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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 October 1992Cartoon Network launched.

    Cartoon Network

    Cartoon Network is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by The Cartoon Network, Inc., a subsidiary of Turner Broadcasting System, itself being a subsidiary of Time Warner. It was founded by Betty Cohen and launched on October 1, 1992.

    The channel primarily broadcasts children's shows, mostly animated programming, ranging from action to animated comedy. It is primarily aimed at children and young teenagers between the ages of 7 to 15, and targets older teens and adults with mature content during its late night daypart Adult Swim, which is treated as a separate entity for promotional purposes and as a separate channel by Nielsen for ratings purposes.[1] It operates daily from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM (ET). A Spanish language audio track for select programs is accessible via second audio programing (SAP); some cable and satellite companies offer the Spanish feed as a separate channel by removing the main English-language audio track. It is also the related channel of Turner-owned Boomerang.

    As of January 2016, Cartoon Network is available to approximately 94.0 million pay television households (80.7% of households with television) in the United States.[2]

    1. ^ "Adult Swim/CN Split Cements Strategy". ICv2. GCO. March 3, 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2012. 
    2. ^ "Cable Network Coverage Area Household Universe Estimates: January 2016". Broadcasting & Cable. NewBay Media. January 31, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016. 
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 October 2002 – The Beltway sniper attacks begin, extending over three weeks.

    D.C. sniper attacks

    The D.C. sniper attacks (also the Beltway sniper attacks) were a series of coordinated shootings that occurred during three weeks in October 2002, in the states of Maryland and Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Ten people were killed and three others were critically injured, in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area and along Interstate 95 in Virginia.

    The snipers were John Allen Muhammad (aged 41) and Lee Boyd Malvo (aged 17), who travelled in a blue, 1990 Chevrolet Caprice sedan. Their crime spree, begun in February 2002, featured murders and robberies in the states of Alabama, Arizona, and Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, and Washington, which resulted in seven deaths and seven injured people; in ten months, the snipers killed 17 people and injured 10 other people.[1]

    In September 2003, the adult Muhammad was sentenced to death, and, in October, the adolescent Malvo was sentenced to six consecutive life-sentences without parole. On November 10, 2009, Muhammad was put to death by lethal injection, at the Greensville Correctional Center near Jarratt, Virginia.

    In 2017, Malvo's conviction to a life-sentence without parole was overturned on appeal, with re-sentencing ordered pursuant to the Supreme Court's ruling in the case of Miller v. Alabama (2012), which voided mandatory life-sentence punishments for adolescent criminals as legally un–Constitutional. Under the re-sentencing, Malvo's minimum sentence to prison will be determined by a judge; the available maximum sentence would be life imprisonment.[citation needed]

    1. ^ "Sniper reportedly details 4 new shootings". kxmb.com. AP. June 16, 2006. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. 
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 October 1932Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.

    Iraq

    Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44

    Iraq (/ɪˈræk/, /ɪˈrɑːk/ (About this sound listen), or /ˈræk/; Arabic: العراق‎‎ al-‘Irāq; Kurdish: عێراقEraq), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جُمُهورية العِراق‎‎ About this sound Jumhūrīyyat al-‘Irāq; Kurdish: کۆماری عێراقKomari Eraq) is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. The main ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds; others include Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians, and Kawliya.[5] Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism, and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

    Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km (36 miles) on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert.[6] Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land.

    The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, write, create laws, and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian, and Babylonian empires. It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Mongol, Safavid, Afsharid, and Ottoman empires.[7]

    Iraq's modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres. Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The American presence in Iraq ended in 2011,[8] but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a highly destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west. It has since been largely defeated and only retains small territory. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017.

    In the international stage and politically, Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF. It is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of 19 governorates (provinces) and one autonomous region (Iraqi Kurdistan). The country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a very rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in pre-Islamic times and is known for its poets. Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets.

    1. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
    2. ^ a b c d "Iraq". International Monetary Fund. 
    3. ^ "World Bank GINI index". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
    4. ^ "2015 Human Development Report Statistical Annex" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. p. 9. Retrieved December 14, 2015. 
    5. ^ Article 125 of the Iraqi Constitution.http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/454f50804.pdf
    6. ^ "Declaration of Principles for a Long-Term Relationship of Cooperation and Friendship Between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America". 2007-11-26. 
    7. ^ "Top 10 Battles for the Control of Iraq". Livescience.com. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
    8. ^ Basu, Moni (2011-12-18). "Deadly Iraq war ends with exit of last U.S. troops". CNN.com. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 October 1927Gutzon Borglum begins sculpting Mount Rushmore.

    Mount Rushmore

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore, a batholith in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota, United States. Sculptor Gutzon Borglum created the sculpture's design and oversaw the project's execution from 1927 to 1941 with the help of his son, Lincoln Borglum, and Chief Carver Luigi del Bianco.[2][3] Mount Rushmore features 60-foot (18 m) sculptures of the heads of four United States presidents: George Washington (1732–1799), Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919), and Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865).[4] The memorial park covers 1,278.45 acres (2.00 sq mi; 5.17 km2)[5] and is 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level.[6]

    South Dakota historian Doane Robinson is credited with conceiving the idea of carving the likenesses of famous people into the Black Hills region of South Dakota in order to promote tourism in the region. Robinson's initial idea was to sculpt the Needles; however, Gutzon Borglum rejected the Needles because of the poor quality of the granite and strong opposition from Native American groups. They settled on Mount Rushmore, which also has the advantage of facing southeast for maximum sun exposure. Robinson wanted it to feature American West heroes like Lewis and Clark, Red Cloud,[7] and Buffalo Bill Cody,[8] but Borglum decided the sculpture should have broader appeal and chose the four presidents.

    After securing federal funding through the enthusiastic sponsorship of "Mount Rushmore's great political patron" U.S. Senator Peter Norbeck,[9] construction on the memorial began in 1927, and the presidents' faces were completed between 1934 and 1939. Upon Gutzon Borglum's death in March 1941, his son Lincoln Borglum took over as leader of the construction project. Each president was originally to be depicted from head to waist. Lack of funding forced construction to end in late October 1941.[10]

    Mount Rushmore has become an iconic symbol of the United States, and it has appeared in works of fiction, as well as being discussed or depicted in other popular works. It attracts over two million visitors annually.[1]

    1. ^ a b "Park Statistics". National Park Service. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
    2. ^ Roberts, Sam (June 28, 2016). "An Immigrant’s Contribution to Mount Rushmore Is Recognized, 75 Years Later". New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2017. 
    3. ^ Andrews, John (May 2014). "Slight of Hand". South Dakota Magazine. Retrieved September 22, 2017. 
    4. ^ Mount Rushmore National Memorial. December 6, 2005.60 SD Web Traveler, Inc. Retrieved April 7, 2006.
    5. ^ McGeveran, William A. Jr. et al. (2004). The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2004. New York: World Almanac Education Group, Inc. ISBN 0-88687-910-8.
    6. ^ Mount Rushmore, South Dakota (November 1, 2004). Peakbagger.com. Retrieved March 13, 2006.
    7. ^ '!, episode 5x08 "Mount Rushmore", May 10, 2007
    8. ^ "Making Mount Rushmore | Mount Rushmore". Oh, Ranger!. Retrieved October 31, 2012. 
    9. ^ "Biography:Senator Peter Norbeck". American Experience: Mount Rushmore. PBS. Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
    10. ^ "Mount Rushmore". American Experience – TV's Most Watched History Series. PBS. Retrieved 18 April 2015. 
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 October 1962Dr. No, the first in the James Bond film series, is released.

    Dr. No (film)

    Dr. No is a 1962 British spy film, starring Sean Connery, with Ursula Andress and Joseph Wiseman, filmed in Jamaica and England. It is the first James Bond film. Based on the 1958 novel of the same name by Ian Fleming, it was adapted by Richard Maibaum, Johanna Harwood, and Berkely Mather and was directed by Terence Young. The film was produced by Harry Saltzman and Albert R. Broccoli, a partnership that would continue until 1975.

    In the film, James Bond is sent to Jamaica to investigate the disappearance of a fellow British agent. The trail leads him to the underground base of Dr. No, who is plotting to disrupt an early American space launch with a radio beam weapon. Although the first of the Bond books to be made into a film, Dr. No was not the first of Fleming's novels, Casino Royale being the debut for the character; the film makes a few references to threads from earlier books. This film also introduced the criminal organisation SPECTRE, which would also appear in six subsequent films.

    Produced on a low budget, Dr. No was a financial success. While critical reaction was mixed upon release, over time the film has gained a reputation as one of the series' best instalments. The film was the first of a successful series of 24 Bond films. Dr. No also launched a genre of "secret agent" films that flourished in the 1960s. The film also spawned a spin-off comic book and soundtrack album as part of its promotion and marketing.

    Many of the iconic aspects of a typical James Bond film were established in Dr. No: the film begins with an introduction to the character through the view of a gun barrel and a highly stylised main title sequence, both created by Maurice Binder. Production designer Ken Adam established an elaborate visual style that is one of the hallmarks of the film series.

     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 October 1962Dr. No, the first in the James Bond film series, is released.

    Dr. No (film)

    Dr. No is a 1962 British spy film, starring Sean Connery, with Ursula Andress and Joseph Wiseman, filmed in Jamaica and England. It is the first James Bond film. Based on the 1958 novel of the same name by Ian Fleming, it was adapted by Richard Maibaum, Johanna Harwood, and Berkely Mather and was directed by Terence Young. The film was produced by Harry Saltzman and Albert R. Broccoli, a partnership that would continue until 1975.

    In the film, James Bond is sent to Jamaica to investigate the disappearance of a fellow British agent. The trail leads him to the underground base of Dr. No, who is plotting to disrupt an early American space launch with a radio beam weapon. Although the first of the Bond books to be made into a film, Dr. No was not the first of Fleming's novels, Casino Royale being the debut for the character; the film makes a few references to threads from earlier books. This film also introduced the criminal organisation SPECTRE, which would also appear in six subsequent films.

    Produced on a low budget, Dr. No was a financial success. While critical reaction was mixed upon release, over time the film has gained a reputation as one of the series' best instalments. The film was the first of a successful series of 24 Bond films. Dr. No also launched a genre of "secret agent" films that flourished in the 1960s. The film also spawned a spin-off comic book and soundtrack album as part of its promotion and marketing.

    Many of the iconic aspects of a typical James Bond film were established in Dr. No: the film begins with an introduction to the character through the view of a gun barrel and a highly stylised main title sequence, both created by Maurice Binder. Production designer Ken Adam established an elaborate visual style that is one of the hallmarks of the film series.

     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 October 1903 – The High Court of Australia sits for the first time.

    High Court of Australia

    The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.[1] It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Parliament of Australia and the parliaments of the States, and the ability to interpret the Constitution of Australia thereby powerfully shaping the development of federalism in Australia.

    The High Court is mandated by Constitution section 71, which vests in it the judicial power of the Commonwealth of Australia. The Court was constituted by, and its first members were appointed under, the Judiciary Act 1903. It now operates under Constitution sections 71 to 75, the Judiciary Act, and the High Court of Australia Act 1979. It is composed of seven Justices: the Chief Justice of Australia, currently Susan Kiefel, and six other Justices. They are appointed by the Governor-General of Australia, on the advice of the federal government, and under the constitution must retire at age 70.

    Since 1979, The High Court has been located in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The majority of its sittings are held in the High Court building, situated in the Parliamentary Triangle, overlooking Lake Burley Griffin. With an increasing utilisation of video links, sittings are also commonly held in the state capitals.

    1. ^ "Courts". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2013. The High Court of Australia is the highest court of appeal 
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 October 1950Mother Teresa establishes the Missionaries of Charity.

    Mother Teresa

    Mother Teresa, known in the Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta[6] (born Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu; Albanian: [aˈɲɛzə ˈɡɔndʒɛ bɔjaˈdʒiu]; 26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), was an Albanian-Indian[4]Roman Catholic nun and missionary.[7] She was born in Skopje (now the capital of the Republic of Macedonia), then part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. After living in Macedonia for eighteen years she moved to Ireland and then to India, where she lived for most of her life.

    In 1950 Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation which had over 4,500 sisters and was active in 133 countries in 2012. The congregation manages homes for people dying of HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis; soup kitchens; dispensaries and mobile clinics; children's- and family-counselling programmes; orphanages, and schools. Members, who take vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, also profess a fourth vow: to give "wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor".[8]

    Teresa received a number of honours, including the 1962 Ramon Magsaysay Peace Prize and 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. She was canonised (recognised by the church as a saint) on 4 September 2016, and the anniversary of her death (5 September) is her feast day.

    A controversial figure during her life and after her death, Teresa was admired by many for her charitable work. She was praised and criticised for her opposition to abortion, and criticised for poor conditions in her houses for the dying. Her authorised biography was written by Navin Chawla and published in 1992, and she has been the subject of films and other books.

    On September 6, 2017, Teresa was named co-patron of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Calcutta, alongside St. Francis Xavier.

    1. ^ "Canonisation of Mother Teresa – September 4th". Diocese of Killala. September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016. 
    2. ^ Manik Banerjee (6 September 2017). "Vatican declares Mother Teresa a patron saint of Calcutta". Associated Press, ABC News.com. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
    3. ^ "Mother Teresa to be named co-patron of Calcutta Archdiocese on first canonization anniversary". First Post. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
    4. ^ a b Cannon, Mae Elise (25 January 2013). Just Spirituality: How Faith Practices Fuel Social Action. InterVarsity Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8308-3775-5. Retrieved 3 September 2016. When asked about her personal history, Mother Teresa said: 'By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world. As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus.' 
    5. ^ shqiptare, bota. "Kur Nënë Tereza vinte në Tiranë/2". 
    6. ^ "Mother Teresa | Canonization, Awards, Facts, & Feast Day". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 
    7. ^ Poplin, Mary (2011-02-28). Finding Calcutta: What Mother Teresa Taught Me About Meaningful Work and Service. InterVarsity Press. p. 112. ISBN 9780830868483. Remember, brother, I am a missionary and so are you. 
    8. ^ Muggeridge (1971), chapter 3, "Mother Teresa Speaks", pp. 105, 113
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 October 1982 – Cats opens on Broadway and runs for nearly 18 years before closing on September 10, 2000.

    Cats (musical)

    Cats is a musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot, and produced by Cameron Mackintosh. The musical tells the story of a tribe of cats called the Jellicles and the night they make what is known as "the Jellicle choice" and decide which cat will ascend to the Heaviside Layer and come back to a new life. Cats introduced the song standard "Memory". The first performance of Cats was in 1981.

    Directed by Trevor Nunn and choreographed by Gillian Lynne, Cats first opened in the West End in 1981 and then with the same creative team on Broadway in 1982. It won numerous awards, including Best Musical at both the Laurence Olivier Awards and the Tony Awards. The London production ran for 21 years and the Broadway production ran for 18 years, both setting new records. Actresses Elaine Paige and Betty Buckley became particularly associated with the musical. One actress, Marlene Danielle, performed in the Broadway production for its entire run (from 1982 until 2000).

    As of 2016, Cats is the fourth-longest-running show in Broadway history, and was the longest running Broadway show in history from 1997 until 2006 when it was surpassed by The Phantom of the Opera. Cats is the sixth-longest-running West End musical. It has been performed around the world many times and has been translated into more than 20 languages. In 1998, Cats was turned into a made-for-television film.

     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 October 1804Hobart, capital of Tasmania, is founded.

    Hobart

    Hobart (/ˈhbɑːrt/)[4] is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. With a population of approximately 225,000, it is the second least populated Australian capital city.[1] Founded in 1804 as a penal colony,[5] Hobart is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney, New South Wales. The modern history of Hobart (formerly "Hobart Town", or "Hobarton") dates to its foundation as a British colony in 1804. Prior to British settlement, the area had been occupied for possibly as long as 35,000 years,[6] by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe.[7] The descendants of the indigenous Tasmanians now refer to themselves as 'Palawa'.

    Since its foundation as a colonial outpost, the city has grown from the mouth of Sullivans Cove to stretch in a generally north-south direction along both banks of the Derwent River, from 22 km inland from the estuary at Storm Bay to the point where the river reverts to fresh water at Bridgewater.[8] Hobart has experienced both booms and busts over its history. The early 20th century saw a period of growth on the back of mining, agriculture and other primary industries, and the loss of men who served in world wars was counteracted by an influx of immigration after World War II.[9] In the later years of the 20th century, migrants increasingly arrived to settle in Hobart from Asia. Despite the rise in migration from parts of the world other than the United Kingdom and Ireland, the population of Hobart remains predominantly ethnically Anglo-Celtic and has the highest percentage per capita of Australian-born residents among the Australian capital cities.[10]

    In June 2016, the estimated greater area population was 224,462.[1] The city is located in the state's south-east on the estuary of the Derwent River, making it the most southern of Australia's capital cities. Its harbour forms the second-deepest natural port in the world.[11] Its skyline is dominated by the 1,271-metre (4,170 ft) kunanyi/Mount Wellington,[12] and much of the city's waterfront consists of reclaimed land.[13] It is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, serving as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations and acting as a major tourist hub, with over 1.192 million visitors in 2011/2012.[14] The metropolitan area is often referred to as Greater Hobart, to differentiate it from the City of Hobart, one of the five local government areas that cover the city.[15]

    1. ^ a b c "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics. June 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Census2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Queen to Honour David Collins in Historic Unveiling". The Mercury. Hobart, Tasmania. 19 February 1954. p. 8, Royal Visit Souvenir supplement. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
    4. ^ Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library. 2003. p. 465. ISBN 1-876429-37-2. 
    5. ^ Frank Bolt, The Founding of Hobart 1803–1804, ISBN 0-9757166-0-3
    6. ^ "Encyclopaedia Britannica – History of Tasmania". Retrieved 17 July 2008. 
    7. ^ The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia. (ed.) David Horton. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1994 [2 vols] (see: Vol. 2, pp.1008–10 [with map]; individual tribal entries; and the 'Further Reading' section on pp.1245–72).
    8. ^ Fairfax Digital (June 2004). "Hobart Travel Guide". Fairfax Digital. Retrieved 21 July 2008. 
    9. ^ "Tasmanian Yearbook". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 17 July 2008. 
    10. ^ "Tasmanian Community Profile". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 17 July 2008. 
    11. ^ "Antarctic Tasmania". Government of Tasmania. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
    12. ^ "kunanyi / Mount Wellington". Hobart City Council. Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
    13. ^ Mocatta, Charles Rawlings-Way, Meg Worby, Gabi (2008). Tasmania (5th ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet. ISBN 9781741046915. 
    14. ^ "REGIONAL OVERVIEW". tra.gov.au. Tourism Research Australiua. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
    15. ^ "City of Hobart – Economic Profile". Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 October 2010 – The Netherlands Antilles are dissolved as a country.

    Netherlands Antilles

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    The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen [ˈneːdərˌlɑntsə ɑnˈtɪlə(n)]; Papiamentu: Antia Hulandes)[2] was a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The country consisted of several island territories located in the Caribbean Sea. The islands were also informally known as the Dutch Antilles.[3] The country came into being in 1954 as the autonomous successor of the Dutch colony of Curaçao and Dependencies, and was dissolved in 2010. The former Dutch colony of Surinam, although it was relatively close by on the continent of South America, did not become part of Netherlands Antilles but became a separate autonomous country at the same time. All the island territories that belonged to the Netherlands Antilles remain part of the kingdom today, although the legal status of each differs. As a group they are still commonly called the Dutch Caribbean, regardless of their legal status.[4]

    1. ^ "Landsverordening officiële talen". decentrale.regelgeving.overheid.nl. 28 March 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2011. 
    2. ^ Papiamentu/Ingles Dikshonario, Ratzlaff, Betty; p. 11
    3. ^ "Status change means Dutch Antilles no longer exists". BBC News. BBC. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
    4. ^ "Visa for the Dutch Caribbean". Netherlands embassy in the United Kingdom. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 October 2001 – The Polaroid Corporation files for federal bankruptcy protection.

    Polaroid Corporation

    Polaroid is an American company that is a brand licensor and marketer of its portfolio of consumer electronics to companies that distribute consumer electronics and eyewear. It is best known for its Polaroid instant film and cameras.

    The company was founded in 1937 by Edwin H. Land, to exploit the use of its Polaroid polarizing polymer.[1]:3 Land ran the company until 1981. Its peak employment was 21,000 in 1978, and its peak revenue was $3 billion in 1991.[2]

    When the original Polaroid Corporation was declared bankrupt in 2001,[3][4] its brand and assets were sold off.[5] The "new" Polaroid formed as a result[3][5] itself declared bankruptcy in 2008, resulting in a further sale and the present-day Polaroid Corporation. In May 2017, the brand and intellectual property of the Polaroid corporation was acquired by the largest shareholder of the Impossible Project, which had originally started out in 2008 by producing new instant films for Polaroid cameras.[6] Impossible Project was renamed Polaroid Originals in September 2017.[7][8]

    1. ^ "History of Polaroid and Edwin Land". Boston.com. Boston: The New York Times Company. 2012-10-03. Retrieved 2015-01-31. 
    2. ^ "Polaroid quits instant film". Sun Journal. Lewiston, Maine. Associated Press. February 9, 2008. pp. B8, B7. 
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference pdcmain was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference pdcshare was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference pdcfaq was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Zhang, Michael (2017). Polaroid Acquired by The Impossible Project’s Largest Shareholder, PetaPixel.com, 10 May 2017
    7. ^ "The first Polaroid instant camera in a decade is adorable" Sean O'Kane, The Verge, 13 September 2017. Accessed 14 September 2017
    8. ^ "Polaroid Originals Launches with New OneStep 2 Camera and i-Type Film" Michael Zhang, Petapixel, 13 September 2017. Accessed 14 September 2017
     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 October 1979The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the first of five books in the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy comedy science fiction series by Douglas Adams is published.

    The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy

    The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy[1] (sometimes referred to as HG2G,[2]HHGTTG[3] or H2G2[4]) is a comedy science fiction series created by Douglas Adams. Originally a radio comedy broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in 1978, it was later adapted to other formats, including stage shows, novels, comic books, a 1981 TV series, a 1984 computer game, and 2005 feature film. A prominent series in British popular culture, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy has become an international multi-media phenomenon; the novels are the most widely distributed, having been translated into more than 30 languages by 2005.[5][6]

    The broad narrative follows the misadventures of the last surviving man, Arthur Dent, following the demolition of the planet Earth by a Vogon constructor fleet to make way for a hyperspace bypass. Dent is rescued from Earth's destruction by Ford Prefect, a human-like alien writer for the eccentric, electronic travel guide The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, by hitchhiking onto a passing Vogon spacecraft. Following his rescue, Dent explores the galaxy with Prefect and encounters Trillian, another human that had been taken from Earth prior to its destruction by the President of the Galaxy, the two-headed Zaphod Beeblebrox, and the depressed Marvin, the Paranoid Android. Certain narrative details were changed between the various adaptations.

    1. ^ The spelling of Hitchhiker's Guide has varied in different editions. For consistency this article always spells it this way. See Spelling of Hitchhiker's Guide.
    2. ^ "Jo Kent saves cult hg2g game from scrapheap". Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
    3. ^ "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy". Douglasadams.com. Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
    4. ^ Gaiman, Neil (2003). Don't Panic: Douglas Adams and the "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy". Titan Books. pp. 144–145. ISBN 1-84023-742-2. 
    5. ^ Simpson, M. J. (2005). The Pocket Essential Hitchhiker's Guide (Second ed.). Pocket Essentials. p. 120. ISBN 1-904048-46-3. 
    6. ^ "The Ultimate Reference Guide to British Popular Culture". Oxford Royale. 23 November 2016. 
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 October 1972 – An Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-62 crashes outside Moscow killing 174.

    Ilyushin Il-62

    The Ilyushin Il-62 (Russian: Илью́шин Ил-62; NATO reporting name: Classic) is a Soviet long-range narrow-body jet airliner conceived in 1960 by Ilyushin. As successor to the popular turbo-prop Il-18 and with capacity for almost 200 passengers and crew, the Il-62 was the world's largest jet airliner when first flown in 1963. Being one of four pioneering long-range designs (the others being Boeing 707, DC-8, and VC10), it was the first such type to be operated by the Soviet Union and a number of allied nations. The Il-62 entered Aeroflot civilian service on 15 September 1967 with an inaugural passenger flight from Moscow to Montreal, and remained the standard long-range airliner for the Soviet Union (and later, Russia) for several decades. It was the first Russian pressurised aircraft with non-circular cross-section fuselage and ergonomic passenger doors, and the first Russian jet with six-abreast seating (the turbo-prop Tu-114 shared this arrangement) and international-standard position lights.

    Over 30 nations operated the Il-62 with over 80 examples exported and others having been leased by Russian-sphere and several Western airlines. The Il-62M variant became the longest-serving model in its airliner class (average age of examples in service as of 2016 is over 32 years). Special VIP (salon) and other conversions were also developed and used as head-of-state transport by some 14 countries. Expensive to operate compared to new generation airliners, the number in service was greatly reduced after the 2008 recession. The Il-62's successors include the wide-bodied Il-86 and Il-96, both of which were made in smaller numbers and neither of which was widely exported.

     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 October – U.S. President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.

    War on drugs

    As part of the War on Drugs, the US spends approximately $500 million per year on aid for Colombia, largely used to combat guerrilla groups such as FARC that are involved in the illegal drug trade.[1][2][3][4][5]

    The War on Drugs is an American term[6][7] usually applied to the United States government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.[8][9] This initiative includes a set of drug policies that are intended to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of psychoactive drugs that the participating governments and the UN have made illegal. The term was popularized by the media shortly after a press conference given on June 18, 1971, by United States President Richard Nixon—the day after publication of a special message from President Nixon to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control—during which he declared drug abuse "public enemy number one". That message to the Congress included text about devoting more federal resources to the "prevention of new addicts, and the rehabilitation of those who are addicted", but that part did not receive the same public attention as the term "war on drugs".[10][11][12] However, two years prior to this, Nixon had formally declared a "war on drugs" that would be directed toward eradication, interdiction, and incarceration.[13] Today, the Drug Policy Alliance, which advocates for an end to the War on Drugs, estimates that the United States spends $51 billion annually on these initiatives.[14]

    On May 13, 2009, Gil Kerlikowske—the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)—signaled that the Obama administration did not plan to significantly alter drug enforcement policy, but also that the administration would not use the term "War on Drugs", because Kerlikowske considers the term to be "counter-productive".[15] ONDCP's view is that "drug addiction is a disease that can be successfully prevented and treated... making drugs more available will make it harder to keep our communities healthy and safe".[16] One of the alternatives that Kerlikowske has showcased is the drug policy of Sweden, which seeks to balance public health concerns with opposition to drug legalization. The prevalence rates for cocaine use in Sweden are barely one-fifth of those in Spain, the biggest consumer of the drug.[17]

    In June 2011, the Global Commission on Drug Policy released a critical report on the War on Drugs, declaring: "The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and years after President Nixon launched the US government's war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed."[18] The report was criticized by organizations that oppose a general legalization of drugs.[16]

    1. ^ "Colombia Program At-A-Glance" (PDF). usaid.gov. United States Agency for International Development. Retrieved October 20, 2015. 
    2. ^ Bennett, Brian (June 9, 2011). "U.S. can't justify its drug war spending, reports say". Los Angeles Times. 
    3. ^ Drug War Clock. DrugSense (December 31, 1995).
    4. ^ Vulliamy, Ed (April 3, 2011). "How a big US bank laundered billions from Mexico's murderous drug gangs". The Guardian. London. 
    5. ^ Congress: US Wasting Billions in War on Drugs – Pair of reports blast counter-narcotics spending in Latin America. Newser.com.
    6. ^ Baum, Writer Dan. "Legalize All Drugs? The 'Risks Are Tremendous' Without Defining The Problem". NPR.org. 
    7. ^ "(And) Richard Nixon was the one who coined the phrase, 'war on drugs.'"
    8. ^ Cockburn and St. Clair, 1998: Chapter 14
    9. ^ Bullington, Bruce; Alan A. Block (March 1990). "A Trojan horse: Anti-communism and the war on drugs". Crime, Law and Social Change. Springer Netherlands. 14 (1): 39–55. ISSN 1573-0751. doi:10.1007/BF00728225. 
    10. ^ "Richard Nixon: Special Message to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control.". 
    11. ^ "Nixon Calls War on Drugs". The Palm Beach Post. June 18, 1971. Retrieved October 13, 2012. 
    12. ^ Dufton, Emily (March 26, 2012). "The War on Drugs: How President Nixon Tied Addiction to Crime". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 13, 2012. 
    13. ^ Payan, Tony (2013). A War that Can’t Be Won. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.
    14. ^ "Drug War Statistics". Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved February 25, 2014. 
    15. ^ Fields, Gary (May 14, 2009). "White House Czar Calls for End to 'War on Drugs'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 14, 2009. 
    16. ^ a b Global Commission on Drug Policy Offers Reckless, Vague Drug Legalization Proposal, Institute for Behavior and Health, Inc, July 12, 2011. (PDF).
    17. ^ "Sweden's tough drug laws leave addicts behind". The Local. April 10, 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2014. 
    18. ^ War on Drugs. The Global Commission on Drug Policy. 2011. p. 24. 
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 October 1982 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.

    War on drugs

    As part of the War on Drugs, the US spends approximately $500 million per year on aid for Colombia, largely used to combat guerrilla groups such as FARC that are involved in the illegal drug trade.[1][2][3][4][5]

    The War on Drugs is an American term[6][7] usually applied to the United States government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.[8][9] This initiative includes a set of drug policies that are intended to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of psychoactive drugs that the participating governments and the UN have made illegal. The term was popularized by the media shortly after a press conference given on June 18, 1971, by United States President Richard Nixon—the day after publication of a special message from President Nixon to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control—during which he declared drug abuse "public enemy number one". That message to the Congress included text about devoting more federal resources to the "prevention of new addicts, and the rehabilitation of those who are addicted", but that part did not receive the same public attention as the term "war on drugs".[10][11][12] However, two years prior to this, Nixon had formally declared a "war on drugs" that would be directed toward eradication, interdiction, and incarceration.[13] Today, the Drug Policy Alliance, which advocates for an end to the War on Drugs, estimates that the United States spends $51 billion annually on these initiatives.[14]

    On May 13, 2009, Gil Kerlikowske—the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)—signaled that the Obama administration did not plan to significantly alter drug enforcement policy, but also that the administration would not use the term "War on Drugs", because Kerlikowske considers the term to be "counter-productive".[15] ONDCP's view is that "drug addiction is a disease that can be successfully prevented and treated... making drugs more available will make it harder to keep our communities healthy and safe".[16] One of the alternatives that Kerlikowske has showcased is the drug policy of Sweden, which seeks to balance public health concerns with opposition to drug legalization. The prevalence rates for cocaine use in Sweden are barely one-fifth of those in Spain, the biggest consumer of the drug.[17]

    In June 2011, the Global Commission on Drug Policy released a critical report on the War on Drugs, declaring: "The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and years after President Nixon launched the US government's war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed."[18] The report was criticized by organizations that oppose a general legalization of drugs.[16]

    1. ^ "Colombia Program At-A-Glance" (PDF). usaid.gov. United States Agency for International Development. Retrieved October 20, 2015. 
    2. ^ Bennett, Brian (June 9, 2011). "U.S. can't justify its drug war spending, reports say". Los Angeles Times. 
    3. ^ Drug War Clock. DrugSense (December 31, 1995).
    4. ^ Vulliamy, Ed (April 3, 2011). "How a big US bank laundered billions from Mexico's murderous drug gangs". The Guardian. London. 
    5. ^ Congress: US Wasting Billions in War on Drugs – Pair of reports blast counter-narcotics spending in Latin America. Newser.com.
    6. ^ Baum, Writer Dan. "Legalize All Drugs? The 'Risks Are Tremendous' Without Defining The Problem". NPR.org. 
    7. ^ "(And) Richard Nixon was the one who coined the phrase, 'war on drugs.'"
    8. ^ Cockburn and St. Clair, 1998: Chapter 14
    9. ^ Bullington, Bruce; Alan A. Block (March 1990). "A Trojan horse: Anti-communism and the war on drugs". Crime, Law and Social Change. Springer Netherlands. 14 (1): 39–55. ISSN 1573-0751. doi:10.1007/BF00728225. 
    10. ^ "Richard Nixon: Special Message to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control.". 
    11. ^ "Nixon Calls War on Drugs". The Palm Beach Post. June 18, 1971. Retrieved October 13, 2012. 
    12. ^ Dufton, Emily (March 26, 2012). "The War on Drugs: How President Nixon Tied Addiction to Crime". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 13, 2012. 
    13. ^ Payan, Tony (2013). A War that Can’t Be Won. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.
    14. ^ "Drug War Statistics". Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved February 25, 2014. 
    15. ^ Fields, Gary (May 14, 2009). "White House Czar Calls for End to 'War on Drugs'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 14, 2009. 
    16. ^ a b Global Commission on Drug Policy Offers Reckless, Vague Drug Legalization Proposal, Institute for Behavior and Health, Inc, July 12, 2011. (PDF).
    17. ^ "Sweden's tough drug laws leave addicts behind". The Local. April 10, 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2014. 
    18. ^ War on Drugs. The Global Commission on Drug Policy. 2011. p. 24. 
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 October 1956Fortran, the first modern computer language, is shared with the coding community for the first time.

    Fortran

    Fortran (/ˈfɔːrtræn/; formerly FORTRAN, derived from "Formula Translation"[2]) is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM[3] in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, Fortran came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics, crystallography and computational chemistry. It is a popular language for high-performance computing[4] and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.[5]

    Fortran encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the language while usually retaining compatibility with prior versions. Successive versions have added support for structured programming

    and processing of character-based data (FORTRAN 77), array programming, modular programming and generic programming (Fortran 90), high performance Fortran (Fortran 95), object-oriented programming (Fortran 2003) and concurrent programming (Fortran 2008).

    1. ^ "Chapel spec (Acknowledgements)" (PDF). Cray Inc. 2015-10-01. Retrieved 2016-01-14. 
    2. ^ "FORTRAN". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5 ed.). The Free Dictionary. 2011. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
    3. ^ John Backus. "The history of FORTRAN I, II and III" (PDF). Softwarepreservation.org. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
    4. ^ Eugene Loh (18 June 2010). "The Ideal HPC Programming Language". Queue. Association of Computing Machines. 8 (6). 
    5. ^ "HPL – A Portable Implementation of the High-Performance Linpack Benchmark for Distributed-Memory Computers". Retrieved 2015-02-21. 
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 October 1984Desmond Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

    Desmond Tutu

    Desmond Mpilo Tutu OMSG CH (born 7 October 1931) is a South African anti-apartheid and social rights activist, as well as an Anglican clergyman and theologian. He was the first black Archbishop of Cape Town and bishop of the Church of the Province of Southern Africa (now the Anglican Church of Southern Africa).

    Born to a poor family in Klerksdorp, Tutu is of mixed Xhosa and Motswana heritage. Moving around South Africa as a child, he trained as a teacher and married Nomalizo Leah Tutu, with whom he had several children. In 1960, he was ordained as a priest and in 1962 moved to the United Kingdom to study theology at King's College London. After this education he returned to southern Africa, working as a lecturer at the Federal Theological Seminary and then the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. In 1972, he returned to London as the Theological Education Fund's director for Africa, necessitating regular tours of the continent. Back in South Africa, he took an active role in opposition to the apartheid system of racial segregation and white-minority rule. During the 1980s, he emerged as one of the most prominent anti-apartheid activists within South Africa. Unlike other sectors of the anti-apartheid movement, he stressed non-violent protest.

    After Nelson Mandela was freed from prison in 1990 and negotiated the dissolution of apartheid with President F. W. de Klerk, Tutu became a supporter of the new government. Mandela selected Tutu to chair the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Since apartheid's fall, Tutu has campaigned on other social justice issues; combating poverty, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis, as well as opposition to forms of prejudice like racism, sexism, homophobia, and transphobia.

    Tutu has been widely praised for his anti-apartheid activism. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984; the Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism in 1986; the Pacem in Terris Award in 1987; the Sydney Peace Prize in 1999; the Gandhi Peace Prize in 2007;[1] and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009. He had attracted some criticism for his views on Zionism and the Israel-Palestine conflict. He has also compiled several books of his speeches and sayings.

    1. ^ "Tutu to be honoured with Gandhi Peace Award". Retrieved 11 November 2008. 
     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 October 1814 – Eight people die in the London Beer Flood.

    London Beer Flood

    The London Beer Flood happened on 17 October 1814[2] in the parish of St. Giles, London, England. At the Meux and Company Brewery[1] in Tottenham Court Road,[1][3] a huge vat containing over 135,000 imperial gallons (610,000 L) of beer ruptured, causing other vats in the same building to succumb in a domino effect. As a result, more than 323,000 imperial gallons (1,470,000 L) of beer burst out and gushed into the streets. The wave of beer destroyed two homes and crumbled the wall of the Tavistock Arms pub, killing teenage employee Eleanor Cooper under the rubble.[4] Within minutes neighbouring George Street and New Street were swamped, seriously injuring a mother, and killing a daughter and young neighbour who were taking tea, and beer surged through a room of people gathered for a wake, killing five of them.[5]

    1. ^ a b c d Greenberg, Michael I. Disaster!: A Compendium of Terrorist, Natural, and Man-made Catastrophes. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 156. ISBN 0-7637-3989-8. 
    2. ^ The Oxford Companion to Beer. p. 48. 
    3. ^ Rennison, Nicholas (2 November 2006). The Book of Lists: London. Canongate Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84195-676-3. 
    4. ^ London Beer Flood at Expages.com (archived version)
    5. ^ The London Beer Flood of 1814
     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 October 1914 – The Schoenstatt Movement is founded in Germany.

    Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement

    The Apostolic Movement of Schoenstatt (German Schönstatt-Bewegung) is a Roman Catholic Marian Movement founded in Germany in 1914 by Father Joseph Kentenich. Fr. Kentenich saw the movement as being a means of spiritual renewal in the Catholic Church.[2] The movement is named Schoenstatt (which means "beautiful place"), after a small village close to the town of Vallendar near Koblenz in Germany.

    The group focuses on education and spiritual formation. According to their website, "We seek to grow as free, dedicated, and active witnesses of Christ in modern life by uniting our faith with our everyday lives. We look to Mary to educate us in this task and to guide us in becoming better followers of Christ."

     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 October 1974Niue becomes a self-governing colony of New Zealand.

    Niue Constitution Act

    The Schedules of the Niue Constitution Act 1974 form the Niue constitution. It stipulates the make-up of the executive branch of the government, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch. The Niue Constitution Act 1974 is the supreme law of Niue; any other Niue law that is inconsistent with the Niue Constitution Act 1974 will be deemed to be invalid.

    Its granting by the New Zealand Parliament in 1974 is celebrated yearly as Niue's independence on "Constitution Day" on 19 October. The road towards self-government for Niue started with the UN Decolonisation Committee putting pressure on New Zealand for Niue to decide what form of status Niue wanted. The people of Niue voted in 1974 choosing the self-government option as the best direction for Niue. The Niue Constitution is the legal doctrine that put the wishes of the Niue people for self-government into practice. Self-government allows for Niueans to lead and take charge of their own affairs; this has reduced the number of New Zealand expats working in key Government positions from around 20 in 1974 to none at the moment.

    The Niue Constitution requires 2/3 majority in the three readings in the Legislative Assembly and also requires 2/3 support from the electors before it can be amended. There is a select committee that have been working on reviewing the constitution but have made little progress, which is normal when dealing with a complex document like this.

     
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 October 1982 – During the UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, 66 people are crushed to death in the Luzhniki disaster.

    Luzhniki disaster

    Coordinates: 55°42′57″N 37°33′13″E / 55.71583°N 37.55361°E / 55.71583; 37.55361

    The Luzhniki disaster was a deadly human crush that took place at the Grand Sports Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium (Russian: Большая спортивная арена Центрального стадиона им. В. И. Ленина) (now known as Luzhniki Stadium) in Moscow, Soviet Union (USSR; now Russia) during the 1982–83 UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem on 20 October 1982. Sixty-six FC Spartak Moscow fans,[1][2][3] mostly adolescents,[4] died in the stampede, which made it Russia's worst sporting disaster.[5] The number of fatalities in this crush was not officially revealed until seven years later, in 1989. Until then, this figure varied in press reports from 3 to 340 fatalities. The circumstances of this disaster are similar to those of the second Ibrox disaster.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference iz was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference ize was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference lan was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Мемориал памяти погибших (in Russian). Moscow: Проект "Двадцатое число". 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference jw was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 October 1854Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War.

    Florence Nightingale

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox scientist with unknown parameter "research_field" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC, DStJ (/ˈflɒrəns ˈntɪŋɡl/; 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing.

    She came to prominence while serving as a manager of nurses trained by her during the Crimean War, where she organised the tending to wounded soldiers.[3] She gave nursing a highly favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture, especially in the persona of "The Lady with the Lamp" making rounds of wounded soldiers at night.[4][5]

    Some recent commentators have asserted Nightingale's achievements in the Crimean War were exaggerated by the media at the time, to satisfy the public's need for a hero.[citation needed] Nevertheless, critics agree on the decisive importance of her follow-up achievements in professionalising nursing roles for women. In 1860, Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London. It was the first secular nursing school in the world, now part of King's College London. In recognition of her pioneering work in nursing, the Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses, and the Florence Nightingale Medal, the highest international distinction a nurse can achieve, were named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday. Her social reforms include improving healthcare for all sections of British society, advocating better hunger relief in India, helping to abolish prostitution laws that were over-harsh to women, and expanding the acceptable forms of female participation in the workforce.

    Nightingale was a prodigious and versatile writer. In her lifetime, much of her published work was concerned with spreading medical knowledge. Some of her tracts were written in simple English so that they could easily be understood by those with poor literary skills. She also helped popularise the graphical presentation of statistical data. Much of her writing, including her extensive work on religion and mysticism, has only been published posthumously.

    1. ^ "Florence Nightingale". King's College London. Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
    2. ^ "Florence Nightingale 2nd rendition, 1890 – greetings to the dear old comrades of Balaclava". Internet Archive. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
    3. ^ Strachey, Lytton (1918). Eminent Victorians. London: Chatto and Windus. [page needed]
    4. ^ Swenson, Kristine (2005). Medical Women and Victorian Fiction. University of Missouri Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-8262-6431-2. 
    5. ^ Aaron Ralby (2013). "The Crimean War 1853–1856". Atlas of Military History. Parragon. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-4723-0963-1. 
     
  24. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 October 1859 – Spain declares war on Morocco.

    Morocco

    Coordinates: 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6

    Morocco (/məˈrɒk/; Arabic: المَغرِب‎, translit. al-maġrib, lit. 'place the sun sets; the west'‎; Standard Moroccan Tamazight: ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ‎, translit. Lmeɣrib‎; French: Maroc), officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco (Arabic: المملكة المغربية‎, translit. al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyah‎, lit. "The Western Kingdom"; Standard Moroccan Tamazight: ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ‎, translit. Tageldit n Lmaɣrib‎), is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

    Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of 446,550 km2 (172,410 sq mi). Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, and Meknes. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 789, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and Northwestern Africa. Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, and European influences.

    Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a guerrilla war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock.

    Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the Constitutional court.

    Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber. The Moroccan dialect, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=Notes> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=Notes}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIApop was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Morocco". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 
    3. ^ "Morocco in CIA World Factbook". CIA.gov. 
    4. ^ "Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco, I-1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
    5. ^ "Note sur les premiers résultats du Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat 2014". HCP. 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
    6. ^ "Morocco – GDP (PPP based)". Knoema. 
    7. ^ "Morocco – GDP per capita (PPP based)". Knoema. 
    8. ^ "Morocco – GDP". Knoema. 
    9. ^ "Morocco – GDP per capita". Knoema. 
    10. ^ "World Bank GINI index". 
    11. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 
    12. ^ L'horaire d'été (GMT+1) maintenu jusqu'au 27 octobre 2013, Ministère de la Fonction Publique et de la Modernisation de l'Administration. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
     
  25. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 October 1707 – The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.

    Parliament of Great Britain

    The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolved the separate English and Scottish parliaments in favour of a single parliament, located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801.

     
  26. Admin2

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    24 October 1648 – The Peace of Westphalia is signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years' War.

    Peace of Westphalia

    The Peace of Westphalia (German: Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, effectively ending the European wars of religion. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, between the Habsburgs and their Catholic allies and the Protestant (Sweden, Denmark, Dutch, Holy Roman Principalities) and Catholic (France) Anti-Habsburg allies; and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognising the independence of the Dutch Republic.

    The peace negotiations involved a total of 109 delegations representing European powers, including Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Philip IV of Spain, the Kingdom of France, Cristina of the Swedish Empire, the Dutch Republic, the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, and sovereigns of the free imperial cities. The treaties that constituted the peace settlement were:

    • The Peace of Münster[1] between the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain on 30 January 1648, ratified in Münster on 15 May 1648; and
    • Two complementary treaties both signed on 24 October 1648, namely:
      • The Treaty of Münster (Instrumentum Pacis Monasteriensis, IPM),[2] between the Holy Roman Emperor, France, and their respective allies.
      • The Treaty of Osnabrück (Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugensis, IPO),[3] involving the Holy Roman Empire, Sweden, and their respective allies. The treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination.

    The Peace of Westphalia established the precedent of peaces established by diplomatic congress,[4][5] and a new system of political order in central Europe, later called Westphalian sovereignty, based upon the concept of co-existing sovereign states. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power. A norm was established against interference in another state's domestic affairs. As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order.[6]

    1. ^ "Original text in Dutch National Archives". beeldbank.nationaalarchief.nl. 
    2. ^ "Digital German text Treaty of Münster". lwl.org. 
    3. ^ "Digital German text Treaty of Osnabrück". lwl.org. Retrieved 13 May 2017. 
    4. ^ "Principles of the State System". Faculty.unlv.edu. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
    5. ^ "Information from city of Münster". Muenster.de. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
    6. ^ Henry Kissinger (2014). "Introduction and Chpt 1". World Order: Reflections on the Character of Nations and the Course of History. Allen Lane. ISBN 0241004268. 
     

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