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Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 March 1983Strategic Defense Initiative: President Ronald Reagan makes his initial proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles.

    Strategic Defense Initiative

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles). The system, which was to combine ground-based units and orbital deployment platforms, was first publicly announced by President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983.[1] The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD). The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was set up in 1984 within the United States Department of Defense to oversee the Strategic Defense Initiative.

    Reagan was a vocal critic of MAD doctrine. SDI was an important part of his defense policy intended to end MAD as a nuclear deterrence strategy, as well as a strategic initiative to neutralize the military component of the Soviet Union's nuclear defenses.[2]

    The ambitious initiative was criticized for allegedly threatening to destabilize the MAD-approach and to possibly re-ignite "an offensive arms race".[3] SDI was nicknamed largely in the mainstream media as "Star Wars", after the popular 1977 film by George Lucas. In 1987, the American Physical Society concluded that a global shield such as "Star Wars" was extremely ambitious and with existing technology not directly feasible for operational status, and that about ten more years of research was needed to learn about such a comprehensive and complex system to set up and make it fully operational.[4]

    Under the SDIO's Innovative Sciences and Technology Office, headed by physicist and engineer Dr. James Ionson,[5] the investment was predominantly made in basic research at national laboratories, universities, and in industry; these programs have continued to be key sources of funding for top research scientists in the fields of high-energy physics, supercomputing/computation, advanced materials, and many other critical science and engineering disciplines—funding which indirectly supports other research work by top scientists, and which was most politically viable to fund within the budget environment.[6]

    Laser research funded by the SDI office was disclosed at laser conferences that also included panel discussions on the subject with the participation of James Ionson, Edward Teller, and other prominent advocates of SDI.[7][8]

    During the administration of President Bill Clinton in 1993, the SDIO's name was changed to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and its focus shifted from national missile defense to theater missile defense; and its scope from global to more regional coverage.[citation needed] It was never truly developed or deployed, though certain aspects of SDI research and technologies paved the way for some anti-ballistic missile systems of today.[citation needed] BMDO was renamed to the Missile Defense Agency in 2002. This article covers defense efforts under the SDIO.

    Today, the United States holds a significant advantage in the field of comprehensive advanced missile defense systems through years of extensive research and testing.[9][10] The US and the UK also have both laser weapons and 360 degree laser shields in development, which are expected to be ready for military use as early as 2020.[11] Many of the obtained technological insights were transferred to subsequent programs and would find use in follow-up programs.[12][13][14]

    1. ^ Federation of American Scientists. Missile Defense Milestones. Accessed March 10, 2006.
    2. ^ 'Alternatives to assured destruction', Encyclopædia Britannica, Nuclear Strategy
    3. ^ SDI, Page 1600, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations: S-Z, By Cathal J. Nolan
    4. ^ Stars Wars works!, By MARK HERTSGAARD, 1996/06/07, SALON
    5. ^ 85-25: National Policy on Transfer of Scientific, Technical and Engineering Information, Security Innovation for Estate Protection
    6. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZ4_kdgbw1Y
    7. ^ Wang, C. P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '85 (STS, McLean, Va, 1986).
    8. ^ Duarte, F. J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '87 (STS, McLean, Va, 1988).
    9. ^ https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/usmissiledefense
    10. ^ http://www.spacewar.com/missiledefense.html
    11. ^ Laser-armed fighter jets by 2020, U.S. Air Force says
    12. ^ 4.9. The case of the US Strategic Defence Initiative. Archive.unu.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
    13. ^ Missile Defense (Pros & Cons, Arguments For and Against, Advantages & Disadvantages). BalancedPolitics.org (2011-11-19). Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
    14. ^ "James A. Abrahamson : Henry F. Cooper : What Did We Get For Our $30-Billion Investment In SDI/BMD?" (PDF). Nipp.org. Retrieved 2015-02-21. 
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 March 1882Robert Koch announces the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis.

    Robert Koch

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox scientist with unknown parameter "Spouses" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (/ˈkɔːx/;[3]German: [ˈkɔχ]; 11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a celebrated German physician and pioneering microbiologist. As the founder of modern bacteriology, he is known for his role in identifying the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax and for giving experimental support for the concept of infectious disease.[4] In addition to his innovative studies on these diseases, Koch created and improved laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of microbiology, and made key discoveries in public health.[5] His research led to the creation of Koch’s postulates, a series of four generalized principles linking specific microorganisms to specific diseases that remain today the "gold standard" in medical microbiology.[5] As a result of his groundbreaking research on tuberculosis, Koch received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905.[5]

    1. ^ ID Tree profile Robert Koch
    2. ^ "Fellows of the Royal Society". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-03-16. 
    3. ^ "Koch". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    4. ^ "Robert Koch." World of Microbiology and Immunology. Ed. Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and K. Lee Lerner. Detroit: Gale, 2006. Biography In Context. Web. 14 Apr. 2013.
    5. ^ a b c Brock, Thomas. Robert Koch: A life in medicine and bacteriology. ASM Press: Washington DC, 1999. Print.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 March 1584 – Sir Walter Raleigh is granted a patent to colonize Virginia.

    Walter Raleigh

    For other people named Walter Raleigh, see Walter Raleigh (disambiguation).
    Arms of Raleigh family: Gules, five fusils conjoined in bend argent

    Sir Walter Raleigh (/ˈrɔːli/, /ˈræli/, or /ˈrɑːli/;[2]circa 1554 – 29 October 1618) was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer. He was cousin to Sir Richard Grenville and younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. He is also well known for popularising tobacco in England.

    Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in Devon, the son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine Champernowne. Little is known of his early life, though he spent some time in Ireland, in Killua Castle, Clonmellon, County Westmeath, taking part in the suppression of rebellions and participating in the Siege of Smerwick. Later, he became a landlord of property confiscated from the native Irish. He rose rapidly in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I and was knighted in 1585. Raleigh was instrumental in the English colonisation of North America and was granted a royal patent to explore Virginia, which paved the way for future English settlements. In 1591, he secretly married Elizabeth Throckmorton, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, without the Queen's permission, for which he and his wife were sent to the Tower of London. After his release, they retired to his estate at Sherborne, Dorset.

    In 1594, Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado". After Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, Raleigh was again imprisoned in the Tower, this time for being involved in the Main Plot against King James I, who was not favourably disposed towards him. In 1616, he was released to lead a second expedition in search of El Dorado. During the expedition, men led by his top commander ransacked a Spanish outpost, in violation of both the terms of his pardon and a peace treaty with Spain. He returned to England and, to appease the Spanish, was arrested and executed in 1618.

    Raleigh was one of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era. In 2002, he was featured in the BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons.[3]

    1. ^ "Sir Walter Raleigh". Nndb.com. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
    2. ^ Many alternative spellings of his surname exist, including Rawley, Ralegh, Ralagh, and Rawleigh. "Raleigh" appears most commonly today, though he used that spelling only once, as far as is known. His most consistent preference was for "Ralegh". His full name is /ˈwɔːltər ˈrɔːli/, though in practice /ˈræli/, RAL-ee, or even /ˈrɑːli/ RAH-lee are the usual modern pronunciations in England.
    3. ^ "100 great Britons – A complete list". Daily Mail. 21 August 2002. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 March 1975 – The Biological Weapons Convention comes into force.

    Biological Weapons Convention

    The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the Biological Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BWC, or Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BTWC) was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.[1]

    The Convention was the result of prolonged efforts by the international community to establish a new instrument that would supplement the 1925 Geneva Protocol. The Geneva Protocol prohibits use but not possession or development of chemical and biological weapons.

    A draft of the BWC, submitted by the British[2] was opened for signature on 10 April 1972 and entered into force 26 March 1975 when twenty-two governments had deposited their instruments of ratification. It commits the 178 states which are party to it as of December 2016 to prohibit the development, production, and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons. However, the absence of any formal verification regime to monitor compliance has limited the effectiveness of the Convention. An additional six states have signed the BWC but have yet to ratify the treaty.

    The scope of the BWC's prohibition is defined in Article 1 (the so-called general purpose criterion). This includes all microbial and other biological agents or toxins and their means of delivery (with exceptions for medical and defensive purposes in small quantities). Subsequent Review Conferences have reaffirmed that the general purpose criterion encompasses all future scientific and technological developments relevant to the Convention. It is not the objects themselves (biological agents or toxins), but rather certain purposes for which they may be employed which are prohibited; similar to Art.II, 1 in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Permitted purposes under the BWC are defined as prophylactic, protective and other peaceful purposes. The objects may not be retained in quantities that have no justification or which are inconsistent with the permitted purposes.

    As stated in Article 1 of the BWC:

    "Each State Party to this Convention undertakes never in any circumstances to develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain:

    • (1) Microbial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes;
    • (2) Weapons, equipment or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict."

    The United States Congress passed the Bioweapons Anti-Terrorism Act in 1989 to implement the Convention. The law applies the Convention's convent to countries and private citizens, and criminalizes violations of the Convention.[3]

    1. ^ The text of the Convention, as well as the key documents from recent meetings can be found on the BWC Implementation Support Unit website.
    2. ^ "History – World Wars: Silent Weapon: Smallpox and Biological Warfare". BBC. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
    3. ^ Coen, Bob (2009). Dead Silence: Fear and Terrorism on the Anthrax Trail. Berkeley, California: CounterPoint. p. 205. ISBN 978-1-58243-509-1. 
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 March 1998 – The Food and Drug Administration approves Viagra for use as a treatment for male impotence, the first pill to be approved for this condition in the United States.

    Sildenafil

    "Viagra" redirects here. For other uses, see Viagra (disambiguation).

    Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.[3] Its effectiveness for treating sexual dysfunction in women has not been demonstrated.[3]

    Common side effects include headaches and heartburn, as well as flushed skin. Caution is advised in those who have cardiovascular disease. Rare but serious side effects include prolonged erections, which can lead to damage to the penis, and sudden-onset hearing loss. Sildenafil should not be taken by people who take nitrates such as nitroglycerin (glycerin trinitrate), as this may result in a severe and potentially fatal drop in blood pressure.[3]

    Sildenafil acts by inhibiting cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (phosphodiesterase 5, PDE5), an enzyme that promotes degradation of cGMP, which regulates blood flow in the penis.

    Pfizer scientists Andrew Bell, David Brown, and Nicholas Terrett originally discovered sildenafil as a treatment for various cardiovascular disorders.[4][5] Since becoming available in 1998, sildenafil has been a common treatment for erectile dysfunction; its primary competitors are tadalafil (trade name Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra).

    1. ^ Nichols, DJ; Muirhead, GJ; Harness, JA (6 March 2002). "Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil after Single Oral Doses in Healthy Male Subjects: Absolute Bioavailability, Food Effects and Dose Proportionality". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 53: 5S–12S. doi:10.1046/j.0306-5251.2001.00027.x. PMC 1874258Freely accessible. PMID 11879254. 
    2. ^ "Viagra (sildenafil citrate) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information". Pfizer Labs. Division of Pfizer, Inc., NY, NY 10017. Retrieved 5 November 2016. 
    3. ^ a b c "Sildenafil Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved Dec 1, 2014. 
    4. ^ "Patent US5250534 - Pyrazolopyrimidinone antianginal agents - Google Patents". 
    5. ^ Boolell, M; Allen, MJ; Ballard, SA; Gepi-Attee, S; Muirhead, GJ; Naylor, AM; Osterloh, IH; Gingell, C (June 1996). "Sildenafil: an Orally Active Type 5 Cyclic GMP-Specific Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Penile Erectile Dysfunction". International Journal of Impotence Research. 8 (2): 47–52. PMID 8858389. 
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 March 1854Crimean War: France and Britain declare war on Russia.

    Crimean War

    For other uses, see Crimean War (disambiguation).

    The Crimean War (French: Guerre de Crimée; Russian: Крымская война, Krymskaya voina; Turkish: Kırım Savaşı) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to March 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire. The French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense. It has widely been noted that the causes, in one case involving an argument over a key, have never revealed a "greater confusion of purpose", yet led to a war noted for its "notoriously incompetent international butchery."[9]

    While the churches eventually worked out their differences and came to an agreement, Nicholas I of Russia and the French Emperor Napoleon III refused to back down. Nicholas issued an ultimatum that the Orthodox subjects of the Empire be placed under his protection. Britain attempted to mediate and arranged a compromise that Nicholas agreed to. When the Ottomans demanded changes, Nicholas refused and prepared for war. Having obtained promises of support from France and Britain, the Ottomans declared war on Russia in October 1853.

    The war started in the Balkans, when Russian troops occupied the Danubian Principalities, until then under Ottoman suzerainty and now part of modern Romania, and began to cross the Danube. Led by Omar Pasha, the Ottomans fought a strong defensive campaign and stopped the advance at Silistra. A separate action on the fort town of Kars in eastern Anatolia led to a siege, and a Turkish attempt to reinforce the garrison was destroyed by a Russian fleet at Sinop. Fearing an Ottoman collapse, France and Britain rushed forces to Gallipoli. They then moved north to Varna in June, arriving just in time for the Russians to abandon Silistra. Aside from a minor skirmish at Köstence (today Constanța), there was little for the allies to do. Karl Marx quipped that "there they are, the French doing nothing and the British helping them as fast as possible".[10]

    Frustrated by the wasted effort, and with demands for action from their citizens, the allied force decided to attack the centre of Russian strength in the Black Sea at Sevastopol on the Crimean peninsula. After extended preparations, the forces landed on the peninsula in September 1854 and fought their way to a point south of Sevastopol after a series of successful battles. The Russians counterattacked on 25 October in what became the Battle of Balaclava and were repulsed, but at the cost of seriously depleting the British Army forces. A second counterattack, ordered personally by Nicholas, was defeated by Omar Pasha. The front settled into a siege and led to brutal conditions for troops on both sides. Smaller actions were carried out in the Baltic, the Caucasus, the White Sea and in the North Pacific.

    Sevastopol fell after eleven months, and neutral countries began to join the Allied cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued, Russia sued for peace in March 1856. This was welcomed by France and Britain, as their subjects were beginning to turn against their governments as the war dragged on. The war was ended by the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856. Russia was forbidden from hosting warships in the Black Sea. The Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia became largely independent. Christians there were granted a degree of official equality, and the Orthodox Church regained control of the Christian churches in dispute.[11]:415

    The Crimean War was one of the first conflicts to use modern technologies such as explosive naval shells, railways and telegraphs.[12](Preface) The war was one of the first to be documented extensively in written reports and photographs. As the legend of the "Charge of the Light Brigade" demonstrates, the war quickly became an iconic symbol of logistical, medical and tactical failures and mismanagement. The reaction in the UK was a demand for professionalisation, most famously achieved by Florence Nightingale, who gained worldwide attention for pioneering modern nursing while treating the wounded.

    1. ^ Page 39 of the scan of this book [1] (in PDF) reporting a summary of the Sardinian expedition in Crimea
    2. ^ a b Военная Энциклопедия, М., Воениздат 1999, т.4, стр.315
    3. ^ a b Napoleon III, Pierre Milza, Perrin edition, 2004 Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
    4. ^ a b c d e f The War Chronicles: From Flintlocks to Machine Guns: A Global Reference of ... , Joseph Cummins, 2009, p. 100
    5. ^ John Sweetman, Crimean War, Essential Histories 2, Osprey Publishing, 2001, ISBN 1-84176-186-9, p. 89
    6. ^ Gouttman 1995, p. 479.
    7. ^ Mara Kozelsky, "The Crimean War, 1853–56." Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 13.4 (2012): 903–917 online.
    8. ^ Zayonchkovski, Andrei Medardovich (2002) [original year unspecified]. Восточная Война 1853–1856 [Eastern War 1853–1856] (in Russian).[volume & issue needed]. (Russian author: Андре́й Меда́рдович Зайончко́вский). Saint Petersburg, Russia: Полигон [Polygon]. ISBN 5-89173-158-4. OCLC 701418742. Retrieved 2015-01-25. 
    9. ^ Troubetzkoy 2006, p. 208.
    10. ^ Troubetzkoy 2006, p. 192.
    11. ^ Figes, Orlando (2010). Crimea: The Last Crusade. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-7139-9704-0. 
    12. ^ Royle, Trevor (2000). Crimea: The Great Crimean War, 1854–1856. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6416-5. 
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 March 1882 – The Knights of Columbus are established.

    Knights of Columbus

    Not to be confused with Knights of St Columba.

    The Knights of Columbus is the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization. Founded by Father Michael J. McGivney in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1882, it was named in honor of the mariner Christopher Columbus. Originally serving as a mutual benefit society to working class and immigrant Catholics in the United States, it developed into a fraternal benefit society dedicated to providing charitable services, promoting Catholic education and Catholic public policy positions, and actively defending Catholicism in various nations.[1][2][3]

    There are 1,918,122 members[4] in nearly 15,000 councils,[5] with 302 councils on college campuses.[4] Membership is limited to "practical"[6] Catholic men aged 18 or older. Membership consists of four different degrees, each exemplifying a different principle of the Order. The Order is a member of the International Alliance of Catholic Knights.[7]

    Councils have been chartered in the United States (including the territories of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Guam), Canada, the Philippines, Mexico, Poland, the Dominican Republic, Panama, the Bahamas, Cuba, Guatemala, Saipan, South Korea, Ukraine, Lithuania, and on US military bases around the world.[8] The Knights' official junior organization, the Columbian Squires, has over 5,000 circles and the Order's patriotic arm, the Fourth Degree, has more than 2,500 assemblies.[9]

    For their support for the Church and local communities, as well as for their philanthropic efforts, Pope John Paul II referred to the Order as a "strong right arm of the Church."[10] In 2015, the Order gave over US$175 million directly to charity and performed over 73.5 million man-hours of voluntary service.[11] Over 413,000 US pints (195,000 l; 344,000 imp pt) of blood were donated in 2010.[12]

    The Order's insurance program has more than 2 million insurance contracts, totaling more than US$100 billion of life insurance in force. This is backed up by $21 billion in assets as of 2014.[5] Within the United States on the national and state level, the Order is active in the political arena lobbying for laws and positions that uphold the Catholic Church's positions on public policy and social issues.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CathEncy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference KofCHistory was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference arce was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b http://kofc.org/en/news/releases/sk-report-highlight-charity.html
    5. ^ a b https://www.linkedin.com/company/knights-of-columbus-insurance
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference these_men was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference iack was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference fac was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference Annual2006 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference JPII was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference annual2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2009_charity was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 March 1889 – The Eiffel Tower is officially opened.

    Eiffel Tower

    For other uses, see Eiffel Tower (disambiguation).

    The Eiffel Tower (/ˈfəl ˈtaʊər/ EYE-fəl TOWR; French: tour Eiffel, pronounced: [tuʁ‿ɛfɛl] About this sound listen) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower.

    Constructed from 1887–89 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was initially criticized by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world.[3] The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015.

    The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, and the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres (410 ft) on each side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second-tallest structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.

    The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift (elevator) to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually only accessible by lift.

    1. ^ a b c "Eiffel Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
    2. ^ a b Eiffel Tower at Emporis
    3. ^ SETE. "The Eiffel Tower at a glance". Official Eiffel Tower website. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 April 2004Google announces Gmail to the public.

    Gmail

    This article is about Google's email service. For other uses, see Gmail (disambiguation).

    Gmail is a free, advertising-supported email service developed by Google. Users can access Gmail on the web and through the mobile apps for Android and iOS, as well as through third-party programs that synchronize email content through POP or IMAP protocols. Gmail started as a limited beta release on April 1, 2004. It exited beta status on July 7, 2009.

    Gmail at launch had an initial storage capacity offer of 1 gigabyte per user, a significantly higher number than the 2 megabytes of storage its competitors such as Hotmail offered at that time. Today, the service comes with 15 gigabytes of free storage. Users can receive emails up to 50 megabytes in size, including attachments, while they can send emails up to 25 megabytes. In order to send larger files, users can insert files from Google Drive into the message.

    Gmail has a search-oriented interface and a "conversation view" similar to an Internet forum. Gmail is noted by web developers for its pioneering use of Ajax.

    Google's mail servers automatically scan emails for multiple purposes, including to add context-sensitive advertisements next to emails, and to filter spam and malware. Privacy advocates have raised concerns about this practice, with some of the concerns including that the automated background scanning of emails raises the risk that the expectation of privacy in email usage will be reduced or eroded; information collected from emails could be retained by Google for years after its current relevancy to build complete profiles on users; emails sent by users from other email providers get scanned despite never having agreed to Google's privacy policy or terms of service; governments and organizations can potentially find it easier to legally monitor email communications; and at any time, Google can change its current company policies to allow combining information from emails with data gathered from use of its other services. Google has been the subject of lawsuits concerning the issues, both from Gmail users and from non-Gmail users.

    Google has stated that "all users of email must necessarily expect that their emails will be subject to automated processing [...] Just as a sender of a letter to a business colleague cannot be surprised that the recipient's assistant opens the letter, people who use web-based email today cannot be surprised if their communications are processed by the recipient's ECS [electronic communications service] provider in the course of delivery." Google also claims that Gmail refrains from displaying ads next to potentially sensitive messages, such as those that mention race, religion, sexual orientation, health, or financial statements.

    As of February 2016, Gmail has one billion active users worldwide, and was the first app on the Google Play Store to hit one billion installations on Android devices. According to a 2014 estimate, 60% of mid-sized US companies, and 92% of startups, were using Gmail.

    1. ^ "gmail.com Traffic Statistics". Alexa Internet. Amazon.com. Retrieved March 31, 2017. 
    2. ^ Siegler, MG (March 14, 2010). "The Key To Gmail: Sh*t Umbrellas". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 25, 2016. 
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 April 1982Falklands War: Argentina invades the Falkland Islands.

    1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands

    On 2 April 1982, Argentine forces launched the invasion of the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), beginning the Falklands War. The Argentines mounted amphibious landings, and the invasion ended with the final surrender of Government House.

    1. ^ Insight team Sunday Time (1982), Chapter I: Surrender (I) and Chapter VIII: An ungentlemanly act. There is a mention of volunteers, such as Jim Alister, a former marine, Bill Curtis, a Canadian national and air controller and the skipper Jack Sollis, captain of the Forrest. Rex Hunt himself was armed with a Browning 9 mm pistol.
    2. ^ Mayorga, Part I, Chapters VI and VII. He accounts 84 elite troops, another 16 tactical divers marking the landing zone, 21 amtracs (20 of them with 25 marines each, the other was a command vehicle), and 25 Army riflemen landed by helicopter on Stanley airport.
    3. ^ The same source establishes the number of Argentine troops that effectively made contact with the British. There were 16 commandos around Government House, 25 marines that engaged Trollope section, and about 40 elite troops that captured eight FIDF men west of Stanley and arrived at the Governor's residence by the time of the surrender. The remaining men were left as sentries in Moody Brook barracks or deployed as rearguard forces. Some amtracs secured Stanley, the others bypassed Government House, linking with the commando sections at Moody Brook.
    4. ^ The highest figure includes the British civilian servants at Government House.
    5. ^ Mayorga, pp. 195–196: MV Forrest, MV Monsunen and the small tug Lively.
    6. ^ Andrada, p. 59: 1 Britten-Norman Islander, 2 Cessna 172s.
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2016 – The Panama Papers, a leak of legal documents, reveals information on 214,488 offshore companies.

    Panama Papers

    Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the leak on April 15, 2016 (As of May 19, 2016)

    The Panama Papers are 11.5 million leaked documents that detail financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,488 offshore entities.[1][2] The documents, which belonged to the Panamanian law firm and corporate service provider Mossack Fonseca,[3] were leaked in 2015 by an anonymous source, some dating back to the 1970s.[4]

    The leaked documents contain personal financial information about wealthy individuals and public officials that had previously been kept private.[5] While offshore business entities are legal, reporters found that some of the Mossack Fonseca shell corporations were used for illegal purposes, including fraud, tax evasion, and evading international sanctions.[6]

    "John Doe", the whistleblower who leaked the documents to German journalist Bastian Obermayer[7][8] from the newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ), remains anonymous, even to the journalists on the investigation. "My life is in danger", he told them.[9] In a May 6 statement, John Doe cited income inequality as the reason for his action, and said he leaked the documents "simply because I understood enough about their contents to realise the scale of the injustices they described". He added that he has never worked for any government or intelligence agency. He expressed willingness to help prosecutors if immune to prosecution. After SZ verified that the statement did come from the Panama Papers source, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) posted the full document on its website.[10][11]

    Because of the amount of data, SZ asked the ICIJ for help. Journalists from 107 media organizations in 80 countries analyzed documents detailing the operations of the law firm.[4] After more than a year of analysis, the first news stories were published on April 3, 2016, along with 150 of the documents themselves.[12] The project represents an important milestone in the use of data journalism software tools and mobile collaboration.

    The documents were quickly dubbed the Panama Papers. The Panamanian government strongly objects to the name; so do other entities in Panama and elsewhere. Some media outlets covering the story have used the name "Mossack Fonseca papers".[13]

    1. ^ "Giant leak of offshore financial records exposes global array of crime and corruption". OCCRP. The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. April 3, 2016. Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. 
    2. ^ Schmidt, Michael S.; Myers, Steven Lee (2016-04-03). "Panama Law Firm's Leaked Files Detail Offshore Accounts Tied to World Leaders". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
    3. ^ Vasilyeva, Natalya; Anderson, Mae (April 3, 2016). "News Group Claims Huge Trove of Data on Offshore Accounts". The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved April 4, 2016. 
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Guardian:_how_the_rich was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ International Consortium of Investigative journalists (April 3, 2016). "A new ICIJ investigation exposes a rogue offshore industry". Retrieved May 12, 2016. 
    6. ^ "Giant Leak of Offshore Financial Records Exposes Global Array of Crime and Corruption". The Panama Papers. The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists - ICIJ. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
    7. ^ Clark, Nicola (2016-04-05). "How a Cryptic Message, 'Interested in Data?,' Led to the Panama Papers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-08-12. 
    8. ^ "How two German newspaper reporters broke the story behind the Panama Papers". Retrieved 2016-08-12. 
    9. ^ Juliette Garside (April 16, 2016). "Panama Papers: inside the Guardian's investigation into offshore secrets". Panama Papers. The Guardian. Retrieved May 6, 2016. 
    10. ^ "Panama Papers: Source breaks silence on Mossack Fonseca leaks". 6 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
    11. ^ "Panama Papers Source Offers Documents To Governments, Hints At More To Come". ICIJ. May 6, 2016. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 
    12. ^ "DocumentCloud 150 Results Source: Internal documents from Mossack Fonseca (Panama)". DocumentCloud. Perfect Privacy, LLC/Amazon Technologies. Retrieved 18 May 2016. 
    13. ^ Sources using the term "Mossack Fonseca papers":
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 April 1973 – The World Trade Center in New York is officially dedicated.

    World Trade Center (1973–2001)

    This article is about the World Trade Center prior to the September 11 attacks. For the World Trade Center from 2001 to present, see World Trade Center (2001–present).

    The World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It featured landmark twin towers, which opened on April 4, 1973, and were destroyed as a result of the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the "Twin Towers"—the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. The other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC), 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. All these buildings were built between 1975 and 1985, with a construction cost of $400 million ($2,300,000,000 in 2014 dollars).[4] The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.[5][6]

    The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975,[7] a bombing on February 26, 1993,[8] and a robbery on January 14, 1998.[9] In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, and awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001.[10]

    On the morning of September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the North and South Towers within minutes of each other; two hours later, both had collapsed. The attacks killed 2,606 people in and within the vicinity of the towers, as well as all 157 on board the two aircraft.[11] Falling debris from the towers, combined with fires that the debris initiated in several surrounding buildings, led to the partial or complete collapse of all the other buildings in the complex and caused catastrophic damage to ten other large structures in the surrounding area. The cleanup and recovery process at the World Trade Center site took eight months,[12][13] during which time what remained of the other World Trade Center buildings was demolished.

    The World Trade Center complex was rebuilt over a span of more than a decade. The site is being rebuilt with six new skyscrapers, while a memorial to those killed in the attacks and a new rapid transit hub have both opened. One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the United States, is the lead building for the new complex, reaching more than 100 stories[14] upon its completion in November 2014.[15]

    1. ^ "History of the Twin Towers". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. June 1, 2014. Archived from the original on September 1, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2015. 
    2. ^ "Twin Towers Engineered To Withstand Jet Collision". Seattle Times. February 27, 1993. 
    3. ^ World Trade Center (1973–2001) at Emporis
    4. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
    5. ^ Holusha, John (January 6, 2002). "Commercial Property; In Office Market, a Time of Uncertainty". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2008. 
    6. ^ "Ford recounts details of Sept. 11". Real Estate Weekly. BNET. February 27, 2002. Retrieved January 3, 2009. [permanent dead link]
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt_19750214 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference reeve_p10 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference mafia_2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference cuozzo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ "Man's death from World Trade Center dust brings Ground Zero toll to 2,753". NY Daily News. Associated Press. June 18, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
    12. ^ Iovine, Julie V. (September 27, 2001). "Designers Look Beyond Debris". The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
    13. ^ "The Last Steel Column". The New York Times. May 30, 2002. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
    14. ^ "New World Trade Center climbs to 100 stories". Associated Press. April 2, 2012. 
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference yahoo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 April 1862American Civil War: The Battle of Yorktown begins.

    Siege of Yorktown (1862)

    This article is about the American Civil War battle. For the American Revolutionary War battle, see Siege of Yorktown.

    The Battle of Yorktown or Siege of Yorktown was fought from April 5 to May 4, 1862, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. Marching from Fort Monroe, Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac encountered Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder's small Confederate force at Yorktown behind the Warwick Line. McClellan suspended his march up the Peninsula toward Richmond and settled in for siege operations.

    On April 5, the IV Corps of Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes made initial contact with Confederate defensive works at Lee's Mill, an area McClellan expected to move through without resistance. Magruder's ostentatious movement of troops back and forth convinced the Union that his works were strongly held. As the two armies fought an artillery duel, reconnaissance indicated to Keyes the strength and breadth of the Confederate fortifications, and he advised McClellan against assaulting them. McClellan ordered the construction of siege fortifications and brought his heavy siege guns to the front. In the meantime, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston brought reinforcements for Magruder.

    On April 16, Union forces probed a point in the Confederate line at Dam No. 1. The Union failed to exploit the initial success of this attack, however. This lost opportunity held up McClellan for two additional weeks while he tried to convince the U.S. Navy to bypass the Confederates' big guns at Yorktown and Gloucester Point and ascend the York River to West Point and outflank the Warwick Line. McClellan planned a massive bombardment for dawn on May 5, but the Confederate army slipped away during the night of May 3 toward Williamsburg.

    The battle took place near the site of the 1781 Siege of Yorktown, the final battle of the American Revolutionary War in the east.

    1. ^ Sears, p. 24.
    2. ^ Salmon, p. 76.
    3. ^ a b Kennedy, p. 90.
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 April 1970Newhall massacre: Four California Highway Patrol officers are killed in a shootout.

    Newhall incident

    The Newhall incident, also called the "Newhall massacre", was a shootout between two heavily armed criminals and officers of the California Highway Patrol (CHP) in the Newhall unincorporated area of Los Angeles County, California on April 5, 1970. In less than 5 minutes, four CHP officers were killed in what was at the time the deadliest day in the history of California law enforcement.[1][2]

    At approximately 11:55 p.m. (UTC-8), CHP officers Walt Frago and Roger Gore conducted a traffic stop of Bobby Davis and Jack Twinning in conjunction with an incident involving the pair that had been reported to the CHP minutes earlier. After stopping in a restaurant parking lot and initially cooperating with the officers, Twinning and Davis opened fire and killed both officers. Minutes later, Officers George Alleyn and James Pence arrived on the scene and engaged Twinning and Davis in a shootout. A passerby picked up one of the officers' weapons and opened fire on the perpetrators; however, the three were outgunned, and both Alleyn and Pence suffered fatal injuries while the passerby ran out of ammunition and took cover in a ditch. A third CHP patrol car arrived on the scene and the lone officer inside briefly exchanged gunfire with the perpetrators, but they were able to flee the scene.

    Over three hours later, after stealing a vehicle and exchanging gunfire with its owner, Davis attempted to flee the area; however, he was spotted by police and arrested. Meanwhile, Twinning broke into a house and took one of its occupants hostage. The house was surrounded by deputies of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department and at approximately 9 a.m., he released the hostage and committed suicide when the deputies entered the house. Davis was sentenced to death but had his sentence commuted to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole in 1973. He killed himself[3] at Kern Valley State Prison in 2009.[1]

    The Newhall incident resulted in a number of changes at the CHP, including procedural changes in arresting high risk suspects and standardization of firearms and firearms training used across the department.[1][2]

    1. ^ a b c CHP: The Newhall Incident, chp.ca.gov; accessed October 25, 2014.
    2. ^ a b The Newhall Incident: A Law Enforcement Tragedy (documentary), scvtv.com; accessed October 25, 2014.
    3. ^ Suicide of Bobby Davis, listverse.com; accessed October 25, 2014.
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 April 1948 – The World Health Organization is established by the United Nations.

    World Health Organization

    "WHO" redirects here. For other uses, see Who (disambiguation).

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations.

    The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by 61 countries on 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office international d'hygiène publique and the League of Nations Health Organization. Since its creation, it has played a leading role in the eradication of smallpox. Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases; sexual and reproductive health, development, and ageing; nutrition, food security and healthy eating; occupational health; substance abuse; and driving the development of reporting, publications, and networking.

    The WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, a leading international publication on health, the worldwide World Health Survey, and World Health Day (7 April of every year). The head of WHO is Margaret Chan.

    The 2014/2015 proposed budget of the WHO is about US$4 billion.[1] About US$930 million are to be provided by member states with a further US$3 billion to be from voluntary contributions.[1]

    1. ^ a b "Programme budget 2014–2015" (PDF). who.int. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 April 1950India and Pakistan sign the Liaquat–Nehru Pact.

    Liaquat–Nehru Pact

    The Liaquat–Nehru Pact or Delhi Pact was a bilateral treaty was between the two South-Asian states, India and Pakistan, whereby refugees were allowed to return unmolested to dispose of their property, abducted women and looted property were to be returned, forced conversions were unrecognized, and minority rights were confirmed. The treaty was signed in New Delhi by the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru and the Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan on April 8, 1950. The treaty was the outcome of six days of talks sought to guarantee the rights of minorities in both countries after the Partition of India and to avert another war between them.

    Minority commissions were set up in both countries. More than one million refugees migrated from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) to West Bengal in India.

    1. ^ Bipan C, Mridula M, Aditya M. India Since Independence. ISBN 8184750536. 
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 April 1413Henry V is crowned King of England.

    Henry V of England

    This article is about the king. For the Shakespeare play, see Henry V (play).

    Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422[1][2]) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster.

    After military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr, and against the powerful aristocratic Percys of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury, Henry came into political conflict with his father, whose health was increasingly precarious from 1405 onward. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt (1415) and saw him come close to conquering France. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes (1420) recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne, and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois (1401–37). Following Henry V's sudden and unexpected death in France two years later, he was succeeded by his infant son, who reigned as Henry VI (1422–61, 1470–71).[3]

    1. ^ a b c Allmand, Christopher (September 2010). "Henry V (1386–1422)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12952. 
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference HenryV was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Lingard, John, A History of England, Vol. V, 1854, pg. 90.
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 April 1872 – The first Arbor Day is celebrated in Nebraska.

    Arbor Day

    For other uses, see Arbor Day (disambiguation).

    Arbor Day (or Arbour; from the Latin arbor, meaning tree) is a holiday in which individuals and groups are encouraged to plant trees. Today, many countries observe such a holiday. Though usually observed in the spring, the date varies, depending on climate and suitable planting season.

     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 April 1970Apollo 13 is launched.

    Apollo 13

    This article is about the Apollo mission. For the film based upon it, see Apollo 13 (film). For the Lovell-authored book called Apollo 13, see Lost Moon.

    Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the American Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The craft was launched on April 11, 1970, at 13:13 CST (19:13 UTC) from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days later, crippling the Service Module (SM) upon which the Command Module (CM) had depended. Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to make makeshift repairs to the carbon dioxide removal system, the crew returned safely to Earth on April 17.

    The flight passed the far side of the Moon at an altitude of 254 kilometers (137 nautical miles) above the lunar surface, and 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth, a spaceflight record marking the farthest humans have ever traveled from Earth. The mission was commanded by James A. Lovell with John L. "Jack" Swigert as Command Module Pilot and Fred W. Haise as Lunar Module Pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for the original CM pilot Ken Mattingly, who was grounded by the flight surgeon after exposure to German measles.

    The story of the Apollo 13 mission has been dramatized multiple times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13.

    1. ^ Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Table of Contents". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Retrieved April 15, 2012. 
     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 April 1606 – The Union Flag is adopted as the flag of English and Scottish ships.

    Union Jack

    "Union Flag" redirects here. For other uses of Union Flag, see Union flag (disambiguation). For other uses of Union Jack, see Union Jack (disambiguation).

    The Union Jack,[note 1][2][3] or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The flag also has an official or semi-official status in some other Commonwealth realms; for example, it is, by parliamentary resolution, an official flag in Canada and known there as the Royal Union Flag.[4] Further, it is used as an official flag in some of the smaller British overseas territories. The Union Jack also appears in the canton (upper left-hand quarter) of the flags of several nations and territories that are former British possessions or dominions.

    The claim that the term Union Jack properly refers only to naval usage has been disputed, following historical investigations by the Flag Institute in 2013.[5][6][note 2]

    The origins of the earlier flag of Great Britain date back to 1606. James VI of Scotland had inherited the English and Irish thrones in 1603 as James I, thereby uniting the crowns of England, Scotland, and Ireland in a personal union, although the three kingdoms remained separate states. On 12 April 1606, a new flag to represent this regal union between England and Scotland was specified in a royal decree, according to which the flag of England (a red cross on a white background, known as St George's Cross), and the flag of Scotland (a white saltire on a blue background, known as the Saltire or St Andrew's Cross), would be joined together, forming the flag of England and Scotland for maritime purposes. King James also began to refer to a "Kingdom of Great Britaine", although the union remained a personal one.

    The present design of the Union Flag dates from a Royal proclamation following the union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801.[8] The flag combines aspects of three older national flags: the red cross of St George of the Kingdom of England, the white saltire of St Andrew for Scotland (which two were united in the first Union Flag), and the red saltire of St Patrick to represent Ireland.

    Notably, the home country of Wales is not represented separately in the Union Jack, being only indirectly represented through the cross of St George, which represents the former Kingdom of England (which included Wales).

    1. ^ "The official website of The British Monarchy". Royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 5 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-03. 
    2. ^ "The Union Jack or The Union Flag?". The Flag Institute. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-12-03. 
    3. ^ "Union Jack". The British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 30 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-12. 
    4. ^ Canadian Heritage (10 March 2008). "Statement by the Hon. Jason Kenney, PC, MP, Secretary of State (Multiculturalism and Canadian Identity) on Commonwealth Day". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. 
    5. ^ Nicolls, Bruce. "The Union Jack or The Union Flag?". The Flag Institute. Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
    6. ^ "Broadcasting House 13th October 2013". BBC. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
    7. ^ "UNION JACK - discussion on BBC Broadcasting House". YouTube. 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2015-12-03. 
    8. ^ Bartram, Graham. "British flags". The Flag Institute. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 April 1941 – A Pact of neutrality between the USSR and Japan is signed.

    Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact

    Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact, 13 April 1941
    Japanese Foreign Minister Matsuoka signing the pact

    The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact (日ソ中立条約 Nisso Chūritsu Jōyaku?), also known as the Japanese–Soviet Non-aggression Pact (日ソ不可侵条約 Nisso Fukashin Jōyaku?), was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War (1939). The pact was signed to ensure the neutrality between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan during World War II, in which both countries participated.

     
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 April 1828Noah Webster copyrights the first edition of his dictionary.

    Webster's Dictionary

    "Webster's" redirects here. For other uses, see Webster (disambiguation).
    An 1888 advertisement for Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

    The name Webster's Dictionary may refer to any of the line of dictionaries first developed by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century and numerous unrelated dictionaries that adopted Webster's name just to share his prestige. The term "Webster's" has become a generic trademark in the U.S. for dictionaries of the English language. For this reason the term may otherwise refer to any dictionary at all that chooses to use the name. Also, "Webster's" is often used to refer to a generic dictionary. [1] However, the only succeeding dictionaries that can trace their lineage to the one established by Noah Webster are those now published by Merriam-Webster.

    1. ^ "Merriam-Webster FAQ". Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 April 1828Noah Webster copyrights the first edition of his dictionary.

    Webster's Dictionary

    "Webster's" redirects here. For other uses, see Webster (disambiguation).
    An 1888 advertisement for Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

    The name Webster's Dictionary may refer to any of the line of dictionaries first developed by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century and numerous unrelated dictionaries that adopted Webster's name just to share his prestige. The term "Webster's" has become a generic trademark in the U.S. for dictionaries of the English language. For this reason the term may otherwise refer to any dictionary at all that chooses to use the name. Also, "Webster's" is often used to refer to a generic dictionary. [1] However, the only succeeding dictionaries that can trace their lineage to the one established by Noah Webster are those now published by Merriam-Webster.

    1. ^ "Merriam-Webster FAQ". Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
     
  24. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    15 April 1964 – The first Ford Mustang rolls off the show room floor, two days before it is set to go on sale nationwide.

    Ford Mustang

    The Ford Mustang is an American automobile manufactured by Ford. It was originally based on the platform of the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car.[1] The original 1962 Ford Mustang I two-seater concept car had evolved into the 1963 Mustang II four-seater concept car which Ford used to pretest how the public would take interest in the first production Mustang. The 1963 Mustang II concept car was designed with a variation of the production model's front and rear ends with a roof that was 2.7 inches shorter.[2] Introduced early on April 17, 1964,[3] (16 days after the Plymouth Barracuda) and thus dubbed as a "1964½" by Mustang fans, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A.[4] The Mustang has undergone several transformations to its current sixth generation.

    The Mustang created the "pony car" class of American automobiles, affordable sporty coupes with long hoods and short rear decks[5] and gave rise to competitors such as the Chevrolet Camaro,[6]Pontiac Firebird, AMC Javelin,[7]Chrysler's revamped Plymouth Barracuda, and the first generation Dodge Challenger.[8] The Mustang is also credited for inspiring the designs of coupés such as the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri, which were imported to the United States.

    1. ^ Iacocca, Lee (1969). "VI". Iacocca: An Autobiography. Bantam. ISBN 978-0-553-25147-0. 
    2. ^ Mueller, Mike (2010). Mustang, the Complete Book of Every Model since 1964½. Motorbooks/MBI. ISBN 9780760338308. 
    3. ^ Flory, J. Kelly (2004). American Cars, 1960–1972: Every Model, Year by Year. McFarland. pp. 367–368. ISBN 978-0-7864-1273-0. 
    4. ^ Hinckley, Jim; Robinson, Jon G. (2005). The Big Book of Car Culture. Motorbooks/MBI. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-7603-1965-9. Retrieved January 2, 2016. 
    5. ^ Mueller, Mike (1997). Ford Mustang. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-87938-990-1. 
    6. ^ Young, Anthony (2004). Camaro. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7603-1932-1. 
    7. ^ "Dick Teague". Automobile Quarterly. 30 (2): 15. 1992. 
    8. ^ Zazarine, Paul (2002). Barracuda and Challenger. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-87938-538-5. 
     
  25. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    16 April 1990 – "Doctor Death", Jack Kevorkian, participates in his first assisted suicide.

    Jack Kevorkian

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox person with unknown parameter "ethnicity" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Jacob "Jack" Kevorkian (/kˈvɔːrkiən/; May 26, 1928 – June 3, 2011)[1] was an American pathologist, euthanasia activist, painter, author, composer, and instrumentalist. He is best known for publicly championing a terminal patient's right to die via physician-assisted suicide; he claimed to have assisted at least 130 patients to that end. He was often portrayed in the media with the name of "Dr. Death"; however, many consider him a hero,[2] as he helped set the platform for reform.[3] He famously said, "Dying is not a crime".[4]

    In 1999, Kevorkian was arrested and tried for his direct role in a case of voluntary euthanasia. He was convicted of second-degree murder and served eight years of a 10-to-25-year prison sentence. He was released on parole on June 1, 2007, on condition he would not offer advice nor participate nor be present in the act of any type of suicide involving euthanasia to any other person; as well as neither promote nor talk about the procedure of assisted suicide.[5]

    As an oil painter and a jazz musician, Kevorkian marketed limited quantities of his visual and musical artwork to the public.

    1. ^ www.medicalnewstoday.com
    2. ^ Jack Kevorkian Was a Hero Not a Monster The Stir
    3. ^ Roberts J, Kjellstrand C. "Jack Kevorkian: a medical hero". BMJ. 312: 1434. doi:10.1136/bmj.312.7044.1434. PMC 2351178Freely accessible. PMID 8664610. 
    4. ^ Wells, Samuel; Quash, Ben (2010). Introducing Christian Ethics. John Wiley and Sons. p. 329. ISBN 978-1-4051-5276-1. 
    5. ^ Monica Davey. "Kevorkian Speaks After His Release From Prison". The New York Times. June 4, 2007.
     
  26. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 April 1946Syria obtains its independence from the French occupation.

    Syria

    This article is about the modern state of Syria. For other uses, see Syria (disambiguation).

    Coordinates: 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38

    Syria (Listeni/ˈsɪ.riə/; Arabic: سوريا‎‎ Sūriyā), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية‎‎ al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. Syria's capital and largest city is Damascus.

    A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians,[8]Mandeans[9] and Turks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, and Yazidis. Sunni Arabs make up the largest religious group in Syria.

    In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as al-Sham), while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC. Its capital Damascus and largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.[10] In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt.

    The modern Syrian state was established after the end of centuries of Ottoman control in World War I as a French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945 when Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which legally ended the former French Mandate – although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–71. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, which was terminated by the 1961 Syrian coup d'état. The Arab Republic of Syria came into being in late 1961 after December 1 constitutional referendum, and was increasingly unstable until the Ba'athist coup d'état, since which the Ba'ath Party has maintained its power. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens. Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000.[11]

    Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it has become suspended from the Arab League on November 2011[12] and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation,[13] and self-suspended from the Union for the Mediterranean.[14] Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in an uprising against Assad and the Ba'athist government as part of the Arab Spring, a crackdown that contributed to the Syrian Civil War and to Syria's becoming one of the most violent countries in the world.[15] Since the start of the war in 2011, a number of self-proclaimed state entities have since emerged on Syrian territories, including the Syrian Opposition, the Federation of Northern Syria and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference USdos was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Constitution of Syria 2012". Scribd. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
    3. ^ "Syrian ministry of foreign affairs". Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. 
    4. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
    5. ^ a b c d "Syria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
    6. ^ "World Bank GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
    7. ^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
    8. ^ Gammer 2004, p. 64.
    9. ^ Who cares for the Mandaeans?, Australian Islamist Monitor 
    10. ^ "Neolithic Tell Ramad in the Damascus Basin of Syria". Archive. Archived from the original on 11 November 2006. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
    11. ^ Michael Bröning (7 March 2011). "The Sturdy House That Assad Built". The Foreign Affairs. 
    12. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil (12 November 2011). "Arab League Votes to Suspend Syria". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
    13. ^ "Regional group votes to suspend Syria; rebels claim downing of jet". CNN. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
    14. ^ "Syria suspends its membership in Mediterranean union". Xinhua News Agency. 1 December 2012. 
    15. ^ Sherwell, Phillip. "Syria replaces Afghanistan as world's least peaceful country". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
     
  27. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 April 1946Syria obtains its independence from the French occupation.

    Syria

    This article is about the modern state of Syria. For other uses, see Syria (disambiguation).

    Coordinates: 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38

    Syria (Listeni/ˈsɪ.riə/; Arabic: سوريا‎‎ Sūriyā), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية‎‎ al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. Syria's capital and largest city is Damascus.

    A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians,[8]Mandeans[9] and Turks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, and Yazidis. Sunni Arabs make up the largest religious group in Syria.

    In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as al-Sham), while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC. Its capital Damascus and largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.[10] In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt.

    The modern Syrian state was established after the end of centuries of Ottoman control in World War I as a French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945 when Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which legally ended the former French Mandate – although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–71. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, which was terminated by the 1961 Syrian coup d'état. The Arab Republic of Syria came into being in late 1961 after December 1 constitutional referendum, and was increasingly unstable until the Ba'athist coup d'état, since which the Ba'ath Party has maintained its power. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens. Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000.[11]

    Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it has become suspended from the Arab League on November 2011[12] and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation,[13] and self-suspended from the Union for the Mediterranean.[14] Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in an uprising against Assad and the Ba'athist government as part of the Arab Spring, a crackdown that contributed to the Syrian Civil War and to Syria's becoming one of the most violent countries in the world.[15] Since the start of the war in 2011, a number of self-proclaimed state entities have since emerged on Syrian territories, including the Syrian Opposition, the Federation of Northern Syria and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference USdos was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Constitution of Syria 2012". Scribd. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
    3. ^ "Syrian ministry of foreign affairs". Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. 
    4. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
    5. ^ a b c d "Syria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
    6. ^ "World Bank GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
    7. ^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
    8. ^ Gammer 2004, p. 64.
    9. ^ Who cares for the Mandaeans?, Australian Islamist Monitor 
    10. ^ "Neolithic Tell Ramad in the Damascus Basin of Syria". Archive. Archived from the original on 11 November 2006. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
    11. ^ Michael Bröning (7 March 2011). "The Sturdy House That Assad Built". The Foreign Affairs. 
    12. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil (12 November 2011). "Arab League Votes to Suspend Syria". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
    13. ^ "Regional group votes to suspend Syria; rebels claim downing of jet". CNN. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
    14. ^ "Syria suspends its membership in Mediterranean union". Xinhua News Agency. 1 December 2012. 
    15. ^ Sherwell, Phillip. "Syria replaces Afghanistan as world's least peaceful country". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
     
  28. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 April 1831 – The University of Alabama is founded in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

    University of Alabama

    This article is about The University of Alabama, located in Tuscaloosa. For other uses, see University of Alabama (disambiguation).

    The University of Alabama (Alabama or UA) is a public research university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States, and the flagship of the University of Alabama System. Founded in 1820, UA is the oldest[4] and largest of the public universities in Alabama. UA offers programs of study in 13 academic divisions leading to bachelor's, master's, Education Specialist, and doctoral degrees. The only publicly supported law school in the state is at UA. Other academic programs unavailable elsewhere in Alabama include doctoral programs in anthropology, communication and information sciences, metallurgical engineering, music, Romance languages, and social work.

    As one of the first public universities established in the early 19th century southwestern frontier of the United States, the University of Alabama has left a vast cultural imprint on the state, region and nation over the past two centuries. The school was a center of activity during the American Civil War and the Civil Rights Movement. The University of Alabama varsity football program (nicknamed the Crimson Tide), which was inaugurated in 1892, ranks as one of 10 winningest programs in US history.[5] In a 1913 speech then-president George H. Denny extolled the university as the "capstone of the public school system in the state [of Alabama]," lending the university its current nickname, The Capstone. The University of Alabama has consistently been ranked as one of the top 50 public universities in the nation by the U.S. News & World Report.[6]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference encyclopedia-alabama was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sellers was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "The University of Alabama Branding Standards 2015–2016" (PDF). ua.edu. 
    4. ^ https://www.ua.edu/about/history
    5. ^ "Top 10 winningest NCAA teams". Retrieved April 8, 2013. 
    6. ^ "UA Ranked One of America's Best Colleges" (Press release). University of Alabama News. Retrieved August 9, 2015. 
     
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 April 2013Boston Marathon bombing suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar is later captured hiding in a boat inside a backyard in the suburb of Watertown.

    Boston Marathon bombing

    "Boston bomber" redirects here. For the Douglas Boston bomber aircraft, see Douglas A-20 Havoc.

    On April 15, 2013, two homemade bombs detonated 12 seconds and 210 yards (190 m) apart at 2:49 p.m., near the finish line of the annual Boston Marathon, killing three people and injuring several hundred others, including 16 who lost limbs.[2][5][10]

    On April 18 the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) released images of two suspects,[11][12][13] who were almost immediately identified as Chechen-American brothers Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Tamerlan Tsarnaev. The brothers killed an MIT policeman, kidnapped a man in his car, and had a shootout with the police in nearby Watertown, during which two officers were severely injured, one of whom died a year later. Tamerlan Tsarnaev was shot several times, and his brother ran him over while escaping in the stolen car; Tamerlan died soon after.

    An unprecedented manhunt for Dzhokhar Tsarnaev ensued on April 19, with thousands of law enforcement officers searching a 20-block area of Watertown,[14] residents of Watertown and surrounding communities were asked to stay indoors, and the transportation system and most businesses and public places closed.[15][16] Around 6:00 p.m. a Watertown resident discovered Dzhokhar hiding in a boat in his backyard.[17] He was shot by police while still in the boat and then arrested.[18]

    During questioning, Dzhokhar alleged that he and his brother were motivated by extremist Islamist beliefs and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, that they were self-radicalized and unconnected to any outside terrorist groups, and that he was following his brother's lead. He said they learned to build explosive devices from an online magazine of the al-Qaeda affiliate in Yemen.[19] He also said they had intended to travel to New York City to bomb Times Square. On April 8, 2015 he was convicted of thirty charges, including use of a weapon of mass destruction and malicious destruction of property resulting in death.[7][20] The following month he was sentenced to death.[21]

    1. ^ "He loved us, and we loved him". MIT. Retrieved April 11, 2015. 
    2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NYDN-5.2F15 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Berman was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Simmonds was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference globe-number-injured was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference captured was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference DOJ_affidavit was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-98 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoQU-1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnn-what-we-know was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Clark_Estes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-6 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoZ2-1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ "Two unnamed officials say Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, 19, did not have a gun when he was captured Friday in a Watertown, Mass. backyard. Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis said earlier that shots were fired from inside the boat." The Associated Press Wednesday, April 24, 2013, 8:42 PM.
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference NY_Times_Standoff was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-8 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-9 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ "Dzhokhar Tsarnaev: Boston Marathon bomber found guilty". BBC News. April 8, 2015. Retrieved April 8, 2015. 
     
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 April 1908 – Opening day of competition in the New South Wales Rugby League.

    New South Wales Rugby League

    Not to be confused with New South Wales Rugby Union.
    This article is about the governing body of rugby league in New South Wales. For information about the New South Rugby League Premierships run from the inception of rugby league in Australia until the ARL Premierships, see New South Wales Rugby League premiership.

    The New South Wales Rugby League (NSWRL) is the governing body of rugby league in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory and is a member of the Australian Rugby League Commission. It was formed in Sydney on 8 August 1907[1] and was known as the New South Wales Rugby Football League (NSWRFL) until 1984. From 1908 to 1994, the NSWRL ran Sydney's, then New South Wales', and eventually Australia's top-level rugby league club competition from their headquarters (or "Bunker" as it was nicknamed during the Super League war) on Phillip Street, Sydney. The organisation is responsible for administering the New South Wales rugby league team.

    1. ^ a b ARL (2007). "Australian Rugby Football League Annual Report 2007" (PDF). Australian Rugby League Limited. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-09-13. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
    2. ^ "NSWRL Western Sydney Academy". New South Wales Rugby League. 2009-02-22. Retrieved 1 December 2009. [dead link]
     
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 April 1962 – The Seattle World's Fair (Century 21 Exposition) opens. It is the first World's Fair in the United States since World War II.

    Century 21 Exposition

    The Century 21 Exposition (also known as the Seattle World's Fair) was a world's fair held April 21, 1962, to October 21, 1962, in Seattle, Washington.[1][2] Nearly 10 million people attended the fair.[3] Unlike some other world's fairs of its era, Century 21 made a profit.[3]

    As planned, the exposition left behind a fairground and numerous public buildings and public works; some credit it with revitalizing Seattle's economic and cultural life (see History of Seattle since 1940).[4] The fair saw the construction of the Space Needle and Alweg monorail, as well as several sports venues (Washington State Coliseum, now KeyArena) and performing arts buildings (the Playhouse, now the Cornish Playhouse), most of which have since been replaced or heavily remodeled.

    Aerial photograph of the Space Needle in 2003 decorated for Memorial Day

    The site, slightly expanded since the fair, is now called Seattle Center; the United States Science Pavilion is now the Pacific Science Center. Another notable Seattle Center building, the Museum of Pop Culture (earlier called EMP Museum), was built nearly 40 years later and designed to fit in with the fairground atmosphere.

    1. ^ Official Guide Book, cover and passim.
    2. ^ Guide to the Seattle Center Grounds Photograph Collection: April, 1963, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections. Accessed online October 18, 2007.
    3. ^ a b Joel Connelly, Century 21 introduced Seattle to its future, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 16, 2002. Accessed online October 18, 2007.
    4. ^ Regina Hackett, City's arts history began a new chapter in '62, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 29, 2002. Accessed online October 18, 2007.
     
  32. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 April 1809 – The second day of the Battle of Eckmühl: The Austrian army is defeated by the First French Empire army led by Napoleon and driven over the Danube in Regensburg.

    Battle of Eckmühl

    The Battle of Eckmühl (also known as "Eggmühl") fought on 21 April – 22 April 1809, was the turning point of the 1809 Campaign, also known as the War of the Fifth Coalition. Napoleon I had been unprepared for the start of hostilities on 10 April 1809, by the Austrians under the Archduke Charles of Austria and for the first time since assuming the French Imperial Crown had been forced to cede the strategic initiative to an opponent. Thanks to the dogged defense waged by the III Corps, commanded by Marshal Davout, and the Bavarian VII Corps, commanded by Marshal Lefebvre, Napoleon was able to defeat the principal Austrian army and wrest the strategic initiative for the remainder of the war.

    1. ^ a b Chandler, D. Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars, MacMillan (1979)
     
  33. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 April 1660Treaty of Oliva is established between Sweden and Poland.

    Treaty of Oliva

    Allegory of the Peace of Oliwa by Theodoor van Thulden
    Treaty of Oliwa
    Legal boundaries of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1660
    Poland at the time of the treaty of 1660 (significant territories occupied by Russia during the Russo-Polish War (1654–1667)

    The Treaty or Peace of Oliva of 23 April (OS)/3 May (NS) 1660[1] (Polish: Pokój Oliwski, Swedish: Freden i Oliva, German: Vertrag von Oliva) was one of the peace treaties ending the Second Northern War (1655-1660).[2] At Oliva (Oliwa, Royal Prussia), peace was made between Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Habsburgs and Brandenburg-Prussia.[2]

    Sweden was accepted as sovereign in Swedish Livonia, Brandenburg was accepted as sovereign in Ducal Prussia, and John II Casimir Vasa withdrew his claims to the Swedish throne, though he was to retain the title of a hereditary Swedish king for life.[2] All occupied territories were restored to their pre-war sovereigns.[2] Catholics in Livonia and Prussia were granted religious freedom.[1]

    The signatories were the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, Elector Frederick William I of Brandenburg and King John II Casimir Vasa of Poland. Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie, head of the Swedish delegation and the minor regency, signed on behalf of his nephew, King Charles XI of Sweden, who was still a minor at the time.[3]

    1. ^ a b Evans (2008), p.55
    2. ^ a b c d Frost (2000), p.183
    3. ^ Bély (2000), p.511
     
  34. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 April 1953Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

    Winston Churchill

    This article is about the British statesman. For the American novelist, see Winston Churchill (novelist). For other uses, see Winston Churchill (disambiguation).
    "Churchill" redirects here. For other uses, see Churchill (disambiguation).

    Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill KG OM CH TD PC PCc DL FRS RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a non-academic historian, and a writer (as Winston S. Churchill). He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, lifetime body of work. In 1963, he was the first of only eight people to be made an honorary citizen of the United States.

    Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the Spencer family. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young army officer, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns.

    At the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of Asquith's Liberal government. During the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign caused his departure from government. He then briefly resumed active army service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, then Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Baldwin's Conservative government of 1924–1929, controversially returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy.

    Out of office and politically "in the wilderness" during the 1930s because of his opposition to increased home rule for India and his resistance to the 1936 abdication of Edward VIII, Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany and in campaigning for rearmament. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult days of 1940–41 when the British Commonwealth and Empire stood almost alone in its active opposition to Adolf Hitler. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured.

    After the Conservative Party suffered an unexpected defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition to the Labour Government. He publicly warned of an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. After winning the 1951 election, Churchill again became Prime Minister. His second term was preoccupied by foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed coup d'état in Iran. Domestically his government laid great emphasis on house-building. Churchill suffered a serious stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955, although he remained a Member of Parliament until 1964. Upon his death aged ninety in 1965, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of world statesmen in history.[1]

    Named the Greatest Briton of all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is widely regarded as being among the most influential people in British history, consistently ranking well in opinion polls of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom. His highly complex legacy continues to stimulate intense debate amongst writers and historians.[2]

    1. ^ Gould, Peter (8 April 2005). "Largest Assemblage of Statesmen at funeral since Churchill". BBC News. 
    2. ^ "Winston Churchill: greatest British hero or a warmongering villain?". The Week. 23 January 2015. 
     
  35. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 April 1859 – British and French engineers break ground for the Suez Canal.

    Suez Canal

    The southern terminus of the Suez Canal at Suez on the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea)

    The Suez Canal (Egyptian Arabic: قناة السويس‎‎ Kanāt El Sewēs) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. It was constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869. After 10 years of construction, it was officially opened on November 17, 1869. The canal offers watercraft a shorter journey between the North Atlantic and northern Indian Oceans via the Mediterranean and Red seas by avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian oceans, in turn reducing the journey by approximately 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi). It extends from the northern terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez. Its length is 193.30 km (120.11 mi), including its northern and southern access channels. In 2012, 17,225 vessels traversed the canal (47 per day).[1]

    The original canal was a single-lane waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass and the Great Bitter Lake.[2] It contains no locks system, with seawater flowing freely through it. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez.[3]

    The canal is owned and maintained by the Suez Canal Authority[4] (SCA) of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag".[5]

    In August 2014, construction was launched to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km (22 mi) to speed the canal's transit time. The expansion was planned to double the capacity of the Suez Canal from 49 to 97 ships a day.[6] At a cost of $8.4 billion, this project was funded with interest-bearing investment certificates issued exclusively to Egyptian entities and individuals. The "New Suez Canal", as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015.[7]

    On 24 February 2016, the Suez Canal Authority officially opened the new side channel. This side channel, located at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal anytime of day and night. As the East Container Terminal is located on the Canal itself, before the construction of the new side channel it was not possible to berth or unberth vessels at this terminal while the convoy was running.[8]

    1. ^ "Yearly Number & Net Tone by Ship Type, Direction & Ship Status". Suez Canal. Retrieved Apr 23, 2014. 
    2. ^ Suez Canal Authority
    3. ^ The Red Sea Pilot. Imray Laurie Norie & Wilson. 1995. p. 266. 
    4. ^ "Official Web Site of the Suez Canal Authority". 
    5. ^ Constantinople Convention of the Suez Canal of 2 March 1888 still in force and specifically maintained in Nasser's Nationalization Act.
    6. ^ "New Suez Canal project proposed by Egypt to boost trade". Cairo News.Net. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
    7. ^ Tadros, Sherine (6 August 2015). "Egypt Opens New £6bn Suez Canal". Sky News. Retrieved 6 August 2015. 
    8. ^ "Egypt opens East Port Said side channel for navigation - Xinhua". News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved March 12, 2016. 
     
  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 April 1943 – The Easter Riots break out in Uppsala, Sweden.

    Easter Riots

    The Royal Mounds, 2006.

    The Easter Riots (Swedish: Påskkravallerna) is the name given to a period of unrest in Uppsala, Sweden, during the Easter of 1943. The National Socialist group Swedish Socialist Unity (SSS, Swedish: Svensk Socialistisk Samling, previously the National Socialist Workers' Party) held its national congress in Uppsala, amid the Second World War and only days after events like the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The unrest climaxed on 26 April, when the SSS – who after initially belonging to a Strasserist wing of National Socialism began adopting a more indigenous form of fascism in 1938, and included Ingvar Kamprad among its early members – ended the congress by holding a demonstration at the Royal Mounds of Old Uppsala.[1][2]

    Thousands of anti-fascists gathered to protest against the Nazi gathering at the Royal Mounds, a historical site that held much political symbolism among Swedish nationalists. Policemen had been called in from Stockholm to defend the demonstration, and after the situation became increasingly tense they resorted to violence, dispersing the peacefully protesting crowds and onlookers alike with heavy force.[3]

    In addition to writing a book about it, the historian and playwright Magnus Alkarp has depicted the riots in a play, 4 dagar i april. The play, produced by the Uppsala City Theatre and directed by Sara Cronberg, was put up in 2012.[4] Alkarp received death threats from the Swedish Resistance Movement, a militant neo-Nazi group, after the play's premier.[5]

    1. ^ Andersson, Peter (23 August 2011). "Kamprad var djupt inblandad i nazistisk rörelse" (in Swedish). Sveriges Radio. Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
    2. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (2001). A History of Fascism 1914-1945. London: Roultedge. p. 306. 
    3. ^ Alkarp, Magnus (2013). Fyra dagar i april: Påskkravallerna i Uppsala 1943 (in Swedish). Historiska Media. ISBN 9789186297725. [page needed]
    4. ^ Harrison, Dick (16 May 2013). "När demonstranter möttes av polisens sabelattack". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
    5. ^ Vergara, Daniel (24 February 2012). "Dödshot mot pjäsförfattare". Expo (in Swedish). Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
     
  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 April 1810Beethoven composes Für Elise.

    Für Elise

    "Für Elise", opening
    First edition, 1867

    Bagatelle No. 25 in A minor (WoO 59, Bia 515, and OEISA123456) for solo piano, commonly known as "Für Elise" or "Fuer Elise" (German: [fyːɐ̯ ʔeˈliːzə], English: "For Elise", sometimes written without the German umlaut mark as "Fur Elise"), is one of Ludwig van Beethoven's most popular compositions.[1][2][3] It is usually classified as a bagatelle, but it is also sometimes referred to as an Albumblatt.

    1. ^ William Kinderman, The Cambridge Companion to Beethoven, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 125–126, ISBN 978-0-521-58934-5
    2. ^ Dorothy de Val, The Cambridge Companion to the piano, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 131, ISBN 978-0-521-47986-8, "Beethoven is here [in the 1892 Repertory of select pianoforte works] only by virtue of 'Für Elise', but there is a better representation of later composers such as Schubert ... , Chopin ... , Schumann ... and some Liszt."
    3. ^ Morton Manus, Alfred's Basic Adult All-In-One Piano Course, Book 3, New York: Alfred publishing, p. 132, ISBN 978-0-7390-0068-7
     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 April 1881Billy the Kid escapes from the Lincoln County jail in Mesilla, New Mexico.

    Billy the Kid

    For other uses, see Billy the Kid (disambiguation).

    Billy the Kid, born Henry McCarty; also known as William H. Bonney (September 17, 1859 – July 14, 1881) was an American Old West gunfighter who participated in New Mexico's Lincoln County War. He is known to have killed eight men.[2][3]

    His first arrest was for stealing food in late 1875, and within five months he was arrested for stealing clothing and firearms. His escape from jail two days later and flight from New Mexico Territory into Arizona Territory made him both an outlaw and a federal fugitive. After murdering a blacksmith during an altercation in August 1877, Bonney became a wanted man in Arizona Territory and returned to New Mexico, where he joined a group of cattle rustlers. He became a well-known figure in the region when he joined the Regulators and took part in the Lincoln County War. In April 1878, however, the Regulators killed three men, including Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady and one of his deputies. Bonney and two other Regulators were later charged with killing all three men.

    Bonney's notoriety grew in December 1880 when the Las Vegas Gazette in Las Vegas, New Mexico, and the New York Sun carried stories about his crimes.[4] He was captured by Sheriff Pat Garrett later that same month, tried and convicted of the murder of Brady in April 1881, and sentenced to hang in May of that year. Bonney escaped from jail on April 28, 1881, killing two sheriff's deputies in the process, and evaded capture for more than two months. He ultimately was shot and killed by Garrett in Fort Sumner on July 14, 1881. Over the next several decades, legends grew that Bonney had not died that night, and a number of men claimed they were him.

    1. ^ a b Utley 1989, p. 15.
    2. ^ Rasch 1995, pp. 23–35.
    3. ^ Wallis 2007, pp. 244–245.
    4. ^ Utley 1989, pp. 145–146.
     

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