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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    22 April 1970 – The first Earth Day is celebrated

    Earth Day

    Earth Day is an annual event celebrated around the world on April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection. First celebrated in 1970, it now includes events coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network[1] in more than 193 countries.[2]

    In 1969 at a UNESCO Conference in San Francisco, peace activist John McConnell proposed a day to honor the Earth and the concept of peace, to first be celebrated on March 21, 1970, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere. This day of nature's equipoise was later sanctioned in a proclamation written by McConnell and signed by Secretary General U Thant at the United Nations. A month later a United States Senator Gaylord Nelson proposed the idea to hold a nationwide environmental teach-in on April 22, 1970. He hired a young activist, Denis Hayes, to be the National Coordinator. Nelson and Hayes renamed the event “Earth Day.” Under the leadership of labor leader Walter Reuther, the United Auto Workers was the most instrumental outside financial and operational supporter of the first Earth Day.[3][4][5] According to Hayes, "Without the UAW, the first Earth Day would have likely flopped!”[6] Nelson was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom award in recognition of his work.[7] The first Earth Day was focused on the United States. In 1990, Denis Hayes, the original national coordinator in 1970, took it international and organized events in 141 nations.[8][9][10]

    On Earth Day 2016, the landmark Paris Agreement was signed by the United States, China, and some 120 other countries.[11][12][13] This signing satisfied a key requirement for the entry into force of the historic draft climate protection treaty adopted by consensus of the 195 nations present at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris.

    Numerous communities celebrate Earth Day Week, an entire week of activities focused on the environmental issues that the world faces.[14]

    1. ^ "Earth Day Network". Earthday.net. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
    2. ^ "Earth Day International". Archived from the original on March 15, 2010. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
    3. ^ "Labor and environmentalists have been teaming up since the first Earth Day". Grist. April 22, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
    4. ^ "Meet 'Mr. Earth Day,' the Man Who Helped Organize the Annual Observance". Time. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
    5. ^ "The Rumpus Interview with Earth Day Organizer Denis Hayes". The Rumpus.net. April 22, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
    6. ^ "Labor and environmentalists have been teaming up since the first Earth Day". Grist. April 22, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
    7. ^ "Earth Day | Care2 Healthy Living". Care2.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
    8. ^ "Staff – The Builtt Foundation". Bullitt.org. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
    9. ^ "The Rumpus Interview With Earth Day Organizer Denis Hayes". The Rumpus.net. April 17, 2020. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
    10. ^ "How Earth Day gave birth to the environmental movement=The Harvard Gazette". January–February 1990. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
    11. ^ "Here's Why the U.S. and China Are Signing the Historic Paris Agreement on Earth Day". whitehouse.gov. March 31, 2016.
    12. ^ McGrath, Matt (March 31, 2016). "Paris Climate Treaty: 'Significant step' as US and China agree to sign". BBC News.
    13. ^ "'Today is an historic day,' says Ban, as 175 countries sign Paris climate accord". United Nations. April 22, 2016.
    14. ^ "Earth Day: Let's pledge to keep our environment clean, says Mamata". thestatesman.
     
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    23 April 1985Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than three months.

    New Coke

    New Coke was the unofficial name for the reformulation of Coca-Cola introduced in April 1985 by the Coca-Cola Company. In 1992, it was renamed Coke II.[1]

    By 1985, Coca-Cola had been losing market share to diet soft drinks and non-cola beverages for many years. Blind taste tests indicated that consumers seemed to prefer the sweeter taste of rival Pepsi-Cola, and so the Coca-Cola recipe was reformulated. However, the American public's reaction to the change was negative, and "New Coke" was considered a major failure. The company reintroduced Coke's original formula within three months, rebranded "Coca-Cola Classic", resulting in a significant sales boost. This led to speculation New Coke formula had been a marketing ploy to stimulate sales of original Coca-Cola, which the company has denied.[2]

    Coke II was discontinued in July 2002. It remains influential as a cautionary tale against tampering with a well-established and successful brand. In May 2019, it was announced that the 1985 formulation (bearing the name "New Coke") would be reintroduced to promote the third season of the Netflix series Stranger Things which takes place in 1985.[3]

    1. ^ Jamieson, Sean (April 5, 1990). "Coke II makes its Spokane debut". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). p. A8.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snopes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ New Coke is coming back and it's all because of Netflix's hit show "Stranger Things" CBS News, May 21, 2019
     
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    24 April 2011WikiLeaks starts publishing the Guantanamo Bay files leak.

    Guantanamo Bay files leak

    The Guantánamo Bay files leak (also known as The Guantánamo Files, or colloquially, Gitmo Files)[1] began on 24 April 2011, when WikiLeaks, along with several independent news organizations, began publishing 779 formerly secret documents relating to detainees at the United States' Guantánamo Bay detention camp established in 2002 after its invasion of Afghanistan in 2001.[1] The documents consist of classified assessments, interviews, and internal memos about detainees, which were written by the Pentagon's Joint Task Force Guantanamo, headquartered at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. The documents are marked "secret" and NOFORN (information that is not to be shared with representatives of other countries).[2]

    Media reports on the documents note that more than 150 innocent Afghans and Pakistanis, including farmers, chefs, and drivers, were held for years without charges.[3][4][5] The documents also reveal that some of the prison's youngest and oldest detainees, who include Mohammed Sadiq, an 89-year-old man, and Naqib Ullah, a 14-year-old boy, suffered from fragile mental and physical conditions.[6] The files contain statements from Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the planner of the 9/11 attacks, who said that al-Qaeda possessed nuclear capacity and would use it to retaliate for any attack on Osama bin Laden.[3][7]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference guardian1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference npr1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference telegraph1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference independent1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference democracynow1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference guardian2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference newsmax1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    25 April 1916Anzac Day is commemorated for the first time on the first anniversary of the landing at ANZAC Cove.

    Anzac Day

    The remembrance poppy is an artificial flower that has been used since 1921 to commemorate war dead.
    Flags on the cenotaph in Wellington for the 2007 Dawn March. From left to right, the flags of New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Australia
    First Anzac Day parade in Sydney, along Macquarie Street, 25 April 1916.

    Anzac Day (/ˈænzæk/) is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served".[1][2] Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally devised to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who served in the Gallipoli Campaign, their first engagement in the First World War (1914–1918).

    1. ^ "ANZAC Day". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
    2. ^ "Anzac Day Today". Anzac.govt.nz. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
     
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    26 April 2018 – American comedian Bill Cosby is found guilty of sexual assault.

    Bill Cosby sexual assault cases

    Cosby in 2006

    American comedian Bill Cosby has been the subject of publicized sexual assault allegations with the earliest incidents allegedly taking place in the mid-1960s and his conviction for aggravated indecent assault happening in 2018. He has been accused by numerous women of rape, drug-facilitated sexual assault, sexual battery, child sexual abuse, and sexual misconduct. Assault allegations against Cosby became more public after a stand-up routine by comedian Hannibal Buress became popular in October 2014, alluding to Cosby's covert sexual misbehavior; thereafter, many additional claims were made. The dates of the alleged incidents have spanned from 1965 to 2008 in 10 U.S. states and in one Canadian province.[1][2][3]

    Cosby has maintained his innocence and repeatedly denied the allegations made against him. He was asked about the allegations in November 2014 and responded, "I don't talk about it!"[4] He has declined to publicly discuss the accusations in interviews in the past, although he told Florida Today that "people shouldn't have to go through that and shouldn't answer to innuendos."[5] In May 2015, he said "I have been in this business 52 years and I've never seen anything like this. Reality is a situation and I can't speak."[6]

    Following the allegations, numerous organizations severed ties with Cosby, and revoked honors and titles previously awarded to him. Media organizations pulled reruns of The Cosby Show and other television programs featuring Cosby from syndication. Twenty-five colleges and universities rescinded honorary degrees.[7] Adweek reporter Jason Lynch noted that the "media landscape has changed considerably—and has now been joined by the far-less-forgiving social media arena."[8]

    Most of the alleged acts fall outside the statute of limitations for criminal legal proceedings, but criminal charges have been filed against Cosby in one case and numerous civil lawsuits have been brought against him. As of November 2015, eight related civil suits were active against him.[9][10] Gloria Allred is representing 33 of the alleged victims. In July 2015, some court records were unsealed and released to the public from Andrea Constand's 2005 civil suit against Cosby. The full transcript of his deposition was released to the media by a court reporting service. In his testimony, Cosby admitted to casual sex involving recreational use of the sedative-hypnotic methaqualone (Quaaludes) with a series of young women, and he acknowledged that his dispensing the prescription drug was illegal.[11][12][13]

    In December 2015, three Class II felony charges of aggravated indecent assault were filed against Cosby in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania[14] based on allegations by Constand concerning incidents in January 2004. Cosby's first trial in June 2017 ended in a mistrial.[15] Cosby was found guilty of three counts of aggravated indecent assault at retrial on April 26, 2018[16] and on September 25, 2018, Cosby was sentenced to three to ten years in state prison and fined $25,000 plus the cost of the prosecution, $43,611.[17] Cosby appealed on June 25, 2019 and the verdict was subsequently upheld.[18][19]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference DailyBeastListofAccusersNov2014 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Seemayer, Zach (February 26, 2015). "Bill Cosby's Accusers: A Timeline of Alleged rape Claims (Updated)". ET Online. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
    3. ^ Ioannou, Filipa; Mathis-Lilley, Ben; Hannon, Elliot (November 21, 2014). "A Complete List of the Women Who Have Accused Bill Cosby of Sexual Assault". Slate. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
    4. ^ Rhodan, Maya. "Bill Cosby on Rape Allegations: 'I Don't Talk About It'". Time. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
    5. ^ "Bill Cosby defiant about answering sexual assault allegations". KFOR-TV. CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
    6. ^ "Bill Cosby addresses sexual misconduct allegations for the first time". The Week. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
    7. ^ Holley, Peter (December 1, 2014). "Colleges cut ties with Bill Cosby as the list of women accusing him of sexual assault hits 20". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
    8. ^ Lynch, Jason (November 19, 2014). "How Bill Cosby Went From TV's 'Most Persuasive' Pitchman to Its Most Radioactive: NBC pulls the plug, Netflix backs away". Retrieved November 17, 2015.
    9. ^ Winton, Richard (July 7, 2015). "Bill Cosby's admission on Quaaludes may spur lawsuits against him, legal experts say". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
    10. ^ "Bill Cosby Tells Judge That Insurer Is Threatening His Defense Against Accusers". The Hollywood Reporter. September 15, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
    11. ^ Moghe, Sonia (July 24, 2015). "Cosby deposition: Quaaludes came from L.A. gynecologist". CNN. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
    12. ^ Graham Bowley and Sydney Ember (July 18, 2015). "Bill Cosby, in Deposition, Said Drugs and Fame Helped Him Seduce Women". The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2015. ... he presented himself in the deposition as an unapologetic, cavalier playboy, someone who used a combination of fame, apparent concern and powerful sedatives in a calculated pursuit of young women ... He admitted to giving young women Quaaludes at that time 'the same as a person would say have a drink', he said, but not without their knowledge.
    13. ^ "Gloria Allred wins Cobb Energy Bill Cosby concert protest case". MyAgc. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
    14. ^ Dale, Maryclaire (December 30, 2015). "Bill Cosby charged with sexually assaulting a woman". Associated Press. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
    15. ^ Bowley, Graham; Perez-Pena, Richard; Hurdle, Jon (June 17, 2017). "Bill Cosby's Sexual Assault Case Ends in a Mistrial". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
    16. ^ "Judge sets sentencing date for Cosby's sex assault case". NBC News. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
    17. ^ "Bill Cosby Sentenced to 3 to 10 years in Prison". The New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
    18. ^ Graham Bowley (June 25, 2019). "Bill Cosby, Calling His Trial Unfair, Files a Formal Appeal".
    19. ^ Bowley, Graham (December 10, 2019). "Bill Cosby Loses Appeal of Sexual Assault Conviction". The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
     
  6. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    26 April 2018 – American comedian Bill Cosby is found guilty of sexual assault.

    Bill Cosby sexual assault cases

    Cosby in 2006

    American comedian Bill Cosby has been the subject of publicized sexual assault allegations with the earliest incidents allegedly taking place in the mid-1960s and his conviction for aggravated indecent assault happening in 2018. He has been accused by numerous women of rape, drug-facilitated sexual assault, sexual battery, child sexual abuse, and sexual misconduct. Assault allegations against Cosby became more public after a stand-up routine by comedian Hannibal Buress became popular in October 2014, alluding to Cosby's covert sexual misbehavior; thereafter, many additional claims were made. The dates of the alleged incidents have spanned from 1965 to 2008 in 10 U.S. states and in one Canadian province.[1][2][3]

    Cosby has maintained his innocence and repeatedly denied the allegations made against him. He was asked about the allegations in November 2014 and responded, "I don't talk about it!"[4] He has declined to publicly discuss the accusations in interviews in the past, although he told Florida Today that "people shouldn't have to go through that and shouldn't answer to innuendos."[5] In May 2015, he said "I have been in this business 52 years and I've never seen anything like this. Reality is a situation and I can't speak."[6]

    Following the allegations, numerous organizations severed ties with Cosby, and revoked honors and titles previously awarded to him. Media organizations pulled reruns of The Cosby Show and other television programs featuring Cosby from syndication. Twenty-five colleges and universities rescinded honorary degrees.[7] Adweek reporter Jason Lynch noted that the "media landscape has changed considerably—and has now been joined by the far-less-forgiving social media arena."[8]

    Most of the alleged acts fall outside the statute of limitations for criminal legal proceedings, but criminal charges have been filed against Cosby in one case and numerous civil lawsuits have been brought against him. As of November 2015, eight related civil suits were active against him.[9][10] Gloria Allred is representing 33 of the alleged victims. In July 2015, some court records were unsealed and released to the public from Andrea Constand's 2005 civil suit against Cosby. The full transcript of his deposition was released to the media by a court reporting service. In his testimony, Cosby admitted to casual sex involving recreational use of the sedative-hypnotic methaqualone (Quaaludes) with a series of young women, and he acknowledged that his dispensing the prescription drug was illegal.[11][12][13]

    In December 2015, three Class II felony charges of aggravated indecent assault were filed against Cosby in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania[14] based on allegations by Constand concerning incidents in January 2004. Cosby's first trial in June 2017 ended in a mistrial.[15] Cosby was found guilty of three counts of aggravated indecent assault at retrial on April 26, 2018[16] and on September 25, 2018, Cosby was sentenced to three to ten years in state prison and fined $25,000 plus the cost of the prosecution, $43,611.[17] Cosby appealed on June 25, 2019 and the verdict was subsequently upheld.[18][19]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference DailyBeastListofAccusersNov2014 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Seemayer, Zach (February 26, 2015). "Bill Cosby's Accusers: A Timeline of Alleged rape Claims (Updated)". ET Online. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
    3. ^ Ioannou, Filipa; Mathis-Lilley, Ben; Hannon, Elliot (November 21, 2014). "A Complete List of the Women Who Have Accused Bill Cosby of Sexual Assault". Slate. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
    4. ^ Rhodan, Maya. "Bill Cosby on Rape Allegations: 'I Don't Talk About It'". Time. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
    5. ^ "Bill Cosby defiant about answering sexual assault allegations". KFOR-TV. CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
    6. ^ "Bill Cosby addresses sexual misconduct allegations for the first time". The Week. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
    7. ^ Holley, Peter (December 1, 2014). "Colleges cut ties with Bill Cosby as the list of women accusing him of sexual assault hits 20". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
    8. ^ Lynch, Jason (November 19, 2014). "How Bill Cosby Went From TV's 'Most Persuasive' Pitchman to Its Most Radioactive: NBC pulls the plug, Netflix backs away". Retrieved November 17, 2015.
    9. ^ Winton, Richard (July 7, 2015). "Bill Cosby's admission on Quaaludes may spur lawsuits against him, legal experts say". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
    10. ^ "Bill Cosby Tells Judge That Insurer Is Threatening His Defense Against Accusers". The Hollywood Reporter. September 15, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
    11. ^ Moghe, Sonia (July 24, 2015). "Cosby deposition: Quaaludes came from L.A. gynecologist". CNN. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
    12. ^ Graham Bowley and Sydney Ember (July 18, 2015). "Bill Cosby, in Deposition, Said Drugs and Fame Helped Him Seduce Women". The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2015. ... he presented himself in the deposition as an unapologetic, cavalier playboy, someone who used a combination of fame, apparent concern and powerful sedatives in a calculated pursuit of young women ... He admitted to giving young women Quaaludes at that time 'the same as a person would say have a drink', he said, but not without their knowledge.
    13. ^ "Gloria Allred wins Cobb Energy Bill Cosby concert protest case". MyAgc. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
    14. ^ Dale, Maryclaire (December 30, 2015). "Bill Cosby charged with sexually assaulting a woman". Associated Press. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
    15. ^ Bowley, Graham; Perez-Pena, Richard; Hurdle, Jon (June 17, 2017). "Bill Cosby's Sexual Assault Case Ends in a Mistrial". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
    16. ^ "Judge sets sentencing date for Cosby's sex assault case". NBC News. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
    17. ^ "Bill Cosby Sentenced to 3 to 10 years in Prison". The New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
    18. ^ Graham Bowley (June 25, 2019). "Bill Cosby, Calling His Trial Unfair, Files a Formal Appeal".
    19. ^ Bowley, Graham (December 10, 2019). "Bill Cosby Loses Appeal of Sexual Assault Conviction". The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
     
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    27 April 1981Xerox PARC introduces the computer mouse.

    Computer mouse

    A Logitech G703 mouse, with two buttons at the front and two buttons on the side.
    A computer mouse with the most common features: two buttons (left and right) and a scroll wheel (which also functions as a button).

    A computer mouse (plural mice or mouses) is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows a smooth control of the graphical user interface of a computer.

    The first public demonstration of a mouse controlling a computer system was in 1968. Mice originally used a ball rolling on a surface to detect motion, but modern mice often have optical sensors that have no moving parts. Originally wired to a computer, many modern mice are cordless, relying on short-range radio communication with the connected system.

    In addition to moving a cursor, computer mice have one or more buttons to allow operations such as selection of a menu item on a display. Mice often also feature other elements, such as touch surfaces and scroll wheels, which enable additional control and dimensional input.

     
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    28 April 1969Charles de Gaulle resigns as President of France.

    Charles de Gaulle

    Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (/də ˈɡl, -ˈɡɔːl/; French pronunciation: [ʃaʁl də ɡol] (About this soundlisten);[1] 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French army officer and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France. In 1958, he came out of retirement when appointed President of the Council of Ministers by President René Coty. He was asked to rewrite the Constitution of France and founded the Fifth Republic after approval by referendum. He was elected as President of France later that year, a position he was reelected to in 1965 and held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the early part of the Cold War era; his memory continues to influence French politics.

    Born in Lille, he graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912. He was a decorated officer of the First World War, wounded several times and later taken prisoner at Verdun. During the interwar period, he advocated mobile armoured divisions. During the German invasion of May 1940, he led an armoured division which counterattacked the invaders; he was then appointed Undersecretary for War. Refusing to accept his government's armistice with Germany, de Gaulle escaped to England and exhorted the French to resist occupation and to continue the fight in his Appeal of 18 June. He led the Free French Forces and later headed the French National Liberation Committee against the Axis. Despite frosty relations with the United States, he generally had Winston Churchill's support and emerged as the undisputed leader of the French Resistance. He became head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic in June 1944, the interim government of France following its Liberation. As early as 1944, de Gaulle introduced a dirigiste economic policy, which included substantial state-directed control over a capitalist economy which was followed by 30 years of unprecedented growth, known as the Trente Glorieuses.

    Frustrated by the return of petty partisanship in the new Fourth Republic, he resigned in early 1946 but continued to be politically active as founder of the Rassemblement du Peuple Français (RPF; "Rally of the French People"). He retired in the early 1950s and wrote his War Memoirs, which quickly became a staple of modern French literature. When the Algerian War was ripping apart the unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May 1958 crisis. He founded the Fifth Republic with a strong presidency, and he was elected to continue in that role. He managed to keep France together while taking steps to end the war, much to the anger of the Pieds-Noirs (ethnic French born in Algeria) and the military; both previously had supported his return to power to maintain colonial rule. He granted independence to Algeria and acted progressively towards other French colonies. In the context of the Cold War, de Gaulle initiated his "politics of grandeur" asserting that France as a major power should not rely on other countries, such as the United States, for its national security and prosperity. To this end, he pursued a policy of "national independence" which led him to withdraw from NATO's military integrated command and to launch an independent nuclear development program that made France the fourth nuclear power. He restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence through the signing of the Élysée Treaty on 22 January 1963. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring Europe as a continent of sovereign nations. De Gaulle openly criticised the United States intervention in Vietnam and the "exorbitant privilege" of the United States dollar. In his later years, his support for the slogan "Vive le Québec libre" and his two vetoes of Britain's entry into the European Economic Community generated considerable controversy in both North America and Europe.

    Although reelected President of the Republic in 1965, he faced widespread protests by students and workers in May 1968, but had the Army's support and won an election with an increased majority in the National Assembly. De Gaulle resigned in 1969 after losing a referendum in which he proposed more decentralisation. He died a year later at his residence in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, leaving his presidential memoirs unfinished. Many French political parties and figures claim a Gaullist legacy; many streets and monuments in France were dedicated to his memory after his death.

    1. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
     
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    29 April 1986 – Chernobyl disaster: American and European spy satellites capture the ruins of the 4th Reactor at the Chernobyl Power Plant.

    Chernobyl disaster

    The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear accident that occurred on Saturday 26 April 1986, at the No. 4 reactor in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, near the city of Pripyat in the north of the Ukrainian SSR.[1][2] It is considered the worst nuclear disaster in history and is one of only two nuclear energy disasters rated at seven—the maximum severity—on the International Nuclear Event Scale, the other being the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan.

    The accident started during a safety test on an RBMK-type nuclear reactor, which was commonly used throughout the Soviet Union. The test was a simulation of an electrical power outage to aid the development of a safety procedure for maintaining reactor cooling water circulation until the back-up electrical generators could provide power. This gap was about one minute and had been identified as a potential safety problem that could cause the nuclear reactor core to overheat. It was hoped to prove that the residual rotational energy in a turbine generator could provide enough power to cover the gap. Three such tests had been conducted since 1982, but they had failed to provide a solution. On this fourth attempt, an unexpected 10-hour delay meant that an unprepared operating shift was on duty.[3] During the planned decrease of reactor power in preparation for the electrical test, the power unexpectedly dropped to a near-zero level. The operators were able to only partially restore the specified test power, which put the reactor in a potentially unstable condition. This risk was not made evident in the operating instructions, so the operators proceeded with the electrical test. Upon test completion, the operators triggered a reactor shutdown, but a combination of unstable conditions and reactor design flaws caused an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction instead.[4]:33

    A large amount of energy was suddenly released, vaporising superheated cooling water and rupturing the reactor core in a highly destructive steam explosion. This was immediately followed by an open-air reactor core fire that released considerable airborne radioactive contamination for about nine days that precipitated onto parts of the USSR and western Europe, before being finally contained on 4 May 1986.[5][6] The fire gradually released about the same amount of contamination as the initial explosion.[7] As a result of rising ambient radiation levels off-site, a 10-kilometre (6.2 mi) radius exclusion zone was created 36 hours after the accident. About 49,000 people were evacuated from the area, primarily from Pripyat. The exclusion zone was later increased to 30 kilometres (19 mi) radius when a further 68,000 people were evacuated from the wider area.[8][8]

    The reactor explosion killed two of the reactor operating staff. In the emergency response that followed, 134 station staff and firemen were hospitalized with acute radiation syndrome due to absorbing high doses of ionizing radiation. Of these 134 people, 28 died in the days to months afterward and approximately 14 suspected radiation-induced cancer deaths followed within the next 10 years.[9][10] Among the wider population, an excess of 15 childhood thyroid cancer deaths were documented as of 2011.[11][12] The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has, at multiple times, reviewed all the published research on the incident and found that at present, fewer than 100 documented deaths are likely to be attributable to increased exposure to radiation.[13] Determining the total eventual number of exposure related deaths is uncertain based on the linear no-threshold model, a contested statistical model, which has also been used in estimates of low level radon and air pollution exposure.[14][15] Model predictions with the greatest confidence values of the eventual total death toll in the decades ahead from Chernobyl releases vary, from 4,000 fatalities when solely assessing the three most contaminated former Soviet states, to about 9,000 to 16,000 fatalities when assessing the total continent of Europe.[16]

    To reduce the spread of radioactive contamination from the wreckage and protect it from weathering, the protective Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant sarcophagus was built by December 1986. It also provided radiological protection for the crews of the undamaged reactors at the site, which continued operating. Due to the continued deterioration of the sarcophagus, it was further enclosed in 2017 by the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement, a larger enclosure that allows the removal of both the sarcophagus and the reactor debris, while containing the radioactive hazard. Nuclear clean-up is scheduled for completion in 2065.[17] The Chernobyl disaster is considered the worst nuclear power plant accident in history, both in terms of cost and casualties.[18] The initial emergency response, together with later decontamination of the environment, ultimately involved more than 500,000 personnel and cost an estimated 18 billion Soviet rubles—roughly US$68 billion in 2019, adjusted for inflation.[7][19] The accident resulted in safety upgrades on all remaining Soviet-designed RBMK reactors, of which 10 continue to be operational as of 2019.[20][21]

    1. ^ "Chernobyl Nuclear Accident". www.iaea.org. 14 May 2014.
    2. ^ Burgherr, Peter; Hirschberg, Stefan (2008). "A Comparative Analysis of Accident Risks in Fossil, Hydro, and Nuclear Energy Chains". Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. 14 (5): 947–973. doi:10.1080/10807030802387556.
    3. ^ Eden, Brad; of Technical Services/Automated Lib, Coordinator (January 1999). "Encyclopaedia Britannica CD 99 (Multimedia version)". Electronic Resources Review. 3 (1): 9–10. doi:10.1108/err.1999.3.1.9.7. ISBN 978-0-85229-694-3. ISSN 1364-5137.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference insag7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ McCall, Chris (April 2016). "Chernobyl disaster 30 years on: lessons not learned". The Lancet. 387 (10029): 1707–1708. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)30304-x. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 27116266.
    6. ^ "Chernobyl-Born Radionuclides in Geological Environment", Groundwater Vulnerability, Special Publications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 10 October 2014, pp. 25–38, doi:10.1002/9781118962220.ch2, ISBN 978-1118962220
    7. ^ a b "Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact, 2002 update; Chapter II – The release, dispersion and deposition of radionuclides" (PDF). OECD-NEA. 2002. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
    8. ^ a b Steadman, Philip; Hodgkinson, Simon (1990). Nuclear Disasters & The Built Environment: A Report to the Royal Institute. Butterworth Architecture. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-40850-061-6.
    9. ^ Mettler Jr., Fred A. "Medical decision making and care of casualties from delayed effects of a nuclear detonation" (PDF). The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
    10. ^ Nagataki, Shigenobu (23 July 2010). "Latest Knowledge on Radiological Effects: Radiation Health Effects of Atomic Bomb Explosions and Nuclear Power Plant Accidents". Japanese Journal of Health Physics. 45 (4): 370–378. doi:10.5453/jhps.45.370. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2018. People with symptoms of acute radiation syndrome: 134 (237 were hospitalized), 28 died within 3 months, 14 died within the subsequent 10 years (2 died of blood disease)
    11. ^ "Chernobyl 25th anniversary – Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). World Health Organization. 23 April 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
    12. ^ "Chernobyl: the true scale of the accident". World Health Organization. 5 September 2005. Archived from the original on 25 February 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
    13. ^ "UNSCEAR assessments of the Chernobyl accident". www.unscear.org.
    14. ^ Smith, Jim T (3 April 2007). "Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?". BMC Public Health. 7 (1): 49. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-49. PMC 1851009. PMID 17407581.
    15. ^ Rahu, Mati (February 2003). "Health effects of the Chernobyl accident: fears, rumours and the truth". European Journal of Cancer. 39 (3): 295–299. doi:10.1016/S0959-8049(02)00764-5. PMID 12565980.
    16. ^ Peplow, M. (1 April 2006). "Special Report: Counting the dead". Nature. 440 (7087): 982–983. Bibcode:2006Natur.440..982.. doi:10.1038/440982a. PMID 16625167.
    17. ^ "Chernobyl nuclear power plant site to be cleared by 2065". Kyiv Post. 3 January 2010. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012.
    18. ^ Black, Richard (12 April 2011). "Fukushima: As Bad as Chernobyl?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
    19. ^ Johnson, Thomas (author/director) (2006). The battle of Chernobyl. Play Film / Discovery Channel. (see 1996 interview with Mikhail Gorbachev)
    20. ^ "RBMK Reactors". World Nuclear Association. June 2016. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
    21. ^ "RMBK Nuclear Power Plants: Generic Safety Issues" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. May 1996. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
     
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    30 April 1980 – The Iranian Embassy siege begins in London.

    Iranian Embassy siege

    The Iranian Embassy siege took place from 30 April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy on Prince's Gate in South Kensington, London. The gunmen, members of Arabs of KSA group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in the southern Iranian region of Khuzestan Province, took 26 people hostage—mostly embassy staff, but also several visitors, as well as a police officer who had been guarding the embassy. They demanded the release of Arab prisoners from prisons in Khuzestan and their own safe passage out of the United Kingdom.[1] The British government quickly decided that safe passage would not be granted and a siege ensued. Subsequently, police negotiators secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions, such as the broadcasting of the hostage-takers' demands on British television.

    By the sixth day of the siege the gunmen had become increasingly frustrated at the lack of progress in meeting their demands. That evening, they killed one of the hostages and threw his body out of the embassy. As a result, the government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment of the British Army, to conduct an assault, known as Operation Nimrod, to rescue the remaining hostages. Shortly afterwards, SAS soldiers abseiled from the roof of the building and forced entry through the windows. During the 17-minute raid, they rescued all but one of the remaining hostages, and killed five of the six hostage-takers. The soldiers later faced accusations of unnecessarily killing two of the five, but an inquest into the deaths eventually cleared the SAS of any wrongdoing. The sole remaining gunman was prosecuted and served 27 years in British prisons.

    The hostage-takers and their cause were largely forgotten after the Iran–Iraq War broke out later that year and the hostage crisis in Tehran continued until January 1981. Nonetheless, the operation brought the SAS to the public eye for the first time and bolstered the reputation of Thatcher's government. The SAS was quickly overwhelmed by the number of applications it received from people inspired by the operation and experienced greater demand for its expertise from foreign governments. The building, having suffered major damage from a fire that broke out during the assault, was not reopened as the Iranian embassy until 1993. The SAS raid, broadcast live on television on a bank holiday evening, became a defining moment in British history and proved a career break for several journalists; it became the subject of multiple documentaries and works of fiction, including several films and television series.

    1. ^ "In Depth: Iran and the hostage-takers". BBC News. 26 April 2000. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
     
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    1 May 1999 – SpongeBob SquarePants premieres on Nickelodeon.

    SpongeBob SquarePants

    SpongeBob SquarePants is an American animated comedy television series created by marine science educator and animator Stephen Hillenburg for Nickelodeon. The series chronicles the adventures and endeavors of the title character and his aquatic friends in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom. The fifth-longest-running American animated series, its popularity has made it a media franchise. It is the highest rated series to air on Nickelodeon and ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks' most distributed property. As of late 2017, the media franchise has generated $13 billion in merchandising revenue for Nickelodeon.[4]

    Many of the series' ideas originated in The Intertidal Zone, an unpublished educational book that Hillenburg created in 1989 to teach his students about undersea life.[5] He began developing SpongeBob SquarePants into a television series in 1996 following the cancellation of Rocko's Modern Life. He turned to Tom Kenny, who had worked with him on that series, to voice the title character. SpongeBob was originally going to be named SpongeBoy, and the series called SpongeBoy Ahoy!; both of these were changed as the name was already trademarked.

    Nickelodeon held a preview for the series in the United States on May 1, 1999, after it aired the 1999 Kids' Choice Awards. The series officially premiered on July 17, 1999. It has received worldwide critical acclaim since its premiere and had gained enormous popularity by its second season. A feature film, The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie, was released in theaters on November 19, 2004. A second film adaptation, The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water, followed on February 6, 2015. A third film and prequel to the television series, The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge on the Run, is expected to be released on August 7, 2020. In 2018, the series began airing its twelfth season; it was renewed for a thirteenth season on July 17, 2019.[6]

    SpongeBob SquarePants has won a variety of awards including: six Annie Awards, eight Golden Reel Awards, four Emmy Awards, 17 Kids' Choice Awards, and two BAFTA Children's Awards. The series has been involved in several public controversies including speculation over SpongeBob's intended sexual orientation. In 2011, a newly discovered species of fungus, Spongiforma squarepantsii, was named after the cartoon's title character. A Broadway musical based on the series opened in 2017 to critical acclaim.[7] Two spin-off series, Kamp Koral: SpongeBob's Under Years and an untitled spin-off based on the character Squidward Tentacles, are in development as of 2019.

    1. ^ Meet the Creator: Stephen Hillenburg (Video). Nick Animation. July 27, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
    2. ^ "SpongeBob SquarePants and the Indestructible Faith of Imagination". New York (Vulture). Who lives in a pineapple under the sea? Why, one of the stars of the most brilliantly imagined and sustained display of surreal humor in pop culture, that's who.
    3. ^ "CBS sets 'SpongeBob Christmas' for November". The Washington Post. October 18, 2012.
    4. ^ Deb, Sopan (November 27, 2017). "With a Singing SpongeBob, Nickelodeon Aims for a Broadway Splash". New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
    5. ^ "Casetext". casetext.com. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
    6. ^ Nellie Andreeva (July 17, 2019). "SpongeBob SquarePants Renewed for Season 13 by Nickelodeon on Heels of Strong Ratings for Anniversary Special". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
    7. ^ Gold, Michael (May 2, 2018). "Before the Tonys, SpongeBob Seized the Culture With Memes". New York Times. Retrieved May 3, 2018.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    2 May 1982Falklands War: The British nuclear submarine HMS Conqueror sinks the Argentine cruiser ARA General Belgrano.

    Falklands War

    The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas) was a 10-week undeclared war between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and its territorial dependency, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

    The conflict began on 2 April, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands, followed by the invasion of South Georgia the next day. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with an Argentine surrender on 14 June, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities.

    The conflict was a major episode in the protracted dispute over the territories' sovereignty. Argentina asserted (and maintains) that the islands are Argentine territory,[4] and the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory. The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory that had been a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, and strongly favour British sovereignty. Neither state officially declared war, although both governments declared the Islands a war zone.

    The conflict has had a strong effect in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles, films, and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall and the democratization of the country. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected with an increased majority the following year. The cultural and political effect of the conflict has been less in the UK than in Argentina, where it remains a common topic for discussion.[5]

    Diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, at which the two governments issued a joint statement.[6] No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina's claim to the territories was added to its constitution.[7]

    1. ^ "Falkland Islands profile". BBC News. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
    2. ^ Burns, John F. (5 January 2013). "Vitriol Over Falklands Resurfaces, as Do Old Arguments". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
    3. ^ a b Historia Marítima Argentina, Volume 10, p. 137. Departamento de Estudios Históricos Navales, Cuántica Editora, Argentina: 1993.
    4. ^ "Argentine to reaffirm Sovereignty Rights over The Falkland Islands". National Turk. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
    5. ^ "Cómo evitar que Londres convierta a las Malvinas en un Estado independiente". Clarin. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
    6. ^ "Joint statement of 19 October 1989: Re-establishing Consular Relations Between Britain and Argentina, and Agreeing a Framework on Sovereignty Which Would Allow Further Talks". Falklands info. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
    7. ^ "Constitución Nacional". Argentine Senate (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 June 2004. La Nación Argentina ratifica su legítima e imprescriptible soberanía sobre las Islas Malvinas, Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur y los espacios marítimos e insulares correspondientes, por ser parte integrante del territorio nacional.
     
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    3 May 2007 – The 3-year-old British girl Madeleine McCann disappears in Praia da Luz, Portugal, starting "the most heavily reported missing-person case in modern history".

    Disappearance of Madeleine McCann

    Madeleine Beth McCann (born 12 May 2003) disappeared on the evening of 3 May 2007 from her bed in a holiday apartment at a resort in Praia da Luz, in the Algarve region of Portugal. Her whereabouts remain unknown.[3] The Daily Telegraph described the disappearance as "the most heavily reported missing-person case in modern history".[4]

    Madeleine was on holiday from the UK with her parents, Kate and Gerry McCann; her two-year-old twin siblings; and a group of family friends and their children. She and the twins had been left asleep at 20:30 in the ground-floor apartment, while the McCanns and friends dined in a restaurant 55 metres (180 ft) away.[5] The parents checked on the children throughout the evening, until Madeleine's mother discovered she was missing at 22:00. Over the following weeks, particularly after misinterpreting a British DNA analysis, the Portuguese police came to believe that Madeleine had died in an accident in the apartment and that her parents had covered it up. The McCanns were given arguido (suspect) status in September 2007, which was lifted when Portugal's attorney general archived the case in July 2008 for lack of evidence.[6][7]

    The parents continued the investigation using private detectives until Scotland Yard opened its own inquiry, Operation Grange, in 2011. The senior investigating officer announced that he was treating the disappearance as "a criminal act by a stranger", most likely a planned abduction or burglary gone wrong.[8] In 2013, Scotland Yard released e-fit images of men they wanted to trace, including one of a man seen carrying a child toward the beach that night.[9] Shortly after this, the Portuguese police reopened their inquiry.[10] Operation Grange was scaled back in 2015, but the remaining detectives continue to pursue a small number of inquiries described in April 2017 as significant.[11][12]

    The disappearance attracted sustained international interest and saturation coverage in the UK reminiscent of the death of Diana in 1997.[13] The McCanns were subjected to intense scrutiny and baseless allegations of involvement in their daughter's death,[a] particularly in the tabloid press and on Twitter.[17][18] In 2008 they and their travelling companions received damages and apologies from Express Newspapers,[19] and in 2011 the McCanns testified before the Leveson Inquiry into British press misconduct, lending support to those arguing for tighter press regulation.[20][21]

    1. ^ "Madeleine McCann, aged progressed to age nine", Scotland Yard; Patrick Barkham, "The sad ageing of Madeleine McCann", The Guardian, 25 April 2012.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference PJmissing was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Gordon Rayner, "Madeleine McCann latest: are police any closer to knowing the truth?", The Daily Telegraph, 26 April 2016.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Telegraph24April2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference distance was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Govan21July2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Telegraph9Feb2017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Laville25April2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Sandra Laville, "British detectives release efits of Madeleine McCann suspect", The Guardian, 14 October 2013.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC24Oct2013 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Evans26April2017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC5June2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Rehling 2012, 152: "Within a few weeks, it was possible to talk about the 'Maddification' of Britain, akin to the 'Dianification' of Britain that followed the death of the equally photogenic, white, blonde Princess ten years earlier."
      Also see Rafael Epstein, "Britain gripped by kidnap case", AM, ABC Radio (Australia): "In Britain, the disappearance of four-year-old Madeleine McCann has gripped the nation, so much so that its effect is being compared to the death of Diana, Princess of Wales."

      John Ward Anderson, "The Campaign", The Washington Post, 12 August 2007. Allan Massie, "Weep not only for Madeleine", The Daily Telegraph, 4 June 2007.

    14. ^ a b Richard Bilton, "Madeleine McCann: 10 Years On", BBC Panorama, 3 May 2017; do Carmo: 00:25:32; Foy: 00:35:58.
    15. ^ Esther Addley, "Madeleine McCann: hope and persistence rewarded", The Guardian, 27 April 2012
    16. ^ Brian Cathcart, "The Real McCann Scandal", New Statesman, 23 October 2008.
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference OHanlon was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ "The dark side of social media", Nature, editorial, 15 February 2017
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference damages was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ James Robinson, "Leveson inquiry: McCanns deliver damning two-hour testimony", The Guardian, 23 November 2011.
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference McCanntestimony was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    3 May 2007 – The 3-year-old British girl Madeleine McCann disappears in Praia da Luz, Portugal, starting "the most heavily reported missing-person case in modern history".

    Disappearance of Madeleine McCann

    Madeleine Beth McCann (born 12 May 2003) disappeared on the evening of 3 May 2007 from her bed in a holiday apartment at a resort in Praia da Luz, in the Algarve region of Portugal. Her whereabouts remain unknown.[3] The Daily Telegraph described the disappearance as "the most heavily reported missing-person case in modern history".[4]

    Madeleine was on holiday from the UK with her parents, Kate and Gerry McCann; her two-year-old twin siblings; and a group of family friends and their children. She and the twins had been left asleep at 20:30 in the ground-floor apartment, while the McCanns and friends dined in a restaurant 55 metres (180 ft) away.[5] The parents checked on the children throughout the evening, until Madeleine's mother discovered she was missing at 22:00. Over the following weeks, particularly after misinterpreting a British DNA analysis, the Portuguese police came to believe that Madeleine had died in an accident in the apartment and that her parents had covered it up. The McCanns were given arguido (suspect) status in September 2007, which was lifted when Portugal's attorney general archived the case in July 2008 for lack of evidence.[6][7]

    The parents continued the investigation using private detectives until Scotland Yard opened its own inquiry, Operation Grange, in 2011. The senior investigating officer announced that he was treating the disappearance as "a criminal act by a stranger", most likely a planned abduction or burglary gone wrong.[8] In 2013, Scotland Yard released e-fit images of men they wanted to trace, including one of a man seen carrying a child toward the beach that night.[9] Shortly after this, the Portuguese police reopened their inquiry.[10] Operation Grange was scaled back in 2015, but the remaining detectives continue to pursue a small number of inquiries described in April 2017 as significant.[11][12]

    The disappearance attracted sustained international interest and saturation coverage in the UK reminiscent of the death of Diana in 1997.[13] The McCanns were subjected to intense scrutiny and baseless allegations of involvement in their daughter's death,[a] particularly in the tabloid press and on Twitter.[17][18] In 2008 they and their travelling companions received damages and apologies from Express Newspapers,[19] and in 2011 the McCanns testified before the Leveson Inquiry into British press misconduct, lending support to those arguing for tighter press regulation.[20][21]

    1. ^ "Madeleine McCann, aged progressed to age nine", Scotland Yard; Patrick Barkham, "The sad ageing of Madeleine McCann", The Guardian, 25 April 2012.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference PJmissing was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Gordon Rayner, "Madeleine McCann latest: are police any closer to knowing the truth?", The Daily Telegraph, 26 April 2016.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Telegraph24April2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference distance was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Govan21July2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Telegraph9Feb2017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Laville25April2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Sandra Laville, "British detectives release efits of Madeleine McCann suspect", The Guardian, 14 October 2013.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC24Oct2013 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Evans26April2017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC5June2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Rehling 2012, 152: "Within a few weeks, it was possible to talk about the 'Maddification' of Britain, akin to the 'Dianification' of Britain that followed the death of the equally photogenic, white, blonde Princess ten years earlier."
      Also see Rafael Epstein, "Britain gripped by kidnap case", AM, ABC Radio (Australia): "In Britain, the disappearance of four-year-old Madeleine McCann has gripped the nation, so much so that its effect is being compared to the death of Diana, Princess of Wales."

      John Ward Anderson, "The Campaign", The Washington Post, 12 August 2007. Allan Massie, "Weep not only for Madeleine", The Daily Telegraph, 4 June 2007.

    14. ^ a b Richard Bilton, "Madeleine McCann: 10 Years On", BBC Panorama, 3 May 2017; do Carmo: 00:25:32; Foy: 00:35:58.
    15. ^ Esther Addley, "Madeleine McCann: hope and persistence rewarded", The Guardian, 27 April 2012
    16. ^ Brian Cathcart, "The Real McCann Scandal", New Statesman, 23 October 2008.
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference OHanlon was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ "The dark side of social media", Nature, editorial, 15 February 2017
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference damages was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ James Robinson, "Leveson inquiry: McCanns deliver damning two-hour testimony", The Guardian, 23 November 2011.
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference McCanntestimony was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    4 May 1979Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

    Margaret Thatcher

    Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, DStJ, PC, FRS, HonFRSC (née Roberts; 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to hold that office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her "The Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies known as Thatcherism.

    Thatcher studied chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford, and worked briefly as a research chemist, before becoming a barrister. She was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her secretary of state for education and science in his 1970–74 government. In 1975, she defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become leader of the Opposition, the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. On becoming prime minister after winning the 1979 general election, Thatcher introduced a series of economic policies intended to reverse high unemployment and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an ongoing recession.[nb 1] Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Her popularity in her first years in office waned amid recession and rising unemployment, until victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her landslide re-election in 1983. She survived an assassination attempt by the Provisional IRA in the 1984 Brighton hotel bombing and achieved a political victory against the National Union of Mineworkers in the 1984–85 miners' strike.

    Thatcher was re-elected for a third term with another landslide in 1987, but her subsequent support for the Community Charge ("poll tax") was widely unpopular, and her increasingly Eurosceptic views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet. She resigned as prime minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership (characterised by journalist Simon Heffer as "a rare coup d’état at the top of the British politics: the first since Lloyd George sawed Asquith off at the knees in 1916").[2] After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher (of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire) which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. In 2013, she died of a stroke at the Ritz Hotel in London, at the age of 87.

    Although a controversial figure in British political culture, Thatcher is nonetheless viewed favourably in historical rankings of British prime ministers. Her tenure constituted a realignment towards neoliberal policies in the United Kingdom and debate over the complicated legacy of Thatcherism persists into the 21st century.

    1. ^ "1979 Conservative Party General Election Manifesto". PoliticalStuff.co.uk. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
    2. ^ "The rats and cowards who brought down a Titan | Simon Heffer". 29 October 2019.


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    5 May 2010Mass protests in Greece erupt in response to austerity measures imposed by the government as a result of the Greek government-debt crisis.

    Anti-austerity movement in Greece

    The anti-austerity movement in Greece involves a series of demonstrations and general strikes that took place across the country. The events, which began on 5 May 2010, were provoked by plans to cut public spending and raise taxes as austerity measures in exchange for a €110 billion bail-out, aimed at solving the Greek government-debt crisis. Three people were killed on 5 May in one of the largest demonstrations in Greece since 1973.

    On 25 May 2011 (2011-05-25), anti-austerity activists organised by the Direct Democracy Now! movement, known as the Indignant Citizens Movement (Greek: Κίνημα Αγανακτισμένων Πολιτών, Kínima Aganaktisménon-Politón), started demonstrating in major cities across Greece. This second wave of demonstrations proved different from the years before[6][7] in that they were not partisan[8] and began through peaceful means.[9] Some of the events later turned violent, particularly in the capital city of Athens.[10][11][12][13] Inspired by the anti-austerity protests in Spain, these demonstrations were organised entirely using social networking sites, which earned it the nickname "May of Facebook".[14] The demonstrations and square sit-ins were officially ended when municipal police removed demonstrators from Thessaloniki's White Tower square on 7 August 2011.[15]

    On 29 June 2011, violent clashes occurred between the riot police and activists as the Greek parliament voted to accept the EU's austerity requirements. Incidents of police brutality were reported by international media such as the BBC, The Guardian, CNN iReport and The New York Times, as well as by academic research[16] and organisations Amnesty International.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23] The Athens Prosecutor agreed to an investigation into accusations of excessive use of tear gas, as well as the alleged use of other expired and carcinogenic chemical substances. As of 2011 the investigation was under way.[24]

    1. ^ "Outraged Greek youth follow Spanish example". euronews.eu. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011. First the Arab world, then Madrid, now Athens. Outraged Greek youth has taken its lead from the Arab spring and Spanish protests over unemployment.
    2. ^ "Greece crisis: Revolution in the offing?". BBC. 19 June 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011. Inspired by the Arab uprisings, they have dug in to oppose further spending cuts in exchange for a second bail-out by the EU and IMF.
    3. ^ Νέα ένταση και κυκλοφοριακό χάος (in Greek). Retrieved 29 June 2011.
    4. ^ Επεισόδια στο Σύνταγμα 12 Φεβρουαρίου 2012 (in Greek). Retrieved 12 February 2012.
    5. ^ "Μάριος Λώλος: Το χτύπημα ήταν δολοφονικό". Retrieved 22 June 2012.
    6. ^ Dalakoglou Dimitris (2012). "The Movement and the "Movement" of Syntagma Square". Cultural Anthropology. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
    7. ^ Εκπομπή: Ο δρόμος (για την πλατεία) είχε την δική του ιστορία (in Greek). koutipandoras.gr. 13 June 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
    8. ^ "Στα χνάρια των Ισπανών αγανακτισμένων (On the footsteps of the Spanish 'indignados')" (in Greek). skai.gr. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
    9. ^ Αγανακτισμένοι στο Σύνταγμα (in Greek). skai.gr. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
    10. ^ "Violent anti-cut riots in Greece spark coalition talks". Metro.co.uk. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    11. ^ "Greece Anxiety Increases: US Stocks Ends Lower on Wednesday Trading « USA Market News". Usamarketnews.com. 16 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    12. ^ "BBC News – Greek PM George Papandreou to unveil new cabinet". BBC. 16 June 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    13. ^ "Greek riot police, protesters clash during strike – World news – Europe". NBC News. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    14. ^ "Ο Μάης του Facebook και με ομπρέλες". ethnos.gr. Archived from the original on 6 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
    15. ^ "Απομακρύνθηκαν οι "Αγανακτισμένοι" από τον Λευκό Πύργο". protothema.gr. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
    16. ^ "Beyond Spontaneity". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
    17. ^ "Greece passes key austerity vote". BBC. 29 June 2011. Archived from the original on 30 June 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
    18. ^ Siddique, Haroon; Batty, David (29 June 2011). "Greece austerity vote and demonstrations – Wednesday 29 June 2011". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
    19. ^ Smith, Helena (1 July 2011). "Greek police face investigation after protest violence". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
    20. ^ "TEAR GAS FIRED AS GREEK POLICE CLASH WITH ATHENS PROTESTERS". amnesty.org. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    21. ^ "GREECE URGED NOT TO USE EXCESSIVE FORCE DURING PROTESTS". amnesty.org. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    22. ^ "Back when peaceful demonstrations in Greece were massive and meaningful..." CNN. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
    23. ^ Donadio, Rachel; Sayare, Scott (29 June 2011). "Violent Clashes in the Streets of Athens". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
    24. ^ Παρέμβαση της Εισαγγελίας Πρωτοδικών για τα χημικά στα επεισόδια (in Greek). skai.gr. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
     
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    6 May 1983 – The Hitler Diaries are revealed as a hoax after being examined by experts.

    Hitler Diaries

    The front cover of Stern magazine. The image is of three black notebooks; on the top book are the gold letters FH in gothic script. The Stern logo—an irregular six-pointed white star on a red background is in the top left of the cover, next to the word "stern". At the bottom are the words in German "Hitlers Tagebücher endeckt" ("Hitler's diaries discovered").
    "Hitler's diaries discovered". Stern's front page on 28 April 1983

    The Hitler Diaries (German: Hitler-Tagebücher) were a series of sixty volumes of journals purportedly written by Adolf Hitler, but forged by Konrad Kujau between 1981 and 1983. The diaries were purchased in 1983 for 9.3 million Deutsche Marks (£2.33 million or $3.7 million) by the West German news magazine Stern, which sold serialisation rights to several news organisations. One of the publications involved was The Sunday Times, who asked their independent director, the historian Hugh Trevor-Roper, to authenticate the diaries; he did so, pronouncing them genuine. At the press conference to announce the publication, Trevor-Roper announced that on reflection he had changed his mind, and other historians also raised questions concerning their validity. Rigorous forensic analysis, which had not been performed previously, quickly confirmed that the diaries were fakes.

    Kujau, born and raised in East Germany, had a history of petty crime and deception. In the mid-1970s he began selling Nazi memorabilia which he was smuggling from the East, but found he could raise the prices by forging additional authentication details to link ordinary souvenirs to the Nazi leaders. He began forging paintings by Hitler and an increasing number of notes, poems and letters, until he produced his first diary in the mid- to late 1970s. The West German journalist with Stern who "discovered" the diaries and was involved in their purchase was Gerd Heidemann, who had an obsession with the Nazis. When Stern started buying the diaries, Heidemann stole a significant proportion of the money.

    Kujau and Heidemann spent time in prison for their parts in the fraud, and several newspaper editors lost their jobs. The story of the scandal was the basis for the films Selling Hitler (1991) for the British channel ITV and the German cinema release Schtonk! (1992).

     
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    7 May 2000Vladimir Putin is inaugurated as president of Russia.

    Vladimir Putin

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (/ˈptɪn/; Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин, [vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪr vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ˈputʲɪn] (About this soundlisten); born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who has served as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 1999 until 2008.[c][6][7][8] He was also Prime Minister of Russia from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012.

    Putin was born in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) and studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Putin worked as a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, before resigning in 1991 to begin a political career in Saint Petersburg. He later moved to Moscow in 1996 to join the administration of President Boris Yeltsin, serving first as Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the KGB's successor agency, before being appointed as prime minister in August 1999. After the resignation of Yeltsin, Putin was elected in 2000 to succeed him.

    During his first tenure as president, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, with GDP measured by purchasing power increasing by 72%. The growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crises, and prudent economic and fiscal policies.[9][10] After serving as prime minister under Dmitry Medvedev from 2008 to 2012, Putin announced he would seek a third term as president and won the March 2012 election with 64% of the vote.[11] Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Eastern Ukraine led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth, and the recession officially ended.[12][13][14][15] Putin gained 76% of the March 2018 election vote and was re-elected for a six-year term that will end in 2024.

    Under Putin's leadership, Russia has experienced democratic backsliding. Experts do not generally consider Russia to be a democracy, citing purges and jailing of political opponents, curtailed press freedom, and the lack of free and fair elections.[16][17][18][19][20] Russia has scored poorly on Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index and Freedom House's Freedom in the World index (including a record low 20/100 rating in the 2017 Freedom in the World report, a rating not given since the time of the Soviet Union). Human rights organizations and activists have accused Putin of persecuting political critics and activists as well as ordering them tortured or assassinated; he has rejected accusations of human rights abuses. Officials of the United States government have accused him of leading an interference program against Hillary Clinton in support of Donald Trump during the U.S. presidential election in 2016, an allegation which both Trump and Putin have frequently denied and criticized.

    1. ^ "Vladimir Putin quits as head of Russia's ruling party". 24 April 2012 – via The Daily Telegraph.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference RFERL080418 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYT120505 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference BI181207 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Biography of Vladimir Putin Agency TASS
    6. ^ "Kremlin Biography of President Vladimir Putin". Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
    7. ^ "Vladimir Putin – President of Russia". European-Leaders.com. 22 March 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
    8. ^ "President Vladimir Putin on Biography.com". Retrieved 1 July 2016.
    9. ^ Putin: Russia's Choice, (Routledge 2007), by Richard Sakwa, Chapter 9
    10. ^ Fragile Empire: How Russia Fell In and Out of Love with Vladimir Putin, Yale University Press (2013), by Ben Judah, page 17
    11. ^ Shuster, Simon. "In Russia, an Election Victory for Putin and Then a 'Paid Flash Mob'", Time (5 March 2012).
    12. ^ Thompson, Mark (26 January 2016). "Russia: One of 10 worst economies in 2015". CNN.
    13. ^ Spence, Peter (25 January 2016). "Russian economy in turmoil as Putin is battered by falling oil price and sanctions". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
    14. ^ "Russian Economy Crawled to Growth With Recession in Rearview". Bloomberg. 31 March 2017.
    15. ^ "It's Official: Sanctioned Russia Now Recession Free". Forbes. 3 April 2017.
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference :2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference :3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference :4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference :5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference :6 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    8 May 1886 – Pharmacist John Pemberton first sells a carbonated beverage named "Coca-Cola" as a patent medicine.

    John Stith Pemberton

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox person with unknown parameter "residence" (this message is shown only in preview).

    John Stith Pemberton (July 8, 1831 – August 16, 1888) was an American biochemist and American Civil War veteran who is best known as the inventor of Coca-Cola. In May 1886, he developed an early version of a beverage that would later become world-famous as Coca-Cola, but sold his rights to the drink shortly before his death.

     
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    9 May 1887Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show opens in London.

    Buffalo Bill

    William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody (February 26, 1846 – January 10, 1917) was an American soldier, bison hunter, and showman. He was born in Le Claire, Iowa Territory (now the U.S. state of Iowa), but he lived for several years in his father's hometown in Toronto Township, Ontario, Canada, before the family returned to the Midwest and settled in the Kansas Territory.

    Buffalo Bill started working at the age of eleven, after his father's death, and became a rider for the Pony Express at age 15. During the American Civil War, he served the Union from 1863 to the end of the war in 1865. Later he served as a civilian scout for the US Army during the Indian Wars, receiving the Medal of Honor in 1872.

    One of the most famous and well-known figures of the American Old West, Buffalo Bill's legend began to spread when he was only 23. Shortly thereafter he started performing in shows that displayed cowboy themes and episodes from the frontier and Indian Wars. He founded Buffalo Bill's Wild West in 1883, taking his large company on tours in the United States and, beginning in 1887, in Great Britain and continental Europe.

    1. ^ "Encyclopedia". The William F. Cody Archive. Retrieved June 19, 2018. Pahaska, also Pe-Ha-Has-Ka and Paha-Haska, as translated from Lakota Sioux language, means "Long Hair," the name given to William F. Cody by the Sioux Nation.
     
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    10 May 1908Mother's Day is observed for the first time in the United States, in Grafton, West Virginia.

    Mother's Day

    Mother's Day is a celebration honoring the mother of the family, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society. It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world, most commonly in the months of March or May. It complements similar celebrations honoring family members, such as Father's Day, Siblings Day, and Grandparents Day.

    The modern Mother's Day began in the United States, at the initiative of Anna Jarvis in the early 20th century. This is not (directly) related to the many traditional celebrations of mothers and motherhood that have existed throughout the world over thousands of years, such as the Greek cult to Cybele, Rhea the Great Mother of the Gods, the Roman festival of Hilaria, or the Christian Mothering Sunday celebration (originally a commemoration of Mother Church, not motherhood).[1][2][3][4] However, in some countries, Mother's Day is still synonymous with these older traditions.[5]

    The U.S.-derived modern version of Mother's Day has been criticized[6][7] for having become too commercialized. Founder Jarvis herself regretted this commercialism and expressed views on how that was never her intention.[8]

    1. ^ L. James Grold (April 1968), "Mother's Day", American Journal of Psychiatry, 124 (10): 1456–1458, doi:10.1176/ajp.124.10.1456, PMID 5643668, Mother's Day, conceived by Anna Jarvis to honor unselfish mothers (...) Although there is no direct lineal descent to our modern Mother's Day custom, secular and religious motherhood have existed for thousands of years before 10 May 1908: the first church – St. Andrew's in Grafton, West Virginia – responded to her request for a Sunday service honoring mothers . Cybele (...)
    2. ^ Tuleja, Tad (1999), Curious Customs: The Stories Behind 296 Popular American Rituals, Galahad Books, p. 167, ISBN 978-1578660704, Although attempts have been made to link Mother's Day to ancient cults of the mother goddess, especially the worship of Cybele, the association is more conceptual than historic. Mother's Day is a modern, American invention.
    3. ^ Robert J. Myers, Hallmark Cards (1972), Celebrations; the complete book of American holidays, Doubleday, p. 143, ISBN 9780385076777, Our observance of Mother's Day is little more than half a century old [this was written in 1972], yet the nature of the holiday makes it seem as if it had its roots in prehistoric times. Many antiquarians, holiday enthusiasts, and students of folklore have claimed to find the source Mother's Day in the ancient spring festivals dedicated to the mother goddess, particularly the worship of Cybele.
    4. ^ Helsloot 2007, p. 208 "The American origin of the Day, however, was duly acknowledged. 'The idea is imported,. America led the way.'"
    5. ^ Mothering Sunday, BBC, retrieved 4 March 2010
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference why was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Mother's Day 2017, The Daily Telegraph
    8. ^ Trammell, Kendall. "Mother's Day founder later came to regret it". CNN. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
     
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    11 May 2013 – Fifty-two people are killed in a bombing in Reyhanlı, Turkey.

    2013 Reyhanlı car bombings

    Reyhanlı

    The 2013 Reyhanlı car bombings took place on 11 May 2013, when two car bombs exploded in the Turkish town of Reyhanlı, a town of 64,000 people, 5 km from the Syrian border and the busiest land border post with Syria, in Hatay Province, Turkey. At least 52 people were killed and 140 injured in the attack.[1][2][3][4]

    Turkish authorities accused the government of Syria of being behind the bombings, and within two weeks had charged 12 Turkish nationals who it said were backed by the Syrian government.[5] The state-run Anadolu news agency reported that in February 2018, a Turkish court sentenced nine suspects to life imprisonment and 13 other people to prison terms of 10 to 15 years for the bombings; and that in September 2018 another suspect was captured in Syria and brought to Turkey by Turkish intelligence.[6]

    The Syrian government denied responsibility for the attacks. Other groups proposed as culprits include al-Nusra Front, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, and Syrian Resistance.

    Following the bombings, hundreds of Syrians fled Reyhanli, and some residents blamed the Turkish government for bringing the Syrian Civil War to the town.[7]

    1. ^ a b "Hurriyet daily news, 27 May 2013". Retrieved 29 October 2014.
    2. ^ "Death toll rises to 42 as explosions hit Turkish town on border with Syria". Hurriyet Daily News. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
    3. ^ "Deadliest Terror Attack in Turkey's History Might Be Another Attempt to Derail Peace Talks? But Which One? Syria or PKK?". The Istanbulian. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
    4. ^ "Turkey Blames Syria's Assad for Its Deadliest Terror Attack". Bloomberg News. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "Turkish intelligence 'captures bombing suspect in Syria'". 12 September 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
    7. ^ "BBC News". Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
     
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    12 May 2003 – The Riyadh compound bombings, carried out by al-Qaeda, kill 26 people.

    Riyadh compound bombings

    Two major bombings took place in residential compounds in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2003. On 12 May 2003, 39 people were killed, and over 160 wounded when bombs went off at three compounds in Riyadh—Dorrat Al Jadawel, Al Hamra Oasis Village, and the Vinnell Corporation Compound.[1] On 8 November, a bomb was detonated outside the Al-Mohaya housing compound west of Riyadh, killing at least 17 people and wounding 122.[2]

    The bombings have been attributed to Islamic extremists as part of a campaign against Westerners and Westernization in Saudi Arabia. They are thought to have been sparked by the stationing of US troops in Saudi Arabia during the 1991 Gulf War with Iraq.[3]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnn was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnn-november was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Hegghammer, Thomas (2010). Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism since 1979. Cambridge University Press. pp. 160, 203.
     
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    13 May 2012 – Forty-nine dismembered bodies are discovered by Mexican authorities on Mexican Federal Highway 40.

    Cadereyta Jiménez massacre

    The Cadereyta Jiménez massacre occurred on the Fed 40 on 12–13 May 2012.[1] Mexican officials stated that 49 people were decapitated and mutilated by members of Los Zetas drug cartel and dumped by a roadside near the city of Monterrey in northern Mexico.[2][3] The Blog del Narco, a blog that documents events and people of the Mexican Drug War anonymously, reported that the actual (unofficial) death toll may be more than 68 people.[4] The bodies were found in the town of San Juan in the municipality of Cadereyta Jiménez, Nuevo León at about 4 a.m. on a non-toll highway leading to Reynosa, Tamaulipas.[5][6] The forty-three men and six women killed had their heads, feet, and hands cut off, making their identification difficult.[2] Those killed also bore signs of torture and were stuffed in plastic bags.[7] The arrested suspects have indicated that the victims were Gulf Cartel members,[8] but the Mexican authorities have not ruled out the possibility that they were U.S.-bound migrants.[9] Four days before this incident, 18 people were found decapitated and dismembered near Mexico's second largest city, Guadalajara.[10]

    The metropolitan area of Monterrey is an important warehousing center for cocaine, marijuana and other illegal drugs bound for U.S. consumers.[11] The natural gas wells and pipelines running through Cadereyta and the U.S-Mexico border have also been the most tapped by thieves, supplying gasoline and other natural resources to Mexico's criminal underworld. Small towns, ranches, and isolated communities in Nuevo León have long been treasured by drug traffickers.[11] The Mexican drug trafficking organizations have been fighting for the territorial control of the smuggling routes to the United States, and this massacre may be the "latest blow in an escalating war of intimidation among drug gangs."[12] The cartels also fight for the control of local drug markets and extortion rackets, including shakedowns of migrants seeking to reach the United States.[13] In addition, the discovery seems to echo several other mass murder events where the drug cartels have left large numbers of bodies in public places as warnings to their rivals.[14] The authorities have blamed much of the violence on Los Zetas – a cartel originally set up by ex-commandos that deserted the Mexican Army in the 1990s – and the Sinaloa Cartel, an organization originally headed by Joaquín Guzmán Loera (a.k.a. El Chapo), once Mexico's most-wanted drug lord.[15][16]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=N> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=N}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "Official: 49 bodies left on Reynosa-Monterrey highway". The Monitor. 13 May 2012. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    2. ^ a b "Official: 49 bodies left on Mexico highway". Yahoo! News. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    3. ^ "Mexico violence: Monterrey police find 49 bodies". BBC News. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    4. ^ "Masacran a 68 personas en Nuevo León". Blog del Narco (in Spanish). 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    5. ^ "49 bodies dumped on Mexican highway". CBS News. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    6. ^ "Autoridades hallan 49 cadáveres en una carretera de Nuevo León". CNNMéxico (in Spanish). 13 May 2012. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    7. ^ "49 bodies left on Mexican highway". The Sydney Morning Herald. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    8. ^ "Mexican army captures suspect in slaughter of 49 people". Fox News. 3 August 2012. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference fox1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ "Scores of mutilated bodies dumped on Mexico highway". BBC News. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
    11. ^ a b "Nearly 50 bodies recovered from latest Mexico massacre". Houston Chronicle. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    12. ^ "Mexican officials report 49 bodies dumped on highway to US border". Yahoo! News. 13 May 2012. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    13. ^ "Mexican police find 49 bodies dumped on highway". MSN News. 13 May 2012. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    14. ^ "Discovery of mutilated bodies shuts down Reynosa, Monterrey highway". KGBT-TV. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    15. ^ "Mexican police find 49 mutilated bodies". Agence France-Presse. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    16. ^ "Dozens of bodies found in bags". Herald Sun. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
     
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    14 May 1973Skylab, the United States' first space station, is launched.

    Skylab

    Skylab was the first United States space station, launched by NASA,[3] occupied for about 24 weeks between May 1973 and February 1974. It was operated by three separate three-man crews: SL-2, SL-3 and SL-4. Major operations included an orbital workshop, a solar observatory, Earth observation, and hundreds of experiments.

    Unable to be re-boosted by the Space Shuttle, which was not ready until the early 1980s, Skylab's orbit decayed and it burned up in the atmosphere on July 11, 1979, over the Indian Ocean.

    1. ^ "EP-107 Skylab: A Guidebook". NASA. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
    2. ^ Belew, Leland F., ed. (1977). "2. Our First Space Station". SP-400 Skylab: Our First Space Station. Washington DC: NASA. p. 18. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
    3. ^ Belew, Leland F., ed. (1977). "2 Our First Space Station". Skylab, Our First Space Station. NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. p. 15.
     
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    15 May 495 BC – A newly constructed temple in honour of the god Mercury was dedicated in ancient Rome on the Circus Maximus, between the Aventine and Palatine hills. To spite the senate and the consuls, the people awarded the dedication to a senior military officer, Marcus Laetorius.

    Mercury (mythology)

    Mercury (/ˈmɜːrkjʊri/; Latin: Mercurius [mɛrˈkʊrɪ.ʊs] (About this soundlisten)) is a major god in Roman religion and mythology, being one of the 12 Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon. He is the god of financial gain, commerce, eloquence, messages, communication (including divination), travelers, boundaries, luck, trickery and thieves; he also serves as the guide of souls to the underworld.[1][2]

    He was considered the son of Maia, who was a daughter of the Titan Atlas, and Jupiter in Roman mythology.[citation needed] His name is possibly related to the Latin word merx ("merchandise"; cf. merchant, commerce, etc.), mercari (to trade), and merces (wages); another possible connection is the Proto-Indo-European root merĝ- for "boundary, border" (cf. Old English "mearc", Old Norse "mark" and Latin "margō") and Greek οὖρος (by analogy of Arctūrus/Ἀρκτοῦρος), as the "keeper of boundaries," referring to his role as bridge between the upper and lower worlds.[citation needed] In his earliest forms, he appears to have been related to the Etruscan deity Turms; both gods share characteristics with the Greek god Hermes. He is often depicted holding the caduceus in his left hand. Similar to his Greek equivalent Hermes, he was awarded the caduceus by Apollo who handed him a magic wand, which later turned into the caduceus.

    1. ^ Glossary to Ovid's Fasti, Penguin edition, by Boyle and Woodard at 343
    2. ^ Rupke, The Religion of the Romans, at 4
     
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    16 May 1943The Holocaust: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising ends.

    Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

    The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Yiddish: אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ‎, romanizedUfshtand in Varshever Geto; Polish: powstanie w getcie warszawskim; German: Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II to oppose Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to Majdanek and Treblinka concentration camps. After the Grossaktion Warsaw of summer 1942, in which more than a quarter of a million Jews were deported from the ghetto to Treblinka and murdered, the remaining Jews began to build bunkers and smuggle weapons and explosives into the ghetto. The left-wing Jewish Combat Organization (ŻOB) and right-wing Jewish Military Union (ŻZW) formed and began to train. A small resistance effort to another roundup in January 1943 was partially successful and spurred the Polish groups to support the Jews in earnest.

    The uprising started on 19 April when the ghetto refused to surrender to the police commander SS-Brigadeführer Jürgen Stroop, who then ordered the burning of the ghetto, block by block, ending on 16 May. A total of 13,000 Jews died, about half of them burnt alive or suffocated. German casualties were probably less than 150,[citation needed] with Stroop reporting only 110 casualties [16 killed + 1 dead/93 wounded].[5] It was the largest single revolt by Jews during World War II. The Jews knew that the uprising was doomed and their survival was unlikely. Marek Edelman, the only surviving ŻOB commander, said that the motivation for fighting was "to pick the time and place of our deaths". According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the uprising was "one of the most significant occurrences in the history of the Jewish people".[6]

    1. ^ Marian Apfelbaum (2007). Two Flags: Return to the Warsaw Ghetto. Gefen Publishing House Ltd. p. 15. ISBN 978-965-229-356-5.
    2. ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman (5 June 2015). The Polish Underground and the Jews, 1939–1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-107-01426-8.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Guttman 2000 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Maciej Kledzik (18 April 2008). "Zapomniani żołnierze ŻZW". Rzeczpospolita (in Polish). Retrieved 7 November 2012.
    5. ^ a b Stroop (2009), pp. 25-30.
    6. ^ Freilich, Miri; Dean, Martin (2012). "Warsaw". In Geoffrey P., Megargee; Dean, Martin; Hecker, Mel (eds.). Ghettos in German-Occupied Eastern Europe. Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945. 2. Translated by Fishman, Samuel. Bloomington: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-253-00202-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)


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    17 May 1900 – The children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, by L. Frank Baum, is first published in the United States

    The Wonderful Wizard of Oz

    The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (/ɒz/) is an American children's novel written by author L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W. W. Denslow, originally published by the George M. Hill Company in May 1900.[1] It has since seen several reprints, most often under the title The Wizard of Oz, which is the title of the popular 1902 Broadway musical adaptation as well as the iconic 1939 live-action film.

    The story chronicles the adventures of a young farm girl named Dorothy in the magical Land of Oz, after she and her pet dog Toto are swept away from their Kansas home by a cyclone.[nb 1] The book is one of the best-known stories in American literature and has been widely translated. The Library of Congress has declared it "America's greatest and best-loved homegrown fairytale." Its groundbreaking success and the success of the Broadway musical adapted from the novel led Baum to write thirteen additional Oz books that serve as official sequels to the first story.

    In January 1901, George M. Hill Company completed printing the first edition, a total of 10,000 copies, which quickly sold out. It sold three million copies by the time it entered the public domain in 1956.

    1900 first edition cover, published by the George M. Hill Company, Chicago, New York
    1900 edition original back cover
    1. ^ The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum with Pictures by W. W. Denslow. Chicago: Geo. M. Hill Co. 1900. Retrieved February 6, 2018 – via the Internet Archive.


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    17 May 1900 – The children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, by L. Frank Baum, is first published in the United States

    The Wonderful Wizard of Oz

    The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (/ɒz/) is an American children's novel written by author L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W. W. Denslow, originally published by the George M. Hill Company in May 1900.[1] It has since seen several reprints, most often under the title The Wizard of Oz, which is the title of the popular 1902 Broadway musical adaptation as well as the iconic 1939 live-action film.

    The story chronicles the adventures of a young farm girl named Dorothy in the magical Land of Oz, after she and her pet dog Toto are swept away from their Kansas home by a cyclone.[nb 1] The book is one of the best-known stories in American literature and has been widely translated. The Library of Congress has declared it "America's greatest and best-loved homegrown fairytale." Its groundbreaking success and the success of the Broadway musical adapted from the novel led Baum to write thirteen additional Oz books that serve as official sequels to the first story.

    In January 1901, George M. Hill Company completed printing the first edition, a total of 10,000 copies, which quickly sold out. It sold three million copies by the time it entered the public domain in 1956.

    1900 first edition cover, published by the George M. Hill Company, Chicago, New York
    1900 edition original back cover
    1. ^ The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum with Pictures by W. W. Denslow. Chicago: Geo. M. Hill Co. 1900. Retrieved February 6, 2018 – via the Internet Archive.


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    18 May 1965 – Israeli spy Eli Cohen is hanged in Damascus, Syria.

    Eli Cohen

    Eliyahu Ben-Shaul Cohen (Hebrew: אֱלִיָּהוּ בֵּן שָׁאוּל כֹּהֵן‎, Arabic: إيلياهو بن شاؤول كوهين‎‎; 6 December 1924 – 18 May 1965), commonly known as Eli Cohen, was an Israeli spy. He is best known for his espionage work in 1961–65 in Syria, where he developed close relationships with the Syrian political and military hierarchy,[1][2] and became the chief adviser to the Minister of Defense.[3]

    Syrian counterintelligence eventually uncovered the spy conspiracy and convicted Cohen under pre-war martial law, sentencing him to death and hanging him publicly in 1965.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference blackAndmorris was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Ahronheim, Anna (15 April 2019). "Rumors fly that body of legendary Israeli spy Eli Cohen was found". Jerusalem Post.
     
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    19 May 1991Croatians vote for independence in a referendum.

    1991 Croatian independence referendum

    Croatia held an independence referendum on 19 May 1991, following the Croatian parliamentary elections of 1990 and the rise of ethnic tensions that led to the breakup of Yugoslavia. With 83 percent turnout, voters approved the referendum, with 93 percent in favor of independence. Subsequently, Croatia declared independence and the dissolution of its association with Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991, but it introduced a three-month moratorium on the decision when urged to do so by the European Community and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe through the Brioni Agreement. The war in Croatia escalated during the moratorium, and on 8 October 1991, the Croatian Parliament severed all remaining ties with Yugoslavia. In 1992, the countries of the European Economic Community granted Croatia diplomatic recognition and Croatia was admitted to the United Nations.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Referendum-1991-result was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    20 May 1873Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis receive a U.S. patent for blue jeans with copper rivets.[7]

    Levi Strauss

    Levi Strauss (/ˈlv ˈstrs/, born Löb Strauß, German: [løːp ˈʃtʁaʊs]; February 26, 1829 – September 26, 1902) was a German-born businessman who founded the first company to manufacture blue jeans. His firm of Levi Strauss & Co. began in 1853 in San Francisco, California.[1][2]

    1. ^ Downey, Lynn (2008). "Levi Strauss: a short biography" (PDF). Levi Strauss & Co. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2011.
    2. ^ James Sullivan, Jeans: a cultural history of an American icon (Gotham, 2007).
     
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    21 May 1936Sada Abe is arrested after wandering the streets of Tokyo for days with her dead lover's severed genitals in her handbag. Her story soon becomes one of Japan's most notorious scandals.

    Sada Abe

    Sada Abe (阿部 定, Abe Sada, May 28, 1905 – after 1971) was a Japanese woman, a geisha and prostitute, who erotically asphyxiated her lover, Kichizō Ishida (石田 吉蔵), on May 18, 1936, and then cut off his penis and testicles and carried them around with her in her kimono. The story became a national sensation in Japan, acquiring mythic overtones, and has been interpreted by artists, philosophers, novelists and filmmakers.[4] Abe was released after having served five years in prison and went on to write an autobiography.

    1. ^ a b Johnston 2005, p. 25
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Schreiber-188 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Johnston 2005, p. 20
    4. ^ Thompson 1985, p. 1570
     
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    21 May 1936Sada Abe is arrested after wandering the streets of Tokyo for days with her dead lover's severed genitals in her handbag. Her story soon becomes one of Japan's most notorious scandals.

    Sada Abe

    Sada Abe (阿部 定, Abe Sada, May 28, 1905 – after 1971) was a Japanese woman, a geisha and prostitute, who erotically asphyxiated her lover, Kichizō Ishida (石田 吉蔵), on May 18, 1936, and then cut off his penis and testicles and carried them around with her in her kimono. The story became a national sensation in Japan, acquiring mythic overtones, and has been interpreted by artists, philosophers, novelists and filmmakers.[4] Abe was released after having served five years in prison and went on to write an autobiography.

    1. ^ a b Johnston 2005, p. 25
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Schreiber-188 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Johnston 2005, p. 20
    4. ^ Thompson 1985, p. 1570
     
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    22 May 2015 – The Republic of Ireland becomes the first nation in the world to legalize gay marriage in a public referendum.

    2015 Irish constitutional referendums

    The government of Ireland held referendums on 22 May 2015 on two proposed amendments to the Constitution of Ireland which had been recommended by the Constitutional Convention.[1] The amendment to permit same-sex marriage in the Republic of Ireland was approved by 62%-38% of the voters.[2] The other amendment would have reduced the age of candidacy for the President of Ireland from 35 to 21, but voters rejected it by 73%-27%. A Dáil by-election in Carlow–Kilkenny was held on the same day.[2] Other amendments were considered but not proceeded with, including reducing the voting age from 18 to 16, and sanctioning the establishment of a Unified Patent Court.[3][4]

    1. ^ "Ireland Sets Date For Same Sex Marriage Vote". Sky News. 20 February 2015.
    2. ^ a b "Wording of same-sex marriage referendum published". RTÉ.ie. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
    3. ^ "Government to hold up to half a dozen referendums next year". The Irish Times. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
    4. ^ Collins, Stephen (15 January 2015). "Coalition abandons plan for poll on younger voting age". The Irish Times. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
     
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    23 May 1951Tibetans sign the Seventeen Point Agreement with China.

    Seventeen Point Agreement

    The Seventeen Point Agreement, also called the Agreement of the Central People's Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, or the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet for short, is the document by which the delegates of the 14th Dalai Lama, sovereign of the de facto state of Tibet, reached an agreement in 1951 with the Central People's Government of the newly established People's Republic of China on affirming Chinese sovereignty over Tibet.

    Chinese sources regard the document as a legal contract that was mutually welcomed by both governments as well as by the Tibetan people. The Central Tibetan Administration which was formed after 1960 and international law expert Eckart Klein consider it invalid and as having been signed under duress.[1][2]

    The United States informed the Dalai Lama in 1951 that in order to receive assistance and support from the United States, he must depart from Tibet and publicly disavow "agreements concluded under duress" between the representatives of Tibet and China.[3]

    1. ^ Powers 2004, pp. 116–7
    2. ^ Klein, Eckart. "Tibet’s Status Under International Law". Tibet-Forum., Vol. 2; 1995.
    3. ^ Melvyn C. Goldstein (August 2007). A History of Modern Tibet, Volume 2: The Calm Before the Storm: 1951–1955. University of California Press. pp. 232–. ISBN 978-0-520-24941-7. Your Holiness will understand, of course, that the readiness of the United States to render you the assistance and support outlined above is conditional upon your departure from Tibet, upon your public disavowal of agreements concluded under duress between the representatives of Tibet and those of the Chinese Communist aggression.
     
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    24 May 1218 – The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt.

    Fifth Crusade

    The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering Cairo, the capital of the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.

    Pope Innocent III and his successor Pope Honorius III organized crusading armies led by King Andrew II of Hungary and Leopold VI, Duke of Austria, and an attack against Jerusalem ultimately left the city in Muslim hands. Later in 1218, a German army led by Oliver of Paderborn, and a mixed army of Dutch, Flemish and Frisian soldiers led by William I, Count of Holland joined the crusade. In order to attack Damietta in Egypt, they allied in Anatolia with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm under Kaykaus I and attacked the Ayyubids in Syria in an attempt to free the Crusaders from fighting on two fronts.

    After occupying the port of Damietta, the Crusaders marched south towards Cairo in July 1221. On the way, they laid siege to Aswan from the north side, but were turned back after they were trapped and their dwindling supplies led to a forced retreat. Sultan al-Kamil ordered the destruction of the dam blocking the Nile River which lead to the flooding of the Crusader camp. They retreated to a nearby hilltop where they resisted to the point of starvation. The siege resulted in a great number of Crusader losses, and eventually in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil forced Europe to retreat from Damietta - and Egypt altogether - and to an eight-year peace agreement.

     
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    25 May 1977Star Wars is released in theaters.

    Star Wars (film)

    Star Wars (retroactively titled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope) is a 1977 American epic space opera film written and directed by George Lucas, produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by 20th Century-Fox. It stars Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Peter Cushing, Alec Guinness, David Prowse, James Earl Jones, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker and Peter Mayhew. It is the first installment of the original Star Wars trilogy, the first of the franchise to be produced, and the fourth episode of the "Skywalker saga".

    Lucas had the idea for a science-fiction film in the vein of Flash Gordon around the time he completed his first film, THX 1138 (1971), and began working on a treatment after the release of American Graffiti (1973). Star Wars focuses on the journey of Luke Skywalker (Hamill), who along with Han Solo (Ford) and the wizened Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi (Guinness), attempt to free Rebellion leader Princess Leia (Fisher) from the clutches of the Galactic Empire and the Sith lord Darth Vader (Prowse, voiced by Jones). The heroes, in league with the Rebel Alliance, attempt to destroy the Empire's planet-destroying space station, the Death Star.

    Star Wars was released in a limited number of theaters in the United States on May 25, 1977, and quickly became a blockbuster hit, leading to it being expanded to a much wider release. The film opened to critical acclaim, most notably for its groundbreaking visual effects. It grossed a total of $775 million, surpassing Jaws (1975) to become the highest-grossing film at the time until the release of E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982). When adjusted for inflation, Star Wars is the second-highest-grossing film in North America (behind Gone with the Wind) and the fourth-highest-grossing film in the world. It received ten Oscar nominations (including Best Picture), winning seven. In 1989, it became one of the first 25 films that was selected by the U.S. Library of Congress for preservation in the National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[5][6] At the time, it was the most recent film in the registry and the only one chosen from the 1970s. In 2004, its soundtrack was added to the U.S. National Recording Registry. Today, it is regarded as one of the most important films in the history of motion pictures.

    The film has been reissued multiple times with Lucas's support—most significantly with its 20th-anniversary theatrical "Special Edition"—incorporating many changes including modified computer-generated effects, altered dialogue, re-edited shots, remixed soundtracks and added scenes. The film became a "pop-cultural phenomenon" and launched an industry of tie-in products, including novels, comics, video games, amusement park attractions, and merchandise including toys, games, clothing and many other spin-off works.

    The film's success led to two critically and commercially successful sequels, The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983), and later to a prequel trilogy, a sequel trilogy, two anthology films and various spin-off TV series.

    1. ^ "Star Wars". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on January 27, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
    2. ^ "Star Wars (1977)". Archived from the original on July 9, 2017.
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference BOM was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cyriaque Lamar (January 13, 2012). "Behold, the 1977 budget breakdown for Star Wars". io9. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
    5. ^ "ENTERTAINMENT: Film Registry Picks First 25 Movies". Los Angeles Times. Washington, D.C. September 19, 1989. Archived from the original on May 5, 2020. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference NFR-Titles was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     

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