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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    27 August 1942 – First day of the Sarny Massacre, perpetrated by Germans and Ukrainians.

    Sarny massacre

    The Sarny Massacre was the execution of an estimated 14,000 to 18,000 people, mostly Jews, in the Nazi-occupied city of Sarny, now Rivne Oblast of Ukraine, on August 27 and 28, 1942.

     
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    28 August 1914World War I: The Royal Navy defeats the German fleet in the Battle of Heligoland Bight.

    Battle of Heligoland Bight (1914)

    The Battle of Heligoland Bight was the first naval battle of the First World War, fought on 28 August 1914, between ships of the United Kingdom and Germany. The battle took place in the south-eastern North Sea, when the British attacked German patrols off the north-west German coast. The German High Seas Fleet was in harbour on the north German coast while the British Grand Fleet was out in the northern North Sea. Both sides engaged in long-distance sorties with cruisers and battlecruisers, with close reconnaissance of the area of sea near the German coast—the Heligoland Bight—by destroyer.

    The British devised a plan to ambush German destroyers on their daily patrols. A British flotilla of 31 destroyers and two cruisers under Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt, with submarines commanded by Commodore Roger Keyes, was dispatched. They were supported at longer range by an additional six light cruisers commanded by William Goodenough and five battlecruisers commanded by Vice Admiral David Beatty.

    Surprised, outnumbered and outgunned, the German fleet suffered 712 sailors killed, 530 injured and 336 taken prisoner; three German light cruisers and torpedo boats sunk, alongside three light cruisers and torpedo boats suffering damage. The British suffered casualties of 35 killed and 55 wounded, and one light cruiser and three destroyers suffering damage. Despite the disparity of the ships involved in the battle, the battle was regarded as a great victory in Britain, where the returning ships were met by cheering crowds.

    Beatty was vaunted as a hero, although he had taken little part in the action or planning of the raid, which was led by Commodore Tyrwhitt and conceived by him and Keyes, who had persuaded the Admiralty to adopt it. The raid might have led to disaster had the additional forces under Beatty not been sent by Admiral John Jellicoe at the last minute. The German government and the Kaiser in particular, restricted the freedom of action of the German fleet, instructing it to avoid any contact with superior forces for several months thereafter.

     
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    29 August 1898 – The Goodyear tire company is founded.

    Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company

    The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and based in Akron, Ohio. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, motorcycles, SUVs, race cars, airplanes, farm equipment and heavy earth-mover machinery. It also produced bicycle tires from its founding until 1976.[2] As of 2017, Goodyear is one of the top four tire manufacturers along with Bridgestone (Japan), Michelin (France) and Continental (Germany).[3]

    The company was named after American Charles Goodyear, inventor of vulcanized rubber. The first Goodyear tires became popular because they were easily detachable and required little maintenance.[citation needed]

    Though Goodyear had been manufacturing airships and balloons since the early 1900s, the first Goodyear advertising blimp flew in 1925. Today, it is one of the most recognizable advertising icons in America.[4] The company is the most successful tire supplier in Formula One history, with more starts, wins, and constructors' championships than any other tire supplier.[5] They pulled out of the sport after the 1998 season. It is the sole tire supplier for NASCAR series.

    Goodyear was the first global tire manufacturer to enter China when it invested in a tire manufacturing plant in Dalian in 1994.

    Goodyear is a former component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.[6] The company opened a new global headquarters building in Akron in 2013.

    1. ^ "The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company 2017 Annual Report (Form 10-K)". sec.gov. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. February 2018.
    2. ^ "Goodyear Returns to Bicycle Tires". March 2, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2018 – via www.bloomberg.com.
    3. ^ "Leading tyre manufacturers". Tyrepress. September 26, 2013. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
    4. ^ Terdiman, Daniel. "Goodyear bids goodbye to blimps, says hello to zeppelins". CNET. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
    5. ^ "FormulaSPEED2.0". Archived from the original on March 27, 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
    6. ^ "History of DJIA". globalfinancialdata.com. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007.
     
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    30 August 1945 – The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong comes to an end.

    Japanese occupation of Hong Kong

    The Imperial Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began when the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young, surrendered the British Crown colony of Hong Kong to the Empire of Japan on 25 December 1941. The surrender occurred after 18 days of fierce fighting against the overwhelming Japanese forces that had invaded the territory.[5][6] The occupation lasted for three years and eight months until Japan surrendered at the end of Second World War. The length of this period (三年零八個月) later became a metonym of the occupation.[6]

    1. ^ Fung, Chi Ming. [2005] (2005). Reluctant heroes: rickshaw pullers in Hong Kong and Canton, 1874–1954. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962-209-734-0, ISBN 978-962-209-734-6. p.130, 135.
    2. ^ a b Courtauld, Caroline. Holdsworth, May. [1997] (1997). The Hong Kong Story. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-590353-6. pp. 54–58.
    3. ^ Stanford, David. [2006] (2006). Roses in December. Lulu press. ISBN 1-84753-966-1.
    4. ^ Chan, Shun-hing. Leung, Beatrice. [2003] (2003). Changing Church and State Relations in Hong Kong, 1950–2000. Hong Kong: HK university press. p. 24. ISBN 962-209-612-3.
    5. ^ Snow, Philip. [2004] (2004). The fall of Hong Kong: Britain, China and the Japanese occupation. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10373-5, ISBN 978-0-300-10373-1.
    6. ^ a b Mark, Chi-Kwan. [2004] (2004). Hong Kong and the Cold War: Anglo-American relations 1949–1957. Oxford University Press publishing. ISBN 0-19-927370-7, ISBN 978-0-19-927370-6. p 14.
     
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    30 August 1945 – The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong comes to an end.

    Japanese occupation of Hong Kong

    The Imperial Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began when the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young, surrendered the British Crown colony of Hong Kong to the Empire of Japan on 25 December 1941. The surrender occurred after 18 days of fierce fighting against the overwhelming Japanese forces that had invaded the territory.[5][6] The occupation lasted for three years and eight months until Japan surrendered at the end of Second World War. The length of this period (三年零八個月) later became a metonym of the occupation.[6]

    1. ^ Fung, Chi Ming. [2005] (2005). Reluctant heroes: rickshaw pullers in Hong Kong and Canton, 1874–1954. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962-209-734-0, ISBN 978-962-209-734-6. p.130, 135.
    2. ^ a b Courtauld, Caroline. Holdsworth, May. [1997] (1997). The Hong Kong Story. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-590353-6. pp. 54–58.
    3. ^ Stanford, David. [2006] (2006). Roses in December. Lulu press. ISBN 1-84753-966-1.
    4. ^ Chan, Shun-hing. Leung, Beatrice. [2003] (2003). Changing Church and State Relations in Hong Kong, 1950–2000. Hong Kong: HK university press. p. 24. ISBN 962-209-612-3.
    5. ^ Snow, Philip. [2004] (2004). The fall of Hong Kong: Britain, China and the Japanese occupation. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10373-5, ISBN 978-0-300-10373-1.
    6. ^ a b Mark, Chi-Kwan. [2004] (2004). Hong Kong and the Cold War: Anglo-American relations 1949–1957. Oxford University Press publishing. ISBN 0-19-927370-7, ISBN 978-0-19-927370-6. p 14.
     
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    31 August 1997Diana, Princess of Wales, her companion Dodi Fayed and driver Henri Paul die in a car crash in Paris.

    Death of Diana, Princess of Wales

    Coordinates: 48°51′51.7″N 2°18′06.8″E / 48.864361°N 2.301889°E / 48.864361; 2.301889[1]

    In the early hours of 31 August 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales died in hospital after being injured in a motor vehicle accident in a road tunnel in Paris. Her partner, Dodi Fayed, and the driver of the Mercedes-Benz W140, Henri Paul, were pronounced dead at the scene. Their bodyguard, Trevor Rees-Jones, survived with serious injuries.

    Some media claimed the erratic behaviour of paparazzi following the car, as reported by the BBC, had contributed to the crash.[2] In 1999, a French investigation found that Paul, who lost control of the vehicle at high speed while intoxicated by alcohol and under the effects of prescription drugs, was solely responsible for the crash. He was the deputy head of security at the Hôtel Ritz and had earlier goaded paparazzi waiting for Diana and Fayed outside the hotel.[3] Anti-depressants and traces of an anti-psychotic in his blood may have worsened Paul's inebriation.[4] In 2008, the jury at a British inquest returned a verdict of unlawful killing through grossly negligent driving by Paul and the paparazzi for following vehicles. It was also found that none of the occupants of the car were wearing a seat belt.[5]

    Diana was 36 years old when she died.[6] Her death caused an unprecedented outpouring of public grief in the United Kingdom and worldwide, and her funeral was watched by an estimated 2.5 billion people. The Royal Family were criticised in the press for their reaction to Diana's death. Public interest in Diana has remained high and she has retained regular press coverage in the years after her death.

    1. ^ "Plan of Alma Tunnel" (PDF). Coroner's Inquests into the Deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed. Computer Aided Modelling Bureau, Metropolitan Police Service. November 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
    2. ^ "The Princess and The Press".
    3. ^ Director: David Bartlett, Executive Producer: David Upshal. "The Coronation of Elizabeth II/The Death of Diana". Days That Shook the World.
    4. ^ Nundy, Julian; Graves, David. "Diana crash caused by chauffeur, says report". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2002.
    5. ^ "Diana jury blames paparazzi and Henri Paul for her 'unlawful killing'". Daily Telegraph. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
    6. ^ Carla B. Johnston (1998). Global News Access: The Impact of New Communications Technologies. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-275-95774-2.
     
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    31 August 1997Diana, Princess of Wales, her companion Dodi Fayed and driver Henri Paul die in a car crash in Paris.

    Death of Diana, Princess of Wales

    Coordinates: 48°51′51.7″N 2°18′06.8″E / 48.864361°N 2.301889°E / 48.864361; 2.301889[1]

    In the early hours of 31 August 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales died in hospital after being injured in a motor vehicle accident in a road tunnel in Paris. Her partner, Dodi Fayed, and the driver of the Mercedes-Benz W140, Henri Paul, were pronounced dead at the scene. Their bodyguard, Trevor Rees-Jones, survived with serious injuries.

    Some media claimed the erratic behaviour of paparazzi following the car, as reported by the BBC, had contributed to the crash.[2] In 1999, a French investigation found that Paul, who lost control of the vehicle at high speed while intoxicated by alcohol and under the effects of prescription drugs, was solely responsible for the crash. He was the deputy head of security at the Hôtel Ritz and had earlier goaded paparazzi waiting for Diana and Fayed outside the hotel.[3] Anti-depressants and traces of an anti-psychotic in his blood may have worsened Paul's inebriation.[4] In 2008, the jury at a British inquest returned a verdict of unlawful killing through grossly negligent driving by Paul and the paparazzi for following vehicles. It was also found that none of the occupants of the car were wearing a seat belt.[5]

    Diana was 36 years old when she died.[6] Her death caused an unprecedented outpouring of public grief in the United Kingdom and worldwide, and her funeral was watched by an estimated 2.5 billion people. The Royal Family were criticised in the press for their reaction to Diana's death. Public interest in Diana has remained high and she has retained regular press coverage in the years after her death.

    1. ^ "Plan of Alma Tunnel" (PDF). Coroner's Inquests into the Deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed. Computer Aided Modelling Bureau, Metropolitan Police Service. November 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
    2. ^ "The Princess and The Press".
    3. ^ Director: David Bartlett, Executive Producer: David Upshal. "The Coronation of Elizabeth II/The Death of Diana". Days That Shook the World.
    4. ^ Nundy, Julian; Graves, David. "Diana crash caused by chauffeur, says report". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2002.
    5. ^ "Diana jury blames paparazzi and Henri Paul for her 'unlawful killing'". Daily Telegraph. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
    6. ^ Carla B. Johnston (1998). Global News Access: The Impact of New Communications Technologies. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-275-95774-2.
     
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    1 September 1914 – The last known passenger pigeon, a female named Martha, dies in captivity in the Cincinnati Zoo.

    Passenger pigeon

    The passenger pigeon or wild pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) is an extinct species of pigeon that was endemic to North America. Its common name is derived from the French word passager, meaning "passing by", due to the migratory habits of the species. The scientific name also refers to its migratory characteristics. The morphologically similar mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) was long thought to be its closest relative, and the two were at times confused, but genetic analysis has shown that the genus Patagioenas is more closely related to it than the Zenaida doves.

    The passenger pigeon was sexually dimorphic in size and coloration. The male was 390 to 410 mm (15.4 to 16.1 in) in length, mainly gray on the upperparts, lighter on the underparts, with iridescent bronze feathers on the neck, and black spots on the wings. The female was 380 to 400 mm (15.0 to 15.7 in), and was duller and browner than the male overall. The juvenile was similar to the female, but without iridescence. It mainly inhabited the deciduous forests of eastern North America and was also recorded elsewhere, but bred primarily around the Great Lakes. The pigeon migrated in enormous flocks, constantly searching for food, shelter, and breeding grounds, and was once the most abundant bird in North America, numbering around 3 billion, and possibly up to 5 billion. A very fast flyer, the passenger pigeon could reach a speed of 100 km/h (62 mph). The bird fed mainly on mast, and also fruits and invertebrates. It practiced communal roosting and communal breeding, and its extreme gregariousness may be linked with searching for food and predator satiation.

    Passenger pigeons were hunted by Native Americans, but hunting intensified after the arrival of Europeans, particularly in the 19th century. Pigeon meat was commercialized as cheap food, resulting in hunting on a massive scale for many decades. There were several other factors contributing to the decline and subsequent extinction of the species, including shrinking of the large breeding populations necessary for preservation of the species and widespread deforestation, which destroyed its habitat. A slow decline between about 1800 and 1870 was followed by a rapid decline between 1870 and 1890. The last confirmed wild bird is thought to have been shot in 1901. The last captive birds were divided in three groups around the turn of the 20th century, some of which were photographed alive. Martha, thought to be the last passenger pigeon, died on September 1, 1914, at the Cincinnati Zoo. The eradication of this species is a notable example of anthropogenic extinction.

    1. ^ "†Ectopistes Swainson 1827 (passenger pigeon)". PBDB.
    2. ^ BirdLife (2016). "Ectopistes migratorius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22690733A93285636. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22690733A93285636.en.
     
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    2 September 2019Hurricane Dorian, a category 5 hurricane, devastates the Bahamas, killing at least five.

    Hurricane Dorian

    Hurricane Dorian was an extremely powerful and devastating Category 5 Atlantic hurricane, that became the most intense tropical cyclone on record to strike the Bahamas, and is regarded as the worst natural disaster in the country's history.[1] It was also one of the most powerful hurricanes recorded in the Atlantic Ocean in terms of 1-minute sustained winds, with these winds peaking at 185 mph (295 km/h). In addition, Dorian surpassed Hurricane Irma of 2017 to become the most powerful Atlantic hurricane on record outside of the tropics. It was the fourth named storm, second hurricane, the first major hurricane, and the first Category 5 hurricane of the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season. Dorian struck the Abaco Islands on September 1 with maximum sustained winds of 185 mph (295 km/h), tying with the 1935 Labor Day hurricane for the highest wind speeds of an Atlantic hurricane ever recorded at landfall. Dorian went on to strike Grand Bahama at similar intensity, stalling just north of the territory with unrelenting winds for at least 24 hours. The resultant damage to these islands was catastrophic; most structures were flattened or swept to sea, and at least 70,000 people were left homeless. After it ravaged through the Bahamas, Dorian proceeded along the coasts of the Southeastern United States and Atlantic Canada, leaving behind considerable damage and economic losses in those regions.

    Dorian developed from a tropical wave on August 24 over the Central Atlantic. The storm moved through the Lesser Antilles and became a hurricane north of the Greater Antilles on August 28. Dorian proceeded to undergo rapid intensification over the following days to reach its peak as a Category 5 hurricane with one-minute sustained winds of 185 mph (295 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 910 millibars (26.87 inHg) by September 1. It made landfall in the Bahamas in Elbow Cay, just east of Abaco Island, and again on Grand Bahama several hours later, where it remained nearly stationary for the next day or so. After weakening considerably, Dorian began moving northwestward on September 3, parallel to the east coast of Florida. Dwindling in strength, the hurricane turned to the northeast the next day and made landfall on Cape Hatteras at Category 2 intensity on September 6. It transitioned into an extratropical cyclone before striking first Nova Scotia and then Newfoundland with hurricane-force winds on September 8. It finally dissipated near Greenland on September 10.

    From August 26 to August 28, the storm affected several parts of the northernmost Lesser Antilles. Damaging winds primarily affected the Virgin Islands where gusts reached 111 mph (179 km/h). Extensive precautionary measures were taken to mitigate damage, especially in Puerto Rico, where one person died. Elsewhere in the Lesser Antilles, impacts from the storm were relatively minor. In preparation for the storm, the states of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia all declared a state of emergency and many coastal counties from Florida to North Carolina issued mandatory evacuation orders. Damage in the Bahamas was catastrophic due to the prolonged and intense storm conditions, including heavy rainfall, high winds and storm surge, with thousands of homes destroyed and at least 77 direct deaths recorded, 74 of which occurred in the Bahamas. The true death toll is unknown with 245 people still missing as of April 2020. Dorian is the costliest disaster in Bahamian history, estimated to have left behind $3.4 billion in damage.

    1. ^ "Search for survivors of Hurricane Dorian continues in Bahamas". The Guardian. September 9, 2019. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
     
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    3 September 1950"Nino" Farina becomes the first Formula One Drivers' champion after winning the 1950 Italian Grand Prix.

    Giuseppe Farina

    Emilio Giuseppe Farina, also known as Giuseppe Antonio "Nino" Farina,[3] (Italian pronunciation: [dʒuˈzɛppe ˈniːno faˈriːna]; 30 October 1906 – 30 June 1966) was an Italian racing driver and first official Formula One World Champion. He gained the title in 1950. He was the Italian Champion in 1937, 1938 and 1939.

    1. ^ total of 20 podiums includes both 2nd place and 3rd place at the 1955 Argentine Grand Prix
    2. ^ Up until 1990, not all points scored by a driver contributed to their final World Championship tally (see list of points scoring systems for more information). Numbers without parentheses are Championship points; numbers in parentheses are total points scored.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference formula1.com was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    4 September 1950Darlington Raceway is the site of the inaugural Southern 500, the first 500-mile NASCAR race.

    Darlington Raceway

    Darlington Raceway is a race track built for NASCAR racing located in Darlington, South Carolina. It is nicknamed "The Lady in Black" and "The Track Too Tough to Tame" by many NASCAR fans and drivers and advertised as "A NASCAR Tradition." It is of a unique, somewhat egg-shaped design, an oval with the ends of very different configurations, a condition which supposedly arose from the proximity of one end of the track to a minnow pond the owner refused to relocate. This situation makes it very challenging for the crews to set up their cars' handling in a way that will be effective at both ends.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Downsizing was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    5 September 1986Pan Am Flight 73 from Mumbai, India with 358 people on board is hijacked at Karachi International Airport.

    Pan Am Flight 73

    Pan Am Flight 73 was a Pan American World Airways flight from Bombay, India, to New York, with scheduled stops in Karachi, Pakistan and Frankfurt, West Germany.

    On September 5, 1986, the Boeing 747-121 serving the flight was hijacked while on the ground at Karachi by four armed Palestinian men of the Abu Nidal Organization. The aircraft, with 360 passengers on board, had just arrived from Bombay.[2] A grand jury later concluded that the militants were planning to use the hijacked airliner to pick up Palestinian prisoners in both Cyprus and Israel.[3]

    Forty-three passengers were injured or killed during the hijacking, including nationals from India, the United States, Pakistan, and Mexico. All the hijackers were arrested and sentenced to death in Pakistan. However, the sentences were later commuted to life in prison. Neerja Bhanot, head attendant on the flight, posthumously received India's highest peacetime award for bravery, the Ashok Chakra Award, for her efforts to save passengers' lives.[4]

    1. ^ "Jordanian Hijacker Sentenced in D.C. for 1986 Hijacking of Pan Am Flight 73 as Victims from Around the World Recount Horrors" (Press release). Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2004-05-14. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
    2. ^ "Pan Am Flight-73 alleged hijacker 'killed' in drone attack in Pakistan". Asian Tribune.
    3. ^ "United States of America v. Wadoud Muhammad et al Indictment" (PDF). justice.gov. United States Department of Justice. 2001-06-11. Retrieved 2015-04-18.
    4. ^ "24 yrs after Pan Am hijack, Neerja Bhanot killer falls to drone". The Times of India. 2010-01-17.
     
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    5 September 1986Pan Am Flight 73 from Mumbai, India with 358 people on board is hijacked at Karachi International Airport.

    Pan Am Flight 73

    Pan Am Flight 73 was a Pan American World Airways flight from Bombay, India, to New York, with scheduled stops in Karachi, Pakistan and Frankfurt, West Germany.

    On September 5, 1986, the Boeing 747-121 serving the flight was hijacked while on the ground at Karachi by four armed Palestinian men of the Abu Nidal Organization. The aircraft, with 360 passengers on board, had just arrived from Bombay.[2] A grand jury later concluded that the militants were planning to use the hijacked airliner to pick up Palestinian prisoners in both Cyprus and Israel.[3]

    Forty-three passengers were injured or killed during the hijacking, including nationals from India, the United States, Pakistan, and Mexico. All the hijackers were arrested and sentenced to death in Pakistan. However, the sentences were later commuted to life in prison. Neerja Bhanot, head attendant on the flight, posthumously received India's highest peacetime award for bravery, the Ashok Chakra Award, for her efforts to save passengers' lives.[4]

    1. ^ "Jordanian Hijacker Sentenced in D.C. for 1986 Hijacking of Pan Am Flight 73 as Victims from Around the World Recount Horrors" (Press release). Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2004-05-14. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
    2. ^ "Pan Am Flight-73 alleged hijacker 'killed' in drone attack in Pakistan". Asian Tribune.
    3. ^ "United States of America v. Wadoud Muhammad et al Indictment" (PDF). justice.gov. United States Department of Justice. 2001-06-11. Retrieved 2015-04-18.
    4. ^ "24 yrs after Pan Am hijack, Neerja Bhanot killer falls to drone". The Times of India. 2010-01-17.
     
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    6 September 1939 – World War II: South Africa declares war on Germany.

    Military history of South Africa during World War II

    During World War II, many South Africans saw military service. The Union of South Africa participated with other British Commonwealth forces in battles in North Africa against Erwin Rommel and his Afrika Korps, and many South African pilots joined the Royal Air Force and fought against the Axis powers in the European theatre.

     
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    7 September 1986Desmond Tutu becomes the first black man to lead the Anglican Diocese of Cape Town.

    Desmond Tutu

    Archbishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu OMSG CH GCStJ (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian, known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist. He was the Bishop of Johannesburg from 1985 to 1986 and then the Archbishop of Cape Town from 1986 to 1996, in both cases being the first black African to hold the position. Theologically, he sought to fuse ideas from black theology with African theology.

    Tutu was born of mixed Xhosa and Motswana heritage to a poor family in Klerksdorp, Union of South Africa. Entering adulthood, he trained as a teacher and married Nomalizo Leah Tutu, with whom he had several children. In 1960, he was ordained as an Anglican priest and in 1962 moved to the United Kingdom to study theology at King's College London. In 1966 he returned to southern Africa, teaching at the Federal Theological Seminary and then the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. In 1972, he became the Theological Education Fund's director for Africa, a position based in London but necessitating regular tours of the African continent. Back in southern Africa in 1975, he served first as dean of St Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg and then as Bishop of Lesotho, taking an active role in opposition to South Africa's apartheid system of racial segregation and white-minority rule. From 1978 to 1985 he was general-secretary of the South African Council of Churches, emerging as one of South Africa's most prominent anti-apartheid activists. Although warning the National Party government that anger at apartheid would lead to racial violence, as an activist he stressed non-violent protest and foreign economic pressure to bring about universal suffrage.

    In 1985, Tutu became Bishop of Johannesburg and in 1986 the Archbishop of Cape Town, the most senior position in southern Africa's Anglican hierarchy. In this position he emphasised a consensus-building model of leadership and oversaw the introduction of women priests. Also in 1986, he became president of the All Africa Conference of Churches, resulting in further tours of the continent. After President F. W. de Klerk released the anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990 and the pair led negotiations to end apartheid and introduce multi-racial democracy, Tutu assisted as a mediator between rival black factions. After the 1994 general election resulted in a coalition government headed by Mandela, the latter selected Tutu to chair the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses committed by both pro and anti-apartheid groups. Since apartheid's fall, Tutu has campaigned for gay rights and spoken out on a wide range of subjects, among them the Israel-Palestine conflict, his opposition to the Iraq War, and his criticism of South African presidents Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma. In 2010, he retired from public life.

    Tutu polarised opinion as he rose to notability in the 1970s. White conservatives who supported apartheid despised him, while many white liberals regarded him as too radical; many black radicals accused him of being too moderate and focused on cultivating white goodwill, while Marxist–Leninists criticised his anti-communist stance. He was widely popular among South Africa's black majority, and was internationally praised for his anti-apartheid activism, receiving a range of awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize. He has also compiled several books of his speeches and sermons.

     
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    8 September 1888Isaac Peral's submarine is first tested.

    Spanish submarine Peral

    Peral was the first electric battery-powered submarine, built by the Spanish engineer and sailor Isaac Peral for the Spanish Navy.[1] The first fully capable military submarine,[2] she was launched 8 September 1888. She had one torpedo tube (and two torpedoes) and an air regeneration system. Her hull shape, propeller, periscope, torpedo launcher and cruciform external controls anticipated later designs.[3][4] Her underwater speed was 3 kn (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph). With fully charged batteries, she was the fastest submarine yet built, with underwater performance levels (except for range) that matched those of First World War U-boats for a very short period, before her batteries began to drain. For example, the SM U-9, a pre-war German U-boat built in 1908, had an underwater speed of 8.1kn, and an underwater range of 150 km (81 nmi) at 5.8kn, before having to resurface to recharge her batteries.[citation needed] Although advanced in many ways, Peral lacked a means of charging batteries while underway, such as an internal combustion engine, thus had a very limited endurance and range. In June 1890, Peral's submarine launched a torpedo while submerged. It was also the first submarine to incorporate a fully reliable underwater navigation system. However, conservatives in the Spanish naval hierarchy terminated the project despite two years of successful tests. Her operational abilities have led some to call her the first U-boat.[5]

    Peral was withdrawn from service in 1890 and is now preserved at the Cartagena Naval Museum.

    1. ^ Humble 1981, p. 174.
    2. ^ elmundo.es. "Isaac Peral, el genio frustrado". www.elmundo.es. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
    3. ^ Anglevie 2007, p. 185.
    4. ^ Delgado 2011, p. 89.
    5. ^ Almodóvar 2009, p. 138.
     
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    9 September 1956Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time.

    Elvis Presley

    Elvis Aaron Presley[a] (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), also known simply as Elvis, was an American singer, musician and actor. He is regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century and is often referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or simply "the King". His energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style, combined with a singularly potent mix of influences across color lines during a transformative era in race relations, led him to great success—and initial controversy.

    Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis, Tennessee, with his family when he was 13 years old. His music career began there in 1954, recording at Sun Records with producer Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African-American music to a wider audience. Presley, on rhythm acoustic guitar, and accompanied by lead guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, was a pioneer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country music and rhythm and blues. In 1955, drummer D. J. Fontana joined to complete the lineup of Presley's classic quartet and RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, who would manage him for more than two decades. Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. With a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records, he became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll.

    In November 1956, Presley made his film debut in Love Me Tender. Drafted into military service in 1958, Presley relaunched his recording career two years later with some of his most commercially successful work. He held few concerts, however, and guided by Parker, proceeded to devote much of the 1960s to making Hollywood films and soundtrack albums, most of them critically derided. In 1968, following a seven-year break from live performances, he returned to the stage in the acclaimed television comeback special Elvis, which led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of highly profitable tours. In 1973, Presley gave the first concert by a solo artist to be broadcast around the world, Aloha from Hawaii. Years of prescription drug abuse severely compromised his health, and he died suddenly in 1977 at his Graceland estate at the age of 42.

    With his rise from poverty to significant fame, Presley's success seemed to epitomize the American Dream. He is the best-selling solo music artist of all time, and was commercially successful in many genres, including pop, country, R&B, adult contemporary, and gospel. He won three Grammy Awards, received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley holds several records; the most RIAA certified gold and platinum albums, the most albums charted on the Billboard 200, and the most number-one albums by a solo artist on the UK Albums Chart and the most number-one singles by any act on the UK Singles Chart. In 2018, Presley was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

    1. ^ Elster 2006, p. 391.
    2. ^ a b Nash 2005, p. 11.
    3. ^ Guralnick 1994, p. 13.
    4. ^ a b Adelman 2002, pp. 13–15.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    9 September 1956Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time.

    Elvis Presley

    Elvis Aaron Presley[a] (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), also known simply as Elvis, was an American singer, musician and actor. He is regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century and is often referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or simply "the King". His energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style, combined with a singularly potent mix of influences across color lines during a transformative era in race relations, led him to great success—and initial controversy.

    Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis, Tennessee, with his family when he was 13 years old. His music career began there in 1954, recording at Sun Records with producer Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African-American music to a wider audience. Presley, on rhythm acoustic guitar, and accompanied by lead guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, was a pioneer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country music and rhythm and blues. In 1955, drummer D. J. Fontana joined to complete the lineup of Presley's classic quartet and RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, who would manage him for more than two decades. Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. With a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records, he became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll.

    In November 1956, Presley made his film debut in Love Me Tender. Drafted into military service in 1958, Presley relaunched his recording career two years later with some of his most commercially successful work. He held few concerts, however, and guided by Parker, proceeded to devote much of the 1960s to making Hollywood films and soundtrack albums, most of them critically derided. In 1968, following a seven-year break from live performances, he returned to the stage in the acclaimed television comeback special Elvis, which led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of highly profitable tours. In 1973, Presley gave the first concert by a solo artist to be broadcast around the world, Aloha from Hawaii. Years of prescription drug abuse severely compromised his health, and he died suddenly in 1977 at his Graceland estate at the age of 42.

    With his rise from poverty to significant fame, Presley's success seemed to epitomize the American Dream. He is the best-selling solo music artist of all time, and was commercially successful in many genres, including pop, country, R&B, adult contemporary, and gospel. He won three Grammy Awards, received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley holds several records; the most RIAA certified gold and platinum albums, the most albums charted on the Billboard 200, and the most number-one albums by a solo artist on the UK Albums Chart and the most number-one singles by any act on the UK Singles Chart. In 2018, Presley was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

    1. ^ Elster 2006, p. 391.
    2. ^ a b Nash 2005, p. 11.
    3. ^ Guralnick 1994, p. 13.
    4. ^ a b Adelman 2002, pp. 13–15.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    10 September 2008 – The Large Hadron Collider at CERN, described as the biggest scientific experiment in history, is powered up in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Large Hadron Collider

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider and the largest machine in the world.[1][2] It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories, as well as more than 100 countries.[3] It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva.

    First collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about four times the previous world record.[4][5] After upgrades it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy, the present world record).[6][7][8][9] At the end of 2018, it entered a two-year shutdown period for further upgrades.

    The collider has four crossing points, around which are positioned seven detectors, each designed for certain kinds of research. The LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of heavy ions: lead–lead collisions and proton–lead collisions are typically done for one month per year. The aim of the LHC's detectors is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson[10] and searching for the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories,[11] as well as other unsolved questions of physics.

    1. ^ "The Large Hadron Collider". CERN.
    2. ^ Joel Achenbach (March 2008). "The God Particle". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
    3. ^ Highfield, Roger (16 September 2008). "Large Hadron Collider: Thirteen ways to change the world". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
    4. ^ "CERN LHC sees high-energy success". BBC News. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
    5. ^ "LHC to run at 4 TeV per beam in 2012". Media and Press Relations (Press release). CERN. 13 February 2012.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ O'Luanaigh, Cian. "Proton beams are back in the LHC". CERN. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
    8. ^ Rincon, Paul (3 June 2015). "Large Hadron Collider turns on 'data tap'". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
    9. ^ Webb, Jonathan (21 May 2015). "LHC smashes energy record with test collisions". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
    10. ^ "Missing Higgs". CERN. 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
    11. ^ "Towards a superforce". CERN. 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
     
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    11 September 1972 – The San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit system begins passenger service.

    Bay Area Rapid Transit

    Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) is a rapid transit public transportation system serving the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The heavy rail elevated and subway system connects San Francisco and Oakland with urban and suburban areas in Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, and San Mateo counties. BART serves 50 stations along six routes on 131 miles (211 km) of rapid transit lines, including a 10-mile (16 km) spur line in eastern Contra Costa County which uses diesel multiple-unit trains and a 3.2-mile (5.1 km) automated guideway transit line to the Oakland International Airport. With an average of 411,000 weekday passengers and 118 million annual passengers in fiscal year 2019,[1][3] BART is the fifth-busiest heavy rail rapid transit system in the United States and is operated by the Bay Area Rapid Transit District which formed in 1957. The initial system opened in stages from 1972 to 1974. The system was extended most recently on June 13, 2020, when Milpitas and Berryessa/North San José stations opened as part of the Silicon Valley BART extension in partnership with the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA).[9]

    1. ^ a b "Total Annual Exits FY1973 – FY2019" (xls). BART.gov. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2019 – via http://www.bart.gov/about/reports/ridership.
    2. ^ Fracassa, Dominic; McBride, Ashley (July 25, 2019). "BART selects Robert Powers as new general manager". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
    3. ^ a b "BART 2018 Factsheet" (PDF). Bay Area Rapid Transit. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
    4. ^ "New Train Delivery Update (11/18/19)". San Francisco Bay Area. November 18, 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
    5. ^ Chinn, Jerold (January 29, 2015). "Long wait ahead for longer BART trains". San Francisco Bay Area. Retrieved September 29, 2015. BART explains it has total of 662 trains, but about 535 are in service during peak commute times, about 86.5 percent of its fleet. BART said it runs more of its fleet than any other major transit agency despite having the oldest trains in the nation.
    6. ^ a b c d e Cite error: The named reference SystemFacts was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "BART – Car Types". Bay Area Rapid Transit. Retrieved August 23, 2009.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference OpsAnalysis was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Glover, Julian (May 19, 2020). "BART announces service start date for long-awaited Milpitas, San Jose Berryessa stations". ABC7 News. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
     
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    11 September 1972 – The San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit system begins passenger service.

    Bay Area Rapid Transit

    Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) is a rapid transit public transportation system serving the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The heavy rail elevated and subway system connects San Francisco and Oakland with urban and suburban areas in Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, and San Mateo counties. BART serves 50 stations along six routes on 131 miles (211 km) of rapid transit lines, including a 10-mile (16 km) spur line in eastern Contra Costa County which uses diesel multiple-unit trains and a 3.2-mile (5.1 km) automated guideway transit line to the Oakland International Airport. With an average of 411,000 weekday passengers and 118 million annual passengers in fiscal year 2019,[1][3] BART is the fifth-busiest heavy rail rapid transit system in the United States and is operated by the Bay Area Rapid Transit District which formed in 1957. The initial system opened in stages from 1972 to 1974. The system was extended most recently on June 13, 2020, when Milpitas and Berryessa/North San José stations opened as part of the Silicon Valley BART extension in partnership with the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA).[9]

    1. ^ a b "Total Annual Exits FY1973 – FY2019" (xls). BART.gov. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2019 – via http://www.bart.gov/about/reports/ridership.
    2. ^ Fracassa, Dominic; McBride, Ashley (July 25, 2019). "BART selects Robert Powers as new general manager". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
    3. ^ a b "BART 2018 Factsheet" (PDF). Bay Area Rapid Transit. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
    4. ^ "New Train Delivery Update (11/18/19)". San Francisco Bay Area. November 18, 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
    5. ^ Chinn, Jerold (January 29, 2015). "Long wait ahead for longer BART trains". San Francisco Bay Area. Retrieved September 29, 2015. BART explains it has total of 662 trains, but about 535 are in service during peak commute times, about 86.5 percent of its fleet. BART said it runs more of its fleet than any other major transit agency despite having the oldest trains in the nation.
    6. ^ a b c d e Cite error: The named reference SystemFacts was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "BART – Car Types". Bay Area Rapid Transit. Retrieved August 23, 2009.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference OpsAnalysis was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Glover, Julian (May 19, 2020). "BART announces service start date for long-awaited Milpitas, San Jose Berryessa stations". ABC7 News. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
     
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    12 September 1977 – South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko dies in police custody.

    Steve Biko

    Bantu Stephen Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African anti-apartheid activist. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he was at the forefront of a grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s. His ideas were articulated in a series of articles published under the pseudonym Frank Talk.

    Raised in a poor Xhosa family, Biko grew up in Ginsberg township in the Eastern Cape. In 1966, he began studying medicine at the University of Natal, where he joined the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS). Strongly opposed to the apartheid system of racial segregation and white-minority rule in South Africa, Biko was frustrated that NUSAS and other anti-apartheid groups were dominated by white liberals, rather than by the blacks who were most affected by apartheid. He believed that well-intentioned white liberals failed to comprehend the black experience and often acted in a paternalistic manner. He developed the view that to avoid white domination, black people had to organise independently, and to this end he became a leading figure in the creation of the South African Students' Organisation (SASO) in 1968. Membership was open only to "blacks", a term that Biko used in reference not just to Bantu-speaking Africans but also to Coloureds and Indians. He was careful to keep his movement independent of white liberals, but opposed anti-white racism and had white friends and lovers. The white-minority National Party government were initially supportive, seeing SASO's creation as a victory for apartheid's ethos of racial separatism.

    Influenced by the Martinican philosopher Frantz Fanon and the African-American Black Power movement, Biko and his compatriots developed Black Consciousness as SASO's official ideology. The movement campaigned for an end to apartheid and the transition of South Africa toward universal suffrage and a socialist economy. It organised Black Community Programmes (BCPs) and focused on the psychological empowerment of black people. Biko believed that black people needed to rid themselves of any sense of racial inferiority, an idea he expressed by popularizing the slogan "black is beautiful". In 1972, he was involved in founding the Black People's Convention (BPC) to promote Black Consciousness ideas among the wider population. The government came to see Biko as a subversive threat and placed him under a banning order in 1973, severely restricting his activities. He remained politically active, helping organise BCPs such as a healthcare centre and a crèche in the Ginsberg area. During his ban he received repeated anonymous threats, and was detained by state security services on several occasions. Following his arrest in August 1977, Biko was beaten to death by state security officers. Over 20,000 people attended his funeral.

    Biko's fame spread posthumously. He became the subject of numerous songs and works of art, while a 1978 biography by his friend Donald Woods formed the basis for the 1987 film Cry Freedom. During Biko's life, the government alleged that he hated whites, various anti-apartheid activists accused him of sexism, and African racial nationalists criticised his united front with Coloureds and Indians. Nonetheless, Biko became one of the earliest icons of the movement against apartheid, and is regarded as a political martyr and the "Father of Black Consciousness". His political legacy remains a matter of contention.

     
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    13 September 1979 – South Africa grants independence to the "homeland" of Venda (not recognised outside South Africa).

    Venda

    Venda (/ˈvɛndə/) was a Bantustan in northern South Africa, which is fairly close to the South African border with Zimbabwe to the north, while to the south and east, it shared a long border with another black homeland, Gazankulu. It is now part of the Limpopo province. Venda was founded as a homeland by the South African government for the Venda people, speakers of the Venda language.[4] The United Nations and international community refused to recognise Venda (or any other Bantustan) as an independent state.

    1. ^ a b c Chapter 2, Section 6, Republic of Venda Constitutuion Act 1979 "Luvenda, English and Afrikaans shall be the official languages of the Republic of Venda"
    2. ^ Sally Frankental; Owen Sichone (1 January 2005). South Africa's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-57607-674-3. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference BSTNdist was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Lahiff, p. 55.
     
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    14 September 1846Jang Bahadur and his brothers massacre about 40 members of the Nepalese palace court.

    Kot massacre

    The Kot massacre (Nepali: कोत पर्व) took place on 14 September 1846 when then Kaji Jang Bahadur Kunwar and his brothers killed about 30-40 civil, military officers and palace guards of the Nepalese palace court including the Prime Minister of Nepal and a relative of the King, Chautariya Fateh Jung Shah and other senior-most ministers and army generals at the palace armory (Kot) of Hanuman Dhoka in Kathmandu. The Kot meeting was called upon by Queen Rajya Laxmi Devi after the same night murder of her confidante Kaji Gagan Singh Bhandari while performing worship at his prayer room. The Kot meeting turned ugly and eventually, Jang brothers and their supporters led an open court full-fledged assault on all his rival participants in the meeting. This massacre led to the loss of power of political clans such as Chautariyas, Pandes, Thapas, and Basnyats and that of King Rajendra Bikram Shah and Queen Rajya Laxmi Devi and ultimately the establishment of the Rana autocracy in Nepal.

     
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    16 September 1955 – A Zulu-class submarine becomes the first to launch a ballistic missile.

    Zulu-class submarine

    The Soviet Navy's Project 611 (NATO reporting name: Zulu class) were one of the first Soviet post-war attack submarines. They were roughly as capable as the American GUPPY fleet-boat conversions.[1] They were a contemporary of the Whiskey-class submarines and shared a similar sonar arrangement. Like most conventional submarines designed 1946-1960, their design was influenced by the German Type XXI U-boat of the World War II era.[2]

    The first few boats of the class were equipped with twin 57mm and twin 25mm anti-aircraft guns and no snorkels, although the guns were removed and snorkels added soon after the boats entered service.[3][4] Six were converted in 1956 to become the world's first ballistic missile submarines, one armed with a single R-11FM Scud missile and five others with two Scuds each. They were designated as Project AV 611 and received the NATO reporting name of Zulu V.[1] The missiles were too long to be contained in the boat's hull, and extended into the enlarged sail. To be fired, the submarine had to surface and raise the missile out of the sail. Soviet submarine B-67 successfully launched a missile on 16 September 1955.[5]

    The Zulus were the basis for the very successful Foxtrot-class submarine, which lent their hull to the Golf class of ballistic missile submarine.

    Twenty-six boats were built overall, entering service from 1952 to 1957, 8 of them in Leningrad and 18 in Severodvinsk. Their names were initially B-61 through B-82 and B-88 through B-91, with most renamed in the 1970s or 1980s.[6] The class received the NATO reporting names Zulu I through Zulu V, the last referring to the five converted missile-firing submarines (excluding the prototype). It is unclear from references how many of each subclass were built.[4][7] Most were converted to non-combat uses and eventually scrapped.[8]

    1. ^ a b Norman Polamr and K. J. Moore, 'Cold War Submarines,'
    2. ^ Sean Maloney, 'To Secure Command of the Sea,' University of New Brunswick thesis 1991, p.315
    3. ^ Polmar, Norman; Moore, Kenneth J. (2003). Cold War Submarines: The Design and Construction of U.S. and Soviet Submarines, 1945-2001. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books. p. 30. ISBN 978-1574885941.
    4. ^ a b Gardiner, p. 398
    5. ^ Polmar, Norman; White, Michael (2010-11-29). Project Azorian: The CIA and the Raising of the K-129. Naval Institute Press. p. 20. ISBN 9781591146902. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
    6. ^ "Large submarines - Project 611". Retrieved 19 December 2014.
    7. ^ "611". Retrieved 19 December 2014.
    8. ^ "611". Retrieved 19 December 2014.
     
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    17 September 1978 – The Camp David Accords are signed by Israel and Egypt.

    Camp David Accords

    The Camp David Accords were a pair of political agreements signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David, the country retreat of the President of the United States in Maryland.[1] The two framework agreements were signed at the White House and were witnessed by President Jimmy Carter. The second of these frameworks (A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel) led directly to the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty. Due to the agreement, Sadat and Begin received the shared 1978 Nobel Peace Prize. The first framework (A Framework for Peace in the Middle East), which dealt with the Palestinian territories, was written without participation of the Palestinians and was condemned by the United Nations.[citation needed]

    Historian Jørgen Jensehaugen argues that by the time Carter left office in January 1981, he:

    was in an odd position—he had attempted to break with traditional US policy but ended up fulfilling the goals of that tradition, which had been to break up the Arab alliance, side-line the Palestinians, build an alliance with Egypt, weaken the Soviet Union and secure Israel.[2]
    1. ^ Camp David Accords – Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archived 3 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ Jørgen Jensehaugen. Arab-Israeli Diplomacy under Carter: The US, Israel and the Palestinians (2018) p. 178, quoted on H-DIPLO)
     
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    18 September 2014 – Scotland votes against independence from the United Kingdom, by 55% to 45%.

    2014 Scottish independence referendum

    A referendum took place on Thursday 18 September 2014 on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom.[1] The referendum question was, "Should Scotland be an independent country?", which voters answered with "Yes" or "No".[2] The "No" side won with 2,001,926 (55.3%) voting against independence and 1,617,989 (44.7%) voting in favour. The turnout of 84.6% was the highest recorded for an election or referendum in the United Kingdom since the January 1910 general election, which was held before the introduction of universal suffrage.

    The Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013 set out the arrangements for the referendum and was passed by the Scottish Parliament in November 2013, following an agreement between the devolved Scottish government and the Government of the United Kingdom. The independence proposal required a simple majority to pass. All European Union (EU) or Commonwealth citizens residing in Scotland age 16 or over could vote, with some exceptions, which produced a total electorate of almost 4,300,000 people. This was the first time that the electoral franchise was extended to include 16 and 17 year-olds in Scotland.

    Yes Scotland was the main campaign group for independence, while Better Together was the main campaign group in favour of maintaining the union. Many other campaign groups, political parties, businesses, newspapers, and prominent individuals were also involved. Prominent issues raised during the referendum included what currency an independent Scotland would use, public expenditure, EU membership, and North Sea oil. An exit poll revealed that retention of the pound sterling was the deciding factor for those who voted No, while "disaffection with Westminster politics" was the deciding factor for those who voted Yes.[3]

    1. ^ "Scottish independence: Referendum to be held on 18 September, 2014". BBC News. BBC. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
    2. ^ "Scottish independence referendum – GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference AshcroftExitPoll was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    18 September 2014 – Scotland votes against independence from the United Kingdom, by 55% to 45%.

    2014 Scottish independence referendum

    A referendum took place on Thursday 18 September 2014 on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom.[1] The referendum question was, "Should Scotland be an independent country?", which voters answered with "Yes" or "No".[2] The "No" side won with 2,001,926 (55.3%) voting against independence and 1,617,989 (44.7%) voting in favour. The turnout of 84.6% was the highest recorded for an election or referendum in the United Kingdom since the January 1910 general election, which was held before the introduction of universal suffrage.

    The Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013 set out the arrangements for the referendum and was passed by the Scottish Parliament in November 2013, following an agreement between the devolved Scottish government and the Government of the United Kingdom. The independence proposal required a simple majority to pass. All European Union (EU) or Commonwealth citizens residing in Scotland age 16 or over could vote, with some exceptions, which produced a total electorate of almost 4,300,000 people. This was the first time that the electoral franchise was extended to include 16 and 17 year-olds in Scotland.

    Yes Scotland was the main campaign group for independence, while Better Together was the main campaign group in favour of maintaining the union. Many other campaign groups, political parties, businesses, newspapers, and prominent individuals were also involved. Prominent issues raised during the referendum included what currency an independent Scotland would use, public expenditure, EU membership, and North Sea oil. An exit poll revealed that retention of the pound sterling was the deciding factor for those who voted No, while "disaffection with Westminster politics" was the deciding factor for those who voted Yes.[3]

    1. ^ "Scottish independence: Referendum to be held on 18 September, 2014". BBC News. BBC. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
    2. ^ "Scottish independence referendum – GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference AshcroftExitPoll was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    19 September 1796George Washington's Farewell Address is printed across America as an open letter to the public.

    George Washington's Farewell Address

    Washington's Farewell Address is a letter written by American President George Washington as a valedictory to "friends and fellow-citizens" after 20 years of public service to the United States.[1] He wrote it near the end of his second term of presidency before retiring to his home at Mount Vernon in Virginia.

    The letter was first published as The Address of Gen. Washington to the People of America on His Declining the Presidency of the United States in the American Daily Advertiser on September 19, 1796, about ten weeks before the presidential electors cast their votes in the 1796 election. It is a classic statement of republicanism, warning Americans of the political dangers which they must avoid if they are to remain true to their values. It was almost immediately reprinted in newspapers throughout the country, and later in pamphlet form.[2]

    The first draft was originally prepared by James Madison in June 1792, as Washington contemplated retiring at the end of his first term in office.[3] However, he set it aside and ran for a second term because of heated disputes between Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson which convinced Washington that the growing tensions would rip apart the country without his leadership. This included the state of foreign affairs, and divisions between the newly formed Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties.[4]

    As his second term came to a close four years later, Washington prepared a revision of the original letter with the help of Hamilton to write a new farewell address to announce his intention to decline a third term in office. He reflects on the emerging issues of the American political landscape in 1796, expresses his support for the government eight years after the adoption of the Constitution, defends his administration's record and gives valedictory advice to the American people.[5]

    1. ^ Washington, George (September 17, 1796). Washingtons Farewell Address  – via Wikisource.
    2. ^ "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic". Loc.gov. October 27, 2003. Retrieved September 19, 2009. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress.
    3. ^ "Washington's Farewell Address". University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia: Papers of George Washington. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
    4. ^ Elkins, Stanley; McKitrick, Eric (1995). The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788-1800. Oxford University Press. pp. 489–499. ISBN 978-0-19-509381-0.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Farewell Address was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    20 September 2011 – The United States military ends its "Don't ask, don't tell" policy, allowing gay men and women to serve openly for the first time.

    Don't ask, don't tell

    "Don't ask, don't tell" (DADT) was the official United States policy on military service by gay men, bisexuals, and lesbians, instituted by the Clinton Administration. The policy was issued under Department of Defense Directive 1304.26 on December 21, 1993 and was in effect from February 28, 1994 until September 20, 2011.[1] The policy prohibited military personnel from discriminating against or harassing closeted homosexual or bisexual service members or applicants, while barring openly gay, lesbian, or bisexual persons from military service. This relaxation of legal restrictions on service by gays and lesbians in the armed forces was mandated by United States federal law Pub.L. 103–160 (10 U.S.C. § 654), which was signed November 30, 1993.[2] The policy prohibited people who "demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts" from serving in the armed forces of the United States, because their presence "would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion that are the essence of military capability".[3]

    The act prohibited any homosexual or bisexual person from disclosing their sexual orientation or from speaking about any homosexual relationships, including marriages or other familial attributes, while serving in the United States armed forces. The act specified that service members who disclose that they are homosexual or engage in homosexual conduct should be separated (discharged) except when a service member's conduct was "for the purpose of avoiding or terminating military service" or when it "would not be in the best interest of the armed forces".[4] Since DADT ended in 2011, persons who are openly homosexual and bisexual have been able to serve.[5]

    The "don't ask" part of the DADT policy specified that superiors should not initiate investigation of a service member's orientation without witnessing disallowed behaviors, though credible evidence of homosexual behavior could be used to initiate an investigation. Unauthorized investigations and harassment of suspected servicemen and women led to an expansion of the policy to "don't ask, don't tell, don't pursue, don't harass".[6]

    Beginning in the early 2000s, several legal challenges to DADT were filed, and legislation to repeal DADT was enacted in December 2010, specifying that the policy would remain in place until the President, the Secretary of Defense, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff certified that repeal would not harm military readiness, followed by a 60-day waiting period.[7] A July 6, 2011, ruling from a federal appeals court barred further enforcement of the U.S. military's ban on openly gay service members.[8] President Barack Obama, Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Mike Mullen sent that certification to Congress on July 22, 2011, which set the end of DADT to September 20, 2011.[9]

    1. ^ "Department of Defense Directive 1304.26". Retrieved September 11, 2013.
    2. ^ "Gays in the Military". Retrieved September 11, 2013.
    3. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 654(b)
    4. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 654(e)
    5. ^ "Army Regulation 40-501, Standards of Medical Fitness, Chapters 2-27n and 3–35" (PDF). Retrieved December 21, 2013.
    6. ^ "The Legal Brief "Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Don't Pursue, Don't Harass: Reference (a): Personnel Manual, COMDTINST M1000.6, Ch. 12.E"" (PDF). United States Coast Guard Ninth District Legal Office. May 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2011. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
    7. ^ Sheryl Gay Stolberg (December 22, 2010). "Obama Signs Away 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
    8. ^ "In reversal, federal court orders immediate end to 'don't ask, don't tell' policy". The Washington Post. Associated Press. July 6, 2011. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
    9. ^ "Obama certifies end of military's gay ban". NBC News. Reuters. July 22, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
     
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    21 September 1999 – The Chi-Chi earthquake occurs in central Taiwan, leaving about 2,400 people dead.

    1999 Jiji earthquake

    The Chi-Chi earthquake[2][3][4][5][6][7] (later also known as the Jiji earthquake) (Chinese: 集集地震; pinyin: Jíjí dìzhèn; Wade–Giles: Chi2-Chi2 Ti4-chên4), also known as the great earthquake of September 21 (九二一大地震; Jiǔ-èr-yī dàdìzhèn; '921 earthquake'), was a 7.3 ML or 7.7 Mw earthquake which occurred in Jiji (Chi-Chi), Nantou County, Taiwan on Tuesday, 21 September 1999 at 01:47:12 local time.[1] 2,415 people were killed, 11,305 injured, and NT$300 billion worth of damage was done. It was the second-deadliest quake in recorded history in Taiwan, after the 1935 Shinchiku-Taichū earthquake.

    Rescue groups from around the world joined local relief workers and the Taiwanese military in digging out survivors, clearing rubble, restoring essential services and distributing food and other aid to the more than 100,000 people made homeless by the quake. The disaster, dubbed the "Quake of the Century" by the local media, had a profound effect on the economy of the island and the consciousness of the people, and dissatisfaction with government's performance in reacting to it was said by some commentators to be a factor in the unseating of the ruling Kuomintang party in the 2000 presidential election.

    1. ^ a b "M 7.7 - Taiwan". earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
    2. ^ "Taiwan earthquake of 1999". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 14 September 2019. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2019. Taiwan earthquake of 1999, also called 1999 Chi Chi earthquake, earthquake that began at 1:47 AM local time on Sept. 21, 1999, below an epicentre 93 miles (150 km) south of Taipei, Taiwan.
    3. ^ "About the Conference". ChiChi20. Retrieved 21 September 2019. The International Conference in Commemoration of 20th Anniversary of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake will be held in Taipei, Taiwan from September 15th to September 19th, 2019.
    4. ^ Wen-Hsien Li; Chi-Hung Lee; Ma-Hsuan Ma; Ping Jung Huang; Sheng Yun Wu (2019). "Fault Dynamics of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake: clues from nanometric geochemical analysis of fault gouges". Scientific Reports. Retrieved 21 September 2019. Here, we report on the results of studies made on the fault dynamics of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.6) through identifications of the changes in the grain-morphology and chemical composition resulting from fault movement.
    5. ^ 慈濟人道救援國際肯定 顏博文多國研討會分享. 蕃新聞 (in Chinese). 21 September 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2019. 慈濟基金會響應防災政策,顏博文執行長以全英文發表「Tzu Chi Disaster Relief Model In 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake」。
    6. ^ Lin Chia-nan (28 March 2019). "Study on crustal changes after 921 quake unveiled". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 3 September 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2019. The team detailed their findings in a paper titled “Lower-crustal rheology and thermal gradient in the Taiwan orogenic belt illuminated by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake” which was published in the journal Science Advances.
    7. ^ "2000 Year In Review; 2002 Year in Review". pp. 52, 53, 92 – via Internet Archive. Kao, H., and Chen, W.-P., 2000, The Chi-Chi earthquake sequence: Active out-of-sequeence thrust faulting in Taiwan: Science, 288: 2346-2349
     
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    22 September 1980 – Iraq invades Iran.

    Iraqi invasion of Iran

    The Iraqi Invasion of Iran was launched on 22 September and lasted until 7 December 1980. The invasion stalled in the face of Iranian resistance, but not before Iraq captured more than 15,000 km2 of Iran's territory. This invasion led to eight years of war between Iran and Iraq.

    After President of Iran Abolhassan Banisadr declared Iran was not following the 1975 Algiers Agreement and neither had Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, on 17 September Iraqi President Saddam Hussein announced that Iraq abrogated the 1975 Algiers Agreement and intended to exercise full sovereignty over the disputed Shatt al-Arab river in response to Iranian violations of the treaty.[7] On 22 September, Iraqi aircraft bombarded ten airfields in Iran to cripple the Iranian air force on the ground. Although this attack failed, the next day Iraqi forces crossed the border in strength and advanced into Iran in three simultaneous thrusts along a front of some 400 miles (644 km). Of Iraq's six divisions that were invading by ground, four were sent to Khuzestan Province, which was located near the border's southern end, to cut off the Shatt al-Arab[note 1] from the rest of Iran and to establish a territorial security zone.[8]

    The invasion's purpose, according to Saddam, was to blunt the edge of Iranian Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini's movement and thwart his attempts to export Iran's Islamic Revolution to Iraq and the Persian Gulf states.[9] Saddam hoped that by annexing Khuzestan, he would send such a blow to Iran's prestige that it would lead to the new government's downfall, or, at the very least, end Iran's calls for his overthrow.[10] He also wanted to elaborate his standing in the Arab world and among Arab countries.[11] Saddam expected the local Arabs of Khuzestan to rise against the Islamic government.[12] However, these objectives failed to materialize, and the majority of local Iranian Arabs fought alongside Iranian forces.

    1. ^ Pollack, p, 186
    2. ^ Farrokh, Kaveh, 305 (2011)
    3. ^ Pollack, p. 187
    4. ^ Farrokh, Kaveh, 304 (2011)
    5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2018-11-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    6. ^ Pollack, p. 186
    7. ^ David B. Ottaway (18 September 1980). "Iraq Cancels Border Pact With Iran". Washington Post.
    8. ^ Karsh, Efraim (25 April 2002). The Iran–Iraq War: 1980–1988. Osprey Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1841763712.
    9. ^ Cruze, Gregory S. (Spring 1988). "Iran and Iraq: Perspectives in Conflict". Military Reports. Archived from the original on 2016-01-01. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference efraimkarsh was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Murray, Williamson; Woods, Kevin M. (2014). The Iran-Iraq War: A Military and Strategic History. Cambridge University Press. p. 98. ISBN 9781107062290.
    12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-15. Retrieved 2015-12-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    23 September 1845 – The Knickerbockers Baseball Club, the first baseball team to play under the modern rules, is founded in New York.

    New York Knickerbockers

    The New York Knickerbockers were one of the first organized baseball teams which played under a set of rules similar to the game today. Founded as the "Knickerbocker Base Ball Club" by Alexander Cartwright in 1845, the team remained active until early 1870s.[1]

    In 1851, the New York Knickerbockers wore the first ever recorded baseball uniforms.[2]

    1. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference hickok was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "History Of Baseball Uniforms In The Major Leagues". interpret.co.za. Archived from the original on 2009-01-16. Retrieved 2008-05-05.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
     
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    24 September 1960USS Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, is launched.

    USS Enterprise (CVN-65)

    USS Enterprise (CVN-65), formerly CVA(N)-65, is a decommissioned[14] United States Navy aircraft carrier. She was the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the eighth United States naval vessel to bear the name. Like her predecessor of World War II fame, she is nicknamed "Big E". At 1,123 feet (342 m),[6][7] she is the longest naval vessel ever built. Her 93,284-long-ton (94,781 t)[5] displacement ranks her as the 12th-heaviest carrier, after the ten carriers of the Nimitz class and USS Gerald R. Ford. Enterprise had a crew of some 4,600 service members.[12]

    The only ship of her class, Enterprise[15] was, at the time of inactivation, the third-oldest commissioned vessel in the United States Navy after the wooden-hulled USS Constitution and USS Pueblo.[16] She was inactivated on 1 December 2012,[17] and officially decommissioned on 3 February 2017,[18][19] after over 55 years of service.[20][21] She was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register the same day.[22]

    The name has been adopted by the future Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN-80).[23][24]

    1. ^ Jane's American fighting ships of the 20th century, New York: Mallard Press, 1991, ISBN 0-7924-5626-2
    2. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved 1 January 2020.
    3. ^ Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2020). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 22 September 2020. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
    4. ^ USS Enterprise: The Legend, US: Navy, archived from the original on 1 March 2013
    5. ^ a b c Naval Vessel Register - ENTERPRISE (CVN-65), US: Navy
    6. ^ a b USS Enterprise Turns 49 Years Old Thanksgiving Day, US: Navy
    7. ^ a b "USS Enterprise Nuclear-powered aircraft carrier", Military today, archived from the original on 23 July 2011
    8. ^ "Evolution of the Aircraft Carrier". navylive.dodlive.mil. 12 April 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
    9. ^ a b "USS Enterprise". naval-technology.com. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
    10. ^ Cracknell, p. 56: "The main armor carried on Enterprise is the heavy armoured flight deck. This was to prove a significant factor in the catastrophic fire and explosions that occurred on Enterprise's flight deck in 1969. The US Navy learned its lesson the hard way during World War II when all its carriers had only armoured hangar decks. All attack carriers built since the Midway class have had armored flight decks."
    11. ^ "Enterprise class nuclear powered attack aircraft carriers", Haze gray
    12. ^ a b "Facts & Stats", Enterprise, US: Navy, archived from the original on 2 May 2012, retrieved 13 April 2012
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference janes2000-p798 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ http://www.nvr.navy.mil/SHIPDETAILS/SHIPSDETAIL_CVN_65.HTML
    15. ^ US Navy. "Welcome to Navy Forces Online Public Sites". Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
    16. ^ House and Senate Armed Services Committees agree FY 2010 Navy shipbuilding authorization, Defpro, 10 October 2009, archived from the original on 17 July 2011
    17. ^ "FY13 Projected Ship Inactivation Schedule". Bureau of Naval Personnel. March 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    18. ^ Vergakis, Brock. "Navy to give final farewell to aircraft carrier USS Enterprise".
    19. ^ Brad Lendon. "Carrier turns donor: USS Enterprise gives anchor to USS Lincoln". CNN.com. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
    20. ^ "USS Enterprise (CVN 65) Official Web Site". Public.navy.mil. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
    21. ^ "World's First Nuclear-powered Aircraft Carrier, the Big E, makes final voyage". foxnews.com, 10 March 2012.
    22. ^ This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here.
    23. ^ USS Enterprise (CVN-65) – Official Facebook Page, Navy, 1 December 2012, retrieved 1 December 2012
    24. ^ USS Enterprise Public Affairs. "Enterprise, Navy's First Nuclear-Powered Aircraft Carrier, Inactivated". Navy.mil. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
     
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    25 September 1956TAT-1, the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable system, is inaugurated.

    TAT-1

    Routes under study in early 1956

    TAT-1 (Transatlantic No. 1) was the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable system. It was laid between Oban, Scotland and Clarenville, Newfoundland.[1] Two cables were laid between 1955 and 1956 with one cable for each direction.[1] It was inaugurated on September 25, 1956.[2] The cable was able to carry 35 simultaneous telephone calls.[3] A 36th channel was used to carry up to 22 telegraph lines.[3]

    1. ^ a b "Specimen of the first transatlantic telephone cable, 1956". The Science Museum. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
    2. ^ Bill Burns. "History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications". Atlantic-Cable.com. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
    3. ^ a b Bill Ray (14 October 2013). "TAT-1: Call the cable guy, all I see is a beautiful beach". The Register. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
     
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    26 September 2014 – A mass kidnapping occurs in Iguala, Mexico.

    2014 Iguala mass kidnapping

    On September 26, 2014, 43 male students from the Ayotzinapa Rural Teachers' College were forcibly abducted and then disappeared in Iguala, Guerrero, Mexico. They were allegedly taken into custody by local police officers from Cocula and Iguala, in collusion with organized crime. According to official reports, the students annually commandeered several buses to travel to Mexico City to commemorate the anniversary of the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre; police attempted to intercept several of the buses by using roadblocks and firing weapons.

    Details remain unclear on what happened during and after the roadblock, but the government investigation concluded that 43 of the students were taken into custody and were handed over to the local Guerreros Unidos ("United Warriors") crime syndicate and probably killed. This official version from the Federal government of Mexico is disputed. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights assembled a panel of experts who conducted a six-month investigation in 2015. They stated that the government's claim was "scientifically impossible" that the students were killed in a garbage dump because they were mistaken for members of a drug gang. Mexican authorities also claimed that Iguala Mayor José Luis Abarca Velázquez, a member of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), masterminded the abduction with his wife María de los Ángeles Pineda Villa, as they wanted to prevent them from disrupting events held in the city, although neither of them were put on trial for the students' disappearance. Both fled after the incident. They were arrested about a month later in Mexico City for the murder of activist Arturo Hernández Cardona. Iguala's police chief Felipe Flores Velásquez was also arrested in Iguala on October 21, 2016.[1] The mass kidnapping has caused continued international protests and social unrest, leading to the resignation of Guerrero Governor Ángel Aguirre Rivero in the face of statewide protests on October 23, 2014.

    On November 7, 2014, Mexican Attorney General Jesús Murillo Karam gave a press conference in which he announced that several plastic bags had been found by a river in Cocula, Guerrero containing human remains, possibly those of the missing students. At least 80 suspects have been arrested in the case, 44 of whom were police officers. Two students have been confirmed dead after their remains were identified by the Austria-based University of Innsbruck. Other sources allege a government cover-up, stating that the 27th Infantry Battalion of the Mexican Army was directly involved in the kidnapping and murder. This is the case of investigative journalist Anabel Hernández, claiming that two of the buses were secretly transporting heroin, without the students' knowledge. She stated that a drug lord ordered the battalion's colonel to intercept the drugs; the students, witnesses of the attack, were killed as collateral damage.[2][3][4] There are also reports linking federal forces to the case, some stating that military personnel in the area deliberately refrained from helping the students in distress.[5][3] On December 3, 2018, newly elected President Andrés Manuel López Obrador announced the creation of a truth commission, to lead new investigations into the events.[6]

    In June 2020, José Ángel Casarrubias Salgadoalias, alias "El Mochomo" was arrested.[7][8] El Mochomo, leader of the United Warriors Cartel and brother of jailed former United Warriors leader Sidronio Casarrubias, is suspected of being responsible for the abductions and ordering the murders of the abducted students.[7][8] In September 2020, the government announced it was seeking the arrest and extradition of Tomas Zeron, one of the authors of the official "historical truth," which has been widely rejected by families of the students.[9]

    1. ^ "Mexico missing students: Ex-police chief in Iguala arrested". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
    2. ^ What Happened To Mexico's Missing 43 Students In 'A Massacre In Mexico' on NPR
    3. ^ a b "Testimonio: sobreviviente de la masacre a estudiantes de Ayotzinapa". Vanguardia.com.mx. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
    4. ^ "Iguala: la historia no oficial - Proceso". Proceso.com.mx. December 14, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
    5. ^ "Militares del 27 Batallón interceptan y amenazan a normalistas de Teloloapan - Proceso". Proceso.com.mx. November 19, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
    6. ^ Mexico's new president forms truth commission on missing students
    7. ^ a b https://www.explica.co/el-mochomo-falls-allegedly-involved-in-the-disappearance-of-the-43-from-ayotzinapa/
    8. ^ a b https://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/detienen-el-mochomo-operador-de-los-guerreros-unidos
    9. ^ "Mexico asks Israel to detain ex-investigator in student case". news.yahoo.com. AFP. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
     
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    26 September 2014 – A mass kidnapping occurs in Iguala, Mexico.

    2014 Iguala mass kidnapping

    On September 26, 2014, 43 male students from the Ayotzinapa Rural Teachers' College were forcibly abducted and then disappeared in Iguala, Guerrero, Mexico. They were allegedly taken into custody by local police officers from Cocula and Iguala, in collusion with organized crime. According to official reports, the students annually commandeered several buses to travel to Mexico City to commemorate the anniversary of the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre; police attempted to intercept several of the buses by using roadblocks and firing weapons.

    Details remain unclear on what happened during and after the roadblock, but the government investigation concluded that 43 of the students were taken into custody and were handed over to the local Guerreros Unidos ("United Warriors") crime syndicate and probably killed. This official version from the Federal government of Mexico is disputed. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights assembled a panel of experts who conducted a six-month investigation in 2015. They stated that the government's claim was "scientifically impossible" that the students were killed in a garbage dump because they were mistaken for members of a drug gang. Mexican authorities also claimed that Iguala Mayor José Luis Abarca Velázquez, a member of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), masterminded the abduction with his wife María de los Ángeles Pineda Villa, as they wanted to prevent them from disrupting events held in the city, although neither of them were put on trial for the students' disappearance. Both fled after the incident. They were arrested about a month later in Mexico City for the murder of activist Arturo Hernández Cardona. Iguala's police chief Felipe Flores Velásquez was also arrested in Iguala on October 21, 2016.[1] The mass kidnapping has caused continued international protests and social unrest, leading to the resignation of Guerrero Governor Ángel Aguirre Rivero in the face of statewide protests on October 23, 2014.

    On November 7, 2014, Mexican Attorney General Jesús Murillo Karam gave a press conference in which he announced that several plastic bags had been found by a river in Cocula, Guerrero containing human remains, possibly those of the missing students. At least 80 suspects have been arrested in the case, 44 of whom were police officers. Two students have been confirmed dead after their remains were identified by the Austria-based University of Innsbruck. Other sources allege a government cover-up, stating that the 27th Infantry Battalion of the Mexican Army was directly involved in the kidnapping and murder. This is the case of investigative journalist Anabel Hernández, claiming that two of the buses were secretly transporting heroin, without the students' knowledge. She stated that a drug lord ordered the battalion's colonel to intercept the drugs; the students, witnesses of the attack, were killed as collateral damage.[2][3][4] There are also reports linking federal forces to the case, some stating that military personnel in the area deliberately refrained from helping the students in distress.[5][3] On December 3, 2018, newly elected President Andrés Manuel López Obrador announced the creation of a truth commission, to lead new investigations into the events.[6]

    In June 2020, José Ángel Casarrubias Salgadoalias, alias "El Mochomo" was arrested.[7][8] El Mochomo, leader of the United Warriors Cartel and brother of jailed former United Warriors leader Sidronio Casarrubias, is suspected of being responsible for the abductions and ordering the murders of the abducted students.[7][8] In September 2020, the government announced it was seeking the arrest and extradition of Tomas Zeron, one of the authors of the official "historical truth," which has been widely rejected by families of the students.[9]

    1. ^ "Mexico missing students: Ex-police chief in Iguala arrested". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
    2. ^ What Happened To Mexico's Missing 43 Students In 'A Massacre In Mexico' on NPR
    3. ^ a b "Testimonio: sobreviviente de la masacre a estudiantes de Ayotzinapa". Vanguardia.com.mx. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
    4. ^ "Iguala: la historia no oficial - Proceso". Proceso.com.mx. December 14, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
    5. ^ "Militares del 27 Batallón interceptan y amenazan a normalistas de Teloloapan - Proceso". Proceso.com.mx. November 19, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
    6. ^ Mexico's new president forms truth commission on missing students
    7. ^ a b https://www.explica.co/el-mochomo-falls-allegedly-involved-in-the-disappearance-of-the-43-from-ayotzinapa/
    8. ^ a b https://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/detienen-el-mochomo-operador-de-los-guerreros-unidos
    9. ^ "Mexico asks Israel to detain ex-investigator in student case". news.yahoo.com. AFP. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
     
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    27 September 1998 – The Google internet search engine retroactively claims this date as its birthday

    Google

    Google, LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, a search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Five technology companies in the U.S. information technology industry, alongside Amazon, Facebook, Apple, and Microsoft.[9][10][11]

    Google was founded in September 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a California privately held company on September 4, 1998, in California. Google was then reincorporated in Delaware on October 22, 2002.[12] An initial public offering (IPO) took place on August 19, 2004, and Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page who became the CEO of Alphabet.

    The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine (Google Search). It offers services designed for work and productivity (Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google Slides), email (Gmail), scheduling and time management (Google Calendar), cloud storage (Google Drive), instant messaging and video chat (Duo, Hangouts, Chat, and Meet), language translation (Google Translate), mapping and navigation (Google Maps, Waze, Google Earth, and Street View), podcast hosting (Google Podcasts), video sharing (YouTube), blog publishing (Blogger), note-taking (Google Keep and Google Jamboard), and photo organizing and editing (Google Photos). The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved increasingly into hardware; from 2010 to 2015, it partnered with major electronics manufacturers in the production of its Nexus devices, and it released multiple hardware products in October 2016, including the Google Pixel smartphone, Google Home smart speaker, Google Wifi mesh wireless router, and Google Daydream virtual reality headset. Google has also experimented with becoming an Internet carrier (Google Fiber, Google Fi, and Google Station).[13]

    Google.com is the most visited website in the world.[14] Several other Google services also figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google was the most valuable brand in the world in 2017 (surpassed by Amazon),[15] but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust, censorship, and search neutrality.

    1. ^ Fitzpatrick, Alex (September 4, 2014). "Google Used to Be the Company That Did 'Nothing But Search'". Time.
    2. ^ Telegraph Reporters (September 27, 2019). "When is Google's birthday – and why are people confused?". The Telegraph.
    3. ^ Griffin, Andrew (September 27, 2019). "Google birthday: The one big problem with the company's celebratory doodle". The Independent.
    4. ^ Wray, Richard (September 5, 2008). "Happy birthday Google". The Guardian.
    5. ^ "Company – Google". January 16, 2015. Archived from the original on January 16, 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
    6. ^ Claburn, Thomas (September 24, 2008). "Google Founded By Sergey Brin, Larry Page... And Hubert Chang?!?". InformationWeek. UBM plc. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
    7. ^ "Locations — Google Jobs". Archived from the original on September 30, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
    8. ^ "Alphabet Announces Fourth Quarter 2018 Results" (PDF) (Press release). Mountain View, California: Alphabet Inc. February 4, 2019. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 4, 2019. Retrieved February 4, 2019. Alphabet Inc. (NASDAQ: GOOG, GOOGL) today announced financial results for the quarter and fiscal year ended December 31, 2018. [...] Q1 2018 financial highlights[:] The following summarizes our consolidated financial results for the quarters ended December 31, 2017 and 2018 [...]: [...] Number of employees [as of] Three Months Ended December 31, 2018 [is] 98,771[.]
    9. ^ Rivas, Teresa. "Ranking The Big Four Tech Stocks: Google Is No. 1, Apple Comes In Last". www.barrons.com. Archived from the original on December 28, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
    10. ^ Ritholtz, Barry (October 31, 2017). "The Big Four of Technology". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on June 26, 2019. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
    11. ^ "What is GAFA (the big four)? - Definition from WhatIs.com". WhatIs.com. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
    12. ^ "Business Entity Filing". Business Search. October 7, 2002. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
    13. ^ Byford, Sam (September 27, 2016). "Google Station is a new platform that aims to make public Wi-Fi better". The Verge. Archived from the original on September 3, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Alexa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ "Google is now the world's most valuable brand". The Independent. February 1, 2017. Archived from the original on August 31, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  40. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    28 September 1924 – The first aerial circumnavigation is completed by a team from the US Army.

    First aerial circumnavigation

    The aircraft shown here, Chicago, led the first round the world flight in 1924.

    The first aerial circumnavigation of the world was completed in 1924 by four aviators from an eight-man team of the United States Army Air Service, the precursor of the United States Air Force. The 175-day journey covered over 26,345 miles (42,398 km). The team generally traveled east to west, around the northern-Pacific Rim, through to South Asia and Europe and back to the United States. Airmen Lowell H. Smith and Leslie P. Arnold, and Erik H. Nelson and John Harding Jr. made the trip in two single-engined open-cockpit Douglas World Cruisers (DWC) configured as floatplanes for most of the journey. Four more flyers in two additional DWC began the journey but their aircraft crashed or were forced down. All airmen survived.

    In 1930, Australian Charles Kingsford Smith with a team of three others completed the first circumnavigation of the world by flight traversing both hemispheres, including the first trans-Pacific flight, from the US to Australia, in 1928. Kingsford Smith flew a Fokker F.VIIb/3m trimotor monoplane.

     

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