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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    26 June 1927The Cyclone roller coaster opens on Coney Island.

    Coney Island Cyclone

    The Coney Island Cyclone (also known as the Cyclone) is a wooden roller coaster at Luna Park in Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York City. Designed by Vernon Keenan, it opened to the public on June 26, 1927. The coaster is on a plot of land at the intersection of Surf Avenue and West 10th Street. The Cyclone reaches a maximum speed of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) and has a total track length of 2,640 feet (800 m), with a maximum height of 85 feet (26 m).

    The coaster operated for more than four decades before it began to deteriorate, and by the early 1970s the city planned to scrap the ride. On June 18, 1975, Dewey and Jerome Albert, owners of the adjacent Astroland amusement park, entered into an agreement with New York City to operate the ride. The roller coaster was refurbished in the 1974 off-season, and reopened on July 3, 1975. Astroland Park continued to invest millions of dollars in the upkeep of the Cyclone. After Astroland closed in 2008, Cyclone Coasters president Carol Hill Albert continued to operate it under a lease agreement with the city. In 2011, Luna Park took over operation of the Cyclone.

    The coaster was declared a New York City designated landmark on July 12, 1988, and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 26, 1991.

    1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYCL was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    27 June 1976Air France Flight 139 (Tel Aviv-Athens-Paris) is hijacked en route to Paris by the PLO and redirected to Entebbe, Uganda.

    Operation Entebbe

    Sites associated with Operation Entebbe

    Operation Entebbe or Operation Thunderbolt was a successful counter-terrorist hostage-rescue mission carried out by commandos of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) at Entebbe Airport in Uganda on 4 July 1976.[7]

    A week earlier, on 27 June, an Air France Airbus A300 jet airliner with 248 passengers had been hijacked by two members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – External Operations (PFLP-EO) under orders of Wadie Haddad (who had earlier broken away from the PFLP of George Habash),[8] and two members of the German Revolutionary Cells. The hijackers had the stated objective to free 40 Palestinian and affiliated militants imprisoned in Israel and 13 prisoners in four other countries in exchange for the hostages.[9] The flight, which had originated in Tel Aviv with the destination of Paris, was diverted after a stopover in Athens via Benghazi to Entebbe, the main airport of Uganda. The Ugandan government supported the hijackers, and dictator Idi Amin, who had been informed of the hijacking from the beginning,[10] personally welcomed them.[11] After moving all hostages from the aircraft to a disused airport building, the hijackers separated all Israelis and several non-Israeli Jews from the larger group and forced them into a separate room.[12][13][14] Over the following two days, 148 non-Israeli hostages were released and flown out to Paris.[13][14][15] Ninety-four, mainly Israeli, passengers along with the 12-member Air France crew, remained as hostages and were threatened with death.[16][17]

    The IDF acted on information provided by the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad. The hijackers threatened to kill the hostages if their prisoner release demands were not met. This threat led to the planning of the rescue operation.[18] These plans included preparation for armed resistance from the Uganda Army.[19]

    The operation took place at night. Israeli transport planes carried 100 commandos over 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) to Uganda for the rescue operation. The operation, which took a week of planning, lasted 90 minutes. Of the 106 remaining hostages, 102 were rescued and three were killed. The other hostage was in a hospital and was later killed. Five Israeli commandos were wounded and one, unit commander Lt. Col. Yonatan Netanyahu, was killed. Netanyahu was the older brother of Benjamin Netanyahu, who would later become Prime Minister of Israel.[20] All the hijackers and forty-five Ugandan soldiers were killed, and eleven[5][6] Soviet-built MiG-17s and MiG-21s of Uganda's air force were destroyed.[4] Kenyan sources supported Israel, and in the aftermath of the operation, Idi Amin issued orders to retaliate and slaughter several hundred Kenyans then present in Uganda.[21] There were 245 Kenyans in Uganda killed and 3,000 fled.[22]

    Operation Entebbe, which had the military codename Operation Thunderbolt, is sometimes referred to retroactively as Operation Jonathan in memory of the unit's leader, Yonatan Netanyahu.

    1. ^ McRaven, Bill. "Tactical Combat Casualty Care – November 2010". MHS US Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
    2. ^ 1976: Israelis rescue Entebbe hostages, BBC
    3. ^ Entebbe: The Most Daring Raid of Israel's Special Forces, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2011, by Simon Dunstan, p. 58
    4. ^ a b Brzoska, Michael; Pearson, Frederic S. Arms and Warfare: Escalation, De-escalation, and Negotiation, Univ. of S. Carolina Press (1994) p. 203
    5. ^ a b "Entebbe raid". Encyclopædia Britannica.
    6. ^ a b "BBC on This Day – 4 – 1976: Israelis rescue Entebbe hostages". BBC News.
    7. ^ Smith, Terence (4 July 1976). "Hostages Freed as Israelis Raid Uganda Airport; Commandos in 3 Planes Rescue 105-Casualties Unknown Israelis Raid Uganda Airport And Free Hijackers' Hostages". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hartuv was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "Hijacking of Air France Airbus by Followers of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – Israeli Action to liberate Hostages held at Entebbe Airport ..." (PDF). Keesing's Record of World Events. 22: 27888. August 1976. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
    10. ^ Furst, Alan (2016). "'Operation Thunderbolt,' by Saul David". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
    11. ^ "Idi Amin's Son: My Dream Is to Apologize Personally to Family of Entebbe Victims". Ha'aretz. 14 June 2016.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Freed Hostages Tell Their Story was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ a b Simon Dunstan (15 January 2011). Entebbe: The Most Daring Raid of Israel's Special Forces. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 20–24. ISBN 978-1-4488-1868-6. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
    14. ^ a b Mark Ensalaco (2008). Middle Eastern Terrorism: From Black September to September 11. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-0-8122-4046-7. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
    15. ^ "Entebbe; Thirty Years On; miracle on the runway". Jewish Telegraph. 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
    16. ^ Sol Scharfstein (1 May 1994). Understanding Israel. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-0-88125-428-0. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
    17. ^ Dunstan, Simon (2009). Israel's Lighting Strike, The raid on Entebbe 1976. Osprey Publishing; Osprey Raid Series No. 2. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84603-397-1.
    18. ^ "Mossad took photos, Entebbe Operation was on its way". Ynetnews. 2006. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
    19. ^ Feldinger, Lauren Gelfond (29 June 2006). "Back to Entebbe". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
    20. ^ "Operation Entebbe". The Knesset at Sixty. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
    21. ^ Ulrich Beyerlin: Abhandlungen: Die israelische Befreiungsaktion von Entebbe in völkerrechtlicher Sicht. (PDF-Datei; 2,3 MB) auf: zaoerv.de Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, 1977.
    22. ^ Cite error: The named reference Keesing27891 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    28 June 1969Stonewall riots begin in New York City, marking the start of the Gay Rights Movement.

    Stonewall riots

    Coordinates: 40°44′02″N 74°00′08″W / 40.7338°N 74.0021°W / 40.7338; -74.0021

    The Stonewall riots (also referred to as the Stonewall uprising or the Stonewall rebellion) were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) community[note 1] in response to a police raid that began in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Patrons of the Stonewall, other Village lesbian and gay bars, and neighborhood street people fought back when the police became violent. The riots are widely considered to constitute one of the most important events leading to the gay liberation movement[2][3] and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.[4]

    Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced an anti-gay legal system.[note 2][5] Early homosexual groups in the U.S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society, and they favored non-confrontational education for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike. The last years of the 1960s, however, were contentious, as many social/political movements were active, including the civil rights movement, the counterculture of the 1960s, and the anti-Vietnam War movement. These influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots.

    Very few establishments welcomed gay people in the 1950s and 1960s. Those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia.[8][9][10] It catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: butch lesbians, effeminate young men, drag queens, male prostitutes, transgender people, and homeless youth. While police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn on June 28. Tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. Within weeks, Village residents quickly organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gay men and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested.

    After the Stonewall riots, gay men and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race, class, and generational obstacles to becoming a cohesive community. Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, and three newspapers were established to promote rights for gay men and lesbians. A year after the uprising, to mark the anniversary on June 28, 1970, the first gay pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.[11] The anniversary of the riots was also commemorated in Chicago and similar marches were organized in other cities. Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U.S. and the world. The Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016.[12]

    Today, LGBT Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots. Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 commemorated the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising with city officials estimating 5 million attendees in Manhattan,[13] and on June 6, 2019, New York City Police Commissioner James P. O'Neill rendered a formal apology on behalf of the New York Police Department for the actions of its officers at Stonewall in 1969.[14][15]

    1. ^ Grudo, Gideon (June 15, 2019). "The Stonewall Riots: What Really Happened, What Didn't, and What Became Myth". The Daily Beast.; "New-York Historical Society commerates 50th anniversary of Stonewall Uprising with special exhibitions and programs". New-York Historical Society. April 23, 2019.; "Movies Under the Stars: Stonewall Uprising". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. June 26, 2019.
    2. ^ Julia Goicichea (August 16, 2017). "Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers". The Culture Trip. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
    3. ^ "Brief History of the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement in the U.S". University of Kentucky. Retrieved September 2, 2017.; Nell Frizzell (June 28, 2013). "Feature: How the Stonewall riots started the LGBT rights movement". Pink News UK. Retrieved August 19, 2017.; "Stonewall riots". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
    4. ^ U.S. National Park Service (October 17, 2016). "Civil Rights at Stonewall National Monument". Department of the Interior. Retrieved August 6, 2017.; "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
    5. ^ a b Carter 2004, p. 15.
    6. ^ Katz 1976, pp. 81–197.
    7. ^ Adam 1987, p. 60.
    8. ^ Duberman 1993, p. 183.
    9. ^ Carter 2004, pp. 79–83.
    10. ^ "Stonewall Uprising: The Year That Changed America – Why Did the Mafia Own the Bar?". American Experience. PBS. April 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
    11. ^ "Heritage | 1970 Christopher Street Liberation Day Gay-In, San Francisco". SF Pride. June 28, 1970. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
    12. ^ Nakamura, David; Eilperin, Juliet (June 24, 2016). "With Stonewall, Obama designates first national monument to gay rights movement". Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
    13. ^ About 5 million people attended WorldPride in NYC, mayor says By karma allen, Jul 2, 2019. Accessed July 4, 2019.
    14. ^ Gold, Michael; Norman, Derek (June 6, 2019). "Stonewall Riot Apology: Police Actions Were 'Wrong,' Commissioner Admits". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
    15. ^ "New York City Police Finally Apologize for Stonewall Raids". advocate.com. June 6, 2019. Retrieved June 6, 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  4. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    28 June 1969Stonewall riots begin in New York City, marking the start of the Gay Rights Movement.

    Stonewall riots

    Coordinates: 40°44′02″N 74°00′08″W / 40.7338°N 74.0021°W / 40.7338; -74.0021

    The Stonewall riots (also referred to as the Stonewall uprising or the Stonewall rebellion) were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) community[note 1] in response to a police raid that began in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Patrons of the Stonewall, other Village lesbian and gay bars, and neighborhood street people fought back when the police became violent. The riots are widely considered to constitute one of the most important events leading to the gay liberation movement[2][3] and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.[4]

    Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced an anti-gay legal system.[note 2][5] Early homosexual groups in the U.S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society, and they favored non-confrontational education for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike. The last years of the 1960s, however, were contentious, as many social/political movements were active, including the civil rights movement, the counterculture of the 1960s, and the anti-Vietnam War movement. These influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots.

    Very few establishments welcomed gay people in the 1950s and 1960s. Those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia.[8][9][10] It catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: butch lesbians, effeminate young men, drag queens, male prostitutes, transgender people, and homeless youth. While police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn on June 28. Tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. Within weeks, Village residents quickly organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gay men and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested.

    After the Stonewall riots, gay men and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race, class, and generational obstacles to becoming a cohesive community. Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, and three newspapers were established to promote rights for gay men and lesbians. A year after the uprising, to mark the anniversary on June 28, 1970, the first gay pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.[11] The anniversary of the riots was also commemorated in Chicago and similar marches were organized in other cities. Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U.S. and the world. The Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016.[12]

    Today, LGBT Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots. Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 commemorated the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising with city officials estimating 5 million attendees in Manhattan,[13] and on June 6, 2019, New York City Police Commissioner James P. O'Neill rendered a formal apology on behalf of the New York Police Department for the actions of its officers at Stonewall in 1969.[14][15]

    1. ^ Grudo, Gideon (June 15, 2019). "The Stonewall Riots: What Really Happened, What Didn't, and What Became Myth". The Daily Beast.; "New-York Historical Society commerates 50th anniversary of Stonewall Uprising with special exhibitions and programs". New-York Historical Society. April 23, 2019.; "Movies Under the Stars: Stonewall Uprising". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. June 26, 2019.
    2. ^ Julia Goicichea (August 16, 2017). "Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers". The Culture Trip. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
    3. ^ "Brief History of the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement in the U.S". University of Kentucky. Retrieved September 2, 2017.; Nell Frizzell (June 28, 2013). "Feature: How the Stonewall riots started the LGBT rights movement". Pink News UK. Retrieved August 19, 2017.; "Stonewall riots". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
    4. ^ U.S. National Park Service (October 17, 2016). "Civil Rights at Stonewall National Monument". Department of the Interior. Retrieved August 6, 2017.; "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
    5. ^ a b Carter 2004, p. 15.
    6. ^ Katz 1976, pp. 81–197.
    7. ^ Adam 1987, p. 60.
    8. ^ Duberman 1993, p. 183.
    9. ^ Carter 2004, pp. 79–83.
    10. ^ "Stonewall Uprising: The Year That Changed America – Why Did the Mafia Own the Bar?". American Experience. PBS. April 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
    11. ^ "Heritage | 1970 Christopher Street Liberation Day Gay-In, San Francisco". SF Pride. June 28, 1970. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
    12. ^ Nakamura, David; Eilperin, Juliet (June 24, 2016). "With Stonewall, Obama designates first national monument to gay rights movement". Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
    13. ^ About 5 million people attended WorldPride in NYC, mayor says By karma allen, Jul 2, 2019. Accessed July 4, 2019.
    14. ^ Gold, Michael; Norman, Derek (June 6, 2019). "Stonewall Riot Apology: Police Actions Were 'Wrong,' Commissioner Admits". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
    15. ^ "New York City Police Finally Apologize for Stonewall Raids". advocate.com. June 6, 2019. Retrieved June 6, 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    29 June 2007Apple Inc. releases its first mobile phone, the iPhone.

    IPhone

    The iPhone is a line of touchscreen-based smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. that use Apple's iOS mobile operating system. The first-generation iPhone was announced by Apple co-founder Steve Jobs on January 9, 2007. Since then Apple has annually released new iPhone models and iOS updates. As of November 1, 2018, more than 2.2 billion iPhones had been sold.

    The iPhone's user interface is built around a multi-touch screen with a virtual keyboard. The iPhone connects to cellular networks or Wi-Fi, and can make calls, browse the web, take pictures, play music and send and receive emails and text messages. Since the iPhone's launch further features have been added, including larger screen sizes, shooting video, waterproofing and the ability to install third-party mobile apps through an app store, as well as accessibility support. Up to 2017, iPhones used a layout with a single button on the front panel that returns the user to the home screen. Since 2017, more expensive iPhone models have switched to a nearly bezel-less front screen design with app switching activated by gesture recognition.

    The first-generation iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry and subsequent models have also garnered praise. The iPhone has been credited with popularizing the smartphone and slate form factor, and with creating a large market for smartphone apps, or "app economy". As of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications for the iPhone.

    The iPhone is one of the two largest smartphone platforms in the world alongside Google's Android, forming a large part of the luxury market. The iPhone has generated large profits for Apple, making it one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies.

    1. ^ "How Many iPhones have been sold". Lifewire. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
    2. ^ "Under the Hood: The iPhone's Gaming Mettle". Touch Arcade. June 14, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    3. ^ "The iPhone 3GS Hardware Exposed & Analyzed". AnandTech. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    4. ^ "iPhone 4 Teardown – Page 2". iFixit. June 24, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    5. ^ Toor, Amar (October 11, 2011). "Benchmarks clock iPhone 4S' A5 CPU at 800MHz, show major GPU upgrade over iPhone 4". Engadget. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
    6. ^ a b "iPhone 7 & 7 Plus". GSMArena. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
    7. ^ "iPhone 5 – View all the technical specifications". Apple Inc. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    8. ^ "iPhone Delivers Up to Eight Hours of Talk Time" (Press release). Apple Inc. June 18, 2007. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011.
    9. ^ Slivka, Eric (June 10, 2009). "More WWDC Tidbits: iPhone 3G S Oleophobic Screen, "Find My iPhone" Live lLP". Mac Rumors. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
    10. ^ Po-Han Lin. "iPhone Secrets and iPad Secrets and iPod Touch Secrets". Technology Depot. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
    11. ^ "Update: UK graphics specialist confirms that iPhone design win". EE Times. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2007.
    12. ^ a b Shimpi, Anand (June 10, 2009). "The iPhone 3GS Hardware Exposed & Analyzed". AnandTech. Retrieved June 10, 2009.
      Sorrel, Charlie (June 10, 2009). "Gadget Lab Hardware News and Reviews T-Mobile Accidentally Posts Secret iPhone 3G S Specs". Wired. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
    13. ^ a b "Apple A4 Teardown". ifixit.com. June 10, 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
    14. ^ "A9's GPU: Imagination PowerVR GT7600 – The Apple iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus Review". AnandTech. November 2, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
     
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    30 June 1953 – The first Chevrolet Corvette rolls off the assembly line in Flint, Michigan.

    Chevrolet Corvette

    The Chevrolet Corvette, colloquially known as the "Vette",[1] is a two-door, two-passenger sports car manufactured and marketed by Chevrolet across more than 60 years of production and eight design generations.[2][3] From 1953 to 2019, it was front-engined, and since 2020, it is mid-engined.[4] With its generations noted sequentially from C1 to C8, the Corvette serves as Chevrolet's halo vehicle and is widely noted for its performance and distinctive plastic—either fiberglass or composite—bodywork.

    In 1953, when GM executives were looking to name the new Chevrolet sports car, assistant director for the Public Relations department Myron Scott suggested Corvette after the small maneuverable warship—and the name was approved.[5] The first model, a convertible, was introduced at the GM Motorama in 1953 as a concept and was followed ten years later by the 1963 second generation, in coupe and convertible styles. Originally manufactured in Flint, Michigan, as well as St. Louis, Missouri, the Corvette has been manufactured since 1981 in Bowling Green, Kentucky.

    The Corvette has since become widely known as "America's Sports Car."[6] Automotive News said that after 'starring' in the early 1960s television show Route 66, the Corvette became synonymous with freedom and adventure," ultimately becoming both "the most successful concept car in history and the most popular sports car in history."[7]

    1. ^ "Vette magazine - Super Chevy".
    2. ^ "2017 Corvette Stingray: Sports Cars - Chevrolet".
    3. ^ Ray Miller; Glenn Embree (1975). The Real Corvette: An Illustrated History of Chevrolet's Sports Car. ISBN 978-0913056066.
    4. ^ Capparella, Joey (11 April 2019). "The Mid-Engined 2020 Chevrolet Corvette C8 Is Real, GM Confesses, and It Will Debut July 18". Car and Driver. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
    5. ^ Falconer, Tom (2003). The Complete Corvette. Crestline. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7603-1474-6. Retrieved Sep 30, 2012.
    6. ^ Thos L. Bryant (November 6, 2012). "America's Sports Car". Road & Track.
    7. ^ Jerry Burton (October 31, 2011). "Corvette: A pop culture classic". Automotive News.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    1
    1 July 1903 – Start of first Tour de France bicycle race.

    1903 Tour de France

    The 1903 Tour de France was the first cycling race set up and sponsored by the newspaper L'Auto, ancestor of the current daily, L'Équipe. It ran from 1 to 19 July in six stages over 2,428 km (1,509 mi), and was won by Maurice Garin.[1]

    The race was invented to boost the circulation of L'Auto, after its circulation started to plummet from competition with the long-standing Le Vélo. Originally scheduled to start in June, the race was postponed one month, and the prize money was increased, after a disappointing level of applications from competitors. The 1903 Tour de France was the first stage road race, and compared to modern Grand Tours, it had relatively few stages, but each was much longer than those raced today. The cyclists did not have to compete in all six stages, although this was necessary to qualify for the general classification.

    The pre-race favourite, Maurice Garin, won the first stage, and retained the lead throughout. He also won the last two stages, and had a margin of almost three hours over the next cyclist. The circulation of L'Auto increased more than sixfold during and after the race, so the race was considered successful enough to be rerun in 1904, by which time Le Vélo had been forced out of business.

    1. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 108.
     
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    2 July 2016Suicide bombing of Karrada in Baghdad kills at least 341 people.

    2016 Karrada bombing

    On 3 July 2016, ISIL militants carried out coordinated bomb attacks in Baghdad that killed 340 civilians and injured hundreds more.[3] A few minutes after midnight local time (2 July, 21:00 UTC), a suicide truck-bomb targeted the mainly Shia district of Karrada, busy with late night shoppers for Ramadan. A second roadside bomb was detonated in the suburb of Sha'ab, killing at least five.

    ISIL issued a statement claiming responsibility for the attack, naming the suicide bomber as Abu Maha al-Iraqi. There were reports that the source of the blast was a refrigerator van packed with explosives. The explosion caused a huge fire on the main street. Several buildings, including the popular Hadi Center, were badly damaged. The bombing is the second-worst suicide attack in Iraq by death toll after the 2007 Yazidi communities bombings and the deadliest terrorist attack in Iraq carried out by a single bomber.

    1. ^ "Baghdad blast killed 292, many burned alive". AFP. 7 July 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Guardian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "In Iraq, terrorism's victims go unnamed". CNN. January 12, 2017.
     
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    3 July 1996 – British Prime Minister John Major announced the Stone of Scone would be returned to Scotland.

    Stone of Scone

    Replica of the Stone of Scone, Scone Palace

    The Stone of Scone (/ˈskn/; Scottish Gaelic: An Lia Fáil, Scots: Stane o Scuin)—also known as the Stone of Destiny, and often referred to in England as The Coronation Stone—is an oblong block of red sandstone that has been used for centuries in the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland, and later also when the monarchs of Scotland became monarchs of England as well as in the coronations of the monarchs of Great Britain and latterly of the United Kingdom following the treaties of union. Historically, the artefact was kept at the now-ruined Scone Abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. It is also known as Jacob's Pillow Stone and the Tanist Stone, and in Scottish Gaelic, clach-na-cinneamhain. Its size is 66 cm (26 in) by 42.5 cm (16.7 in) by 26.7 cm (10.5 in) and its weight is approximately 152 kg (335 lb). A roughly incised cross is on one surface, and an iron ring at each end aids with transport.[1] The Stone of Scone was last used in 1953 for the coronation of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    1. ^ "The stone of Destiny". English Monarchs. www.englishmonarcs.co.uk. 2004–2005. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
     
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    1
    4 July 1997NASA's Pathfinder space probe lands on the surface of Mars.

    Mars Pathfinder

    Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder)[1][4] is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997. It consisted of a lander, renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station, and a lightweight (10.6 kg/23 lb) wheeled robotic Mars rover named Sojourner,[5] which became the first rover to operate outside the Earth–Moon system.

    Launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II booster a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched, it landed on July 4, 1997 on Mars's Ares Vallis, in a region called Chryse Planitia in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. The lander then opened, exposing the rover which conducted many experiments on the Martian surface. The mission carried a series of scientific instruments to analyze the Martian atmosphere, climate, and geology and the composition of its rocks and soil. It was the second project from NASA's Discovery Program, which promotes the use of low-cost spacecraft and frequent launches under the motto "cheaper, faster and better" promoted by then-administrator Daniel Goldin. The mission was directed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology, responsible for NASA's Mars Exploration Program. The project manager was JPL's Tony Spear.

    This mission was the first of a series of missions to Mars that included rovers, and was the first successful lander since the two Vikings landed on the red planet in 1976. Although the Soviet Union successfully sent rovers to the Moon as part of the Lunokhod program in the 1970s, its attempts to use rovers in its Mars program failed.

    In addition to scientific objectives, the Mars Pathfinder mission was also a "proof-of-concept" for various technologies, such as airbag-mediated touchdown and automated obstacle avoidance, both later exploited by the Mars Exploration Rover mission. The Mars Pathfinder was also remarkable for its extremely low cost relative to other robotic space missions to Mars. Originally, the mission was conceived as the first of the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) program.

    1. ^ a b Nelson, Jon. "Mars Pathfinder / Sojourner Rover". NASA. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    2. ^ a b "Mars Pathfinder Fact Sheet". NASA/JPL. March 19, 2005. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
    3. ^ Conway, Erik (2015). "The Discovery Program: Mars Pathfinder". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
    4. ^ Sawyer, Kathy (November 13, 1993). "One Way or Another, Space Agency Will Hitch a Ride to Mars". Washington Post. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
    5. ^ "Mars Pathfinder". NASA. Archived from the original on November 12, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
     
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    Articles:
    1
    4 July 1997NASA's Pathfinder space probe lands on the surface of Mars.

    Mars Pathfinder

    Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder)[1][4] is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997. It consisted of a lander, renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station, and a lightweight (10.6 kg/23 lb) wheeled robotic Mars rover named Sojourner,[5] which became the first rover to operate outside the Earth–Moon system.

    Launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II booster a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched, it landed on July 4, 1997 on Mars's Ares Vallis, in a region called Chryse Planitia in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. The lander then opened, exposing the rover which conducted many experiments on the Martian surface. The mission carried a series of scientific instruments to analyze the Martian atmosphere, climate, and geology and the composition of its rocks and soil. It was the second project from NASA's Discovery Program, which promotes the use of low-cost spacecraft and frequent launches under the motto "cheaper, faster and better" promoted by then-administrator Daniel Goldin. The mission was directed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology, responsible for NASA's Mars Exploration Program. The project manager was JPL's Tony Spear.

    This mission was the first of a series of missions to Mars that included rovers, and was the first successful lander since the two Vikings landed on the red planet in 1976. Although the Soviet Union successfully sent rovers to the Moon as part of the Lunokhod program in the 1970s, its attempts to use rovers in its Mars program failed.

    In addition to scientific objectives, the Mars Pathfinder mission was also a "proof-of-concept" for various technologies, such as airbag-mediated touchdown and automated obstacle avoidance, both later exploited by the Mars Exploration Rover mission. The Mars Pathfinder was also remarkable for its extremely low cost relative to other robotic space missions to Mars. Originally, the mission was conceived as the first of the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) program.

    1. ^ a b Nelson, Jon. "Mars Pathfinder / Sojourner Rover". NASA. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    2. ^ a b "Mars Pathfinder Fact Sheet". NASA/JPL. March 19, 2005. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
    3. ^ Conway, Erik (2015). "The Discovery Program: Mars Pathfinder". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
    4. ^ Sawyer, Kathy (November 13, 1993). "One Way or Another, Space Agency Will Hitch a Ride to Mars". Washington Post. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
    5. ^ "Mars Pathfinder". NASA. Archived from the original on November 12, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
     
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    1
    5 July 1954 – The BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin.

    BBC

    The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London, it is the world's oldest national broadcaster,[3] and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees.[4] It employs over 22,000 staff in total, more than 16,000 of whom are in public sector broadcasting.[5][6][7][8] The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff are included.[9]

    The BBC is established under a Royal Charter[10] and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.[11] Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee[12] which is charged to all British households, companies, and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up.[13] The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament,[14] and used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, and online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has also funded the BBC World Service (launched in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service), which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, radio, and online services in Arabic and Persian.

    Around a quarter of BBC's revenue comes from its commercial subsidiary BBC Studios (formerly BBC Worldwide), which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and also distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, and from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. In 2009, the company was awarded the Queen's Award for Enterprise in recognition of its international achievements.[15]

    From its inception, through the Second World War (where its broadcasts helped to unite the nation), to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British life and culture.[16] It is also known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both (as "Auntie Beeb").[17][18]

    1. ^ a b c d e "BBC annual report 2019" (PDF). BBC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
    2. ^ "BBC – BBC Charter and Agreement – About the BBC". www.bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
    3. ^ "BBC History – The BBC takes to the Airwaves". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2007.
    4. ^ "BBC: World's largest broadcaster & Most trusted media brand". Media Newsline. 13 August 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
    5. ^ "BBC Full Financial Statements 2013/14" (PDF). BBC Annual Report and Accounts 2013/14. BBC. July 2014. p. 37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
    6. ^ "Digital licence". Prospect. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
    7. ^ "About the BBC – What is the BBC". BBC Online. Archived from the original on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
    8. ^ "BBC Annual report 2013/14" (PDF). BBC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
    9. ^ Hacker, James (4 February 2014). "Freedom of Information Request-RFI20150047". British Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
    10. ^ Andrews, Leighton (2005). Harris, Phil; Fleisher, Craig S. (eds.). "A UK Case: Lobbying for a new BBC Charter". The handbook of public affairs. SAGE. pp. 247–48. ISBN 978-0-7619-4393-8.
    11. ^ "BBC – Governance – Annual Report 2013/14". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
    12. ^ "BBC Annual Report & Accounts 2008/9: FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE". Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
    13. ^ "TV Licensing: Legislation and policy". Archived from the original on 29 January 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
    14. ^ "BBC Press Office: TV Licence Fee: facts & figures". Archived from the original on 7 September 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
    15. ^ Shearman, Sarah (21 April 2009). "BBC Worldwide wins Queen's Enterprise award". MediaWeek. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
    16. ^ "The importance of the BBC". Parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019. Government recognises the enormous contribution that the BBC has made to British life and culture, both at home and abroad.
    17. ^ "Jack Jackson: Rhythm And Radio Fun Remembered". BBC. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
    18. ^ "Top of the Pops 2 – Top 5". BBC. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
     
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    5 July 1954 – The BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin.

    BBC

    The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London, it is the world's oldest national broadcaster,[3] and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees.[4] It employs over 22,000 staff in total, more than 16,000 of whom are in public sector broadcasting.[5][6][7][8] The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff are included.[9]

    The BBC is established under a Royal Charter[10] and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.[11] Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee[12] which is charged to all British households, companies, and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up.[13] The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament,[14] and used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, and online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has also funded the BBC World Service (launched in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service), which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, radio, and online services in Arabic and Persian.

    Around a quarter of BBC's revenue comes from its commercial subsidiary BBC Studios (formerly BBC Worldwide), which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and also distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, and from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. In 2009, the company was awarded the Queen's Award for Enterprise in recognition of its international achievements.[15]

    From its inception, through the Second World War (where its broadcasts helped to unite the nation), to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British life and culture.[16] It is also known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both (as "Auntie Beeb").[17][18]

    1. ^ a b c d e "BBC annual report 2019" (PDF). BBC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
    2. ^ "BBC – BBC Charter and Agreement – About the BBC". www.bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
    3. ^ "BBC History – The BBC takes to the Airwaves". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2007.
    4. ^ "BBC: World's largest broadcaster & Most trusted media brand". Media Newsline. 13 August 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
    5. ^ "BBC Full Financial Statements 2013/14" (PDF). BBC Annual Report and Accounts 2013/14. BBC. July 2014. p. 37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
    6. ^ "Digital licence". Prospect. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
    7. ^ "About the BBC – What is the BBC". BBC Online. Archived from the original on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
    8. ^ "BBC Annual report 2013/14" (PDF). BBC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
    9. ^ Hacker, James (4 February 2014). "Freedom of Information Request-RFI20150047". British Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
    10. ^ Andrews, Leighton (2005). Harris, Phil; Fleisher, Craig S. (eds.). "A UK Case: Lobbying for a new BBC Charter". The handbook of public affairs. SAGE. pp. 247–48. ISBN 978-0-7619-4393-8.
    11. ^ "BBC – Governance – Annual Report 2013/14". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
    12. ^ "BBC Annual Report & Accounts 2008/9: FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE". Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
    13. ^ "TV Licensing: Legislation and policy". Archived from the original on 29 January 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
    14. ^ "BBC Press Office: TV Licence Fee: facts & figures". Archived from the original on 7 September 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
    15. ^ Shearman, Sarah (21 April 2009). "BBC Worldwide wins Queen's Enterprise award". MediaWeek. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
    16. ^ "The importance of the BBC". Parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019. Government recognises the enormous contribution that the BBC has made to British life and culture, both at home and abroad.
    17. ^ "Jack Jackson: Rhythm And Radio Fun Remembered". BBC. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
    18. ^ "Top of the Pops 2 – Top 5". BBC. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
     
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    6 July 1947 – The AK-47 goes into production in the Soviet Union.

    AK-47

    The AK-47, officially known as the Avtomat Kalashnikova (Russian: Автома́т Кала́шникова, tr. Avtomát Kaláshnikova, lit. 'Kalashnikov’s automatic device'; also known as the Kalashnikov and AK), is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is the originating firearm of the Kalashnikov rifle (or "AK") family. 47 refers to the year it was finished.

    Design work on the AK-47 began in 1945. In 1946, the AK-47 was presented for official military trials, and in 1948, the fixed-stock version was introduced into active service with selected units of the Soviet Army. An early development of the design was the AKS (S—Skladnoy or "folding"), which was equipped with an underfolding metal shoulder stock. In early 1949, the AK-47 was officially accepted by the Soviet Armed Forces[9] and used by the majority of the member states of the Warsaw Pact.

    Even after seven decades, the model and its variants remain the most popular and widely used rifles in the world because of its reliability under harsh conditions, low production costs compared to contemporary Western weapons, availability in virtually every geographic region, and ease of use. The AK-47 has been manufactured in many countries and has seen service with armed forces as well as irregular forces and insurgencies worldwide, and was the basis for developing many other types of individual, crew-served and specialised firearms. As of 2004, "Of the estimated 500 million firearms worldwide, approximately 100 million belong to the Kalashnikov family, three-quarters of which are AK-47s".[4]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=N> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=N}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Monetchikov 2005, chpts. 6 and 7: (if AK-46 and AK-47 are to be seen as separate designs).
    2. ^ Ezell, Edward Clinton (1986). The AK47 Story, Evolution of the Kalashnikov Weapons. Stackpole Books. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-811709163.
    3. ^ Poyer, Joe (2004). The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations. North Cape Publications inc. p. 8. ISBN 1-882391-33-0.
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference k3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference foxnews was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ a b НСД. 7,62-мм автомат АК 1967, pp. 161–162.
    7. ^ a b НСД. 7,62-мм автомат АКМ (АКМС) 1983, pp. 149–150.
    8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cite error: The named reference izhmash was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Monetchikov 2005, p. 67; Bolotin 1995, p. 129.
     
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    6 July 1947 – The AK-47 goes into production in the Soviet Union.

    AK-47

    The AK-47, officially known as the Avtomat Kalashnikova (Russian: Автома́т Кала́шникова, tr. Avtomát Kaláshnikova, lit. 'Kalashnikov’s automatic device'; also known as the Kalashnikov and AK), is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is the originating firearm of the Kalashnikov rifle (or "AK") family. 47 refers to the year it was finished.

    Design work on the AK-47 began in 1945. In 1946, the AK-47 was presented for official military trials, and in 1948, the fixed-stock version was introduced into active service with selected units of the Soviet Army. An early development of the design was the AKS (S—Skladnoy or "folding"), which was equipped with an underfolding metal shoulder stock. In early 1949, the AK-47 was officially accepted by the Soviet Armed Forces[9] and used by the majority of the member states of the Warsaw Pact.

    Even after seven decades, the model and its variants remain the most popular and widely used rifles in the world because of its reliability under harsh conditions, low production costs compared to contemporary Western weapons, availability in virtually every geographic region, and ease of use. The AK-47 has been manufactured in many countries and has seen service with armed forces as well as irregular forces and insurgencies worldwide, and was the basis for developing many other types of individual, crew-served and specialised firearms. As of 2004, "Of the estimated 500 million firearms worldwide, approximately 100 million belong to the Kalashnikov family, three-quarters of which are AK-47s".[4]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=N> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=N}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Monetchikov 2005, chpts. 6 and 7: (if AK-46 and AK-47 are to be seen as separate designs).
    2. ^ Ezell, Edward Clinton (1986). The AK47 Story, Evolution of the Kalashnikov Weapons. Stackpole Books. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-811709163.
    3. ^ Poyer, Joe (2004). The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations. North Cape Publications inc. p. 8. ISBN 1-882391-33-0.
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference k3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference foxnews was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ a b НСД. 7,62-мм автомат АК 1967, pp. 161–162.
    7. ^ a b НСД. 7,62-мм автомат АКМ (АКМС) 1983, pp. 149–150.
    8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cite error: The named reference izhmash was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Monetchikov 2005, p. 67; Bolotin 1995, p. 129.
     
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    7 July 1980 – Institution of sharia law in Iran.

    Sharia

    Sharia (/ʃəˈrə/, Arabic: شريعة[ʃaˈriːʕah]), Islamic law is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.[1][2] It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations.[3][4][5] The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim fundamentalists and modernists.[6][1]

    Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of Sharia: the Quran, sunnah (authentic hadith), qiyas (analogical reasoning),[note 1] and ijma (juridical consensus).[8] Different legal schools—of which the most prominent are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari—developed methodologies for deriving Sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad.[3][4] Traditional jurisprudence (fiqh) distinguishes two principal branches of law, ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics.[3][5] Its rulings are concerned with ethical standards as much as with legal norms,[9][10] assigning actions to one of five categories: mandatory, recommended, neutral, abhorred, and prohibited.[3][4][5] Thus, some areas of Sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God's will.[4]

    Classical jurisprudence was elaborated by private religious scholars, largely through legal opinions (fatwas) issued by qualified jurists (muftis). It was historically applied in Sharia courts by ruler-appointed judges, who dealt mainly with civil disputes and community affairs.[3][5] Sultanic courts, the police and market inspectors administered criminal justice, which was influenced by Sharia but not bound by its rules.[11][5] Non-Muslim (dhimmi) communities had legal autonomy to adjudicate their internal affairs.[4] Over the centuries, Sunni muftis were gradually incorporated into state bureaucracies,[12] and fiqh was complemented by various economic, criminal and administrative laws issued by Muslim rulers.[13] The Ottoman civil code of 1869–1876 was the first partial attempt to codify Sharia.[14]

    In the modern era, traditional laws in the Muslim world have been widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models.[4][15] Judicial procedures and legal education were likewise brought in line with European practice.[4] While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to Sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws.[4] Legislators who codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence.[4][14] The Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of Sharia, including hudud corporal punishments, such as stoning.[4][14] In some cases, this resulted in traditionalist legal reform, while other countries witnessed juridical reinterpretation of Sharia advocated by progressive reformers.[4][14][16] Some Muslim-minority countries recognize the use of Sharia-based family laws for their Muslim populations.[17][18] Sharia also continues to influence other aspects of private and public life.

    The role of Sharia has become a contested topic around the world.[4] Introduction of Sharia-based laws sparked intercommunal violence in Nigeria[19][20] and may have contributed to the breakup of Sudan.[4] Some jurisdictions in North America have passed bans on use of Sharia, framed as restrictions on religious or foreign laws.[21] There are ongoing debates as to whether Sharia is compatible with democracy, human rights, freedom of thought, women's rights, LGBT rights, and banking.[22][23][24]

    1. ^ a b "British & World English: sharia". Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
    2. ^ Editors, History com. "Islam". HISTORY. Retrieved 24 January 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    3. ^ a b c d e John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Islamic Law". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
    4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Vikør 2014.
    5. ^ a b c d e Calder 2009.
    6. ^ Amanat 2009: "Muslim fundamentalists [...] claim that Shari’a and its sources [...] constitute a divine law that regulates all aspects of Muslim life, as well as Muslim societies and Muslim states [...]. Muslim modernists, [...] on the other hand, criticize the old approaches to Shari’a by traditional Muslim jurists as obsolete and instead advocate innovative approaches to Shari’a that accommodate more pluralist and relativist views within a democratic framework."
    7. ^ Schneider 2014.
    8. ^ John L. Esposito, Natana J. DeLong-Bas (2001), Women in Muslim family law Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 2. Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085. Quote: "[...], by the ninth century, the classical theory of law fixed the sources of Islamic law at four: the Quran, the Sunnah of the Prophet, qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (consensus)."
    9. ^ Coulson & El Shamsy 2019.
    10. ^ Hallaq 2010, p. 145.
    11. ^ Ziadeh 2009c.
    12. ^ Dallal & Hendrickson 2009.
    13. ^ Stewart 2013, p. 500.
    14. ^ a b c d Mayer 2009.
    15. ^ Otto 2008, p. 19.
    16. ^ Rabb 2009d.
    17. ^ Otto 2008, pp. 18–20.
    18. ^ Stahnke, Tad and Robert C. Blitt (2005), "The Religion-State Relationship and the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Comparative Textual Analysis of the Constitutions of Predominantly Muslim Countries." Georgetown Journal of International Law, volume 36, issue 4; also see Sharia Law profile by Country Archived 16 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Emory University (2011)
    19. ^ Staff (3 January 2003). "Analysis: Nigeria's Sharia Split" Archived 12 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2011. "Thousands of people have been killed in fighting between Christians and Muslims following the introduction of sharia punishments in northern Nigerian states over the past three years [...] human rights' groups have complained that these religious laws are archaic and unjust, and create an atmosphere of intimidation against Christians - even though they are not subject to the Sharia.".
    20. ^ Harnischfeger, Johannes (2008).
       • p. 16. "When the Governor of Kaduna announced the introduction of Sharia, although non-Muslims form almost half of the population, violence erupted, leaving more than 1,000 people dead."
       • p. 189. "When a violent confrontation loomed in February 200, because the strong Christian minority in Kaduna was unwilling to accept the proposed sharia law, the sultan and his delegation of 18 emirs went to see the governor and insisted on the passage of the bill."
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference thomas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ An-Na'im, Abdullahi A (1996). "Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights". In Witte, John; van der Vyver, Johan D. (eds.). Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives. pp. 337–59. ISBN 978-9041101792.
    23. ^ Hajjar, Lisa (2004). "Religion, State Power, and Domestic Violence in Muslim Societies: A Framework for Comparative Analysis". Law & Social Inquiry. 29 (1): 1–38. doi:10.1111/j.1747-4469.2004.tb00329.x. JSTOR 4092696.
    24. ^ Al-Suwaidi, J. (1995). Arab and western conceptions of democracy; in Democracy, war, and peace in the Middle East (Editors: David Garnham, Mark A. Tessler), Indiana University Press, see Chapters 5 and 6; ISBN 978-0253209399[page needed]


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    8 July 1947 – Reports are broadcast that a UFO crash landed in Roswell, New Mexico in what became known as the Roswell UFO incident.

    Roswell UFO incident

    In mid-1947, a United States Army Air Forces balloon crashed at a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico.[1] Following wide initial interest in the crashed "flying disc", the US military stated that it was merely a conventional weather balloon.[2] Interest subsequently waned until the late 1970s, when ufologists began promoting a variety of increasingly elaborate conspiracy theories, claiming that one or more alien spacecraft had crash-landed and that the extraterrestrial occupants had been recovered by the military, which then engaged in a cover-up.

    In the 1990s, the US military published two reports disclosing the true nature of the crashed object: a nuclear test surveillance balloon from Project Mogul. Nevertheless, the Roswell incident continues to be of interest in popular media, and conspiracy theories surrounding the event persist. Roswell has been described as "the world's most famous, most exhaustively investigated, and most thoroughly debunked UFO claim".[3]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference olmsted184 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference olmsted was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference ARoswellRequiem was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    9 July 1900 – The Federation of Australia is given royal assent.

    Federation of Australia

    The Sydney Town Hall illuminated in celebratory lights and fireworks marking the Inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1901. The sign reads One people, one destiny.

    The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia. The colonies of Fiji and New Zealand were originally part of this process, but they decided not to join the federation.[1] Following federation, the six colonies that united to form the Commonwealth of Australia as states kept the systems of government (and the bicameral legislatures) that they had developed as separate colonies, but they also agreed to have a federal government that was responsible for matters concerning the whole nation. When the Constitution of Australia came into force, on 1 January 1901, the colonies collectively became states of the Commonwealth of Australia.

    The efforts to bring about federation in the mid-19th century were dogged by the lack of popular support for the movement. A number of conventions were held during the 1890s to develop a constitution for the Commonwealth. Sir Henry Parkes, Premier of the Colony of New South Wales, was instrumental in this process. Sir Edmund Barton, second only to Parkes in the length of his commitment to the federation cause, was the caretaker Prime Minister of Australia at the inaugural national election in 1901 in March 1901. The election returned Barton as prime minister, though without a majority.

    This period has lent its name to an architectural style prevalent in Australia at that time, known as Federation architecture, or Federation style.

    1. ^ "Fiji and Australian Federation. – (From the Herald's own Correspondent.) Melbourne, Monday". The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser. 25 October 1883. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
     
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    9 July 1900 – The Federation of Australia is given royal assent.

    Federation of Australia

    The Sydney Town Hall illuminated in celebratory lights and fireworks marking the Inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1901. The sign reads One people, one destiny.

    The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia. The colonies of Fiji and New Zealand were originally part of this process, but they decided not to join the federation.[1] Following federation, the six colonies that united to form the Commonwealth of Australia as states kept the systems of government (and the bicameral legislatures) that they had developed as separate colonies, but they also agreed to have a federal government that was responsible for matters concerning the whole nation. When the Constitution of Australia came into force, on 1 January 1901, the colonies collectively became states of the Commonwealth of Australia.

    The efforts to bring about federation in the mid-19th century were dogged by the lack of popular support for the movement. A number of conventions were held during the 1890s to develop a constitution for the Commonwealth. Sir Henry Parkes, Premier of the Colony of New South Wales, was instrumental in this process. Sir Edmund Barton, second only to Parkes in the length of his commitment to the federation cause, was the caretaker Prime Minister of Australia at the inaugural national election in 1901 in March 1901. The election returned Barton as prime minister, though without a majority.

    This period has lent its name to an architectural style prevalent in Australia at that time, known as Federation architecture, or Federation style.

    1. ^ "Fiji and Australian Federation. – (From the Herald's own Correspondent.) Melbourne, Monday". The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser. 25 October 1883. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
     
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    10 July 1985 – The Greenpeace vessel Rainbow Warrior is bombed and sunk in Auckland harbour by French DGSE agents, killing Fernando Pereira.

    Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior

    The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, codenamed Opération Satanique,[1] was a bombing operation by the "action" branch of the French foreign intelligence services, the Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure (DGSE), carried out on 10 July 1985. During the operation, two operatives sank the flagship of the Greenpeace fleet, the Rainbow Warrior, at the Port of Auckland in New Zealand on its way to a protest against a planned French nuclear test in Moruroa. Fernando Pereira, a photographer, drowned on the sinking ship.

    France initially denied responsibility, but two French agents were captured by New Zealand Police and charged with arson, conspiracy to commit arson, willful damage, and murder. As the truth came out, the scandal resulted in the resignation of the French Defence Minister Charles Hernu. The two agents pleaded guilty to manslaughter and were sentenced to ten years in prison. They spent a little over two years confined to the French island of Hao before being freed by the French government.[2]

    Several political figures, including then New Zealand Prime Minister David Lange, have referred to the bombing as an act of terrorism[3] or state-sponsored terrorism.[4][5][6]

    1. ^ Bremner, Charles (11 July 2005). "Mitterrand ordered bombing of Rainbow Warrior, spy chief says". The Times. London. Retrieved 16 November 2006.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference UN was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Brown, Paul; Evans, Rob (23 August 2005). "How Rainbow Warrior was played down". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
    4. ^ Page, Campbell; Templeton, Ian (24 September 1985). "French inquiry into Rainbow Warrior bombing". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
    5. ^ "Reality behind the Rainbow Warrior outrage". The New Zealand Herald. 2 July 2005. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
    6. ^ Conte, Alex (2010). Human Rights in the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism: Commonwealth Approaches: The United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 86. ISBN 9783642116087.
     
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    11 July 1922 – The Hollywood Bowl opens.

    Hollywood Bowl

    The Hollywood Bowl is an amphitheatre in the Hollywood Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. It was named one of the 10 best live music venues in America by Rolling Stone magazine in 2018.[1]

    The Hollywood Bowl is known for its band shell, a distinctive set of concentric arches that graced the site from 1929 through 2003, before being replaced with a larger one beginning in the 2004 season. The shell is set against the backdrop of the Hollywood Hills and the famous Hollywood Sign to the northeast.

    The "bowl" refers to the shape of the concave hillside the amphitheater is carved into. The Bowl is owned by the County of Los Angeles and is the home of the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, the summer home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and the host venue to hundreds of musical events each year.[2][citation needed]

    It is located at 2301 North Highland Avenue, west of the (former) French Village,[3][4] north of Hollywood Boulevard and the Hollywood/Highland subway station, and south of Route 101.

    1. ^ Staff (13 December 2018). "10 Best Live Music Venues in America. From big rooms to intimate spaces, here's a selection of some of the country's best live music spots". Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
    2. ^ "Hollywood Bowl History". Hollywood Bowl. Retrieved 2019-03-06.
    3. ^ "The Lost French Village of Hollywood". 2010-12-09.
    4. ^ https://martinturnbull.com/2014/11/22/the-french-village-corner-of-highland-ave-cahuenga-blvd/
     
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    12 July 2006 – The 2006 Lebanon War begins.

    2006 Lebanon War

    Smoke over Haifa, Israel, after a rocket launched by Hezbollah hit the city near Bnei-Zion hospital

    The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War[47] and known in Lebanon as the July War[2] (Arabic: حرب تموز‎, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (Hebrew: מלחמת לבנון השנייה‎, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya),[48] was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). The conflict started on 12 July 2006, and continued until a United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect in the morning on 14 August 2006, though it formally ended on 8 September 2006 when Israel lifted its naval blockade of Lebanon. Due to unprecedented Iranian military support to Hezbollah before and during the war, some consider it the first round of the Iran–Israel proxy conflict, rather than a continuation of the Arab–Israeli conflict.[5]

    The conflict was precipitated by the 2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid. On 12 July 2006, Hezbollah fighters fired rockets at Israeli border towns as a diversion for an anti-tank missile attack on two armored Humvees patrolling the Israeli side of the border fence.[49] The ambush left three soldiers dead. Two Israeli soldiers were abducted and taken by Hezbollah to Lebanon.[49][50] Five more were killed in Lebanon, in a failed rescue attempt. Hezbollah demanded the release of Lebanese prisoners held by Israel in exchange for the release of the abducted soldiers.[51] Israel refused and responded with airstrikes and artillery fire on targets in Lebanon. Israel attacked both Hezbollah military targets and Lebanese civilian infrastructure, including Beirut's Rafic Hariri International Airport.[52] The IDF launched a ground invasion of Southern Lebanon. Israel also imposed an air and naval blockade.[53] Hezbollah then launched more rockets into northern Israel and engaged the IDF in guerrilla warfare from hardened positions.[54]

    The conflict is believed to have killed between 1,191 and 1,300 Lebanese people,[55][56][57][58] and 165 Israelis.[59] It severely damaged Lebanese civil infrastructure, and displaced approximately one million Lebanese[60] and 300,000–500,000 Israelis.[61][62][63]

    On 11 August 2006, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 (UNSCR 1701) in an effort to end the hostilities. The resolution, which was approved by both the Lebanese and Israeli governments the following days, called for disarmament of Hezbollah, for withdrawal of the IDF from Lebanon, and for the deployment of the Lebanese Armed Forces and an enlarged United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the south. UNIFIL was given an expanded mandate, including the ability to use force to ensure that their area of operations was not used for hostile activities, and to resist attempts by force to prevent them from discharging their duties.[64] The Lebanese Army began deploying in Southern Lebanon on 17 August 2006. The blockade was lifted on 8 September 2006.[65] On 1 October 2006, most Israeli troops withdrew from Lebanon, although the last of the troops continued to occupy the border-straddling village of Ghajar.[66] In the time since the enactment of UNSCR 1701 both the Lebanese government and UNIFIL have stated that they will not disarm Hezbollah.[67][68][69] The remains of the two captured soldiers, whose fates were unknown, were returned to Israel on 16 July 2008 as part of a prisoner exchange.

    1. ^ "Rebuilding and Security in Focus". Wall Street Journal. 11 September 2006. Archived from the original on 18 February 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
    2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference DailyStarTimeline was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Herbert Docena (17 August 2006). "Amid the bombs, unity is forged". Asia Times. Retrieved 25 November 2011. The LCP ... has itself been very close to Hezbollah and fought alongside it in the frontlines in the south. According to Hadadeh, at least 12 LCP members and supporters died in the fighting.
    4. ^ "PFLP claims losses in IDF strike on Lebanon base". The Jerusalem Post. Associated Press. 6 August 2006. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012.
    5. ^ a b c Eyal Zisser (May 2011). "Iranian Involvement in Lebanon" (PDF). Military and Strategic Affairs. 3 (1). Retrieved 8 December 2015.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference iht_vio_challenge was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Uzi Rubin. The Rocket Campaign against Israel during the 2006 Lebanon War. p. 12. The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies Bar-Ilan University
    8. ^ Matthews, Matt M. We Were Caught Unprepared: The 2006 Hezbollah-Israeli War, DIANE Publishing, 2011.
    9. ^ "Both Hezbollah and Israeli Leaders Declare Victory". 25 March 2015.
    10. ^ "Israeli Gains in the Second Lebanon War". Retrieved 13 October 2015.
    11. ^ "Israel captures guerillas in Hezbollah hospital raid", USA Today, Beirut: reprinted from the Associated Press, 2 August 2006, retrieved 12 September 2015
    12. ^ "Some 30,000 Israeli troops in Lebanon – army radio". Yahoo! News. Reuters. 13 August 2006. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008.
    13. ^ Nicholas Blanford (11 August 2006). "Hizbullah's resilience built on years of homework". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
    14. ^ Harel and Issacharoff, p. 172
    15. ^ "The Final Winograd Commission report, pp. 598–610" (PDF) (in Hebrew). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 628 wounded according to Northern Command medical census of 9 November 2006 (The Final Winograd Commission Report, page 353)
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference books.google.com was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Rolling Thunder: A Century of tank Warfare, (Pen and Sword, 14 November 2013), By Philip Kaplan, page 172
    18. ^ Cordesman et al., p. 110.
    19. ^ "Hezbollah Defies Israeli Pressure". BBC News. 21 July 2006.
    20. ^ Egozi, Arie (1 August 2006). "Israeli Air Power Falls Short As Offensive In Southern Lebanon Fails To Halt Hezbollah Rocket Attacks". Flight International. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008.
    21. ^ Hizbullah shoots down helicopter in southern Lebanon Hanan Greenberg Published: 08.12.06, 23:01, ynetnews
    22. ^ Crash grounds Israel helicopters Page last updated at 09:04 GMT, Thursday, 11 September 2008
    23. ^ Exclusive: Photos of navy ship hit during war revealed. YnetNews. 10.11.07
    24. ^ "Striking Deep Into Israel, Hamas Employs an Upgraded Arsenal" by MARK MAZZETTI, The New York Times, 31 December 2008.
    25. ^ "State snubbed war victim, family says". ynetnews.com. 30 August 2007. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 13 July 2008.
    26. ^ BBC News Online (8 March 2007). "PM 'says Israel pre-planned war'". Retrieved 9 March 2007.
    27. ^ "The Final Winograd Commission report, pp. 598–610" (PDF) (in Hebrew). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
    28. ^ a b See Casualties of the 2006 Lebanon War#Foreign civilian casualties in Israel and Casualties of the 2006 Lebanon War#Foreign civilian casualties in Lebanon for a complete and adequately sourced list
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference Ghattas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ Con Coughlin (4 August 2006). "Teheran fund pays war compensation to Hizbollah families". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 30 May 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2007.
    31. ^ Patrick Bishop (22 August 2006). "Peacekeeping force won't disarm Hizbollah". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2007. A UN official estimated the deaths at 500
    32. ^ Lessons of the 2006 Israeli-Hezbollah War, by Anthony H. Cordesman, William D. Sullivan, CSIS, 2007, page 16
    33. ^ a b "Lebanon Sees More Than 1,000 War Deaths". usti.net. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Israel initially said 800 Hezbollah fighters died but later lowered that estimate to 600.
    34. ^ Yossi Melman (19 May 2008). "Israel to Hezbollah: Forget Palestinian prisoners in swap for IDF soldiers". Retrieved 20 October 2011.
    35. ^ Cite error: The named reference nysun1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    36. ^ Cite error: The named reference ynetnews1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    37. ^ Cite error: The named reference nysun2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    38. ^ "Lebanon – Amnesty International Report 2007". Human Rights in LEBANESE REPUBLIC. Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 17 February 2015.
    39. ^ Why They Died: Civilian Casualties in Lebanon during the 2006 War, Human Rights Watch, September 2007
    40. ^ Gross, Michael; Gross, Michael L. (2010). Moral Dilemmas of Modern War: Torture, Assassination, and Blackmail in an Age of Asymmetric Conflict. Cambridge University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-521-86615-6.
    41. ^ Israel/Lebanon: Out of all proportion – civilians bear the brunt of the war, Amnesty International, November 2006.
    42. ^ "Implementation of General Assembly Resolution 60/251 of March 2006 entitled "Human Rights Council"" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Council. 23 November 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2013.
    43. ^ McRae, D.M; De Mestral, A.L.C (2010). The Canadian Yearbook of International Law. ISBN 9780774859172.
    44. ^ SIPRI Yearbook 2007: Armaments, Disarmament, And International Security, Oxford University Press, page 69.
    45. ^ Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law:Volume 9; Volume 2006. T.M.C Asser Press. 2006. ISBN 978-90-6704-269-7.
    46. ^ "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)". United Nations. 6 August 2009. Archived from the original on 10 December 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
    47. ^ Arkin, William M. (July 2007). "Divining Victory: Airpower in the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War". Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press.
    48. ^ See, e.g., Yaakov Katz, "Halutz officers discuss war strategy," Jerusalem Post, 5 September 2006, p. 2
    49. ^ a b "Clashes spread to Lebanon as Hezbollah raids Israel". International Herald Tribune. The New York Times. 12 July 2006. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009.
    50. ^ "Israel buries soldiers recovered in prisoner swap". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 18 July 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
    51. ^ Myre, Greg; Erlanger, Steven (13 July 2006). "Israelis Enter Lebanon After Attacks". The New York Times.
    52. ^ "Israeli warplanes hit Beirut suburb". CNN. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
    53. ^ Cody, Edward (24 August 2006). "Lebanese Premier Seeks U.S. Help in Lifting Blockade". The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
    54. ^ Urquhart, Conal (11 August 2006). "Computerised weaponry and high morale". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 30 August 2006. Retrieved 8 October 2006.
    55. ^ "Cloud of Syria's war hangs over Lebanese cleric's death". The Independent. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
    56. ^ Reuters, 12 September 2006; Al-Hayat (London), 13 September 2006
    57. ^ "Country Report—Lebanon," The Economist Intelligence Unit, no. 4 (2006), pp. 3–6.
    58. ^ "Lebanon Death Toll Hits 1,300", by Robert Fisk, 17 August 2006, The Independent
    59. ^ Israel Vs. Iran: The Shadow War, by Yaakov Katz, (NY 2012), page 17
    60. ^ "Lebanon Under Siege". Lebanon Higher Relief Council. 2007. Archived from the original on 27 December 2007.
    61. ^ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (12 July 2006). "Hizbullah attacks northern Israel and Israel's response"; retrieved 5 March 2007.
    62. ^ "Middle East crisis: Facts and Figures". BBC News. 31 August 2006. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 13 July 2008.
    63. ^ "Israel says it will relinquish positions to Lebanese army". USA Today. 15 August 2006. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
    64. ^ "Lebanon: UN peacekeepers lay out rules of engagement, including use of force". UN News Centre. 3 October 2006. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
    65. ^ Pannell, Ian (9 September 2006). "Lebanon breathes after the blockade". BBC News. Retrieved 13 July 2008.
    66. ^ "UN peacekeepers: Israeli troops still in Lebanon". CNN. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
    67. ^ Spiegel Online (16 August 2006). "Who Will Disarm Hezbollah?". Retrieved 10 January 2007.
    68. ^ People's Daily Online (19 August 2006). "Indonesia refuses to help disarm Hezbollah in Lebanon". Retrieved 10 January 2007.
    69. ^ "UN commander says his troops will not disarm Hezbollah". International Herald Tribune. 18 September 2006. Archived from the original on 14 February 2007.
     
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    13 July 1985 – The Live Aid benefit concert takes place in London and Philadelphia, as well as other venues such as Moscow and Sydney.

    Live Aid

    Live Aid was a benefit concert held on Saturday 13 July 1985, as well as an ongoing music-based fundraising initiative. The original event was organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine. Billed as the "global jukebox", the event was held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London, UK, attended by about 72,000 people, and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia, US, attended by exactly 89,484 people.[1][2]

    On the same day, concerts inspired by the initiative were held in other countries, such as the Soviet Union, Canada, Japan, Yugoslavia, Austria, Australia and West Germany. It was one of the largest-scale satellite link-ups and television broadcasts of all time; an estimated audience of 1.9 billion, across 150 nations, watched the live broadcast,[3] nearly 40% of the world population.[4]

    The impact of Live Aid on famine relief has been debated for years. One aid relief worker stated that following the publicity generated by the concert, "humanitarian concern is now at the centre of foreign policy" for western governments.[5] Geldof has said, "We took an issue that was nowhere on the political agenda and, through the lingua franca of the planet – which is not English but rock 'n' roll – we were able to address the intellectual absurdity and the moral repulsion of people dying of want in a world of surplus."[6] In another interview he stated that Live Aid "created something permanent and self-sustaining", but also asked why Africa is getting poorer.[5] The organisers of Live Aid tried, without much success, to run aid efforts directly, channelling millions of pounds to NGOs in Ethiopia. It has been alleged that much of this, however, went to the Ethiopian government of Mengistu Haile Mariam – a regime the UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher wanted to "destabilise"[7] – and it is also alleged some funds were spent on guns.[5][8] However, the BBC stated in 2010 there was no evidence money had been diverted,[9] while the former British Ambassador to Ethiopia, Brian Barder, states, "the diversion of aid related only to the tiny proportion that was supplied by some NGOs to rebel-held areas."[10]

    1. ^ Live Aid on Bob Geldof's official site Archived 5 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ "Billboard Boxscore". Billboard. 27 July 1985. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference CNN was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision Archived 19 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
    5. ^ a b c "Cruel to be kind?". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
    6. ^ "Live Aid index: Bob Geldof". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
    7. ^ "Margaret Thatcher demanded UK find ways to 'destabilise' Ethiopian regime in power during 1984 famine". The Independent. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
    8. ^ "Live Aid: The Terrible Truth". Spin. 13 July 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
    9. ^ "BBC apologises over Band Aid money reports". BBC. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
    10. ^ "Ethiopia famine relief aid: misinterpreted allegations out of control". Barder.com. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
     
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    14 July 1960Jane Goodall arrives at the Gombe Stream Reserve in present-day Tanzania to begin her famous study of chimpanzees in the wild.

    Jane Goodall

    Dame Jane Morris Goodall DBE (/ˈɡʊdɔːl/; born Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall on 3 April 1934),[3] formerly Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall, is an English primatologist and anthropologist.[4] Considered to be the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees, Goodall is best known for her 60-year study of social and family interactions of wild chimpanzees since she first went to Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania in 1960.[5]

    She is the founder of the Jane Goodall Institute and the Roots & Shoots programme, and she has worked extensively on conservation and animal welfare issues. She has served on the board of the Nonhuman Rights Project since its founding in 1996.[6][7] In April 2002, she was named a UN Messenger of Peace. Goodall is also honorary member of the World Future Council.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference goodphd was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Dame Jane Goodall". Woman's Hour. 26 January 2010. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
    3. ^ The Biography Channel (2010). "Jane Goodall Biography". Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
    4. ^ Holloway, M. (1997) Profile: Jane Goodall – Gombe's Famous Primate, Scientific American 277(4), 42–44.
    5. ^ "Jane in the Forest Again". National Geographic. April 2003. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
    6. ^ "About Us". NhRP Website. Nonhuman Rights Project. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
    7. ^ "2013 is here, and we are ready!". NhRP Website. Nonhuman Rights Project. 16 January 2013. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013. The following year, I created the Center for the Expansion of Fundamental Rights, Inc. (CEFR), which is now the Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc., with Jane Goodall as a board member.
     
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    1
    14 July 1960Jane Goodall arrives at the Gombe Stream Reserve in present-day Tanzania to begin her famous study of chimpanzees in the wild.

    Jane Goodall

    Dame Jane Morris Goodall DBE (/ˈɡʊdɔːl/; born Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall on 3 April 1934),[3] formerly Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall, is an English primatologist and anthropologist.[4] Considered to be the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees, Goodall is best known for her 60-year study of social and family interactions of wild chimpanzees since she first went to Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania in 1960.[5]

    She is the founder of the Jane Goodall Institute and the Roots & Shoots programme, and she has worked extensively on conservation and animal welfare issues. She has served on the board of the Nonhuman Rights Project since its founding in 1996.[6][7] In April 2002, she was named a UN Messenger of Peace. Goodall is also honorary member of the World Future Council.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference goodphd was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Dame Jane Goodall". Woman's Hour. 26 January 2010. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
    3. ^ The Biography Channel (2010). "Jane Goodall Biography". Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
    4. ^ Holloway, M. (1997) Profile: Jane Goodall – Gombe's Famous Primate, Scientific American 277(4), 42–44.
    5. ^ "Jane in the Forest Again". National Geographic. April 2003. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
    6. ^ "About Us". NhRP Website. Nonhuman Rights Project. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
    7. ^ "2013 is here, and we are ready!". NhRP Website. Nonhuman Rights Project. 16 January 2013. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013. The following year, I created the Center for the Expansion of Fundamental Rights, Inc. (CEFR), which is now the Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc., with Jane Goodall as a board member.
     
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    15 July 2006Twitter, later one of the largest social media platforms in the world, is launched.

    Twitter

    Twitter (/ˈtwɪtər/) is an American microblogging and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or its mobile-device application software ("app").[16] Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world.[17] Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but was doubled to 280 for non-CJK languages in November 2017.[18] Audio and video tweets remain limited to 140 seconds for most accounts.

    Twitter was created by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams in March 2006 and launched in July of that year. By 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day,[19] and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day.[20][21][22] In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet".[23][24] As of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.[12]

    1. ^ https://techcrunch.com/2015/10/14/twitter-names-googles-omid-kordestani-as-its-new-executive-chairman/
    2. ^ https://s22.q4cdn.com/826641620/files/doc_financials/2019/q3/Q3_19_InvestorFactSheet.pdf
    3. ^ "Twitter.com Traffic, Demographics and Competitors". www.alexa.com. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Dorsey2006 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ "US SEC: Form 10-K Twitter, Inc". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
    6. ^ "Twitter.com Traffic, Demographics and Competitors". www.alexa.com. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
    7. ^ "Twitter - Company". about.twitter.com. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
    8. ^ "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey Recently Bought $9.5 million in Company Stock". Fortune. Reuters. April 28, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
    9. ^ "MoPub Terms of Service".
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Twitter coding was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Humble, Charles (July 4, 2011). "Twitter Shifting More Code to JVM, Citing Performance and Encapsulation As Primary Drivers". InfoQ. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
    12. ^ a b "Twitter overcounted active users since 2014, shares surge on profit hopes". USA Today.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference launch was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Shaban, Hamza (July 27, 2018). "Twitter's stock plunges 19% after it reports a decline in users". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
    15. ^ "Twitter.com Traffic, Demographics and Competitors". www.alexa.com.
    16. ^ "Twitter via SMS FAQ" Retrieved April 4, 2019.
    17. ^ "About Twitter" Retrieved April 24, 2014.
    18. ^ "Tweeting Made Easier" Retrieved November 7, 2017.
    19. ^ Twitter (March 21, 2012). "Twitter turns six". Twitter.
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference Twitter_500 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ Twitter Search Team (May 31, 2011). "The Engineering Behind Twitter's New Search Experience". Twitter Engineering Blog. Twitter. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
    22. ^ "Twitter turns six" Twitter.com, March 21, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
    23. ^ "Top Sites". Alexa Internet. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
    24. ^ D'Monte, Leslie (April 29, 2009). "Swine Flu's Tweet Tweet Causes Online Flutter". Business Standard. Retrieved February 4, 2011. Also known as the 'SMS of the internet', Twitter is a free social networking service
     
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    16 July 999John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife, Carolyn, and her sister, Lauren Bessette, died when the Piper Saratoga PA-32R aircraft he was piloting crashed into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Martha's Vineyard.

    John F. Kennedy Jr.

    John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr. (November 25, 1960 – July 16, 1999), often referred to as John-John or JFK Jr., was an American lawyer, journalist, and magazine publisher. He was a son of President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, and a younger brother of Caroline Kennedy. Three days after his father was assassinated, he rendered a final salute during the funeral procession on his third birthday.

    From his childhood years at the White House, Kennedy was the subject of much media scrutiny, and later became a popular social figure in Manhattan. Trained as a lawyer, he worked as a New York City assistant district attorney for almost four years. In 1995, he launched George magazine, using his political and celebrity status to publicize it. He died in a plane crash in 1999 at the age of 38.

     
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    17 July 1989 – First flight of the B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber.

    Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit

    The Northrop (later Northrop Grumman) B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses; it is a flying wing design with a crew of two.[1][4] The bomber can deploy both conventional and thermonuclear weapons, such as up to eighty 500-pound class (230 kg) Mk 82 JDAM Global Positioning System-guided bombs, or sixteen 2,400-pound (1,100 kg) B83 nuclear bombs. The B-2 is the only acknowledged aircraft that can carry large air-to-surface standoff weapons in a stealth configuration.

    Development started under the "Advanced Technology Bomber" (ATB) project during the Carter administration; its expected performance was one of the President's reasons for the cancellation of the Mach 2 capable B-1A bomber. The ATB project continued during the Reagan administration, but worries about delays in its introduction led to the reinstatement of the B-1 program. Program costs rose throughout development. Designed and manufactured by Northrop, later Northrop Grumman, the cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million (in 1997 dollars).[3] Total procurement costs averaged $929 million per aircraft, which includes spare parts, equipment, retrofitting, and software support.[3] The total program cost, which included development, engineering and testing, averaged $2.1 billion per aircraft in 1997.[3]

    Because of its considerable capital and operating costs, the project was controversial in the U.S. Congress. The winding-down of the Cold War in the latter portion of the 1980s dramatically reduced the need for the aircraft, which was designed with the intention of penetrating Soviet airspace and attacking high-value targets. During the late 1980s and 1990s, Congress slashed plans to purchase 132 bombers to 21. In 2008, a B-2 was destroyed in a crash shortly after takeoff, though the crew ejected safely.[5] Twenty B-2s are in service with the United States Air Force, which plans to operate them until 2032 as of 2018, when the Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider is to replace it.[6]

    The B-2 is capable of all-altitude attack missions up to 50,000 feet (15,000 m), with a range of more than 6,000 nautical miles (6,900 mi; 11,000 km) on internal fuel and over 10,000 nautical miles (12,000 mi; 19,000 km) with one midair refueling. It entered service in 1997 as the second aircraft designed to have advanced stealth technology after the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk attack aircraft. Though designed originally as primarily a nuclear bomber, the B-2 was first used in combat dropping conventional, non-nuclear ordnance in the Kosovo War in 1999. It later served in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Libya.[7]

    1. ^ a b "Northrop B-2A Spirit fact sheet." Archived 28 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
    2. ^ Mehuron, Tamar A., Assoc. Editor. "2009 USAF Almanac, Fact and Figures." Air Force Magazine, May 2009. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
    3. ^ a b c d e f "B-2 Bomber: Cost and Operational Issues Letter Report, GAO/NSIAD-97-181." United States General Accounting Office (GAO), 14 August 1997. Retrieved: 13 December 2018.
    4. ^ Thornborough, A.M.; Stealth, Aircraft Illustrated special, Ian Allan (1991).
    5. ^ Rolfsen, Bruce. "Moisture confused sensors in B-2 crash." Air Force Times, 9 June 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
    6. ^ USAF to Retire B-1, B-2 in Early 2030s as B-21 Comes On-Line. Air Force Magazine. 11 February 2018.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference B-2_AF_fact_sheet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  29. NewsBot

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    17 July 1989 – First flight of the B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber.

    Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit

    The Northrop (later Northrop Grumman) B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses; it is a flying wing design with a crew of two.[1][4] The bomber can deploy both conventional and thermonuclear weapons, such as up to eighty 500-pound class (230 kg) Mk 82 JDAM Global Positioning System-guided bombs, or sixteen 2,400-pound (1,100 kg) B83 nuclear bombs. The B-2 is the only acknowledged aircraft that can carry large air-to-surface standoff weapons in a stealth configuration.

    Development started under the "Advanced Technology Bomber" (ATB) project during the Carter administration; its expected performance was one of the President's reasons for the cancellation of the Mach 2 capable B-1A bomber. The ATB project continued during the Reagan administration, but worries about delays in its introduction led to the reinstatement of the B-1 program. Program costs rose throughout development. Designed and manufactured by Northrop, later Northrop Grumman, the cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million (in 1997 dollars).[3] Total procurement costs averaged $929 million per aircraft, which includes spare parts, equipment, retrofitting, and software support.[3] The total program cost, which included development, engineering and testing, averaged $2.1 billion per aircraft in 1997.[3]

    Because of its considerable capital and operating costs, the project was controversial in the U.S. Congress. The winding-down of the Cold War in the latter portion of the 1980s dramatically reduced the need for the aircraft, which was designed with the intention of penetrating Soviet airspace and attacking high-value targets. During the late 1980s and 1990s, Congress slashed plans to purchase 132 bombers to 21. In 2008, a B-2 was destroyed in a crash shortly after takeoff, though the crew ejected safely.[5] Twenty B-2s are in service with the United States Air Force, which plans to operate them until 2032 as of 2018, when the Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider is to replace it.[6]

    The B-2 is capable of all-altitude attack missions up to 50,000 feet (15,000 m), with a range of more than 6,000 nautical miles (6,900 mi; 11,000 km) on internal fuel and over 10,000 nautical miles (12,000 mi; 19,000 km) with one midair refueling. It entered service in 1997 as the second aircraft designed to have advanced stealth technology after the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk attack aircraft. Though designed originally as primarily a nuclear bomber, the B-2 was first used in combat dropping conventional, non-nuclear ordnance in the Kosovo War in 1999. It later served in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Libya.[7]

    1. ^ a b "Northrop B-2A Spirit fact sheet." Archived 28 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
    2. ^ Mehuron, Tamar A., Assoc. Editor. "2009 USAF Almanac, Fact and Figures." Air Force Magazine, May 2009. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
    3. ^ a b c d e f "B-2 Bomber: Cost and Operational Issues Letter Report, GAO/NSIAD-97-181." United States General Accounting Office (GAO), 14 August 1997. Retrieved: 13 December 2018.
    4. ^ Thornborough, A.M.; Stealth, Aircraft Illustrated special, Ian Allan (1991).
    5. ^ Rolfsen, Bruce. "Moisture confused sensors in B-2 crash." Air Force Times, 9 June 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
    6. ^ USAF to Retire B-1, B-2 in Early 2030s as B-21 Comes On-Line. Air Force Magazine. 11 February 2018.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference B-2_AF_fact_sheet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    18 July 1976Nadia Comăneci becomes the first person in Olympic Games history to score a perfect 10 in gymnastics at the 1976 Summer Olympics.

    Nadia Comăneci

    Nadia Elena Comăneci (UK: /ˌkɒməˈnɛ(i)/,[2] US: /ˌkmɑːˈn, -ˈn/;[3][4] Romanian: [ˈnadi.a koməˈnetʃʲ] (About this soundlisten); born November 12, 1961) is a Romanian retired gymnast and a five-time Olympic gold medalist, all in individual events. In 1976 at the age of 14, Comăneci was the first gymnast to be awarded a perfect score of 10.0 at the Olympic Games.[5] At the same Games (1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal), she received six more perfect 10s for events en route to winning three gold medals. At the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Comăneci won two more gold medals and attained two more perfect 10s. During her career, Comăneci won nine Olympic medals and four World Artistic Gymnastics Championship medals.

    Comăneci is one of the world's best-known gymnasts and is credited with popularizing the sport around the globe.[6] In 2000, she was named as one of the Athletes of the 20th Century by the Laureus World Sports Academy.[7] She has lived in the United States since 1989, when she defected from then-Communist Romania before its revolution in December that year. She later worked with and married American Olympic gold medal gymnast Bart Conner, who set up his own school. In 2001 she became a naturalized United States citizen, and has dual citizenship, also maintaining her Romanian citizenship.

    1. ^ a b Nadia Comăneci. sports-reference.com
    2. ^ "Comaneci". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
    3. ^ "Comaneci". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
    4. ^ "Comaneci, Nadia" (US) and "Comaneci, Nadia". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
    5. ^ Gymnast Nadia Comăneci Became the Queen of the 1976 Montreal Games when she was Awarded the First Perfect Score.
    6. ^ The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (2007). "Gymnastics". infoplease.com. Retrieved September 6, 2007.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    7. ^ "Nadia Comăneci". CNN. July 7, 2008.
     
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    18 July 1976Nadia Comăneci becomes the first person in Olympic Games history to score a perfect 10 in gymnastics at the 1976 Summer Olympics.

    Nadia Comăneci

    Nadia Elena Comăneci (UK: /ˌkɒməˈnɛ(i)/,[2] US: /ˌkmɑːˈn, -ˈn/;[3][4] Romanian: [ˈnadi.a koməˈnetʃʲ] (About this soundlisten); born November 12, 1961) is a Romanian retired gymnast and a five-time Olympic gold medalist, all in individual events. In 1976 at the age of 14, Comăneci was the first gymnast to be awarded a perfect score of 10.0 at the Olympic Games.[5] At the same Games (1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal), she received six more perfect 10s for events en route to winning three gold medals. At the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Comăneci won two more gold medals and attained two more perfect 10s. During her career, Comăneci won nine Olympic medals and four World Artistic Gymnastics Championship medals.

    Comăneci is one of the world's best-known gymnasts and is credited with popularizing the sport around the globe.[6] In 2000, she was named as one of the Athletes of the 20th Century by the Laureus World Sports Academy.[7] She has lived in the United States since 1989, when she defected from then-Communist Romania before its revolution in December that year. She later worked with and married American Olympic gold medal gymnast Bart Conner, who set up his own school. In 2001 she became a naturalized United States citizen, and has dual citizenship, also maintaining her Romanian citizenship.

    1. ^ a b Nadia Comăneci. sports-reference.com
    2. ^ "Comaneci". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
    3. ^ "Comaneci". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
    4. ^ "Comaneci, Nadia" (US) and "Comaneci, Nadia". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
    5. ^ Gymnast Nadia Comăneci Became the Queen of the 1976 Montreal Games when she was Awarded the First Perfect Score.
    6. ^ The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (2007). "Gymnastics". infoplease.com. Retrieved September 6, 2007.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    7. ^ "Nadia Comăneci". CNN. July 7, 2008.
     
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    19 July 1947 – Korean politician Lyuh Woon-hyung is assassinated.

    Lyuh Woon-hyung

    Lyuh Woon-hyung or Yo Un-hyung[a] (May 25, 1886 – July 19, 1947) was a Korean politician who argued that Korean independence was essential to world peace, and a reunification activist who struggled for the independent reunification of Korea following its national division in 1945.

    His pen-name was Mongyang (몽양; 夢陽), the Hanja for "dream" and "the sun." He is rare among politicians in modern Korean history in that he is revered in both South and North Korea.[citation needed]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    20 July 1992Václav Havel resigns as president of Czechoslovakia.

    Václav Havel

    Václav Havel (Czech pronunciation: [ˈvaːtslav ˈɦavɛl] (About this soundlisten); 5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident,[1][2] who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003. As a writer of Czech literature, he is known for his plays, essays, and memoirs.

    His educational opportunities having been limited by his bourgeois background (when freedoms were limited by the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic), Havel first rose to prominence as a playwright. In works such as The Garden Party and The Memorandum, Havel used an absurdist style to criticize communism. After participating in the Prague Spring and being blacklisted after the Soviet bloc's invasion of Czechoslovakia, he became more politically active and helped found several dissident initiatives, including Charter 77 and the Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Prosecuted. His political activities brought him under the surveillance of the secret police and he spent multiple periods imprisoned, the longest being nearly four years, between 1979 and 1983.

    Havel's Civic Forum party played a major role in the Velvet Revolution that toppled communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989. He assumed the presidency shortly thereafter, and was re-elected in a landslide the following year and after Slovak independence in 1993. Havel was instrumental in dismantling the Warsaw Pact and expanding NATO membership eastward. Many of his stances and policies, such as his opposition to Slovak independence, condemnation of the Czechoslovak treatment of Sudeten Germans after World War II, and granting of general amnesty to all those imprisoned under communism, were very controversial domestically. As such, at the end of his presidency, he enjoyed greater popularity abroad than at home. Havel continued his life as a public intellectual after his presidency, launching several initiatives including the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism,[3][4] the VIZE 97 Foundation, and the Forum 2000 annual conference.

    Havel's political philosophy was one of anti-consumerism, humanitarianism, environmentalism, civil activism, and direct democracy.[2] He supported the Czech Green Party from 2004 until his death. He received numerous accolades during his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Gandhi Peace Prize, the Philadelphia Liberty Medal, the Order of Canada, the Four Freedoms Award, the Ambassador of Conscience Award, and the Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award. The 2012–2013 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour.[5] He is considered by some to be one of the most important intellectuals of the 20th century.[6] The international airport in Prague was renamed to Václav Havel Airport Prague in 2012.

    1. ^ Webb, W. L. (18 December 2011). "Václav Havel obituary". The Guardian.
    2. ^ a b Crain, Caleb (21 March 2012). "Havel's Specter: On Václav Havel". The Nation. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
    3. ^ Tismăneanu, Vladimir (2010). "Citizenship Restored". Journal of Democracy. 21 (1): 128–135. doi:10.1353/jod.0.0139.
    4. ^ "Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism". Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. 9 June 2008. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
    5. ^ "Opening Ceremony, Bruges Campus". Retrieved 2 December 2012.
    6. ^ "Prospect Intellectuals: The 2005 List". Prospect. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
     
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    20 July 1992Václav Havel resigns as president of Czechoslovakia.

    Václav Havel

    Václav Havel (Czech pronunciation: [ˈvaːtslav ˈɦavɛl] (About this soundlisten); 5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident,[1][2] who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003. As a writer of Czech literature, he is known for his plays, essays, and memoirs.

    His educational opportunities having been limited by his bourgeois background (when freedoms were limited by the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic), Havel first rose to prominence as a playwright. In works such as The Garden Party and The Memorandum, Havel used an absurdist style to criticize communism. After participating in the Prague Spring and being blacklisted after the Soviet bloc's invasion of Czechoslovakia, he became more politically active and helped found several dissident initiatives, including Charter 77 and the Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Prosecuted. His political activities brought him under the surveillance of the secret police and he spent multiple periods imprisoned, the longest being nearly four years, between 1979 and 1983.

    Havel's Civic Forum party played a major role in the Velvet Revolution that toppled communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989. He assumed the presidency shortly thereafter, and was re-elected in a landslide the following year and after Slovak independence in 1993. Havel was instrumental in dismantling the Warsaw Pact and expanding NATO membership eastward. Many of his stances and policies, such as his opposition to Slovak independence, condemnation of the Czechoslovak treatment of Sudeten Germans after World War II, and granting of general amnesty to all those imprisoned under communism, were very controversial domestically. As such, at the end of his presidency, he enjoyed greater popularity abroad than at home. Havel continued his life as a public intellectual after his presidency, launching several initiatives including the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism,[3][4] the VIZE 97 Foundation, and the Forum 2000 annual conference.

    Havel's political philosophy was one of anti-consumerism, humanitarianism, environmentalism, civil activism, and direct democracy.[2] He supported the Czech Green Party from 2004 until his death. He received numerous accolades during his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Gandhi Peace Prize, the Philadelphia Liberty Medal, the Order of Canada, the Four Freedoms Award, the Ambassador of Conscience Award, and the Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award. The 2012–2013 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour.[5] He is considered by some to be one of the most important intellectuals of the 20th century.[6] The international airport in Prague was renamed to Václav Havel Airport Prague in 2012.

    1. ^ Webb, W. L. (18 December 2011). "Václav Havel obituary". The Guardian.
    2. ^ a b Crain, Caleb (21 March 2012). "Havel's Specter: On Václav Havel". The Nation. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
    3. ^ Tismăneanu, Vladimir (2010). "Citizenship Restored". Journal of Democracy. 21 (1): 128–135. doi:10.1353/jod.0.0139.
    4. ^ "Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism". Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. 9 June 2008. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
    5. ^ "Opening Ceremony, Bruges Campus". Retrieved 2 December 2012.
    6. ^ "Prospect Intellectuals: The 2005 List". Prospect. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
     
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    21 July 2005July 2005 London bombings occur.

    21 July 2005 London bombings

    On Thursday 21 July 2005, four attempted bomb attacks disrupted part of London's public transport system two weeks after the 7 July 2005 London bombings. The explosions occurred around midday at Shepherd's Bush, Warren Street and Oval stations on the London Underground, and on London Buses route 26 in Bethnal Green on Hackney Road. A fifth bomber dumped his device without attempting to set it off.[1]

    Connecting lines and stations were closed and evacuated. Metropolitan Police later said the intention was to cause large-scale loss of life, but only the detonators of the bombs exploded, probably causing the popping sounds reported by witnesses, and only one minor injury was reported. The suspects fled the scenes after their bombs failed to explode.

    On Friday 22 July, CCTV images of four suspects wanted in connection with the bombings were released.[2] Two of the men shown in these images were identified by police on Monday 25 July as Muktar Said Ibrahim and Yasin Hassan Omar.[3] The resultant manhunt was described by the Metropolitan police commissioner Sir Ian Blair as "the greatest operational challenge ever faced" by the Met.[4] During the manhunt, police misidentified Jean Charles de Menezes as one of the suspected bombers and shot and killed him.[5]

    By 29 July, police had arrested all four of the main bombing suspects from 21 July attempted bombings. Yasin Hassan Omar was arrested by police on 27 July, in Birmingham. On 29 July, two more suspects were arrested in London. A fourth suspect, Osman Hussein, was arrested in Rome, Italy, and later extradited to the UK.[6][7] Police also arrested numerous other people in the course of their investigations.

    On 9 July 2007, four defendants, Muktar Said Ibrahim, 29, Yasin Hassan Omar, 26, Ramzi Mohammed, 25, and Hussain Osman, 28, were found guilty of conspiracy to murder.[8] The four attempted bombers were each sentenced to life imprisonment, with a minimum of 40 years' imprisonment.[9]

    1. ^ "21 July: Attacks, escapes and arrests". BBC News. 11 July 2007. Archived from the original on 7 February 2008.
    2. ^ "London alerts: At-a-glance". BBC News. 29 July 2005. Archived from the original on 2 June 2009.
    3. ^ "Timeline: London bombing developments". BBC News. 1 November 2005. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008.
    4. ^ "London alerts: At-a-glance". (Timeline for 22 July 2005 at 15:31): BBC News. 29 July 2005. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015. Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Ian Blair describes the investigation into the London bombings as the greatest operational challenge ever faced by the Met.CS1 maint: location (link)
    5. ^ "What happened: Death of Jean Charles de Menezes". BBC News. 1 November 2007. Archived from the original on 22 October 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
    6. ^ "Bomb Suspect May Spend Months in Rome". Sky UK. 31 July 2005. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
    7. ^ "Police hold four 21 July suspects". BBC News. 30 July 2005. Archived from the original on 20 September 2007.
    8. ^ "Four guilty over 21/7 bomb plot". BBC News. 10 July 2007. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
    9. ^ Percival, Jenny (11 July 2007). "Patient wait for life behind bars". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 April 2008.
     
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    22 July 1916Preparedness Day Bombing: In San Francisco, a bomb explodes on Market Street during a parade, killing ten and injuring 40.

    Preparedness Day Bombing

    The Preparedness Day Bombing was a bombing in San Francisco, California on July 22, 1916, of a parade organised by local supporters of the Preparedness Movement which advocated American entry into World War I. During the parade a suitcase bomb was detonated, killing ten and wounding 40[1] in the worst attack in San Francisco's history.

    Two labor leaders, Thomas Mooney and Warren K Billings, were convicted in separate trials and sentenced to death, later commuted to life in prison.[2] Later investigations found the trials to have been marred by false testimony, and the men were released in 1939 and eventually pardoned. The identity of the bombers has never been determined.

    1. ^ "CRIME: Mooney & Billings". Time. Vol. 16 no. 2. July 14, 1930.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference FRO was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    23 July 1885 – President Ulysses S. Grant dies of throat cancer.

    Ulysses S. Grant

    Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. Before his presidency, Grant led the Union Army as Commanding General of the United States Army in winning the American Civil War. As president, Grant worked with the Radical Republicans during Reconstruction to protect blacks, reestablish the public credit, while rebuilding the U.S. Navy.

    Raised in Ohio, young Grant possessed an exceptional ability with horses, which served him well through his military career. He was admitted to West Point and graduated from the U.S. military academy in 1843. Grant served with distinction in the Mexican–American War. In 1848, he married Julia Dent, and together they had four children. Grant abruptly resigned his army commission in 1854 and returned to his family, but lived in poverty for seven years. During the Civil War, he joined the Union Army in 1861, and led the Vicksburg campaign, which gained control of the Mississippi River in 1863. After Grant's victory at Chattanooga, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to Lieutenant General. For thirteen months, Grant fought Robert E. Lee during the high-casualty Overland Campaign and at Petersburg. On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox. A week later, Lincoln was assassinated, and was succeeded by President Andrew Johnson, who promoted Grant to General of the Army in 1866. Later Grant openly broke with Johnson over Reconstruction policies; Grant used the Reconstruction Acts, which had been passed over Johnson's veto, to enforce civil rights for recently freed African Americans.

    A war hero but a reluctant politician, Grant was unanimously nominated by the Republican Party and was elected president in 1868. As president, Grant stabilized the post-war national economy, created the Department of Justice, and prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan. He appointed African Americans and Jewish Americans to prominent federal offices. In 1871, he created the first Civil Service Commission. The Liberal Republicans and Democrats united behind Grant's opponent in the presidential election of 1872, but Grant was handily re-elected. Grant's Native American policy had both successes and failures. In foreign affairs, the Grant administration peacefully resolved the Alabama claims against Great Britain, but the Senate rejected Grant's prized Caribbean Dominican Republic annexation. Corruption in federal departments was rampant; four of Grant's appointed cabinet members resigned under scandal, while many Grant appointees were fired. But Grant also appointed reformers, for example for the prosecution of the Whiskey Ring. The Panic of 1873 plunged the nation into a severe economic depression, that allowed the Democrats to win the House majority. In the intensely disputed presidential election of 1876, Grant facilitated the approval by Congress of a peaceful compromise.

    In his retirement, Grant was the first president to circumnavigate the world on his tour meeting with many foreign leaders. In 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term. In the final year of his life, facing severe financial reversals and dying of throat cancer, he wrote his memoirs, which proved to be a major critical and financial success. At the time of his death, he was memorialized as a symbol of national unity.

    Historians have recognized Grant's military genius, and his modern strategies of warfare are featured in military history textbooks. Historical assessments of Grant's presidency have improved over time. Grant was ranked 38th in 1994 and 1996, but ranked 21st in 2018. Several modern historians, although critical of Grant's defense of Orville Babcock and Secretary of Interior Columbus Delano, have emphasized Grant's presidential accomplishments including the Alabama Claims settlement, protection of African Americans and Indians, and the first Civil Service Commission. Grant, in 1872, created the world's first national park Yellowstone.
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    23 July 1885 – President Ulysses S. Grant dies of throat cancer.

    Ulysses S. Grant

    Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. Before his presidency, Grant led the Union Army as Commanding General of the United States Army in winning the American Civil War. As president, Grant worked with the Radical Republicans during Reconstruction to protect blacks, reestablish the public credit, while rebuilding the U.S. Navy.

    Raised in Ohio, young Grant possessed an exceptional ability with horses, which served him well through his military career. He was admitted to West Point and graduated from the U.S. military academy in 1843. Grant served with distinction in the Mexican–American War. In 1848, he married Julia Dent, and together they had four children. Grant abruptly resigned his army commission in 1854 and returned to his family, but lived in poverty for seven years. During the Civil War, he joined the Union Army in 1861, and led the Vicksburg campaign, which gained control of the Mississippi River in 1863. After Grant's victory at Chattanooga, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to Lieutenant General. For thirteen months, Grant fought Robert E. Lee during the high-casualty Overland Campaign and at Petersburg. On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox. A week later, Lincoln was assassinated, and was succeeded by President Andrew Johnson, who promoted Grant to General of the Army in 1866. Later Grant openly broke with Johnson over Reconstruction policies; Grant used the Reconstruction Acts, which had been passed over Johnson's veto, to enforce civil rights for recently freed African Americans.

    A war hero but a reluctant politician, Grant was unanimously nominated by the Republican Party and was elected president in 1868. As president, Grant stabilized the post-war national economy, created the Department of Justice, and prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan. He appointed African Americans and Jewish Americans to prominent federal offices. In 1871, he created the first Civil Service Commission. The Liberal Republicans and Democrats united behind Grant's opponent in the presidential election of 1872, but Grant was handily re-elected. Grant's Native American policy had both successes and failures. In foreign affairs, the Grant administration peacefully resolved the Alabama claims against Great Britain, but the Senate rejected Grant's prized Caribbean Dominican Republic annexation. Corruption in federal departments was rampant; four of Grant's appointed cabinet members resigned under scandal, while many Grant appointees were fired. But Grant also appointed reformers, for example for the prosecution of the Whiskey Ring. The Panic of 1873 plunged the nation into a severe economic depression, that allowed the Democrats to win the House majority. In the intensely disputed presidential election of 1876, Grant facilitated the approval by Congress of a peaceful compromise.

    In his retirement, Grant was the first president to circumnavigate the world on his tour meeting with many foreign leaders. In 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term. In the final year of his life, facing severe financial reversals and dying of throat cancer, he wrote his memoirs, which proved to be a major critical and financial success. At the time of his death, he was memorialized as a symbol of national unity.

    Historians have recognized Grant's military genius, and his modern strategies of warfare are featured in military history textbooks. Historical assessments of Grant's presidency have improved over time. Grant was ranked 38th in 1994 and 1996, but ranked 21st in 2018. Several modern historians, although critical of Grant's defense of Orville Babcock and Secretary of Interior Columbus Delano, have emphasized Grant's presidential accomplishments including the Alabama Claims settlement, protection of African Americans and Indians, and the first Civil Service Commission. Grant, in 1872, created the world's first national park Yellowstone.
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    24 July 2013 – A high-speed train derails in Spain rounding a curve with an 80 km/h (50 mph) speed limit at 190 km/h (120 mph), killing 78 passengers.

    Santiago de Compostela derailment

    The Santiago de Compostela derailment occurred on 24 July 2013, when an Alvia high-speed train travelling from Madrid to Ferrol, in the north-west of Spain, derailed at high speed on a bend about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) outside of the railway station at Santiago de Compostela. Out of 222 people (218 passengers and 4 crew) on board, around 140 were injured and 79 died.[2]

    The train's data recorder showed that it was travelling at about twice the posted speed limit of 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph) when it entered a bend in the rail. The crash was recorded on a track-side camera which shows all thirteen train cars derailing and four overturning. On 28 July 2013, the train's driver Francisco José Garzón Amo was charged with 79 counts of homicide by professional recklessness and an undetermined number of counts of causing injury by professional recklessness.[3]

    The crash was Spain's worst rail accident in 40 years, since a crash near El Cuervo, Seville, in 1972.[4][note 1] The Torre del Bierzo crash in 1944 remains the deadliest.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference renfe was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ (in Spanish) "El fallecimiento de una estadounidense eleva a 79 los muertos en el accidente de Santiago" RTVE. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
    3. ^ "Spanish train conductor charged in deadly crash". CNN. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
    4. ^ Gómez, Luis (25 July 2013). "El accidente de la cochinita deja 86 muertos". El País. ELPAIS. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
     
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    25 July 2000Concorde Air France Flight 4590 crashes at Paris Charles de Gaulle airport, killing 113 people.

    Air France Flight 4590

    Air France Flight 4590 was an international charter flight, from Charles de Gaulle Airport, Paris to John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York, flown by an Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde. On the afternoon of Tuesday, 25 July 2000 at 14:44:31 (UTC, 16:44:31 time local in France), the aircraft serving the flight (registration F-BTSC) ran over debris on the runway during takeoff, blowing a tyre, and sending debris flying into the underside of the left wing, and into the landing gear bay.

    The fuel tank that was inside the left wing was unusually full, and the resulting lack of air space in the tank caused it to rupture and send fuel pouring outward with great force when debris from the tire struck the wing thus creating a shock wave that weakened the tank. Debris, which flew into the landing gear bay, severed power wiring for the landing gear, making it impossible to retract the gear as the aircraft climbed. Sparks produced by the broken wiring ignited fuel from the ruptured fuel tank and along with the fire came a reduction of thrust from Engine 1 and 2. Lack of thrust, the high drag caused by the inability to retract the gear, along with fire damage to the flight controls, made it impossible to control the aircraft with the result that it crashed into a hotel in nearby Gonesse two minutes after takeoff, killing all 109 people on board and four more people[2] in the hotel, with another person in the hotel critically injured.[3]

    The flight was chartered by German company Peter Deilmann Cruises, and the passengers were on their way to board the cruise ship MS Deutschland in New York City for a 16-day cruise to Manta, Ecuador.[4][5] It was the only fatal Concorde accident during its 27-year operational history.[6]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Planespotters N13067 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Barry, Ben (5 September 2019). "How Concorde Pushed the Limits – Then Pushed Them Too Far – Disaster and Aftermath". National Geographic. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
    3. ^ Accident on 25 July 2000 at La Patte d'Oie in Gonesse (95) to the Concorde registered F-BTSC operated by Air France (REPORT translation f-sc000725a) (PDF), Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile, 16 January 2002
    4. ^ "Concorde Crash". thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011.
    5. ^ "'Black boxes' recovered at Concorde crash site". CNN. Associated Press and Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 December 2004. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
    6. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Aérospatiale / BAC Concorde 101 F-BTSC Gonesse". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
     

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