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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    1
    February 19 1985William J. Schroeder becomes the first recipient of an artificial heart to leave the hospital.

    Artificial heart

    An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart. Artificial hearts are typically used to bridge the time to heart transplantation, or to permanently replace the heart in the case that a heart transplant is impossible. Although other similar inventions preceded it from the late 1940s, the first artificial heart to be successfully implanted in a human was the Jarvik-7 in 1982, designed by a team including Willem Johan Kolff and Robert Jarvik.

    An artificial heart is distinct from a ventricular assist device (VAD) designed to support a failing heart. It is also distinct from a cardiopulmonary bypass machine, which is an external device used to provide the functions of both the heart and lungs, used only for a few hours at a time, most commonly during cardiac surgery.

     
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    20 February 1872 – The Metropolitan Museum of Art opens in New York City.

    Metropolitan Museum of Art

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met",[a] is the largest art museum in the United States. With 6,479,548 visitors to its three locations in 2019, it was the fourth most visited art museum in the world.[10] Its permanent collection contains over 2 million works,[11] divided among 17 curatorial departments. The main building at 1000 Fifth Avenue, along the Museum Mile on the eastern edge of Central Park in Manhattan's Upper East Side, is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art, architecture, and artifacts from medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum along Madison Avenue on the Upper East Side; it extends the museum's modern and contemporary art program.

    The permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt, paintings, and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes, and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries.

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. The Fifth Avenue building opened on February 20, 1872, at 681 Fifth Avenue.

    1. ^ "Metropolitan Museum Launches New and Expanded Web Site" Archived November 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, press release, The Met, January 25, 2000
    2. ^ "Today in Met History: April 13". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
    3. ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art: About". Artinfo. 2008. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Met History was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ "Visitor Figures". www.theartnewspaper.com. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYCL-0410 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYCL-0972 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
    9. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
    10. ^ The Art Newspaper, April 2020
    11. ^ "Metropolitan Museum Launches New and Expanded Web Site" Archived November 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, press release, The Met, January 25, 2000


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    21 February 2013 – At least 17 people are killed and 119 injured following several bombings in the Indian city of Hyderabad.

    2013 Hyderabad blasts

    On 21 February 2013, at around 19:00 IST, two blasts occurred in the city of Hyderabad, India. The bombs exploded in Dilsukhnagar, a crowded shopping area,[3] within 100 metres (330 ft) of each other.[4][5] The first explosion occurred outside a roadside eatery named A1 Mirchi, next to the Anand Tiffin Centre and opposite the Konark movie hall, followed by the second one two minutes later near the Route 107 bus stand close to the Venkatadri theatre.[6][7] [8]

    1. ^ "IED used in twin blasts in Hyderabad: DGP". DNA India. PTI. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
    2. ^ a b c "Hyderabad blasts case: Yasin Bhatkal, 4 other IM operatives sentenced to death". The Times of India. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
    3. ^ "Hyderabad blasts: Dilsukhnagar has been on Indian Mujahideen radar since 1999". The Times of India. TNN. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
    4. ^ "12 dead, 50 injured in blasts in Hyderabad". DNA India. IANS. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
    5. ^ "12 dead, 84 injured in blasts in Hyderabad". DNA India. PTI. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
    6. ^ "Two blasts in Dilsukh Nagar area in Hyderabad". Zee News. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
    7. ^ "13 die in Hyderabad blasts aimed at teeming clusters". The Telegraph, India. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
    8. ^ Reddy, B Dasarath (22 February 2013). "Hyderabad blasts: toll goes up to 17". Business Standard. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
     
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    22 February 1959Lee Petty wins the first Daytona 500.

    Daytona 500

    The Daytona 500 is a 500-mile-long (805 km) NASCAR Cup Series motor race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is the first of two Cup races held every year at Daytona, the second being the Coke Zero 400, and one of three held in Florida, with the annual spring showdown Dixie Vodka 400 being held at Homestead south of Miami. From 1988 to 2019, it was one of the four restrictor plate races on the Cup schedule. The inaugural Daytona 500 was held in 1959 coinciding with the opening of the speedway and since 1982, it has been the season-opening race of the Cup series.[1]

    The Daytona 500 is regarded as the most important and prestigious race on the NASCAR calendar, carrying by far the largest purse.[2] Championship points awarded are equal to that of any other NASCAR Cup Series race. It is also the series' first race of the year; this phenomenon is unique in sports, which tend to have championships or other major events at the end of the season rather than the start. Since 1995, U.S. television ratings for the Daytona 500 have been the highest for any auto race of the year, surpassing the traditional leader, the Indianapolis 500 which in turn greatly surpasses the Daytona 500 in in-track attendance and international viewing. The 2006 Daytona 500 attracted the sixth largest average live global TV audience of any sporting event that year with 20 million viewers.[3]

    The race serves as the final event of Speedweeks and is also known as "The Great American Race" or the "Super Bowl of Stock Car Racing".[4][5][6] Since its inception, the race has been held in mid-to-late February. From 1971 to 2011, and again since 2018, the event has been as associated with Presidents Day weekend, taking place on the Sunday before the third Monday in February. On eight occasions, the race has been run on Valentine's Day.

    Since 1997, the winner of the Daytona 500 has been presented with the Harley J. Earl Trophy in Victory Lane, and the winning car is displayed in race-winning condition for one year at Daytona 500 Experience, a museum and gallery adjacent to Daytona International Speedway.

    Michael McDowell is the defending winner of the Daytona 500, having won it in 2021.

    1. ^ Chad Culver (2014). Dover International Speedway: The Monster Mile. 53: Arcadia Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 1467121371.CS1 maint: location (link)
    2. ^ "Culture, Class, Distinction"Bennett, Tony. Culture, Class, Distinction. Routledge (2009) Disaggregating cultural capital. English translation ISBN 0-415-42242-6 (hardcover).
    3. ^ "World's most watched TV sports events: 2006 Rank & Trends report". Initiative. 2007-01-19. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
    4. ^ "A History of the Daytona 500". TicketCity. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    5. ^ Crossman, Matt (February 22, 2015). "Daytona 500 Magic Hour: Best 60 minutes in sports". NASCAR. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    6. ^ Briggs, Josh. "How Daytona Qualifying Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
     
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    23 February 1903Cuba leases Guantánamo Bay to the United States "in perpetuity".

    Guantanamo Bay Naval Base

    Map of Guantánamo Bay showing approximate U.S. Naval Base boundaries

    Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (Spanish: Base Naval de la Bahía de Guantánamo), officially known as Naval Station Guantanamo Bay or NSGB, (also called GTMO or Gitmo because of the common pronunciation of this word by the U.S. military[1]) is a United States military base on the shore of Guantánamo Bay and is also the oldest overseas U.S. Naval Base.[2] The base is located on 45 square miles (116 km2) of land and water[citation needed] at Guantánamo Bay, at the southeastern end of Cuba, which the U.S. leased for use as a coaling station and naval base in 1903. The lease was $2,000 in gold per year until 1934, when the payment was set to match the value in gold in dollars;[3] in 1974, the yearly lease was set to $4,085.[4]

    Since the Cuban Revolution of 1959, the Cuban communist government has consistently protested against the U.S. presence on Cuban soil and called it "illegal" under international law, alleging that the base "was imposed on Cuba by force." Since 2002, the naval base has contained a military prison, for alleged unlawful combatants captured in Afghanistan, Iraq, and other places during the War on Terror.[5] Cases of torture of prisoners[6] by the U.S. military, and their denial of protection under the Geneva Conventions, have been criticized.[7][8]

    1. ^ "File:US Navy 040813-N-6939M-002 Commissions building courtroom at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.jpg".
    2. ^ "Why the U.S. base at Cuba's Guantanamo Bay is probably doomed". Washington Post. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
    3. ^ Sweeney, Joseph C. (2006). "Guantanamo and U.S. Law". Fordham International Law Journal. 30 (3): 22.
    4. ^ Elsea, Jennifer K.; Else, Daniel H. (17 November 2016). Naval Station Guantanamo Bay: History and Legal Issues Regarding Its Lease Agreements (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
    5. ^ "Guantanamo Bay – Camp Delta". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
    6. ^ "GTMO CTD Inspection Special Inquiry" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
    7. ^ "Article 10: Right to fair public hearing by independent tribunal". BBC World Service. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
    8. ^ "Agenda Item 17 base naval". cubaminrex.cu. Archived from the original on 4 June 2004.
     
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    24 February 1821 – Final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain with Plan of Iguala.

    Mexican War of Independence

    The Mexican War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict and political process, lasting from 1808 to 1821, resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain. It was not a single, coherent event, but local and regional struggles that occurred within the same time period, and can be considered a revolutionary civil war.[2] Independence was not an inevitable outcome, but events in Spain itself had a direct impact on the outbreak of the armed insurgency in 1810 and its course until 1821. Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Spain in 1808 touched off a crisis of legitimacy of crown rule, since he had placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne after forcing the abdication of the Spanish monarch Charles IV. In Spain and many of its overseas possessions the local response was to set up juntas ruling in the name of the Bourbon monarchy. Delegates in Spain and overseas territories met in Cádiz, Spain, still under Spanish control, as the Cortes of Cádiz, which drafted the Spanish Constitution of 1812. That constitution sought to create a new governing framework in the absence of the legitimate Spanish monarch. It tried to accommodate the aspirations of American-born Spaniards for more local control and equal standing with Peninsular-born Spaniards. This political process had far reaching impacts in New Spain, during the independence period and beyond.

    In September 1808 peninsular-born Spaniards in New Spain overthrew the rule of Viceroy José de Iturrigaray (1803–08), who had been appointed before the French invasion. In 1810, a few American-born Spaniards in favor of independence began plotting an uprising against Spanish rule. It occurred when the parish priest of the village of Dolores, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, issued the Cry of Dolores on September 16, 1810. The Hidalgo revolt touched off the armed insurgency for independence, lasting until 1821. The colonial regime did not expect the size and duration of the insurgency, which spread from the Bajío region north of Mexico City to the Pacific and Gulf Coasts. With Napoleon's defeat, Ferdinand VII succeeded to the throne of the Spanish Empire in 1814, and promptly repudiated the constitution and returned to absolutist rule. When Spanish liberals overthrew the autocratic rule of Ferdinand VII in 1820, conservatives in New Spain saw political independence as a way to maintain their position. Former royalists and old insurgents formed an alliance under the Plan of Iguala and forged the Army of the Three Guarantees. The momentum of independence saw the collapse of royal government in Mexico and the Treaty of Córdoba ended the conflict.[3]

    The mainland of New Spain was organized as the Mexican Empire.[4] This ephemeral Catholic monarchy was overthrown and a federal republic declared in 1823 and codified in the Constitution of 1824. After some Spanish reconquest attempts, including the expedition of Isidro Barradas in 1829, Spain under the rule of Isabella II recognized the independence of Mexico in 1836.[5]

    1. ^ Scheina. Latin America's Wars. p. 84.
    2. ^ Altman, Ida et al. The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall 2003, pp. 341–358.
    3. ^ Archer, Christon I. "Wars of Independence" in Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1595–1601.
    4. ^ Mexico independiente, 1821–1851 Archived 2018-12-22 at the Wayback Machine, Monografias, 1996; accessed Dec 21, 2018.
    5. ^ http://pares.mcu.es/Bicentenarios/portal/reconocimientoEspana.html Archived 2018-10-17 at the Wayback Machine accessed Dec 21, 2018.
     
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    24 February 1821 – Final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain with Plan of Iguala.

    Mexican War of Independence

    The Mexican War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict and political process, lasting from 1808 to 1821, resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain. It was not a single, coherent event, but local and regional struggles that occurred within the same time period, and can be considered a revolutionary civil war.[2] Independence was not an inevitable outcome, but events in Spain itself had a direct impact on the outbreak of the armed insurgency in 1810 and its course until 1821. Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Spain in 1808 touched off a crisis of legitimacy of crown rule, since he had placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne after forcing the abdication of the Spanish monarch Charles IV. In Spain and many of its overseas possessions the local response was to set up juntas ruling in the name of the Bourbon monarchy. Delegates in Spain and overseas territories met in Cádiz, Spain, still under Spanish control, as the Cortes of Cádiz, which drafted the Spanish Constitution of 1812. That constitution sought to create a new governing framework in the absence of the legitimate Spanish monarch. It tried to accommodate the aspirations of American-born Spaniards for more local control and equal standing with Peninsular-born Spaniards. This political process had far reaching impacts in New Spain, during the independence period and beyond.

    In September 1808 peninsular-born Spaniards in New Spain overthrew the rule of Viceroy José de Iturrigaray (1803–08), who had been appointed before the French invasion. In 1810, a few American-born Spaniards in favor of independence began plotting an uprising against Spanish rule. It occurred when the parish priest of the village of Dolores, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, issued the Cry of Dolores on September 16, 1810. The Hidalgo revolt touched off the armed insurgency for independence, lasting until 1821. The colonial regime did not expect the size and duration of the insurgency, which spread from the Bajío region north of Mexico City to the Pacific and Gulf Coasts. With Napoleon's defeat, Ferdinand VII succeeded to the throne of the Spanish Empire in 1814, and promptly repudiated the constitution and returned to absolutist rule. When Spanish liberals overthrew the autocratic rule of Ferdinand VII in 1820, conservatives in New Spain saw political independence as a way to maintain their position. Former royalists and old insurgents formed an alliance under the Plan of Iguala and forged the Army of the Three Guarantees. The momentum of independence saw the collapse of royal government in Mexico and the Treaty of Córdoba ended the conflict.[3]

    The mainland of New Spain was organized as the Mexican Empire.[4] This ephemeral Catholic monarchy was overthrown and a federal republic declared in 1823 and codified in the Constitution of 1824. After some Spanish reconquest attempts, including the expedition of Isidro Barradas in 1829, Spain under the rule of Isabella II recognized the independence of Mexico in 1836.[5]

    1. ^ Scheina. Latin America's Wars. p. 84.
    2. ^ Altman, Ida et al. The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall 2003, pp. 341–358.
    3. ^ Archer, Christon I. "Wars of Independence" in Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1595–1601.
    4. ^ Mexico independiente, 1821–1851 Archived 2018-12-22 at the Wayback Machine, Monografias, 1996; accessed Dec 21, 2018.
    5. ^ http://pares.mcu.es/Bicentenarios/portal/reconocimientoEspana.html Archived 2018-10-17 at the Wayback Machine accessed Dec 21, 2018.
     
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    25 February 1939 – As part of British air raid precautions, the first of 21⁄2 million Anderson shelters is constructed in a garden in Islington, north London

    Air Raid Precautions in the United Kingdom

    Recruitment poster for Air Raid Wardens

    Air Raid Precautions (ARP) refers to a number of organisations and guidelines in the United Kingdom dedicated to the protection of civilians from the danger of air raids. Government consideration for air raid precautions increased in the 1920s and 30s, with the Raid Wardens' Service set up in 1937 to report on bombing incidents.[1] Every local council was responsible for organising ARP wardens, messengers, ambulance drivers, rescue parties, and liaison with police and fire brigades.

    From 1 September 1939, ARP wardens enforced the "blackout". Heavy curtains and shutters were required on all private residences, commercial premises, and factories to prevent light escaping and so making them a possible marker for enemy bombers to locate their targets.

    With increased enemy bombing during the Blitz, the ARP services were central in reporting and dealing with bombing incidents. They managed the air raid sirens and ensured people were directed to shelters. Women were involved in ARP services through the Women's Voluntary Service.

    The Auxiliary Fire Service was set up in 1938 to support existing local fire services, which were amalgamated into a National Fire Service in 1941.

    From 1941 the ARP officially changed its title to Civil Defence Service to reflect the wider range of roles it then encompassed. During the war almost 7,000 Civil Defence workers were killed.[1] In all some 1.5 million men and women served within the organisation during World War Two. Over 127,000 full-time personnel were involved at the height of the Blitz but by the end of 1943 this had dropped to 70,000. The Civil Defence Service was stood down towards the end of the war in Europe on 2 May 1945.[2]

    Between 1949 and 1968 many of the duties of the Civil Defence Service were resurrected through the Civil Defence Corps.

    1. ^ a b "How Britain Prepared For Air Raids In The Second World War". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
    2. ^ "Fact File : Air Raid Precautions". BBC. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
     
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    26 February 1919 – President Woodrow Wilson signs an act of Congress establishing the Grand Canyon National Park.

    Grand Canyon National Park

    Grand Canyon National Park, located in northwestern Arizona, is the 15th site in the United States to have been named as a national park. The park's central feature is the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, which is often considered one of the Wonders of the World. The park, which covers 1,217,262 acres (1,901.972 sq mi; 4,926.08 km2) of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties, received more than six million recreational visitors in 2017, which is the second highest count of all American national parks after Great Smoky Mountains National Park.[5] The Grand Canyon was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979. The park celebrated its 100th anniversary on February 26, 2019.[6]

    1. ^ Grand Canyon in United States of America. protectedplanet.net. United Nations Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre and the IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
    2. ^ "Grand Canyon National Park Visitor Center". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
    3. ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
    4. ^ "Annual Visitation Highlights". nps.gov. National Park Service.
    5. ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2019-03-07.
    6. ^ "Grand Canyon Centennial History". TIME. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
     
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    27 February 1594Henry IV is crowned King of France.

    Henry IV of France

    Henry IV (French: Henri IV; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.[1]

    The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother. He inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. He later led Protestant forces against the royal army.[2]

    He and his predecessor Henry III of France were direct descendants of Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; Henry IV belonged to the House of Bourbon, descended from Robert, Count of Clermont, younger son of Saint Louis. As Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood". Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law.

    He initially kept the Protestant faith (the only French king to do so) and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. After four years of stalemate, he converted to Catholicism to obtain mastery over his kingdom (reportedly saying, "Paris is well worth a mass."). As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion.

    Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became the target of at least 12 assassination attempts.[3] Having faced much opposition during his reign, Henry gained more status after his death.[4] He was admired for his repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. "Good King Henry" (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects.[2] An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education. During his reign,[5] the French colonization of the Americas truly began with the foundation of the colonies of Acadia and Canada at Port-Royal and Quebec, respectively. He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.

    1. ^ Baird, Henry Martyn (1886). The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre. p. 486. ISBN 9780404005405.
    2. ^ a b Harris, Carolyn (August 2017). "The Queen's land". Canada's History. 97 (4): 34–43. ISSN 1920-9894.
    3. ^ Pierre Miquel, Les Guerres de religion, Paris, Club France Loisirs (1980) ISBN 2-7242-0785-8, p. 399
    4. ^ Le Figaro, "Henri IV, Dès sa mort, il entre dans la légende", 1 August 2009 [1]
    5. ^ Acadia. Encyclopedia Britannica
     
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    27 February 1594Henry IV is crowned King of France.

    Henry IV of France

    Henry IV (French: Henri IV; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.[1]

    The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother. He inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. He later led Protestant forces against the royal army.[2]

    He and his predecessor Henry III of France were direct descendants of Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; Henry IV belonged to the House of Bourbon, descended from Robert, Count of Clermont, younger son of Saint Louis. As Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood". Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law.

    He initially kept the Protestant faith (the only French king to do so) and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. After four years of stalemate, he converted to Catholicism to obtain mastery over his kingdom (reportedly saying, "Paris is well worth a mass."). As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion.

    Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became the target of at least 12 assassination attempts.[3] Having faced much opposition during his reign, Henry gained more status after his death.[4] He was admired for his repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. "Good King Henry" (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects.[2] An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education. During his reign,[5] the French colonization of the Americas truly began with the foundation of the colonies of Acadia and Canada at Port-Royal and Quebec, respectively. He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.

    1. ^ Baird, Henry Martyn (1886). The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre. p. 486. ISBN 9780404005405.
    2. ^ a b Harris, Carolyn (August 2017). "The Queen's land". Canada's History. 97 (4): 34–43. ISSN 1920-9894.
    3. ^ Pierre Miquel, Les Guerres de religion, Paris, Club France Loisirs (1980) ISBN 2-7242-0785-8, p. 399
    4. ^ Le Figaro, "Henri IV, Dès sa mort, il entre dans la légende", 1 August 2009 [1]
    5. ^ Acadia. Encyclopedia Britannica
     
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    28 February 1991 – The first Gulf War ends.

    Gulf War

    The Gulf War[b] (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991) was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. It was codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase.

    On 2 August 1990, the Iraqi Army invaded and occupied Kuwait, which was met with international condemnation and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. UK prime minister Margaret Thatcher[27] and US president George H. W. Bush deployed forces into Saudi Arabia, and urged other countries to send their own forces to the scene. An array of nations joined the coalition, forming the largest military alliance since World War II. Most of the coalition's military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and Egypt as leading contributors, in that order. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost.[28]

    The war marked the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN.[29][30][31] The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board U.S. bombers during Operation Desert Storm.[25][32]

    The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991, continuing for five weeks. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition ceased its advance and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the ground campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on Saudi Arabia's border. Iraq launched Scud missiles against Israel and coalition targets in Saudi Arabia.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt-syria-double was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Haberman, Clyde; Times, Special To the New York (20 January 1991). "WAR IN THE GULF: Turkey; Turkey's Role in Air Assault Sets Off Fear of Retaliation (Published 1991)" – via NYTimes.com.
    3. ^ "Den 1. Golfkrig". Forsvaret.dk. 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    4. ^ Persian Gulf War, the Sandhurst-trained Prince
      Khaled bin Sultan al-Saud was co-commander with General Norman Schwarzkopf
      www.casi.org.uk/discuss
    5. ^ General Khaled was Co-Commander, with US General Norman Schwarzkopf, of the allied coalition that liberated Kuwait www.thefreelibrary.com
    6. ^ Gulf War coalition forces (latest available) by country "www.nationmaster.com". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2007.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
    7. ^ Hersh, Seymour (2005). Chain of Command. Penguin Books. p. 181.
    8. ^ a b "Persian Gulf War". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.
    9. ^ 18 M1 Abrams, 11 M60, 2 AMX-30
    10. ^ CheckPoint, Ludovic Monnerat. "Guerre du Golfe : le dernier combat de la division Tawakalna".
    11. ^ Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 279.
    12. ^ Halberstadt 1991. p. 35
    13. ^ Atkinson, Rick. Crusade, The untold story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. pp. 332–3
    14. ^ Captain Todd A. Buchs, B. Co. Commander, Knights in the Desert. Publisher/Editor Unknown. p. 111.
    15. ^ Malory, Marcia. "Tanks During the First Gulf War – Tank History". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    16. ^ M60 vs T-62 Cold War Combatants 1956–92 by Lon Nordeen & David Isby
    17. ^ "TAB H – Friendly-fire Incidents". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    18. ^ NSIAD-92-94, "Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams". US General Accounting Office, 10 January 1992. Quote: "According to information provided by the Army's Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 20 Bradleys were destroyed during the Gulf war. Another 12 Bradleys were damaged, but four of these were quickly repaired. Friendly fire accounted for 17 of the destroyed Bradleys and three of the damaged ones
    19. ^ a b c d Pike, John. "Operation Desert Storm". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    20. ^ Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990 (Air War) Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Acig.org. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
    21. ^ a b c d e Bourque P.455
    22. ^ "The Use of Terror during Iraq's invasion of Kuwait". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 24 January 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
    23. ^ "Kuwait: missing people: a step in the right direction". Red Cross.
    24. ^ "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict". Project on Defense Alternatives. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
    25. ^ a b A Guerra do Golfo, os Estados Unidos e as Relações Internacionais accessed on 29 March 2011.
    26. ^ [https://web.archive.org/web/20120426005120/http://www.iraquenewst55.jex.com.br/3+guerra+terrorismo/o+maior+bombardeio+da+historia Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história], access on 27 November 2011.
    27. ^ "George Bush (Sr) Library – Margaret Thatcher Foundation". www.margaretthatcher.org.
    28. ^ Peters, John E; Deshong, Howard (1995). Out of Area or Out of Reach? European Military Support for Operations in Southwest Asia (PDF). RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-2329-2.
    29. ^ "Memória Globo". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), access on 29 March 2011.
    30. ^ "Livraria da Folha – Livro conta como Guerra do Golfo colocou a CNN no foco internacional – 08/09/2010". .folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
    31. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, accessed on 29 March 2011
    32. ^ Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, access on 27 November 2011.


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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    1
    1 March 1998Titanic became the first film to gross over $1 billion worldwide.

    Titanic (1997 film)

    Titanic is a 1997 American epic romance and disaster film directed, written, co-produced, and co-edited by James Cameron. Incorporating both historical and fictionalized aspects, it is based on accounts of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, and stars Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet as members of different social classes who fall in love aboard the ship during its ill-fated maiden voyage.

    Cameron's inspiration for the film came from his fascination with shipwrecks; he felt a love story interspersed with the human loss would be essential to convey the emotional impact of the disaster. Production began in 1995, when Cameron shot footage of the actual Titanic wreck. The modern scenes on the research vessel were shot on board the Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, which Cameron had used as a base when filming the wreck. Scale models, computer-generated imagery, and a reconstruction of the Titanic built at Baja Studios were used to re-create the sinking. The film was co-financed by Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox; the former handled distribution in North America while the latter released the film internationally. It was the most expensive film ever made at the time, with a production budget of $200 million.

    Upon its release on December 19, 1997, Titanic achieved significant critical and commercial success. Nominated for 14 Academy Awards, it tied All About Eve (1950) for the most Oscar nominations, and won 11, including the awards for Best Picture and Best Director, tying Ben-Hur (1959) for the most Oscars won by a single film. With an initial worldwide gross of over $1.84 billion, Titanic was the first film to reach the billion-dollar mark. It remained the highest-grossing film of all time until Cameron's Avatar surpassed it in 2010. A 3D version of Titanic, released on April 4, 2012, to commemorate the centennial of the sinking, earned it an additional $343.6 million worldwide, pushing the film's worldwide total to $2.195 billion and making it the second film to gross more than $2 billion worldwide (after Avatar). In 2017, the film was re-released for its 20th anniversary and was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.

    1. ^ a b c "Titanic (1997)". Film & TV Database. British Film Institute. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
    2. ^ a b "Titanic". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
    3. ^ "TITANIC (12)". British Board of Film Classification. November 14, 1997. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Garrett (2007) was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sandler & Studlar 1999 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Welkos (1998) was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference bom was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     

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