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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 October 2009 – The October 2009 Baghdad bombings kill 155 and wounds at least 721.

    October 2009 Baghdad bombings

    The 25 October 2009 Baghdad bombings were attacks in Baghdad, Iraq which killed 155 people and injured at least 721 people.[1]

    1. ^ a b c "Baghdad bomb fatalities pass 150". BBC News. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
    2. ^ Londoño, Ernesto (27 October 2009). "Extremist group claims responsibility for Baghdad bombs". Washington Post. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 October 1863The Football Association is founded.

    The Football Association

    The Football Association (FA) is the governing body of association football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory.

    The FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the county football associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup. It is also responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's, and youth national football teams.

    The FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board (IFAB) which is responsible for the Laws of the Game. As the first football association, it does not use the national name "English" in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London. The FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the men's and women's Great Britain Olympic football team.[1]

    All of England's professional football teams are members of the Football Association. Although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules.[2] The English Football League, made up of the three fully professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FA's sanctions.

    1. ^ "Team GB decision reached". TheFA.com. 26 June 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
    2. ^ "The Premier League and Other Football Bodies". Premier League. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 October 2004 – The Boston Red Sox defeat the St. Louis Cardinals to win their first World Series in 86 years.

    2004 World Series

    The 2004 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's (MLB) 2004 season. The 100th edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the American League (AL) champion Boston Red Sox and the National League (NL) champion St. Louis Cardinals;[1] the Red Sox swept the Cardinals in four games. The series was played from October 23 to 27, 2004, at Fenway Park and Busch Memorial Stadium, broadcast on Fox, and watched by an average of just under 25.5 million viewers. The Red Sox's World Series championship was their first since 1918.

    The Cardinals earned their berth into the playoffs by winning the NL Central division title, and had the best win–loss record in the NL. The Red Sox won the AL wild card to earn theirs. The Cardinals reached the World Series by defeating the Los Angeles Dodgers in the best-of-five NL Division Series and the Houston Astros in the best-of-seven NL Championship Series. The Red Sox defeated the Anaheim Angels in the AL Division Series. After trailing three games to none to the New York Yankees in the AL Championship Series, the Red Sox came back to win the series, advancing to their first World Series since 1986. The Cardinals made their first appearance in the World Series since 1987. With the New England Patriots winning Super Bowl XXXVIII, the World Series victory made Boston the first city to have Super Bowl and World Series championship teams in the same year (2004) since Pittsburgh in 1979.[2] The Red Sox became the third straight wild card team to win the World Series; the Anaheim Angels won in 2002 and the Florida Marlins won in 2003.[3]

    The Red Sox had home-field advantage in the World Series by nature of the AL winning the 2004 All-Star Game. In game one, Mark Bellhorn helped the Red Sox win with a home run, while starter Curt Schilling led the team to a game two victory by pitching six innings and allowing just one run. The Red Sox won the first two games despite committing four errors in each. The Red Sox won game three, aided by seven shutout innings by Pedro Martínez. A home run by Johnny Damon in the first inning helped to win game four for the Red Sox to secure the series. The Cardinals did not lead in any of the games in the series. Manny Ramírez was named the series' Most Valuable Player. The Red Sox and Cardinals faced each other again in the 2013 World Series, which the Red Sox also won, this time 4 games to 2.

    1. ^ Shaughnessy 2005, pp. 212–214
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pittsburgh was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "How Many MLB Wild-Card Teams Have Won the World Series?". The Cheat Sheet. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 October 2009 – The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing kills 117 and wounds 213.

    28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing

    The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing occurred in Peshawar, Pakistan, when a car bomb was detonated in a Mina Bazar (Market for women and children) of the city. The bomb killed 137 people and injured more than 200 others, making it the deadliest attack in Peshawar's history. Pakistani government officials believe the Taliban to be responsible, but both Taliban and Al-Qaeda sources have denied involvement in the attack.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference IT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Hazrat Bacha, Ali (30 October 2009). "Death toll from Peshawar blast rises to 117". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 October 2015China announces the end of One-child policy after 35 years.

    One-child policy

    China's one-child policy was part of a birth planning program designed to control the size of its population.[1] Distinct from the family planning policies of most other countries (which focus on providing contraceptive options to help women have the number of children they want), it set a limit on the number of children parents could have, the world's most extreme example of population planning. It was introduced in 1979 (after a decade-long two-child policy),[2] modified beginning in the mid 1980s to allow rural parents a second child if the first was a daughter, and then lasted three more decades before being eliminated at the end of 2015. The policy also allowed exceptions for some other groups, including ethnic minorities. Therefore, the term "one-child policy" is a misnomer, because for nearly 30 of the 36 years that it existed (1979–2015), about half of all parents in China were allowed to have a second child.[3][4][5]

    To enforce existing birth limits (of one or two children), provincial governments could, and did, require the use of contraception, sterilizations and abortions to ensure compliance, and imposed enormous fines for violations. Local and national governments created commissions to promote the program and monitor compliance. China also rewarded families with only one child. From 1982 onwards, in accordance with the instructions on further family planning issued by the CPC central committee and the state council in that year, regulations awarded 5 yuan per month for families with one child. Parents who had only one child would also get a "one-child glory certificate".[6]

    According to the Chinese government, 400 million births were prevented, starting from 1970, a decade before the start of the one-child policy. Some scholars have disputed this claim, with Martin King Whyte and Wang et al contending that the policy had little effect on population growth or the size of the total population.[7][8][9] China has been compared to countries with similar socioeconomic development like Thailand and Iran, along with the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which achieved similar declines of fertility without a one-child policy.[10] However, a recent demographic study challenged these scholars by showing that China's low fertility was achieved two or three decades earlier than would be expected given its level of development, and that more than 500 million births were prevented between 1970 and 2015 (a calculation based on an alternative model of fertility decline proposed by the scholars themselves),[8] some 400 million of which may have been due to one-child restrictions.[11] In addition, by 2060 China's birth planning policies may have averted as many as 1 billion people in China when one adds in all the eliminated descendants of the births originally averted by the policies.[12][13] Although 76% of Chinese people said that they supported the policy in a 2008 survey, it was controversial outside of China.[14]

    Effective from January 2016, the national birth planning policy became a universal two-child policy that allowed each couple to have two children.

    China's population since 1950
    1. ^ "One Child Nation". Amazon Studios. 2019.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Scharping was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Hesketh, T; Zhu, SX (1997). "The one-child family policy: the good, the bad, and the ugly". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 314 (7095): 1685–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7095.1685. PMC 2126838. PMID 9193296.
    4. ^ Greenhalgh, Susan (2001). "Fresh Winds in Beijing: Chinese Feminists Speak Out on the One-child Policy and Women's Lives". Signs. 26 (3): 847–886. doi:10.1086/495630. JSTOR 3175541.
    5. ^ Lauster, Nathaneal; Allen, Graham (2011). The End of Children? Changing Trends in Childbearing and Childhood. UBC Press. p. 1980.
    6. ^ "China’s One-Child Policy: Urban and Rural Pressures, Anxieties, and Problems". World Report News. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
    7. ^ Feng, Wang; Yong, Cai; Gu, Baochang (2012). "Population, Policy, and Politics: How Will History Judge China's One-Child Policy?" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 38: 115–29. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00555.x.
    8. ^ a b Whyte, Martin K.; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yong (2015). "Challenging Myths about China's One-Child Policy" (PDF). The China Journal.
    9. ^ Li, Hongbin; Zhang, Junsen (2006). "How effective is the one-child policy in China?" (PDF). Working Paper Series. doi:10.1920/wp.cem.2006.1606.
    10. ^ Sen, Amartya (June 2012). "Population: Delusion and Reality" (PDF). Richard R Guzmán.
    11. ^ Daniel Goodkind. 2017. The Astonishing Population Averted by China's Birth Restrictions: Estimates, Nightmares, and Reprogrammed Ambitions. Demography 54: 1375-1399 doi: 10.1007/s13524-017-0595-x
    12. ^ "Analysis of China's one-child policy sparks uproar". 18 October 2017.
    13. ^ Goodkind, Daniel (2018). "If Science Had Come First: A Billion Person Fable for the Ages". Demography. 55 (2): 743–768. doi:10.1007/s13524-018-0661-z. PMID 29623609.
    14. ^ "The Chinese Celebrate Their Roaring Economy, As They Struggle With Its Costs". 22 July 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 October 1947 – The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is founded.

    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

    The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas. According to its preamble, its purpose was the "substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of preferences, on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis."

    The GATT was first discussed during the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO). It was signed by 23 nations in Geneva on 30 October 1947, and took effect on 1 January 1948. It remained in effect until the signature by 123 nations in Marrakesh on 14 April 1994, of the Uruguay Round Agreements which established the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 1 January 1995. The WTO is the successor to the GATT, and the original GATT text (GATT 1947) is still in effect under the WTO framework, subject to the modifications of GATT 1994.[1][2] Nations that were not party in 1995 to the GATT need to meet the minimum conditions spelled out in specific documents before they can accede; in September 2019, the list contained 36 nations.[3]

    The GATT, and its successor the WTO, have successfully reduced tariffs. The average tariff levels for the major GATT participants were about 22% in 1947, but were 5% after the Uruguay Round in 1999.[4] Experts attribute part of these tariff changes to GATT and the WTO.[5][6][7]

    1. ^ "WTO legal texts: The Uruguay Round agreements". World Trade Organization.
    2. ^ "Uruguay Round - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994". World Trade Organization.
    3. ^ "ACCESSIONS: Protocols of accession for new members since 1995, including commitments in goods and services". World Trade Organization. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Tomz, Michael; Goldstein, Judith L; Rivers, Douglas (2007). "Do We Really Know That the WTO Increases Trade? Comment". American Economic Review. 97 (5): 2005–2018. doi:10.1257/aer.97.5.2005. ISSN 0002-8282.
    6. ^ Goldstein, Judith L.; Rivers, Douglas; Tomz, Michael (2007). "Institutions in International Relations: Understanding the Effects of the GATT and the WTO on World Trade". International Organization. 61 (1): 37–67. doi:10.1017/S0020818307070014. ISSN 1531-5088.
    7. ^ Irwin, Douglas A. (9 April 2007). "GATT Turns 60". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 October 1863 – The New Zealand Wars resume as British forces in New Zealand led by General Duncan Cameron begin their Invasion of the Waikato.

    New Zealand Wars

    The New Zealand Wars were a series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand from 1845 to 1872 between the Colonial government and allied Māori on one side and Māori and Māori-allied settlers on the other. They were previously commonly referred to as the Land Wars or the Māori Wars[2] while Māori language names for the conflicts included Ngā pakanga o Aotearoa ("the great New Zealand wars") and Te riri Pākehā ("the white man's anger").[2] Historian James Belich popularised the name "New Zealand Wars" in the 1980s,[3] although the term was first used by historian James Cowan in the 1920s.[4]

    Though the wars were initially localised conflicts triggered by tensions over disputed land purchases, they escalated dramatically from 1860 as the government became convinced it was facing united Māori resistance to further land sales and a refusal to acknowledge Crown sovereignty. The colonial government summoned thousands of British troops to mount major campaigns to overpower the Kīngitanga (Māori King) movement and also acquire farming and residential land for British settlers.[5][6] Later campaigns were aimed at quashing the so-called Hauhau movement, an extremist part of the Pai Mārire religion, which was strongly opposed to the alienation of Māori land and eager to strengthen Māori identity.[7]

    At the peak of hostilities in the 1860s, 18,000 British troops, supported by artillery, cavalry and local militia, battled about 4,000 Māori warriors[8] in what became a gross imbalance of manpower and weaponry.[9] Although outnumbered, the Māori were able to withstand their enemy with techniques that included anti-artillery bunkers and the use of carefully placed , or fortified villages, that allowed them to block their enemy's advance and often inflict heavy losses, yet quickly abandon their positions without significant loss. Guerrilla-style tactics were used by both sides in later campaigns, often fought in dense bush. Over the course of the Taranaki and Waikato campaigns, the lives of about 1,800 Māori and 800 Europeans were lost,[5] and total Māori losses over the course of all the wars may have exceeded 2,100.

    Violence over land ownership broke out first in the Wairau Valley in the South Island in June 1843, but rising tensions in Taranaki eventually led to the involvement of British military forces at Waitara in March 1860. The war between the government and Kīngitanga Māori spread to other areas of the North Island, with the biggest single campaign being the invasion of the Waikato in 1863–1864, before hostilities concluded with the pursuits of Riwha Tītokowaru in Taranaki (1868–1869) and guerrilla fighter Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki on the east coast (1868–1872).

    Although Māori were initially fought by British forces, the New Zealand government developed its own military force, including local militia, rifle volunteer groups, the specialist Forest Rangers and kūpapa (pro-government Māori). The government also responded with legislation to imprison Māori opponents and confiscate expansive areas of the North Island for sale to settlers, with the funds used to cover war expenses[10][11]—punitive measures that on the east and west coasts provoked an intensification of Māori resistance and aggression.

    1. ^ "End of the New Zealand Wars". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
    2. ^ a b "Story: New Zealand Wars".
    3. ^ "The end of the war".
    4. ^ O'Malley 2019, p. 29.
    5. ^ a b King, Michael (1977). Te Puea: A Biography. Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 26. ISBN 0-340-22482-7.
    6. ^ Dalton, B.J. (1967). War and Politics in New Zealand 1855–1870. Sydney: Sydney University Press. p. 179.
    7. ^ Belich, James (1986x). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict (1st ed.). Auckland: Penguin. pp. 204–205. ISBN 0-14-011162-X.
    8. ^ Belich, James (1986a). The New Zealand Wars. Auckland: Penguin. pp. 126–133. ISBN 0-14-027504-5.
    9. ^ Belich 1986a, pp. 24–25.
    10. ^ Belich 1986a, p. 126.
    11. ^ Dalton 1967, pp. 181–182.
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 November 1993 – The Maastricht Treaty takes effect, formally establishing the European Union.

    Maastricht Treaty

    The Maastricht Treaty (officially the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Communities in Maastricht, Netherlands, to further European integration.[1] On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty.[2] The treaty founded the European Union and established its pillar structure which stayed in place until the Lisbon Treaty came into force in 2009. The treaty also greatly expanded the competences of the EEC/EU and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro.

    The Maastricht Treaty reformed and amended the treaties establishing the European Communities, the EU's first pillar. It renamed European Economic Community to European Community to reflect its expanded competences beyond economic matters. The Maastricht Treaty also created two new pillars of the EU on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs (respectively the second and third pillars), which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination.

    The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2007). Today it is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

    1. ^ "1990–1999". The history of the European Union – 1990–1999. Europa. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    2. ^ "1991". The EU at a glance – The History of the European Union. Europa. Archived from the original on 5 April 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
     
  9. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    2 November 1983 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs a bill creating Martin Luther King, Jr. Day.

    Martin Luther King Jr. Day

    Martin Luther King Jr. Day (officially Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr.,[1] and sometimes referred to as MLK Day) is an American federal holiday marking the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. It is observed on the third Monday of January each year, which is around King's birthday, January 15. The holiday is similar to holidays set under the Uniform Monday Holiday Act. The earliest Monday for this holiday is January 15 and the latest is January 21.

    King was the chief spokesperson for nonviolent activism in the Civil Rights Movement, which successfully protested racial discrimination in federal and state law. The campaign for a federal holiday in King's honor began soon after his assassination in 1968. President Ronald Reagan signed the holiday into law in 1983, and it was first observed three years later. At first, some states resisted observing the holiday as such, giving it alternative names or combining it with other holidays. It was officially observed in all 50 states for the first time in 2000.

    1. ^ "Federal Holidays". Opm.gov. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    4 Novemeber 2015 – A building collapses in the Pakistani city of Lahore resulting in at least 45 deaths, and at least 100 injured.

    2015 Lahore factory disaster

    The 2015 Lahore factory disaster resulted when a shopping bag factory located at Sundar Industrial Estate[1] near Lahore, Pakistan collapsed[5][6][2] on 4 November 2015, killing at least 45 people[3] and trapping about 150.[2] The recovery was led by the Board of Management Sundar Industrial Estate with support from the Pakistan Army, Rescue 1122 and Bahria Town Rescue Team.

    A large rescue operation included a team of army engineers and urban search-and-rescue personnel.[2][3] Messages had been received via mobile phones from people trapped in the rubble.[2] The challenge of getting heavy machinery to the site of the collapse hampered the rescue effort, according to an official as of 4 November .[3]

    The disaster has had a seminal effect on the operation and management of all industrial estates and their bye laws.

    1. ^ a b "Pakistan Lahore factory collapse: Hopes dim for survivors". BBC. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
    2. ^ a b c d e f g AFP (5 November 2015). "Race to find survivors after deadly factory collapse in Pakistan". 24France. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
    3. ^ a b c d e f "Hunt for survivors at collapsed Pakistan building site". Al Jazeera English. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
    4. ^ Gabol, Imran (7 November 2015). "Lahore factory collapse: Search for survivors continues as death toll climbs to 45". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
    5. ^ Gabol, Imran (5 November 2015). "At least 25 dead as rescuers scrabble through Lahore factory rubble". Dawn. Pakistan. AFP. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
    6. ^ Shahzad, Muhammad (5 November 2015). "At least 23 killed in Lahore factory collapse; rescue operations underway". The Express Tribune. Pakistan. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
     
  12. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    5 November 1943 – World War II: Bombing of the Vatican.

    Bombing of the Vatican

    Map of Vatican City showing the buildings of the Governatorate, the Tribunal, and the Archpriest, and the railway station, which were damaged on 5 November 1943. The mosaic workshop, which received a direct hit, is positioned between the railway station and the residence of the archpriest.

    Bombing of Vatican City occurred twice during World War II. The first occasion was on the evening of 5 November 1943, when a plane dropped bombs on the area south-west of Saint Peter's Basilica, causing considerable damage but no casualties. The second bombing, which affected only the outer margin of the city, was at about the same hour on 1 March 1944, and caused the death of one person and the injury of another.[1]

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 November 1929 – In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public.

    Museum of Modern Art

    The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.

    MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modern art, and is often identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world.[3] MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, prints, illustrated books and artist's books, film, and electronic media.[4]

    The MoMA Library includes approximately 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, and over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups.[5] The archives hold primary source material related to the history of modern and contemporary art.[6]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference artnewspaper2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Top 100 Art Museum Attendance Archived April 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Art Newspaper, 2014. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
    3. ^ Kleiner, Fred S.; Christin J. Mamiya (2005). "The Development of Modernist Art: The Early 20th Century". Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 796. ISBN 0-495-00478-2. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. The Museum of Modern Art in New York City is consistently identified as the institution most responsible for developing modernist art ... the most influential museum of modern art in the world.
    4. ^ Museum of Modern Art – New York Art World Archived February 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
    5. ^ "MoMA". Archived from the original on February 5, 2016.
    6. ^ "MoMA". Archived from the original on February 13, 2016.
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 November 2002Iraq disarmament crisis: UN Security Council Resolution 1441: The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves a resolution on Iraq, forcing Saddam Hussein to disarm or face "serious consequences".

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a United Nations Security Council resolution adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 2002, offering Iraq under Saddam Hussein "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolutions 660, 661, 678, 686, 687, 688, 707, 715, 986, and 1284).[1] It provided a justification for what was subsequently termed the US invasion of Iraq.[2]

    Resolution 1441 stated that Iraq was in material breach of the ceasefire terms presented under the terms of Resolution 687. Iraq's breaches related not only to weapons of mass destruction (WMD), but also the known construction of prohibited types of missiles, the purchase and import of prohibited armaments, and the continuing refusal of Iraq to compensate Kuwait for the widespread looting conducted by its troops during the 1990–1991 invasion and occupation. It also stated that "...false statements or omissions in the declarations submitted by Iraq pursuant to this resolution and failure by Iraq at any time to comply with, and cooperate fully in the implementation of, this resolution shall constitute a further material breach of Iraq's obligations."

    1. ^ "Text of U.N. resolution on Iraq - Nov. 8, 2002". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 22 November 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
    2. ^ "Gulf war - PBS Frontline Interviews". PBS Frontline. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 November 1994 – The chemical element darmstadtium is discovered.

    Darmstadtium

    Darmstadtium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol Ds and atomic number 110. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element. The most stable known isotope, darmstadtium-281, has a half-life of approximately 12.7 seconds. Darmstadtium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near the city of Darmstadt, Germany, after which it was named.

    In the periodic table, it is a d-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 10 elements, although no chemical experiments have yet been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to platinum in group 10 as the eighth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Darmstadtium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, nickel, palladium, and platinum.

    1. ^ "Darmstadtium". Periodic Table of Videos. The University of Nottingham. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
    2. ^ "darmstadtium". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
    3. ^ a b c d e f Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 978-1-4020-3555-5.
    4. ^ a b Östlin, A.; Vitos, L. (2011). "First-principles calculation of the structural stability of 6d transition metals". Physical Review B. 84 (11). Bibcode:2011PhRvB..84k3104O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.113104.
    5. ^ a b Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
    6. ^ Chemical Data. Darmstadtium - Ds, Royal Chemical Society
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 November 1989 – Germans begin to tear down the Berlin Wall.

    Berlin Wall

    Satellite image of Berlin, with the Wall's location marked in yellow
    West and East Berlin borders overlaying a current road map (interactive map)

    The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer, pronounced [bɛʁˈliːnɐ ˈmaʊ̯ɐ] (About this soundlisten)) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.[1] Construction of the Wall was commenced by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) on 13 August 1961. The Wall cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany, including East Berlin.[2] The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[3] accompanied by a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany.

    GDR authorities officially referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall). The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement.[4] Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize physically the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.[5]

    Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin; from there they could then travel to West Germany and to other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989 the Wall prevented almost all such emigration.[6] During this period over 100,000[5] people attempted to escape and over 5,000 people succeeded in escaping over the Wall, with an estimated death toll ranging from 136[7] to more than 200[5][8] in and around Berlin.

    In 1989, a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—in Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany that ultimately resulted in the demise of the Wall.[9] After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric people and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall.[5] The Brandenburg Gate in the Berlin Wall was opened on 22 December 1989. The demolition of the Wall officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in November 1991. The "fall of the Berlin Wall" paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990.[5]

    1. ^ "Untangling 5 myths about the Berlin Wall". Chicago Tribune. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
    2. ^ Video: Berlin, 1961/08/31 (1961). Universal Newsreel. 1961. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    3. ^ Jack Marck Archived 29 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine "Over the Wall: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Experience" American Heritage, October 2006.
    4. ^ "Berlin Wall: Five things you might not know". The Telegraph. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
    5. ^ a b c d e Library, C. N. N. "Berlin Wall Fast Facts". CNN.
    6. ^ "Freedom!". Time. 20 November 1989. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chronik was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference contemporary research was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Mary Elise Sarotte, Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall, New York: Basic Books, 2014
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 November 2004New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior is dedicated at the National War Memorial, Wellington.

    New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior

    Coordinates: 41°17′55.78″S 174°46′37.99″E / 41.2988278°S 174.7772194°E / -41.2988278; 174.7772194

    The Tomb of the Unknown Warrior in June 2012

    The New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior is at the National War Memorial in Buckle Street, Wellington.

    On 6 November 2004, the remains of an unknown New Zealand soldier were exhumed from the (CWGC) Caterpillar Valley Cemetery, and laid to rest in the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior in Wellington, New Zealand. He represents over 18,000 members of New Zealand forces who lost their lives during the First World War. A special headstone marks his original resting place in Plot 14, Row A, Grave 27.

     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 November 1994 – In a referendum, voters in Sweden decide to join the European Union.

    1994 Swedish European Union membership referendum

    A non-binding referendum on membership for the European Union was held in Sweden on 13 November 1994.[1]

    The voter turnout was 83.3%, and the result was 52.3% for and 46.8% against.[1]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference scb was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 November 2012Israel launches a major military operation in the Gaza Strip, as hostilities with Hamas escalate.

    Operation Pillar of Defense

    Operation Pillar of Defense (Hebrew: עַמּוּד עָנָן, ʿAmúd ʿAnán, literally: "Pillar of Cloud")[22] was an eight-day Israel Defense Forces (IDF) operation in the Hamas-governed Gaza Strip, which began on 14 November 2012 with the killing of Ahmed Jabari, chief of the Gaza military wing of Hamas by an Israeli airstrike.[23][24][25][26]

    The operation was preceded by a period with a number of mutual Israeli–Palestinian responsive attacks.[27] According to the Israeli government, the operation began in response to the launch of over 100 rockets at Israel during a 24-hour period,[28][29] an attack by Gaza militants on an Israeli military patrol jeep within Israeli borders,[30] and an explosion caused by IEDs, which occurred near Israeli soldiers, on the Israeli side of a tunnel passing under the Israeli West Bank barrier.[31][32] The Israeli government stated that the aims of the military operation were to halt rocket attacks against civilian targets originating from the Gaza Strip[33][34] and to disrupt the capabilities of militant organizations.[35] The Palestinians blamed the Israeli government for the upsurge in violence, accusing the IDF of attacks on Gazan civilians in the days leading up to the operation.[36] They cited the blockade of the Gaza Strip and the occupation of West Bank, including East Jerusalem, as the reason for rocket attacks.[23]

    During the course of the operation, the IDF claimed to have struck more than 1,500 sites in the Gaza Strip,[37] including rocket launchpads, weapon depots, government facilities, and apartment blocks.[38] According to a UNHCR report, 174 Palestinians were killed and hundreds were wounded.[39] Many families were displaced.[16][40][41][42] One airstrike[43] killed ten members of the al-Dalu family. Some Palestinian casualties were caused by misfired Palestinian rockets landing inside the Gaza Strip.[44] Eight Palestinians were executed by members of the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades for alleged collaboration with Israel.[45][46][47]

    During the operation, Hamas, the al-Qassam Brigades and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) further intensified their rocket attacks on Israeli cities and towns, in an operation code named Operation Stones of Baked Clay (Arabic: حجارة سجيل‎, ḥijārat sijīl) by the al-Qassam Brigades,[48] firing over 1,456 rockets into Israel, and an additional 142 which fell inside Gaza itself.[49] Palestinian militant groups used weapons including Iranian-made Fajr-5, Russian-made Grad rockets, Qassams, and mortars.[citation needed] Some of these weapons were fired into Rishon LeZion, Beersheba, Ashdod, Ashkelon, and other population centers. Tel Aviv was hit for the first time since the 1991 Gulf War, and rockets were fired at Jerusalem.[50] The rockets killed three Israeli civilians in a direct hit on a home in Kiryat Malachi.[24][46][51] By the end of the operation, six Israelis had been killed, two hundred forty were injured, and more than two hundred had been treated for anxiety by Magen David Adom.[56] About 421 rockets were intercepted by Israel's Iron Dome missile defense system, another 142 fell on Gaza itself, 875 fell in open areas, and 58 hit urban areas in Israel.[49][57] A bus in Tel Aviv was bombed by an Arab-Israeli, injuring 28 civilians.[58]

    Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other Western countries expressed support for what they considered Israel's right to defend itself, or condemned the Hamas rocket attacks on Israel.[70] China,[71] Iran, Russia, Egypt, Turkey, and several other Arab and Muslim countries condemned the Israeli operation.[76] The United Nations Security Council held an emergency session on the situation, but did not reach a decision.[77] After days of negotiations between Hamas and Israel, a ceasefire mediated by Egypt was announced on 21 November.[78][79][80] Both sides claimed victory. Israel said that it had achieved its aim of crippling Hamas's rocket-launching ability,[81] while Hamas stated that Israel's option of invading Gaza had ended.[82][83] According to Human Rights Watch, both sides violated the laws of war during the fighting.[84][85][86]

    1. ^ "IDF believes Hamas, Islamic Jihad will honor cease-fire". Jerusalem Post. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    2. ^ a b "PFLP says fighters will continue to strike Israel". Ma'an News Agency. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    3. ^ "Occupied Quds City Targeted by Palestinian Missile". Fars News Agency. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    4. ^ "Fatah: We also fought against Israel in Pillar of Defense". Jerusalem Post. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    5. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Birnbaum, Michael (21 November 2012). "After Israel, Hamas reach Gaza cease-fire, both sides claim victory". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    6. ^ Kalman, Matthew; Sengupta, Kim (21 November 2012). "Fragile truce deal hailed as a victory on both sides". London: The Independent. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    7. ^ Ahren, Raphael (21 November 2012). "Israel says it 'fulfilled all its goals,' while Hamas hails an 'exceptional victory'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    8. ^ Lyon, Alistair, ed. (21 November 2012). "Israel's battle damage report says Hamas crippled". Jewish Journal. Reuters. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    9. ^ Balmer, Crispian (21 November 2012). "Analysis: Relief at Gaza ceasefire can't mask its frailty". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    10. ^ Ravid, Barak (22 November 2012). "Israel's Pillar of Defense achieved its goals". Haaretz. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    11. ^ "Israel eases restrictions on Gaza fishing – Middle East – Al Jazeera English". Aljazeera.com. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    12. ^ Williams, Dan (22 March 2013). "Hamas appeals to Egypt after Israel halves Gaza fishing zone". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    13. ^ "Rocket fired from Gaza lands near Jerusalem". Al Jazeera English. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    14. ^ "The main armed groups in Gaza". gulfnews.com. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    15. ^ a b "The total numbers of victims". Palestinian Center for Human Rights. 24 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    16. ^ a b c "After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test". Times of Israel. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    17. ^ a b "Operation Pillar Of Defence" (PDF). Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
    18. ^ a b "Operation Pillar Of Defence Report". B'tselem. 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
    19. ^ "Gaza baby 'only knew how to smile'". BBC News. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
    20. ^ "Hamas executes six suspected informants for Israel on Gaza street". The Guardian. Associated press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    21. ^ a b "Israel under fire – November 2012". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Israel. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
    22. ^ "Chief of Staff Declares 'Operation Pillar of Cloud'". Arutz Sheva. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    23. ^ a b "Q&A: Israel-Gaza violence". BBC News. 20 November 2012.
    24. ^ a b "Day 2: 300+ Rockets Fired at Israel Since Start of Operation Pillar of Defense" (live updates). Algemeiner. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    25. ^ Lappin, Yaakov (14 November 2012). "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    26. ^ Kalman, Matthew (15 November 2012). "Massed Israeli troops poised for invasion of Gaza". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    27. ^ Cite error: The named reference Haaretz_blame_mullet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ "Gaza groups pound Israel with over 100 rockets". The Jerusalem Post. 11 December 2012.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference pound was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "Gaza border: Anti-tank missile hit IDF jeep". LiveLeak.com. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    31. ^ "Israel: Tunnel Explodes on Gaza Border". ABC News. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.[dead link]
    32. ^ "Operation Pillar of Defense - Selected statements". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, israel. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    33. ^ Cite error: The named reference UNHCR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    34. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (16 November 2012). "Jerusalem and Tel Aviv under rocket fire, Netanyahu warns Gaza". Chicago Tribune.
    35. ^ "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    36. ^ "Israel warns Hamas of 'heavy price' for Gaza rockets". 11 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    37. ^ "LIVE BLOG: Day 8 of Israel-Gaza conflict 2012". Haaretz. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
    38. ^ "Factbox: Gaza targets bombed by Israel". Reuters. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    39. ^ Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the implementation of Human Rights Council resolutions S-9/1 and S-12/1, Addendum, 6 March 2013.
    40. ^ "Israel Gaza Attacks Intensify Despite Truce Talks". The Huffington Post. The Associated Press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    41. ^ Initial Findings: 40 of the Palestinians killed by the Israeli military up to the night of 19 Nov. were civilians, among them 19 minors., B'Tselem 21 November 2012 Archived 2 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
    42. ^ "Escalation in Hostilities, Gaza and southern Israel" (PDF). Situation Report. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 26 November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
    43. ^ "Dalu Family In Gaza Mourns Dead After Israel Bombs House". The Huffington Post. Reuters. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
    44. ^ "Israeli forces prepare for war as troops mass on Gaza border". London: Telegraph. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    45. ^ Mistaken Lull, Simple Errand, Death in Gaza, New York Times, 16 November 2012
    46. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference toi7b was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    47. ^ JODI RUDOREN. "Collaborators fall prey to both sides in Gaza ; Price of being suspected, much less convicted, can be fatal - and gruesome." International Herald Tribune. 2012
    48. ^ "كتائب القسام تبدأ عملية "حجارة سجيل" ضد إسرائيل". Al-sharq.com. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    49. ^ a b Ban Ki-moon; UN Secretary General (21 November 2012). "Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council [as delivered]". Tel Aviv. Retrieved 22 November 2012. Overall, in that same time period, more than 1,456 rockets have been fired from Gaza into Israel. 142 have fallen inside Gaza itself. Approximately 409 were intercepted by the Iron Dome anti-missile system. (...) Since Israel's targeted assassination from the air, on 14 November, of Ahmed Jaabari, chief of Hamas' military wing, and with Israel's offensive in Gaza in its eighth day, the Israel Defense Forces publicly reported that it has conducted strikes at more than 1,450 targets in Gaza.
    50. ^ Lappin, Yaakov; Lazaroff, Tovah (15 November 2012). "Gaza rocket hits area south of Tel Aviv for first time". The Jerusalem Post.
    51. ^ Cite error: The named reference gu18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    52. ^ Rettig, Haviv (21 November 2012). "Title: After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test. TOI. Nov 2012". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    53. ^ "MDA: 16 injured in South on sixth day of operation". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
    54. ^ 70 Israelis injured in rocket attacks in last 24 hours, Jerusalem Post 15 November 2012
    55. ^ Oster, Marcy (22 November 2012). "Title: six Israelis die in Operation Pillar of Defense. JTA. 12 Nov". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    56. ^ [21][52][53][54][55]
    57. ^ Levinson, Charles; Adam Entous (26 November 2012). "Israel's Iron Dome Defense Battled to Get Off the Ground". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
    58. ^ "Terror attack: Blast on Tel Aviv bus; 28 hurt". Ynet News. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
    59. ^ Lazaroff, Tovah (16 November 2012). "Ashton, Merkel say Israel has right to defend itself". The Jerusalem Post.
    60. ^ "Gaza Rocket Attacks" (Press release). US: Department of State. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    61. ^ "Foreign Secretary statement on Gaza and southern Israel". UK: Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    62. ^ al-Mughrabi, Nidal (14 November 2012). "UPDATE 8-Rockets hits near Tel Aviv as Gaza death toll rises". Reuters. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    63. ^ Hall, Bianca (16 November 2012). "Gillard condemns attacks on Israel" (Press release). AU: Fairfax Media. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    64. ^ "Les ministres européens mettent en garde Israël quant à l'escalade de la violence à Gaza" [European ministers warn Israel about escalade of violence in Gaza] (in French). EurActiv. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    65. ^ "Foreign minister Nikolay Mladenov commenting on the situation in southern Israel and the Gaza Strip". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bulgaria). 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    66. ^ "Canada Condemns Hamas and Stands with Israel" (Press release). CA: Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    67. ^ Statement of MFA on Israel and the Gaza Strip, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic 15 November 2012
    68. ^ Timmermans condemns rocket attacks on Israel from Gaza, Government of the Netherlands 13 November 2012
    69. ^ a b "Russia condemns 'disproportionate' strikes on Gaza". The Daily Star. LB. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    70. ^ [59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69]
    71. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Regular Press Conference on November 19, 2012". Consulate General of the People’s Republic of China in New York. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
    72. ^ "At the UN, Pakistan slams Israel's offensive in Gaza". The Express Tribune. PK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    73. ^ "Morocco Strongly Condemns Israeli Raids on Gaza". Rabat, BH. Bahrain News Agency. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    74. ^ "Sudanese president condemns Israeli strikes on Gaza". Global Times. CN. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    75. ^ "Lebanese president: Israeli attack on Gaza obstructs peace". NOW Lebanon. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    76. ^ [69][72][73][74][75]
    77. ^ "Gaza toll rises as UN calls for end to the bloodshed". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    78. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D.; Rudoren, Jodi (21 November 2012). "Cease-Fire Between Israel and Hamas Takes Effect". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    79. ^ Owen, Paul. "Israel-Gaza: truce talks ongoing in Cairo – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
    80. ^ Iron Dome protects Tel Aviv as army warns of long fight ahead, Times of Israel 17 November 2012
    81. ^ Israel dealt Hamas 'a heavy blow' and is prepared to resume offensive if need be, Netanyahu says, Times of Israel 22 November 2012
    82. ^ Gaza leader Haniyeh thanks Iran for helping make Israel ‘scream with pain', Times of Israel 22 November 2012
    83. ^ IBRAHIM BARZAK and KARIN LAUB The Associated Press (22 November 2012). "Hamas claims victory as ceasefire starts". The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    84. ^ Sarah Leah Whitson; Middle East director (20 December 2012). "Israel/Gaza: Unlawful Israeli Attacks on Palestinian Media". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    85. ^ Cite error: The named reference HRWHamas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    86. ^ Cite error: The named reference HRWreport was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 November 2012Israel launches a major military operation in the Gaza Strip, as hostilities with Hamas escalate.

    Operation Pillar of Defense

    Operation Pillar of Defense (Hebrew: עַמּוּד עָנָן, ʿAmúd ʿAnán, literally: "Pillar of Cloud")[22] was an eight-day Israel Defense Forces (IDF) operation in the Hamas-governed Gaza Strip, which began on 14 November 2012 with the killing of Ahmed Jabari, chief of the Gaza military wing of Hamas by an Israeli airstrike.[23][24][25][26]

    The operation was preceded by a period with a number of mutual Israeli–Palestinian responsive attacks.[27] According to the Israeli government, the operation began in response to the launch of over 100 rockets at Israel during a 24-hour period,[28][29] an attack by Gaza militants on an Israeli military patrol jeep within Israeli borders,[30] and an explosion caused by IEDs, which occurred near Israeli soldiers, on the Israeli side of a tunnel passing under the Israeli West Bank barrier.[31][32] The Israeli government stated that the aims of the military operation were to halt rocket attacks against civilian targets originating from the Gaza Strip[33][34] and to disrupt the capabilities of militant organizations.[35] The Palestinians blamed the Israeli government for the upsurge in violence, accusing the IDF of attacks on Gazan civilians in the days leading up to the operation.[36] They cited the blockade of the Gaza Strip and the occupation of West Bank, including East Jerusalem, as the reason for rocket attacks.[23]

    During the course of the operation, the IDF claimed to have struck more than 1,500 sites in the Gaza Strip,[37] including rocket launchpads, weapon depots, government facilities, and apartment blocks.[38] According to a UNHCR report, 174 Palestinians were killed and hundreds were wounded.[39] Many families were displaced.[16][40][41][42] One airstrike[43] killed ten members of the al-Dalu family. Some Palestinian casualties were caused by misfired Palestinian rockets landing inside the Gaza Strip.[44] Eight Palestinians were executed by members of the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades for alleged collaboration with Israel.[45][46][47]

    During the operation, Hamas, the al-Qassam Brigades and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) further intensified their rocket attacks on Israeli cities and towns, in an operation code named Operation Stones of Baked Clay (Arabic: حجارة سجيل‎, ḥijārat sijīl) by the al-Qassam Brigades,[48] firing over 1,456 rockets into Israel, and an additional 142 which fell inside Gaza itself.[49] Palestinian militant groups used weapons including Iranian-made Fajr-5, Russian-made Grad rockets, Qassams, and mortars.[citation needed] Some of these weapons were fired into Rishon LeZion, Beersheba, Ashdod, Ashkelon, and other population centers. Tel Aviv was hit for the first time since the 1991 Gulf War, and rockets were fired at Jerusalem.[50] The rockets killed three Israeli civilians in a direct hit on a home in Kiryat Malachi.[24][46][51] By the end of the operation, six Israelis had been killed, two hundred forty were injured, and more than two hundred had been treated for anxiety by Magen David Adom.[56] About 421 rockets were intercepted by Israel's Iron Dome missile defense system, another 142 fell on Gaza itself, 875 fell in open areas, and 58 hit urban areas in Israel.[49][57] A bus in Tel Aviv was bombed by an Arab-Israeli, injuring 28 civilians.[58]

    Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other Western countries expressed support for what they considered Israel's right to defend itself, or condemned the Hamas rocket attacks on Israel.[70] China,[71] Iran, Russia, Egypt, Turkey, and several other Arab and Muslim countries condemned the Israeli operation.[76] The United Nations Security Council held an emergency session on the situation, but did not reach a decision.[77] After days of negotiations between Hamas and Israel, a ceasefire mediated by Egypt was announced on 21 November.[78][79][80] Both sides claimed victory. Israel said that it had achieved its aim of crippling Hamas's rocket-launching ability,[81] while Hamas stated that Israel's option of invading Gaza had ended.[82][83] According to Human Rights Watch, both sides violated the laws of war during the fighting.[84][85][86]

    1. ^ "IDF believes Hamas, Islamic Jihad will honor cease-fire". Jerusalem Post. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    2. ^ a b "PFLP says fighters will continue to strike Israel". Ma'an News Agency. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    3. ^ "Occupied Quds City Targeted by Palestinian Missile". Fars News Agency. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    4. ^ "Fatah: We also fought against Israel in Pillar of Defense". Jerusalem Post. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    5. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Birnbaum, Michael (21 November 2012). "After Israel, Hamas reach Gaza cease-fire, both sides claim victory". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    6. ^ Kalman, Matthew; Sengupta, Kim (21 November 2012). "Fragile truce deal hailed as a victory on both sides". London: The Independent. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    7. ^ Ahren, Raphael (21 November 2012). "Israel says it 'fulfilled all its goals,' while Hamas hails an 'exceptional victory'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    8. ^ Lyon, Alistair, ed. (21 November 2012). "Israel's battle damage report says Hamas crippled". Jewish Journal. Reuters. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    9. ^ Balmer, Crispian (21 November 2012). "Analysis: Relief at Gaza ceasefire can't mask its frailty". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    10. ^ Ravid, Barak (22 November 2012). "Israel's Pillar of Defense achieved its goals". Haaretz. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    11. ^ "Israel eases restrictions on Gaza fishing – Middle East – Al Jazeera English". Aljazeera.com. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    12. ^ Williams, Dan (22 March 2013). "Hamas appeals to Egypt after Israel halves Gaza fishing zone". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    13. ^ "Rocket fired from Gaza lands near Jerusalem". Al Jazeera English. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    14. ^ "The main armed groups in Gaza". gulfnews.com. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    15. ^ a b "The total numbers of victims". Palestinian Center for Human Rights. 24 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    16. ^ a b c "After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test". Times of Israel. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    17. ^ a b "Operation Pillar Of Defence" (PDF). Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
    18. ^ a b "Operation Pillar Of Defence Report". B'tselem. 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
    19. ^ "Gaza baby 'only knew how to smile'". BBC News. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
    20. ^ "Hamas executes six suspected informants for Israel on Gaza street". The Guardian. Associated press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    21. ^ a b "Israel under fire – November 2012". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Israel. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
    22. ^ "Chief of Staff Declares 'Operation Pillar of Cloud'". Arutz Sheva. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    23. ^ a b "Q&A: Israel-Gaza violence". BBC News. 20 November 2012.
    24. ^ a b "Day 2: 300+ Rockets Fired at Israel Since Start of Operation Pillar of Defense" (live updates). Algemeiner. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    25. ^ Lappin, Yaakov (14 November 2012). "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    26. ^ Kalman, Matthew (15 November 2012). "Massed Israeli troops poised for invasion of Gaza". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    27. ^ Cite error: The named reference Haaretz_blame_mullet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ "Gaza groups pound Israel with over 100 rockets". The Jerusalem Post. 11 December 2012.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference pound was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "Gaza border: Anti-tank missile hit IDF jeep". LiveLeak.com. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    31. ^ "Israel: Tunnel Explodes on Gaza Border". ABC News. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.[dead link]
    32. ^ "Operation Pillar of Defense - Selected statements". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, israel. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    33. ^ Cite error: The named reference UNHCR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    34. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (16 November 2012). "Jerusalem and Tel Aviv under rocket fire, Netanyahu warns Gaza". Chicago Tribune.
    35. ^ "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    36. ^ "Israel warns Hamas of 'heavy price' for Gaza rockets". 11 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    37. ^ "LIVE BLOG: Day 8 of Israel-Gaza conflict 2012". Haaretz. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
    38. ^ "Factbox: Gaza targets bombed by Israel". Reuters. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
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