2 April 2015). "America's Cup: Sir Ben Ainslie backs move to smaller boats". BBC, London. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
    9. ^ "America’s Cup boat size row escalates as teams close ranks after Luna Rossa exit' Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 3 April 2015
    10. ^ Cary, Tom; Dilworth, Miles (26 June 2017). "New Zealand bury the demons of San Francisco in crushing America's Cup victory over the USA". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 August 1831Nat Turner's slave rebellion is suppressed.

    Nat Turner's slave rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion (also known as the Southampton Insurrection) was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia, in August 1831,[3] led by Nat Turner. Rebel slaves killed from 55 to 65 people, at least 51 being white.[4] The rebellion was put down within a few days, but Turner survived in hiding for more than two months afterwards. The rebellion was effectively suppressed at Belmont Plantation on the morning of August 23, 1831.[5]

    There was widespread fear in the aftermath, and white militias organized in retaliation in opposition to the slaves. The state executed 56 slaves accused of being part of the rebellion, and many non-participant slaves were punished in the frenzy. Approximately 120 slaves and free blacks were murdered by militias and mobs in the area.[1][2] State legislatures passed new laws prohibiting education of slaves and free black people,[6] restricting rights of assembly and other civil liberties for free black people, and requiring white ministers to be present at all worship services.

    1. ^ a b Breen 2015, pp. 98, 231.
    2. ^ a b Breen 2015, Chapter 9 and Allmendinger 2014, Appendix F are recent studies which review various estimates for the number of slaves and free blacks killed without trial, giving a range of from 23 killed to over 200 killed; Breen notes on page 231 that "high estimates have been widely accepted in both academic and popular sources".
    3. ^ Frederic D. Schwarz "1831: Nat Turner's Rebellion," American Heritage, August/September 2006.
    4. ^ "Nat Turner - Black History - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
    5. ^ Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission Staff (July 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Belmont" (PDF). Virginia Department of Historic Resources.
    6. ^ Gray-White, Deborah; Bay, Mia; Martin Jr, Waldo E. (2013). Freedom on my mind: A History of African of American. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013. p. 225.
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 August 1891Thomas Edison patents the motion picture camera.

    Thomas Edison

    Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who has been described as America's greatest inventor.[1][2][3] He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, and motion pictures.[4] These inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb, have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world.[5] He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of organized science and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees. He established the first industrial research laboratory.[6]

    Edison was raised in the American Midwest; early in his career he worked as a telegraph operator, which inspired some of his earliest inventions.[4] In 1876, he established his first laboratory facility in Menlo Park, New Jersey, where many of his early inventions were developed. He later established a botanic laboratory in Fort Myers, Florida in collaboration with businessmen Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone, and a laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey that featured the world's first film studio, the Black Maria. He was a prolific inventor, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as patents in other countries. Edison married twice and fathered six children. He died in 1931 of the complications of diabetes.

    1. ^ Adrian Wooldridge (September 15, 2016). "The alphabet of success". The Economist. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
    2. ^ Sproule, Anna (2000). Thomas Alva Edison: The World's Greatest Inventor (1st U.S. ed.). Woodbridge, CT: Blackbirch Press. ISBN 978-1-56711-331-0.
    3. ^ "Hangout – Thomas Edison". state.nj.us. State of New Jersey.
    4. ^ a b "Con Edison: A Brief History of Con Edison – electricity". Coned.com. January 1, 1998. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
    5. ^ "The Wizard of Menlo Park". The Franklin Institute. Archived from the original on March 5, 2013. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
    6. ^ Walsh, Bryan (July 15, 2009). "The Electrifying Edison". Time. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 August 1940World War II: The first Bombing of Berlin by the British Royal Air Force.

    Bombing of Berlin in World War II

    Berlin, the capital of Nazi Germany, was subject to 363 air raids during the Second World War.[1] It was bombed by the RAF Bomber Command between 1940 and 1945, by the USAAF Eighth Air Force between 1943 and 1945, and the French Air Force between 1944 and 1945 as part of the Allied campaign of strategic bombing of Germany. It was also attacked by aircraft of the Red Air Force, especially in 1945 as Soviet forces closed on the city. British bombers dropped 45,517 tons of bombs;[2] the Americans dropped 23,000 tons. As the bombings continued more and more people moved out. By May 1945, 1.7 million people (40% of the population) had fled.[3]

    1. ^ Taylor, Chapter "Thunderclap and Yalta" Page 216
    2. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1945/1945%20-%201571.html
    3. ^ Richard Overy, The Bombers and the Bombed: Allied Air War Over Europe 1940–1945 (2014), pp 301, 304
     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 August 1791John Fitch is granted a United States patent for the steamboat.

    Steamboat

    Look out (Transport Steamer) on Tennessee River, ca. 1860 – ca. 1865
    Dutch river steam-tugboat "Mascotte II"

    A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels. Steamboats sometimes use the prefix designation SS, S.S. or S/S (for 'Screw Steamer') or PS (for 'Paddle Steamer'); however, these designations are most often used for steamships.

    The term steamboat is used to refer to smaller, insular, steam-powered boats working on lakes and rivers, particularly riverboats. As using steam became more reliable, steam power became applied to larger, ocean-going vessels.

     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 August 410 – The sacking of Rome by the Visigoths ends after three days.

    Sack of Rome (410)

    The Sack of Rome occurred on 24 August 410 AD. The city was attacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric. At that time, Rome was no longer the capital of the Western Roman Empire, having been replaced in that position first by Mediolanum in 286 and then by Ravenna in 402. Nevertheless, the city of Rome retained a paramount position as "the eternal city" and a spiritual center of the Empire. The sack was a major shock to contemporaries, friends and foes of the Empire alike.

    This was the first time in almost 800 years that Rome had fallen to a foreign enemy. The previous sack of Rome had been accomplished by the Gauls under their leader Brennus in 390 or 387/6 BC. The sacking of 410 is seen as a major landmark in the fall of the Western Roman Empire. St. Jerome, living in Bethlehem at the time, wrote; "the city which had taken the whole world was itself taken."[2]

    1. ^ Peter Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford University Press, 2006), page 224.
    2. ^ St Jerome, Letter CXXVII. To Principia, s:Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Series II/Volume VI/The Letters of St. Jerome/Letter 127 paragraph 12.
     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 August 1879Cetshwayo, last king of the Zulus, is captured by the British.

    Cetshwayo kaMpande

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox royalty with unknown parameter "parents" (this message is shown only in preview).
    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox royalty with unknown parameter "children" (this message is shown only in preview).
    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox royalty with unknown parameter "relatives" (this message is shown only in preview).
    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox royalty with unknown parameter "other_names" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Cetshwayo kaMpande (/kɛˈw./; Zulu pronunciation: [ǀétʃwajo kámpande]; c. 1826 – 8 February 1884) was the king[a] of the Zulu Kingdom from 1873 to 1879 and its leader during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879. His name has been transliterated as Cetawayo, Cetewayo, Cetywajo and Ketchwayo. He famously led the Zulu nation to victory against the British in the Battle of Isandlwana.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  22. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    29 August 1842Treaty of Nanking signing ends the First Opium War.

    First Opium War

    The First Opium War (Chinese: 第一次鴉片戰爭; pinyin: Dìyīcì Yāpiàn Zhànzhēng), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the Great Britain and the Qing dynasty of China. Chinese officials clamped down on the banned opium trade, and threatened the death penalty to future offenders, causing offence toward the British government. The British dominated the trade and were much stronger militarily. They defeated the Chinese, and imposed a penalty that gave Western powers special privileges to trade with China.

    The demand for Chinese luxury goods (particularly silk, porcelain, and tea) created a trade imbalance between China and Britain. European silver flowed into China through the Canton System, which confined incoming foreign trade to the southern port city of Canton. To counter this imbalance, the British East India Company began to grow opium in Bengal, in present day Bangladesh, and allowed private British merchants to smuggle it into China illegally. The influx of narcotics reversed the Chinese trade surplus, drained the economy of silver, and increased the numbers of opium addicts inside the country, outcomes that seriously worried Chinese officials.

    In 1839, the Daoguang Emperor, rejecting proposals to legalize and tax opium, appointed viceroy Lin Zexu to go to Canton to halt the opium trade completely.[7] Lin wrote to Queen Victoria an open letter in an appeal to her moral responsibility to stop the opium trade.[8] When he failed to get a response, he initially attempted to get foreign companies to forfeit their opium stores in exchange for tea, but this ultimately failed too. Then Lin resorted to using force in the western merchants' enclave. He confiscated all supplies and ordered a blockade of foreign ships to get them to surrender their opium supply. Lin confiscated 20,283 chests of opium (approximately 1210 tons or 2.66 million pounds).[9]

    The British government responded by dispatching a military force to China and in the ensuing conflict, the Royal Navy used its naval and gunnery power to inflict a series of decisive defeats on the Chinese Empire,[10] a tactic later referred to as gunboat diplomacy.

    In 1842, the Qing dynasty was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking—the first of what the Chinese later called the unequal treaties—which granted an indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain, opened five treaty ports to foreign merchants, and ceded Hong Kong Island to the British Empire. The failure of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second Opium War (1856–60), and the perceived weakness of the Qing dynasty resulted in social unrest within China, namely the Taiping Rebellion, during which the Qing dynasty fought against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.[11] In China, the war is considered the beginning of modern Chinese history.[12]

    1. ^ a b c d e Martin, Robert Montgomery (1847). China: Political, Commercial, and Social; In an Official Report to Her Majesty's Government. Volume 2. London: James Madden. pp. 80–82.
    2. ^ The Chinese Repository, vol. 12, p. 248.
    3. ^ Bate 1952, p. 174.
    4. ^ Mao 2016, pp. 50–53.
    5. ^ Rait, Robert S. (1903). The Life and Campaigns of Hugh, First Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal. Volume 1. p. 265.
    6. ^ Makeham, John (2008). China: The World's Oldest Living Civilization Revealed. Thames & Hudson. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-500-25142-3.
    7. ^ Fay (2000) p. 73
    8. ^ Teng & Fairbank 1979, p. 23.
    9. ^ Farooqui, Amar (March 2005). Smuggling as Subversion: Colonialism, Indian Merchants, and the Politics of Opium, 1790–1843. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0886-7.
    10. ^ Steve Tsang, A modern history of Hong Kong (2007) p. 3-13"
    11. ^ Tsang, A modern history of Hong Kong p. 29.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference :26 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 August 1942 – World War II: The Battle of Alam el Halfa begins.

    Battle of Alam el Halfa

    The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between 30 August and 5 September 1942 south of El Alamein during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. Panzerarmee Afrika (Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel), attempted an envelopment of the British Eighth Army (Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery). In Unternehmen Brandung (Operation Surf), the last big Axis offensive of the Western Desert Campaign, Rommel intended to defeat the Eighth Army before Allied reinforcements arrived.

    Montgomery knew of Axis intentions through Ultra signals intercepts and left a gap in the southern sector of the front, knowing that Rommel planned to attack there and deployed the bulk of his armour and artillery around Alam el Halfa Ridge, 20 miles (32 km) behind the front. The tanks were to be used as anti-tank guns, remaining in their defensive positions on the ridge. When Axis attacks on the ridge failed and short on supplies, Rommel ordered a withdrawal. The 2nd New Zealand Division conducted Operation Beresford against Italian positions, which was a costly failure.

    Montgomery chose not to exploit his defensive victory, preferring to continue the methodical build up of strength for his autumn offensive, the Second Battle of El Alamein. Rommel claimed that British air superiority determined the result, being unaware of British Ultra intelligence. Rommel adapted to the increasing Allied dominance in the air by keeping his forces dispersed. With the failure at Alam Halfa, the Axis forces in Africa lost the initiative and Axis strategic aims in Africa were no longer possible.

    1. ^ a b c d e f Watson (2007), p. 14
    2. ^ Buffetaut pp. 90–91
     
  24. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 August 1939Nazi Germany mounts a false flag attack on the Gleiwitz radio station, creating an excuse to attack Poland the following day, thus starting World War II in Europe.

    Gleiwitz incident

    The Gleiwitz incident (German: Überfall auf den Sender Gleiwitz; Polish: Prowokacja gliwicka) was a covert Nazi German attack on the German radio station Sender Gleiwitz on the night of 31 August 1939 (today Gliwice, Poland). The attack was a false flag operation, staged with some two dozen similar German incidents on the eve of the invasion of Poland leading up to World War II in Europe.[1] The attackers posed as Polish nationals. Adolf Hitler’s armed forces invaded Poland the next morning after a lengthy period of preparations. During his declaration of war, Hitler did not mention the Gleiwitz incident but grouped all provocations staged by the SS as an alleged Polish assault on Germany. The Gleiwitz incident is the best-known action of Operation Himmler, a series of special operations undertaken by the Schutzstaffel (SS) to serve Nazi German propaganda at the outbreak of war. The operation was intended to create the appearance of Polish aggression against Germany to justify the invasion of Poland. Evidence for the Gleiwitz attack by the SS was provided by the German SS officer, Alfred Naujocks in 1945.[1]

    1. ^ a b Gleiwitz casus belli. Google Books. 2018. Nazi government under Hitler's leadership staged the Gleiwitz incident as a casus belli for the invasion of Poland the following morning
     
  25. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 September 1985 – A joint American–French expedition locates the wreckage of the RMS Titanic.

    RMS Titanic

    RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1912 after the ship struck an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. Of the estimated 2,224 passengers and crew aboard, more than 1,500 died, making it one of modern history's deadliest peacetime commercial marine disasters. RMS Titanic was the largest ship afloat at the time she entered service and was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line. She was built by the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast. Thomas Andrews, chief naval architect of the shipyard at the time, died in the disaster.[4]

    Titanic was under the command of Capt. Edward Smith, who also went down with the ship. The ocean liner carried some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as hundreds of emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland, Scandinavia and elsewhere throughout Europe who were seeking a new life in the United States. The first-class accommodation was designed to be the pinnacle of comfort and luxury, with an on-board gymnasium, swimming pool, libraries, high-class restaurants and opulent cabins. A high-powered radiotelegraph transmitter was available for sending passenger "marconigrams" and for the ship's operational use.[5] Although Titanic had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, it only carried enough lifeboats for 1,178 people—about half the number on board, and one third of her total capacity—due to outdated maritime safety regulations. The ship carried 16 lifeboat davits which could lower three lifeboats each, for a total of 48 boats. However, Titanic carried only a total of 20 lifeboats, four of which were collapsible and proved hard to launch during the sinking.[6]

    After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland before heading west to New York.[7] On 14 April, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles (600 km) south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 p.m. ship's time. The collision caused the hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard (right) side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea; she could only survive four flooding. Meanwhile, passengers and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only partially loaded. A disproportionate number of men were left aboard because of a "women and children first" protocol for loading lifeboats.[8] At 2:20 a.m., she broke apart and foundered with well over one thousand people still aboard. Just under two hours after Titanic sank, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived and brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors.

    The disaster was met with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), which still governs maritime safety. Additionally, several new wireless regulations were passed around the world in an effort to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications—which could have saved many more passengers.[9]

    The wreck of Titanic was discovered in 1985 (more than 70 years after the disaster) during a US military mission,[10] and it remains on the seabed. The ship was split in two and is gradually disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet (3,784 m). Thousands of artefacts have been recovered and displayed at museums around the world. Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history; her memory is kept alive by numerous works of popular culture, including books, folk songs, films, exhibits, and memorials. Titanic is the second largest ocean liner wreck in the world, only beaten by her sister HMHS Britannic, the largest ever sunk, although she holds the record as the largest sunk while actually in service as a liner due to Britannic being used as a hospital ship at the time of her sinking. The final survivor of the sinking, Millvina Dean, aged two months at the time, died in 2009 at the age of 97.

    1. ^ "Titanic History, Facts and Stories". Titanic Museum Belfast. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
    2. ^ "Titanic Centenary". Newcastle University Library. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
    3. ^ Beveridge & Hall 2004, p. 1.
    4. ^ Official investigation report – the sinking of RMS Titanic (PDF) (1 ed.). London: The final board of inquiry. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
    5. ^ Hsu, J. (17 April 2012). "How Marconi's Wireless Tech Helped Save Titanic Passengers", New York: NBC NEWS. Assessed at: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/47046053/ns/technology_and_science-innovation/t/how-marconis-wireless-tech-helped-save-titanic-passengers/#.WgSS4Fu3z3g
    6. ^ Vander Hook, S. (2008). Titanic. Edina, Minnesota: ABDO Publishing Company., p. 18.
    7. ^ "Titanic Ship Listing". Chris' Cunard Page. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
    8. ^ Second Officer Lightoller insisted on excluding men, while First Officer Murdoch, on the other side of the ship, permitted men and women to board the lifeboats.
    9. ^ Ryan, Patrick S. (18 July 2012). "Patrick S. Ryan, The ITU and the Internet's Titanic Moment". SSRN 2110509. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    10. ^ "Inside the secret US military mission that located the Titanic".
     
  26. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 September 1970NASA announces the cancellation of two Apollo missions to the Moon, Apollo 15 (the designation is re-used by a later mission), and Apollo 19.

    Canceled Apollo missions

    Several planned missions of the Apollo crewed Moon landing program of the 1960s and 1970s were canceled for a variety of reasons, including changes in technical direction, the Apollo 1 fire, hardware delays, and budget limitations. After the landing by Apollo 12, Apollo 20, which would have been the final crewed mission to the Moon, was canceled to allow Skylab to launch as a "dry workshop" (assembled on the ground in an unused S-IVB Saturn IB second stage). The next two missions, Apollos 18 and 19, were later canceled after the Apollo 13 incident and further budget cuts. Two Skylab missions also ended up being canceled. Two complete Saturn Vs ended up going unused and are currently on display in the United States.

     
  27. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 September 2004Beslan school siege results in over 330 fatalities, including 186 children.

    Beslan school siege

    The Beslan school siege (also referred to as the Beslan school hostage crisis or Beslan massacre)[3][4][5] started on 1 September 2004, lasted three days, involved the illegal imprisonment of over 1,100 people as hostages (including 777 children),[6] and ended with the deaths of at least 334 people. The crisis began when a group of armed Chechen militants occupied School Number One (SNO) in the town of Beslan, North Ossetia (an autonomous republic in the North Caucasus region of the Russian Federation) on 1 September 2004. The hostage-takers were the Riyad-us Saliheen, sent by the Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev, who demanded recognition of the independence of Chechnya, and Russian withdrawal from Chechnya. On the third day of the standoff, Russian security forces stormed the building with the use of tanks, incendiary rockets and other heavy weapons.[7] As of December 2006, 334 people (excluding terrorists) were killed,[1] including 186 children.[8]

    The event led to security and political repercussions in Russia; most notably, it contributed to a series of federal government reforms consolidating power in the Kremlin and strengthening of the powers of the President of Russia.[9] As of 2016, aspects of the crisis in relation to the militants continue to be contentious: questions remain regarding how many terrorists were involved, the nature of their preparations and whether a section of the group had escaped. Questions about the Russian government's management of the crisis have also persisted, including allegations of disinformation and censorship in news media, whether the journalists who were present at Beslan were allowed to freely report on the crisis,[10] the nature and content of negotiations with the terrorists, allocation of responsibility for the eventual outcome, and perceptions that excessive force was used.[7][11][12][13][14]

    The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in a 2017 ruling criticized Russia for not taking sufficient precautions before the event, and for using excessive lethal force when concluding the siege which violated the "right to life".[15]

    1. ^ a b "Woman injured in 2004 Russian siege dies". The Boston Globe. 8 December 2006. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2007. [...]bringing the total death toll to 334, a Beslan activist said.[...]Two other former hostages died of their wounds last year and another died last August, which had brought the overall death toll to 333 -- a figure that does not include the hostage-takers.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference aftermath was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Beslan mothers' futile quest for relief, BBC News, 4 June 2005.
    4. ^ Beslan School Massacre One Year Later Archived 13 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Department of State, 31 August 2005
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference legacy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference unicef was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b The Truth About Beslan. What Putin's government is covering up., by David Satter, The Weekly Standard, 13 November 2006, Volume 012, Issue 09.
    8. ^ "Putin meets angry Beslan mothers". BBC News. 2 September 2005. Retrieved 28 July 2006. Of those who died, 186 were children.
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference shadow was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Russia 'impeded media' in Beslan, BBC News, 16 September 2004.
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference aching was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Beslan's unanswered questions Archived 14 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine, International Herald Tribune, 30 May 2006.
    13. ^ Beslan siege still a mystery, BBC News, 2 September 2005.
    14. ^ One year later, Beslan's school tragedy still haunts, The Boston Globe, 2 September 2005.
    15. ^ "Serious failings in the response of the Russian authorities to the Beslan attack". Registrar of The European Court of Human Rights. 13 April 2017.
     
  28. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 September 1971Alaska Airlines Flight 1866 crashes near Juneau, Alaska, killing all 111 people on board.

    Alaska Airlines Flight 1866

    Alaska Airlines Flight 1866 was a regularly scheduled flight from Anchorage, Alaska, to Seattle, Washington, with intermediate stops. On September 4, 1971, the aircraft serving the flight crashed into a mountain in Haines Borough, near Juneau, Alaska (JNU/PAJN) on approach for landing. All 111 people were killed.[1] It was the first fatal jet airliner crash of Alaska Airlines, and the deadliest single-plane crash in the history of the United States until June 24, 1975, when Eastern Air Lines Flight 66 crashed. To date it is the deadliest accident in Alaska Airlines history.[2]

    1. ^ "Alaska Airlines - HistoryLink.org". Retrieved January 14, 2017.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 September 1915 – The pacifist Zimmerwald Conference begins.

    Zimmerwald Conference

    The Hotel Beau Séjour, site of the Zimmerwald conference, in 1864

    The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from September 5 to 8, 1915. It was the first of three international socialist conferences convened by anti-militarist socialist parties from countries that were originally neutral during World War I. The individuals and organizations participating in this and subsequent conferences held at Kienthal and Stockholm are known jointly as the Zimmerwald movement.

    The Zimmerwald Conference began the unraveling of the coalition between revolutionary socialists (the so-called Zimmerwald Left) and reformist socialists in the Second International.[1]

    1. ^ "Zimmerwald Conference 1915: Revolutionaries against the imperialist war". Retrieved January 7, 2007.
     
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 September 1970 – Two passenger jets bound from Europe to New York are simultaneously hijacked by Palestinian terrorist members of the PFLP and taken to Dawson's Field, Jordan.

    Dawson's Field hijackings

    In September 1970, members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) hijacked four airliners bound for New York City and one for London. Three aircraft were forced to land at Dawson's Field, a remote desert airstrip near Zarqa, Jordan, formerly Royal Air Force Station Zerqa, which then became PFLP's 'Revolutionary Airport'. By the end of the incident, one hijacker had been killed and one injury reported. This was the second instance of mass aircraft hijacking, after an escape from communist Czechoslovakia in 1950.

    On 6 September, TWA Flight 741 from Frankfurt (a Boeing 707) and Swissair Flight 100 from Zürich (a Douglas DC-8) were forced to land at Dawson's Field.[1][2] On the same day, the hijacking of El Al Flight 219 from Amsterdam (another 707) was foiled: hijacker Patrick Argüello was shot and killed, and his partner Leila Khaled was subdued and handed over to British authorities in London. Two PFLP hijackers who were prevented from boarding the El Al flight, hijacked instead Pan Am Flight 93, a Boeing 747, diverting the large plane first to Beirut and then to Cairo, rather than to the small Jordanian airstrip. On 9 September, a fifth plane, BOAC Flight 775, a Vickers VC10 coming from Bahrain, was hijacked by a PFLP sympathizer and taken to Dawson's Field in order to pressure the British to free Khaled.

    While the majority of the 310 hostages were transferred to Amman and freed on 11 September, the PFLP segregated the flight crews and Jewish passengers, keeping the 56 Jewish hostages in custody, while releasing the non-Jews. Six hostages in particular were kept because they were men and American citizens, not necessarily Jews: Robert Norman Schwartz, a U.S. Defense Department researcher stationed in Thailand; James Lee Woods, Schwartz's assistant and security detail; Gerald Berkowitz, an American-born Jew and college chemistry professor; Rabbi Abraham Harrari-Raful and his brother Rabbi Joseph Harrari-Raful, two Brooklyn school teachers; and John Hollingsworth, a U.S. State Department employee. Schwartz, whose father was Jewish, was a convert to Catholicism.[3][4][5] On 12 September, prior to their announced deadline, the PFLP used explosives to destroy the empty planes, as they anticipated a counterstrike.[1]

    The PFLP's exploitation of Jordanian territory was an example of the increasingly autonomous Arab Palestinian activity within the Kingdom of Jordan – a serious challenge to the Hashemite monarchy of King Hussein. Hussein declared martial law on 16 September and from 17 to 27 September his forces deployed into Palestinian-controlled areas in what became known as Black September in Jordan, nearly triggering a regional war involving Syria, Iraq, and Israel.

    A swift Jordanian victory, however, enabled a 30 September deal in which the remaining PFLP hostages were released in exchange for Khaled and three PFLP members in a Swiss prison.[1]

    1. ^ a b c BBC News, "On This Day: 12 September". "Hijacked jets destroyed by guerrillas". BBC News. 12 September 1970. Retrieved 1 May 2006.
    2. ^ Dawson's Field was named after Air Chief Marshal Sir Walter Dawson Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation – Air Chief Marshal Sir Walter Dawson refers
    3. ^ "Britain Releases Girl Guerilla". The Palm Beach Post. 1 October 1970. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
    4. ^ "Robert Schwartz; Defense Official Was Hostage in Hijacking". The Washington Post. 17 June 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Tugend was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 September 1159Pope Alexander III is chosen.

    Pope Alexander III

    Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena,[1] was pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.

    1. ^ In Italian Rolando or Orlando.
     
  32. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 September 1978Black Friday, a massacre by soldiers against protesters in Tehran, results in 700–3000 deaths, it marks the beginning of the end of the monarchy in Iran.

    Black Friday (1978)

    Black Friday (Persian: جمعه سیاه Jom'e-ye Siyāh) is the name given to 8 September 1978 (17 Shahrivar 1357 in the Iranian calendar)[7] because of the shootings in Jaleh Square (Persian: میدان ژاله Meydān-e Jāleh) in Tehran, Iran.[8][9] Between 84 and 15,000[5] people were killed in the incident and 205–8,000 were injured. The deaths were described as the pivotal event in the Iranian Revolution that ended any "hope for compromise" between the protest movement and regime of the Mohammad Reza Shah.[10] The incident is described by historian Ervand Abrahamian as "a sea of blood between the shah and the people."[2]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Baghi was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b Shakman Hurd, Elizabeth (2009). The Politics of Secularism in International Relations. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1400828012. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
    3. ^ Berg-Sørensen, Anders (2016). Contesting Secularism: Comparative Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 9781317160243. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
    4. ^ Thiessen, Mark (2008). An Island of Stability: The Islamic Revolution of Iran and the Dutch Opinion. Sidestone Press. ISBN 9789088900198. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
    5. ^ a b c "Emad Baghi :: English". www.emadbaghi.com. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
    6. ^ Andrew Scott Cooper,The Fall of Heaven: The Pahlavis and the Final Days of Imperial Iran Hardcover – July 19, 2016 ISBN 0805098976
    7. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (21 July 1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691101347. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
    8. ^ Bashiriyeh, Hossein (27 April 2012). The State and Revolution in Iran (RLE Iran D). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781136820892. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
    9. ^ Fischer, Michael M. J. (15 July 2003). Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 9780299184735. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
    10. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 160–1
     
  33. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 September 2015Elizabeth II became the longest reigning monarch of the United Kingdom.

    List of monarchs in Britain by length of reign

    Elizabeth II, the current and longest-reigning monarch, has reigned since 6 February 1952.

    The following is a list, ordered by length of reign, of the monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801), the Kingdom of England (871–1707), the Kingdom of Scotland (878–1707), the Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800), and the Principality of Wales (1216–1542).

    Queen Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning British monarch on 9 September 2015 when she surpassed the reign of her great-great-grandmother Victoria.[1][2] On 6 February 2017 she became the first British monarch to celebrate a Sapphire Jubilee, commemorating 65 years on the throne.

    1. ^ Patricia Treble (30 December 2014). "Palace calculations: Queen Elizabeth II set to lap Victoria". Maclean's. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
    2. ^ "Official Website of the British Monarchy". Retrieved 5 September 2015. On 9 September 2015, The Queen will become the longest reigning British Monarch, surpassing Queen Victoria.
     
  34. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 September 2008 – The Large Hadron Collider at CERN, described as the biggest scientific experiment in history, is powered up in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Large Hadron Collider

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider and the largest machine in the world.[1] It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories, as well as more than 100 countries.[2] It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva.

    First collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about four times the previous world record.[3][4] After upgrades it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy, the present world record).[5][6][7][8] At the end of 2018, it entered a two-year shutdown period for further upgrades.

    The collider has four crossing points, around which are positioned seven detectors, each designed for certain kinds of research. The LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of heavy ions: Lead–lead collisions and proton-lead collisions are typically done for one month per year. The aim of the LHC's detectors is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson[9] and searching for the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories,[10] as well as other unsolved questions of physics.

    1. ^ "The Large Hadron Collider". CERN.
    2. ^ Highfield, Roger (16 September 2008). "Large Hadron Collider: Thirteen ways to change the world". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
    3. ^ "CERN LHC sees high-energy success". BBC News. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
    4. ^ "LHC to run at 4 TeV per beam in 2012". Media and Press Relations (Press release). CERN. 13 February 2012.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ O'Luanaigh, Cian. "Proton beams are back in the LHC". CERN. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
    7. ^ Rincon, Paul (3 June 2015). "Large Hadron Collider turns on 'data tap'". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
    8. ^ Webb, Jonathan (21 May 2015). "LHC smashes energy record with test collisions". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
    9. ^ "Missing Higgs". CERN. 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
    10. ^ "Towards a superforce". CERN. 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
     
  35. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 September 2008 – The Large Hadron Collider at CERN, described as the biggest scientific experiment in history, is powered up in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Large Hadron Collider

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider and the largest machine in the world.[1] It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories, as well as more than 100 countries.[2] It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva.

    First collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about four times the previous world record.[3][4] After upgrades it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy, the present world record).[5][6][7][8] At the end of 2018, it entered a two-year shutdown period for further upgrades.

    The collider has four crossing points, around which are positioned seven detectors, each designed for certain kinds of research. The LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of heavy ions: Lead–lead collisions and proton-lead collisions are typically done for one month per year. The aim of the LHC's detectors is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson[9] and searching for the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories,[10] as well as other unsolved questions of physics.

    1. ^ "The Large Hadron Collider". CERN.
    2. ^ Highfield, Roger (16 September 2008). "Large Hadron Collider: Thirteen ways to change the world". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
    3. ^ "CERN LHC sees high-energy success". BBC News. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
    4. ^ "LHC to run at 4 TeV per beam in 2012". Media and Press Relations (Press release). CERN. 13 February 2012.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ O'Luanaigh, Cian. "Proton beams are back in the LHC". CERN. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
    7. ^ Rincon, Paul (3 June 2015). "Large Hadron Collider turns on 'data tap'". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
    8. ^ Webb, Jonathan (21 May 2015). "LHC smashes energy record with test collisions". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
    9. ^ "Missing Higgs". CERN. 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
    10. ^ "Towards a superforce". CERN. 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
     
  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 September 2012 – A total of 315 people are killed in two garment factory fires in Pakistan.

    2012 Pakistan factory fires

    Garment factories in the Pakistani cities of Karachi and Lahore caught fire on 11 September 2012. The fires occurred in a textile factory in the western part of Karachi and in a shoe making factory in Lahore. The fires are considered to be the most deadly and worst industrial factory fires in Pakistan's history,[3] killing 289 people and seriously injuring more than 600.[4][5][6]

    1. ^ Mansoor, Kamran (12 September 2012). "Karachi inferno toll hits 298". The News International. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
    2. ^ a b Shah, Imtiaz; Akhtar Soomro (12 September 2012). "Fires engulf Pakistan factories killing 314 workers". Reuters. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
    3. ^ "Pakistan: Hundreds Die In Factory Blazes". Yahoo! News. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
    4. ^ "289 killed in Karachi factory fire in Pakistan". China Daily. Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
    5. ^ Zia ur-Rehman; Declan Walsh & Salman Masood (12 September 2012). "Pakistan Factory Fires Kill More Than 300". The New York Times. NYT Asia Pacific. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
    6. ^ Chaudary, K.M. (12 September 2012). "Death toll in Pakistani fires hits 314". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
     
  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 September 1962 – President Kennedy delivers his "We choose to go to the Moon" speech at Rice University.

    We choose to go to the Moon

    Kennedy, in a blue suit and tie, speaks at a wooden podium bearing the seal of the President of the United States. Vice President Lyndon Johnson and other dignitaries stand behind him.
    President John F. Kennedy speaking at Rice University on September 12, 1962

    "We choose to go to the Moon", officially titled as the Address at Rice University on the Nation's Space Effort, is a speech delivered by United States President John F. Kennedy about the effort to reach the Moon to a large crowd gathered at Rice Stadium in Houston, Texas, on September 12, 1962. The speech was intended to persuade the American people to support the Apollo program, the national effort to land a man on the Moon.

    In his speech, Kennedy characterized space as a new frontier, invoking the pioneer spirit that dominated American folklore. He infused the speech with a sense of urgency and destiny, and emphasized the freedom enjoyed by Americans to choose their destiny rather than have it chosen for them. Although he called for competition with the Soviet Union, he also proposed making the Moon landing a joint project.

    The speech resonated widely and is still remembered, although at the time there was disquiet about the cost and value of the Moon-landing effort. Kennedy's goal was realized in July 1969, with the successful Apollo 11 mission.

     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 September 1985Super Mario Bros. is released in Japan for the NES, which starts the Super Mario series of platforming games.

    Super Mario Bros.

    Super Mario Bros.[b] is a platform video game developed and published by Nintendo. The successor to the 1983 arcade game, Mario Bros., it was released in Japan in 1985 for the Famicom, and in North America and Europe for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in 1985 and 1987 respectively. Players control Mario, or his brother Luigi in the multiplayer mode, as they travel the Mushroom Kingdom to rescue Princess Toadstool from Bowser. They must traverse side-scrolling stages while avoiding hazards such as enemies and pits with the aid of power-ups such as the Super Mushroom, Fire Flower, and Starman.

    The game was designed by Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka as "a grand culmination" of the Famicom team's three years of game mechanics and programming. The design of the first level, World 1-1, serves as a tutorial for first-time video gamers on the basic mechanics of platform gameplay. The aggressively size-optimized profile was intended as a farewell to the Famicom's cartridge medium in favor of the forthcoming Famicom Disk System, whose floppy disks temporarily became the dominant distribution medium for a few years.

    Super Mario Bros. is frequently cited as one of the greatest video games of all time, with praise on its precise controls. It is one of the bestselling games of all time, with more than 40 million physical copies. It is credited alongside the NES as one of the key factors in reviving the video game industry after the 1983 crash, and helped popularize the side-scrolling platform game genre. Koji Kondo's soundtrack is one of the earliest and most popular in video games, making music into a centerpiece of game design. The game inspired an expansive franchise including a long-running game series, an animated television series, and a feature film. Re-releases and cameos of the game are on most of Nintendo's following systems. Alongside Mario himself, Super Mario Bros. has become prominent in popular culture.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sad But was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Nintendo staff. "NES Games" (PDF). Nintendo. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 21, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2011.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  39. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 September 1982 – President-elect of Lebanon Bachir Gemayel is assassinated.

    Bachir Gemayel

    Bachir Gemayel (Arabic: بشير الجميّلBashīr al-Jimayyel, also romanized al-Jumayyil and El Gemaiel, Arabic pronunciation: [baˈʃiːr ʤɪ'ma.jjɪl]; 10 November 1947 – 14 September 1982), also Bashir Gemayel, was a senior member of the right-wing Christian Kataeb Party, also known as the Phalange Party, and the son of its founder Pierre Gemayel.

    He became the supreme commander of the Lebanese Forces, uniting major Christian militias by force during the early years of the Lebanese Civil War under the campaign of "Uniting the Christian Rifle" and later founded the Lebanese Forces political party. Gemayel's Forces became the most powerful militia in Lebanon and is widely remembered for it's resistance and battles against the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Syrian Army, most notably the Hundred Days' War and the Battle of Zahleh.

    He was democratically-elected president on 23 August 1982 by the majority of Christian and Muslim MPs while the country was torn by civil war and occupied by both Israel, Syria and Palestinian factions. Gemayel started enacting policies to disarm Christian militias, ordered the Lebanese Army to enter West Beirut for the first time since the start of the war and forced Yasser Arafat and the PLO to leave Lebanon. On 14 September, before he could take office, he was assassinated, along with 26 others, when a bomb exploded in Beirut Phalange headquarters. While some have accused Habib Tanious Shartouni,[1] the US Federal Bureau of Investigation blamed the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP).[2]

    Gemayel remains the youngest elected president and one of the most charismatic and controversial figures in Lebanese history.

    1. ^ Reuters (10 March 1982). "Phalangists identify bomber of Gemayel as Lebanese leftist". The New York Times.
    2. ^ Neil A. Lewis (18 May 1988). "U.S. Links Men in Bomb Case To Lebanon Terrorist Group". The New York Times.
     
  40. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 September 1935 – The Nuremberg Laws deprive German Jews of citizenship.

    Nuremberg Laws

    Title page of the German government gazette Reichsgesetzblatt issue proclaiming the laws, published on 16 September 1935 (RGB I No. 100)

    The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racist laws in Nazi Germany. They were enacted by the Reichstag on 15 September 1935, at a special meeting convened during the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). The two laws were the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, which forbade marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews and Germans and the employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households, and the Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens. The remainder were classed as state subjects without any citizenship rights. A supplementary decree outlining the definition of who was Jewish was passed on 14 November, and the Reich Citizenship Law officially came into force on that date. The laws were expanded on 26 November 1935 to include Romani people and Black people. This supplementary decree defined Romanis as "enemies of the race-based state", the same category as Jews.

    Out of foreign policy concerns, prosecutions under the two laws did not commence until after the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in Berlin. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, they began to implement their policies, which included the formation of a Volksgemeinschaft (people's community) based on race. Chancellor and Führer (leader) Adolf Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses on 1 April 1933, and the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April, excluded non-Aryans from the legal profession and civil service. Books considered un-German, including those by Jewish authors, were destroyed in a nationwide book burning on 10 May. Jewish citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks. They were actively suppressed, stripped of their citizenship and civil rights, and eventually completely removed from German society.

    The Nuremberg Laws had a crippling economic and social impact on the Jewish community. Persons convicted of violating the marriage laws were imprisoned, and (subsequent to 8 March 1938) upon completing their sentences were re-arrested by the Gestapo and sent to Nazi concentration camps. Non-Jews gradually stopped socialising with Jews or shopping in Jewish-owned stores, many of which closed due to lack of customers. As Jews were no longer permitted to work in the civil service or government-regulated professions such as medicine and education, many middle class business owners and professionals were forced to take menial employment. Emigration was problematic, as Jews were required to remit up to 90% of their wealth as a tax upon leaving the country. By 1938 it was almost impossible for potential Jewish emigrants to find a country willing to take them. Mass deportation schemes such as the Madagascar Plan proved to be impossible for the Nazis to carry out, and starting in mid-1941, the German government started mass exterminations of the Jews of Europe.

     

Share This Page