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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 November 1605Robert Catesby, ringleader of the Gunpowder Plotters, is killed.

    Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby.

    The plan was to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of England's Parliament on 5 November 1605, as the prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands during which James's nine-year-old daughter, Princess Elizabeth, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state. Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed. His fellow plotters were John Wright, Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, Robert Wintour, Christopher Wright, John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. Fawkes, who had 10 years of military experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives.

    The plot was revealed to the authorities in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on 26 October 1605. During a search of the House of Lords at about midnight on 4 November 1605, Fawkes was discovered guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder—enough to reduce the House of Lords to rubble—and arrested. Most of the conspirators fled from London as they learned of the plot's discovery, trying to enlist support along the way. Several made a stand against the pursuing Sheriff of Worcester and his men at Holbeche House; in the ensuing battle, Catesby was one of those shot and killed. At their trial on 27 January 1606, eight of the survivors, including Fawkes, were convicted and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered.

    Details of the assassination attempt were allegedly known by the principal Jesuit of England, Father Henry Garnet. Although he was convicted of treason and sentenced to death, doubt has been cast on how much he really knew of the plot. As its existence was revealed to him through confession, Garnet was prevented from informing the authorities by the absolute confidentiality of the confessional. Although anti-Catholic legislation was introduced soon after the plot's discovery, many important and loyal Catholics retained high office during King James I's reign. The thwarting of the Gunpowder Plot was commemorated for many years afterwards by special sermons and other public events such as the ringing of church bells, which have evolved into the Bonfire Night of today.

     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 November 1994 – The chemical element darmstadtium is discovered.

    Darmstadtium

    Darmstadtium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ds and atomic number 110. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element. The most stable known isotope, darmstadtium-281, has a half-life of approximately 10 seconds.[7] Darmstadtium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near the city of Darmstadt, Germany, after which it was named.

    In the periodic table, it is a d-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 10 elements, although no chemical experiments have yet been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to platinum in group 10 as the eighth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Darmstadtium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, nickel, palladium, and platinum.

    1. ^ "Darmstadtium". Periodic Table of Videos. The University of Nottingham. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
    2. ^ a b c d e f Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean. The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 1-4020-3555-1. 
    3. ^ a b Östlin, A.; Vitos, L. (2011). "First-principles calculation of the structural stability of 6d transition metals". Physical Review B. 84 (11). Bibcode:2011PhRvB..84k3104O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.113104. 
    4. ^ a b Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
    5. ^ Chemical Data. Darmstadtium - Ds, Royal Chemical Society
    6. ^ "Darmstadtium". Periodic Table of Videos. The University of Nottingham. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference 04Og01 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 November 1983Bill Gates introduces Windows 1.0.

    Windows 1.0

    Windows 1.0 is a graphical personal computer operating environment developed by Microsoft. Microsoft had worked with Apple Computer to develop applications for Apple's January 1984 original Macintosh, the first mass-produced personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) that enabled users to see user friendly icons on screen. Windows 1.0 was released on November 20, 1985, as the first version of the Microsoft Windows line. It runs as a graphical, 16-bit multi-tasking shell on top of an existing MS-DOS installation. It provides an environment which can run graphical programs designed for Windows, as well as existing MS-DOS software. Its development was spearheaded by the company founder Bill Gates after he saw a demonstration of a similar software suite known as Visi On at COMDEX.

    Despite positive responses to its early presentations and support from a number of hardware and software makers, Windows 1.0 was received poorly by critics. Critics felt Windows 1.0 did not meet their expectations. In particular, they felt that Windows 1.0 put too much emphasis on mouse input at a time when mouse use was not yet widespread; not providing enough resources for new users; and for performance issues, especially on systems with lower computer hardware specifications. Despite these criticisms, Windows 1.0 was an important milestone for Microsoft, as it introduced the Microsoft Windows line, and in computer history in general.[3] Windows 1.0 was declared obsolete and Microsoft stopped providing support and updates for the system on December 31, 2001.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference microsoft-obs was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference obsolete-prod was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnet-flop was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 November 1918World War I: Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car in the forest of Compiègne.

    Armistice of 11 November 1918

    black and white photograph of five men in military uniforms standing side-to-m right, seen outside his railway carriage No. 2419 D in the forest of Compiègne.
    Photograph taken in the forest of Compiègne after reaching an agreement for the Armistice

    The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was an armistice during the First World War between the Allies and Germany – also known as the Armistice of Compiègne after the location in which it was signed – and the agreement that ended the fighting on the Western Front. It went into effect at 11 a.m. Paris time on 11 November 1918 ("the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month"), and marked a victory for the Allies and a complete defeat for Germany, although not formally a surrender. The Germans were responding to the policies proposed by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in his Fourteen Points of January 1918. The actual terms, largely written by French Marshal and Supreme Commander of the Allied Armies Ferdinand Foch, included the cessation of hostilities, the withdrawal of German troops to behind their own borders, the preservation of infrastructure, the exchange of prisoners, a promise of reparations, the disposition of German warships and submarines, and conditions for prolonging or terminating the armistice. Although the armistice ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty, the Treaty of Versailles.

     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 November 1887Bloody Sunday clashes in central London.

    Bloody Sunday (1887)

    Bloody Sunday, 1887. This engraving from The Illustrated London News depicts a policeman being clubbed by a demonstrator as he wrests a banner from a female protester

    Bloody Sunday took place in London on 13 November 1887, when a march against unemployment and coercion in Ireland, as well as demanding the release of MP William O'Brien, was attacked by the Metropolitan Police and the British Army. The demonstration was organised by the Social Democratic Federation and the Irish National League. Violent clashes took place between the police and demonstrators, many "armed with iron bars, knives, pokers and gas pipes". A contemporary report noted that 400 were arrested and 75 persons were badly injured, including many police, two policemen being stabbed and one protester bayonetted.[1]

    1. ^ [1] Sydney Morning Herald, 15 November 1887, at Trove
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 November 1938 – The Lions Gate Bridge, connecting Vancouver to the North Shore region, opens to traffic.

    Lions Gate Bridge

    Lions Gate Bridge is located in Vancouver
    Lions Gate Bridge
    Location of Lions Gate Bridge in Vancouver

    The Lions Gate Bridge, opened in 1938, officially known as the First Narrows Bridge,[1] is a suspension bridge that crosses the first narrows of Burrard Inlet and connects the City of Vancouver, British Columbia, to the North Shore municipalities of the District of North Vancouver, the City of North Vancouver, and West Vancouver. The term "Lions Gate" refers to The Lions, a pair of mountain peaks north of Vancouver. Northbound traffic on the bridge heads in their general direction. A pair of cast concrete lions, designed by sculptor Charles Marega, were placed on either side of the south approach to the bridge in January 1939.[2]

    The total length of the bridge including the north viaduct is 1,823 m (5,981 ft). The length including approach spans is 1,517.3 m (4,978 ft), the main span alone is 473 m (1,552 ft), the tower height is 111 m (364 ft), and it has a ship's clearance of 61 m (200 ft). Prospect Point in Stanley Park offered a good high south end to the bridge, but the low flat delta land to the north required construction of the extensive North Viaduct.

    The bridge has three reversible lanes, the use of which is indicated by signals. The centre lane changes direction to accommodate for traffic patterns. The traffic volume on the bridge is 60,000 - 70,000 vehicles per day. Trucks exceeding 13 tonnes (12.8 long tons; 14.3 short tons) are prohibited, as are vehicles using studded tires. The bridge forms part of Highways 99 and 1A.

    On March 24, 2005, the Lions Gate Bridge was designated a National Historic Site of Canada.[3]

    1. ^ BC Laws — Transportation Act — Provincial Public Undertakings Regulation
    2. ^ Davis, Chuck. "Charles Marega". The Chuck Davis History of Metropolitan Vancouver. Harbour Publishing. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
    3. ^ Lions Gate Bridge National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 November 1955 – The first part of Saint Petersburg Metro is opened.

    Saint Petersburg Metro

    The Saint Petersburg Metro (Russian: Петербу́ргский метрополитен) is the underground railway system in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It has been open since 15 November 1955.

    Formerly known as the V.I. Lenin Order of Lenin Leningrad Metropoliten (Russian: Ленинградский Ордена Ленина Метрополитен имени В.И. Ленина), the system exhibits many typical Soviet designs and features exquisite decorations and artwork making it one of the most attractive and elegant metros in the world. Due to the city's unique geology, the Saint Petersburg Metro is one of the deepest metro systems in the world and the deepest by the average depth of all the stations. The system's deepest station, Admiralteyskaya, is 86 metres below ground. Serving about 2 million passengers daily, it is also the 19th busiest metro system in the world.

    1. ^ Andrew Zalmanov as a private person. "Петербургский метрополитен". Spb.metro.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 November 1945UNESCO is founded.

    UNESCO

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO;[2]French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter.[1] It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

    UNESCO has 195 member states[3] and ten associate members.[4][5] Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist.

    UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press, regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.[6]

    UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information".[7] Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.[8]

    The broad goals and objectives of the international community – as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities.

    1. ^ a b "UNESCO history". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
    2. ^ "UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
    3. ^ UNESCO's General Conference voted on 31 October 2011 "to admit Palestine as a member State". However, it notes that, for "its membership to take effect, Palestine must sign and ratify UNESCO's Constitution". "UNESCO " Media Services " General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member State". UNESCO. 
    4. ^ "Member States | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". UNESCO. 
    5. ^ "The Faroes become associated <ny specialized institutes and centres throughout the world". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. 
    6. ^ "UNDG Members". United Nations Development Group. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
    7. ^ "Introducing UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
    8. ^ "UNESCO • General Conference; 34th; Medium-term Strategy, 2008–2013; 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 October 1931Al Capone is convicted of income tax evasion.

    Al Capone

    Alphonse Gabriel Capone (/ˈæl kəˈpn/;[2]Italian: [kaˈpone]; January 17, 1899 – January 25, 1947), sometimes known by the nickname "Scarface", was an American mobster, crime boss, and businessman who attained fame during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. His seven-year reign as crime boss ended when he was 33.

    Capone was born in Brooklyn, New York City, to Italian immigrants. He was a Five Points Gang member who became a bouncer in organized crime premises such as brothels. In his early twenties, he moved to Chicago and became a bodyguard and trusted factotum for Johnny Torrio, head of a criminal syndicate that illegally supplied alcohol—the forerunner of the Outfit—and was politically protected through the Unione Siciliana. A conflict with the North Side Gang was instrumental in Capone's rise and fall. Torrio went into retirement after North Side gunmen almost killed him, handing control to Capone. Capone expanded the bootlegging business through increasingly violent means, but his mutually profitable relationships with mayor William Hale Thompson and the city's police meant he seemed safe from law enforcement.

    Capone apparently reveled in attention, such as the cheers from spectators when he appeared at ball games. He made donations to various charities and was viewed by many as "modern-day Robin Hood". However, the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre, in which seven gang rivals were murdered in broad daylight, damaged Chicago's and Capone's image, leading influential citizens to demand government action and newspapers to dub Capone "Public Enemy No. 1".

    The federal authorities became intent on jailing Capone, and prosecuted him for tax evasion in 1931, a federal crime and a novel strategy at the time. During the highly publicized case, the judge admitted as evidence Capone's admissions of his income and unpaid taxes during prior (and ultimately abortive) negotiations to pay the government taxes he owed. He was convicted and sentenced to 11 years in federal prison. After conviction, he replaced his defense team with experts in tax law, and his grounds for appeal were strengthened by a Supreme Court ruling, but his ultimately failed. Capone showed signs of syphilitic dementia early in his sentence, and became increasingly debilitated before being released after eight years. On January 25, 1947, Capone died of cardiac arrest after suffering a stroke.[3]

    1. ^ "Mount Carmel". Oldghosthome.com. Archived from the original on 2004-09-03. 
    2. ^ http://www.dictionary.com/browse/al-capone
    3. ^ "Al Capone dies in Florida villa". Chicago Sunday Tribune. Associated Press. January 26, 1947. p. 1. 
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 November 1963 – The first push-button telephone goes into service.

    Push-button telephone

    Modern push-button telephone

    The push-button telephone is a telephone that has electronic buttons or keys for dialing a telephone number. This phone was easier and quicker to use than the rotary dial phone because the caller pressed buttons rather than having to turn a dial.

    Western Electric experimented as early as 1941 with methods of using mechanically activated reeds to produce two tones for each of the ten digits and by the late 1940s such technology was field-tested in a No. 5 Crossbar switching system in Pennsylvania.[1][2] But the technology proved unreliable and it was not until long after the invention of the transistor when push-button technology matured. On 18 November 1963, after approximately three years of customer testing, the Bell System in the United States officially introduced dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) technology under its registered Touch-Tone mark. Over the next few decades touch-tone service replaced traditional pulse dialing technology and it eventually became a world-wide standard for telecommunication signaling.

    Although DTMF was the driving technology implemented in push-button telephones, some telephone manufacturers used push-button keypads to generate pulse dial signaling. Before the introduction of touch-tone telephone sets, the Bell System sometimes used the term push-button telephone to refer to key system telephones, which were rotary dial telephones that also had a set of push-buttons to select one of multiple telephone circuits, or to activate other features.

    1. ^ Bell Telephone Laboratories, A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System - Switching Technologies (1975, AT&T)
    2. ^ Push. Click. Touch. - History of the Button - 1963: Pushbutton Telephone - December 11, 2006
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 November 1969 – Association football player Pelé scores his 1,000th goal.

    Pelé

    Edson Arantes do Nascimento (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈɛtsõ (w)ɐˈɾɐ̃tʃiz du nɐsiˈmẽtu]; born 23 October 1940), known as Pelé (Brazilian Portuguese: [pe̞ˈlɛ]), is a Brazilian retired professional footballer who played as a forward. He is widely regarded as the greatest football player of all time. In 1999, he was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS). That same year, Pelé was elected Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee. According to the IFFHS, Pelé is the most successful league goal-scorer in the world, scoring 1281 goals in 1363 games, which included unofficial friendlies and tour games. During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best-paid athlete in the world.

    Pelé began playing for Santos at age 15 and the Brazil national football team at 16. During his international career, he won three FIFA World Cups: 1958, 1962 and 1970, being the only player ever to do so. Pelé is the all-time leading goalscorer for Brazil with 77 goals in 92 games. At club level he is also the record goalscorer for Santos, and led them to the 1962 and 1963 Copa Libertadores. Pelé's "electrifying play and penchant for spectacular goals" made him a star around the world, and his teams toured internationally in order to take full advantage of his popularity. Since retiring in 1977, Pelé has been a worldwide ambassador for football and has made many acting and commercial ventures. In 2010, he was named the Honorary President of the New York Cosmos.

    Pelé has also been known for connecting the phrase "The Beautiful Game" with football. A prolific goalscorer, Pelé was known for anticipating his opponents' movements in the field, and being able to shoot strong and accurate shots with both feet. Early in his career, he played in a variety of attacking formations. In his later career, he played in a playmaking role behind offensive strikers. In Brazil, he is hailed as a national hero for his accomplishments in football and for his outspoken support of policies that improve the social conditions of the poor. Throughout his career and in his retirement, Pelé received several individual and team awards for his performance in the field, his record-breaking achievements, and legacy in the sport.

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 November 1969 – Association football player Pelé scores his 1,000th goal.

    Pelé

    Edson Arantes do Nascimento (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈɛtsõ (w)ɐˈɾɐ̃tʃiz du nɐsiˈmẽtu]; born 23 October 1940), known as Pelé (Brazilian Portuguese: [pe̞ˈlɛ]), is a Brazilian retired professional footballer who played as a forward. He is widely regarded as the greatest football player of all time. In 1999, he was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS). That same year, Pelé was elected Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee. According to the IFFHS, Pelé is the most successful league goal-scorer in the world, scoring 1281 goals in 1363 games, which included unofficial friendlies and tour games. During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best-paid athlete in the world.

    Pelé began playing for Santos at age 15 and the Brazil national football team at 16. During his international career, he won three FIFA World Cups: 1958, 1962 and 1970, being the only player ever to do so. Pelé is the all-time leading goalscorer for Brazil with 77 goals in 92 games. At club level he is also the record goalscorer for Santos, and led them to the 1962 and 1963 Copa Libertadores. Pelé's "electrifying play and penchant for spectacular goals" made him a star around the world, and his teams toured internationally in order to take full advantage of his popularity. Since retiring in 1977, Pelé has been a worldwide ambassador for football and has made many acting and commercial ventures. In 2010, he was named the Honorary President of the New York Cosmos.

    Pelé has also been known for connecting the phrase "The Beautiful Game" with football. A prolific goalscorer, Pelé was known for anticipating his opponents' movements in the field, and being able to shoot strong and accurate shots with both feet. Early in his career, he played in a variety of attacking formations. In his later career, he played in a playmaking role behind offensive strikers. In Brazil, he is hailed as a national hero for his accomplishments in football and for his outspoken support of policies that improve the social conditions of the poor. Throughout his career and in his retirement, Pelé received several individual and team awards for his performance in the field, his record-breaking achievements, and legacy in the sport.

     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 November 1962Cuban Missile Crisis ends: In response to the Soviet Union agreeing to remove its missiles from Cuba, U.S. President John F. Kennedy ends the quarantine of the Caribbean nation.

    Cuban Missile Crisis

    The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis (Spanish: Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis (Russian: Карибский кризис, tr. Karibsky krizis, IPA: [kɐˈrʲipskʲɪj ˈkrʲizʲɪs]), or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.[2]

    In response to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961 and the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decided to agree to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island to deter a future invasion. An agreement was reached during a secret meeting between Khrushchev and Fidel Castro in July 1962 and construction of a number of missile launch facilities started later that summer.

    The 1962 United States elections were under way, and the White House had denied charges that it was ignoring dangerous Soviet missiles 90 miles from Florida. The missile preparations were confirmed when an Air Force U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of medium-range (SS-4) and intermediate-range (R-14) ballistic missile facilities. The US established a military blockade to prevent further missiles from reaching Cuba; Oval Office tapes during the crisis revealed that Kennedy had also put the blockade in place as an attempt to provoke Soviet-backed forces in Berlin as well. It announced that they would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba and demanded that the weapons already in Cuba be dismantled and returned to the Soviet Union.

    After a long period of tense negotiations, an agreement was reached between US President John F. Kennedy and Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in exchange for a US public declaration and agreement to avoid invading Cuba again. Secretly, the United States also agreed that it would dismantle all U.S.-built Jupiter MRBMs, which had been deployed in Turkey against the Soviet Union; there has been debate on whether or not Italy was included in the agreement as well.

    When all offensive missiles and Ilyushin Il-28 light bombers had been withdrawn from Cuba, the blockade was formally ended on November 21, 1962. The negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union pointed out the necessity of a quick, clear, and direct communication line between Washington and Moscow. As a result, the Moscow–Washington hotline was established. A series of agreements reduced US-Soviet tensions for several years.

    1. ^ 55 лет назад на Кубу были доставлены первые советские баллистические ракеты// Департамент информации и массовых коммуникаций Министерства обороны Российской Федерации
    2. ^ Len Scott; R. Gerald Hughes (2015). The Cuban Missile Crisis: A Critical Reappraisal. Taylor & Francis. p. 17. 
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 November 1974 – The Birmingham pub bombings kill 21 people. The Birmingham Six are sentenced to life in prison for the crime but subsequently acquitted.

    Birmingham pub bombings

    The Birmingham pub bombings (also known as the Birmingham bombings)[1] occurred on 21 November 1974, when bombs exploded in two public houses in central Birmingham, England. The explosions killed 21 people and injured 182 others.[2]

    The Provisional Irish Republican Army has never officially admitted responsibility for the Birmingham pub bombings,[3] but a former senior officer of the organisation confessed to their involvement in 2014,[4] with an admission the Birmingham pub bombings "went against everything we [the Provisional Irish Republican Army] claimed to stand for". One of the alleged perpetrators of the bombings, Michael Hayes, claimed in 2017 that the intention of the bombings had not been to harm civilians, and that their deaths were caused by an unintentional delay in giving a telephoned warning.[5][6]

    Six Irishmen were arrested within hours of the blasts, and in 1975 sentenced to life imprisonment for the bombings. The men—who became known as the Birmingham Six—maintained their innocence and insisted police had coerced them into signing false confessions through severe physical and psychological abuse. After 16 years in prison and a lengthy campaign, their convictions were declared unsafe and unsatisfactory, and quashed by the Court of Appeal in 1991. The episode is seen as one of the worst miscarriages of justice in British legal history.

    The Birmingham pub bombings are seen as one of the deadliest acts of the Troubles and the deadliest act of terrorism[7][8] to occur in Great Britain between the Second World War and the 2005 London bombings.[9]

    1. ^ The Telegraph 21 November 2014
    2. ^ The Birmingham Framework -Six Innocent Men Framed for the Birmingham Bombings; Fr. Denis Faul and Fr. Raymond Murray (1976)
    3. ^ "Birmingham pub blasts kill 19". BBC News. 21 November 1974. Retrieved 15 August 2007. 
    4. ^ "Told for the First Time: The Tragic Story of Young Victim Marilyn Paula Nash". The Birmingham Mail. 20 February 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
    5. ^ Birmingham Mail 9 December 2014
    6. ^ "Birmingham Pub Bombings: Self-confessed IRA Bomb Maker Apologises for Blasts which Killed 21 People". The Independent. July 10, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017. 
    7. ^ Kentucky New Era 14 March 1991
    8. ^ The Prevention of Terrorism in British Law pp. 31–32
    9. ^ "Britain 'defiant' as bombers kill 52 in attack on the heart of London". The Times. 8 July 2005. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 November 1974 – The Birmingham pub bombings kill 21 people. The Birmingham Six are sentenced to life in prison for the crime but subsequently acquitted.

    Birmingham pub bombings

    The Birmingham pub bombings (also known as the Birmingham bombings)[1] occurred on 21 November 1974, when bombs exploded in two public houses in central Birmingham, England. The explosions killed 21 people and injured 182 others.[2]

    The Provisional Irish Republican Army has never officially admitted responsibility for the Birmingham pub bombings,[3] but a former senior officer of the organisation confessed to their involvement in 2014,[4] with an admission the Birmingham pub bombings "went against everything we [the Provisional Irish Republican Army] claimed to stand for". One of the alleged perpetrators of the bombings, Michael Hayes, claimed in 2017 that the intention of the bombings had not been to harm civilians, and that their deaths were caused by an unintentional delay in giving a telephoned warning.[5][6]

    Six Irishmen were arrested within hours of the blasts, and in 1975 sentenced to life imprisonment for the bombings. The men—who became known as the Birmingham Six—maintained their innocence and insisted police had coerced them into signing false confessions through severe physical and psychological abuse. After 16 years in prison and a lengthy campaign, their convictions were declared unsafe and unsatisfactory, and quashed by the Court of Appeal in 1991. The episode is seen as one of the worst miscarriages of justice in British legal history.

    The Birmingham pub bombings are seen as one of the deadliest acts of the Troubles and the deadliest act of terrorism[7][8] to occur in Great Britain between the Second World War and the 2005 London bombings.[9]

    1. ^ The Telegraph 21 November 2014
    2. ^ The Birmingham Framework -Six Innocent Men Framed for the Birmingham Bombings; Fr. Denis Faul and Fr. Raymond Murray (1976)
    3. ^ "Birmingham pub blasts kill 19". BBC News. 21 November 1974. Retrieved 15 August 2007. 
    4. ^ "Told for the First Time: The Tragic Story of Young Victim Marilyn Paula Nash". The Birmingham Mail. 20 February 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
    5. ^ Birmingham Mail 9 December 2014
    6. ^ "Birmingham Pub Bombings: Self-confessed IRA Bomb Maker Apologises for Blasts which Killed 21 People". The Independent. July 10, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017. 
    7. ^ Kentucky New Era 14 March 1991
    8. ^ The Prevention of Terrorism in British Law pp. 31–32
    9. ^ "Britain 'defiant' as bombers kill 52 in attack on the heart of London". The Times. 8 July 2005. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 November 1995Toy Story is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.

    Toy Story

    Toy Story is a 1995 American computer-animated buddy comedy adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. The directorial debut of John Lasseter, Toy Story was the first feature-length computer-animated film and the first feature film produced by Pixar. Taking place in a world where anthropomorphic toys pretend to be lifeless whenever humans are present, the film's plot focuses on the relationship between Woody, an old-fashioned pullstring cowboy doll (voiced by Tom Hanks), and Buzz Lightyear, an astronaut action figure (voiced by Tim Allen), as they evolve from rivals competing for the affections of Andy, their owner, to friends who work together to be reunited with Andy as his family prepares to move to a new home. The screenplay was written by Joss Whedon, Andrew Stanton, Joel Cohen and Alec Sokolow, based on a story by Lasseter, Pete Docter, Stanton and Joe Ranft. The film features music by Randy Newman, and was executive-produced by Steve Jobs and Edwin Catmull.

    Pixar, which produced short animated films to promote their computers, was approached by Disney to produce a computer-animated feature after the success of their short film Tin Toy (1988), which is told from a small toy's perspective. Lasseter, Stanton and Docter wrote early story treatments which were thrown out by Disney, as they wanted the film to be edgier. After disastrous story reels, production was halted and the script was re-written, better reflecting the tone and theme Pixar desired: that "toys deeply want children to play with them, and that this desire drives their hopes, fears, and actions". The studio, then consisting of a relatively small number of employees, produced the film under minor financial constraints.

    Toy Story was released in theaters on November 22, 1995, and was the highest-grossing film on its opening weekend,[4] earning over $373 million at the worldwide box office. The film was positively reviewed by critics and audiences, who praised the animation's technical innovation, the wit and thematic sophistication of the screenplay, and the vocal performances of Hanks and Allen. It is considered by many critics to be one of the best animated films ever made.[5] The film received three Academy Award nominations, including Best Original Screenplay, Best Original Score, and Best Original Song for "You've Got a Friend in Me", as well as winning a Special Achievement Academy Award.[6] It was inducted into the National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" in 2005, its first year of eligibility.[7] In addition to home media releases and theatrical re-releases, Toy Story-inspired material has run the gamut from toys, video games, theme park attractions, spin-offs, merchandise, and two sequels—Toy Story 2 (1999) and Toy Story 3 (2010)—both of which also garnered massive commercial success and critical acclaim, with a third sequel, Toy Story 4, slated for a 2019 release.[8][9]

    1. ^ "Toy Story". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
    2. ^ "Toy Story (1995) – Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
    3. ^ "Toy Story (1995)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 20, 2016. 
    4. ^ "Toy Story". The Numbers. Retrieved March 11, 2009. 
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference best-animation was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ King, Susan (September 30, 2015). "How 'Toy Story' changed the face of animation, taking off 'like an explosion'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 30, 2015. 
    7. ^ "Librarian of Congress Adds 25 Films to National Film Registry – News Releases (Library of Congress)". Loc.gov. Retrieved June 10, 2013. 
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference THRCars3Incr2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Lang, Brent (October 26, 2016). "'Incredibles 2' Hitting Theaters a Year Early, 'Toy Story 4' Pushed Back to 2019". Variety. Retrieved October 26, 2016. 
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 November 2001 – The Convention on Cybercrime is signed in Budapest, Hungary.

    Convention on Cybercrime

    The Convention on Cybercrime, also known as the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime or the Budapest Convention, is the first international treaty seeking to address Internet and computer crime by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative techniques, and increasing cooperation among nations.[1][2] It was drawn up by the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, France, with the active participation of the Council of Europe's observer states Canada, Japan, South Africa and the United States.

    The Convention and its Explanatory Report was adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe at its 109th Session on 8 November 2001. It was opened for signature in Budapest, on 23 November 2001 and it entered into force on 1 July 2004.[3] As of December 2016, 52 states have ratified the convention, while a further four states had signed the convention but not ratified it.[4]

    Since it entered into force, important countries like Brazil and India have declined to adopt the Convention on the grounds that they did not participate in its drafting. Russia opposes the Convention, stating that adoption would violate Russian sovereignty, and has usually refused to cooperate in law enforcement investigations relating to cybercrime.

    On 1 March 2006, the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime came into force. Those States that have ratified the additional protocol are required to criminalize the dissemination of racist and xenophobic material through computer systems, as well as threats and insults motivated by racism or xenophobia.[5]

     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 November 1969Apollo program: The Apollo 12 command module splashes down safely in the Pacific Ocean, ending the second manned mission to land on the Moon.

    Apollo 12

    Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. It was launched on November 14, 1969, from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, four months after Apollo 11. Mission commander Charles "Pete" Conrad and Lunar Module Pilot Alan L. Bean performed just over one day and seven hours of lunar surface activity while Command Module Pilot Richard F. Gordon remained in lunar orbit. The landing site for the mission was located in the southeastern portion of the Ocean of Storms.

    Unlike the first landing on Apollo 11, Conrad and Bean achieved a precise landing at their expected location, the site of the Surveyor 3 unmanned probe, which had landed on April 20, 1967. They carried the first color television camera to the lunar surface on an Apollo flight, but transmission was lost after Bean accidentally destroyed the camera by pointing it at the Sun. On one of two moonwalks, they visited the Surveyor and removed some parts for return to Earth. The mission ended on November 24 with a successful splashdown.

    1. ^ Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Table of Contents". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 November 1783American Revolutionary War: The last British troops leave New York City three months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris.

    Evacuation Day (New York)

    Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when British troops departed from New York City on Manhattan Island, after the end of the American Revolutionary War. After this British Army evacuation, General George Washington triumphantly led the Continental Army from his former headquarters, north of the city, across the Harlem River south down Manhattan through the town to The Battery at the foot of Broadway.[1]

    The last shot of the war was reportedly fired on this day, as a British gunner fired a cannon at jeering crowds gathered on the shore of Staten Island, as his ship passed through the Narrows at the mouth of New York Harbor. The shot fell well short of the shore.[2]

    1. ^ A Toast To Freedom: New York Celebrates Evacuation Day. Fraunces Tavern Museum. 1984. p. 7. 
    2. ^ Staten Island on the Web: History
     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 November 1998 – The Khanna rail disaster takes 212 lives in Khanna, Ludhiana, India.

    Khanna rail disaster

    The Khanna rail disaster occurred on 26 November 1998 near Khanna on the Khanna-Ludhiana section of India's Northern Railway in Punjab, at 03:15 when the Calcutta-bound Jammu Tawi-Sealdah Express collided with six derailed coaches of the Amritsar-bound "Frontier Mail" which were lying in its path. At least 212 were killed;[1] in total the trains were estimated to be carrying 2,500 passengers. The initial derailment was caused by a broken rail.[2]

     
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 November 1987South African Airways Flight 295 crashes and kills all 159 on board.

    South African Airways Flight 295

    South African Airways Flight 295 was a commercial flight from Taiwan to South Africa. On 28 November 1987, the aircraft serving the flight, a Boeing 747 named Helderberg, experienced a catastrophic in-flight fire in the cargo area and crashed into the Indian Ocean east of Mauritius, killing everyone on board.[2][3] An extensive salvage operation was mounted to try to recover the flight data recorders, one of which was recovered from a depth of 4,900 metres (16,100 ft)—the deepest successful salvage operation ever conducted.[4]

    The official inquiry, headed by Judge Cecil Margo, was unable to determine the cause of the fire. This lack of a conclusion led to conspiracy theories being advanced in the following years.[5]

     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 November 1987South African Airways Flight 295 crashes and kills all 159 on board.

    South African Airways Flight 295

    South African Airways Flight 295 was a commercial flight from Taiwan to South Africa. On 28 November 1987, the aircraft serving the flight, a Boeing 747 named Helderberg, experienced a catastrophic in-flight fire in the cargo area and crashed into the Indian Ocean east of Mauritius, killing everyone on board.[2][3] An extensive salvage operation was mounted to try to recover the flight data recorders, one of which was recovered from a depth of 4,900 metres (16,100 ft)—the deepest successful salvage operation ever conducted.[4]

    The official inquiry, headed by Judge Cecil Margo, was unable to determine the cause of the fire. This lack of a conclusion led to conspiracy theories being advanced in the following years.[5]

     
  24. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 November 1942 – In Boston, Massachusetts, a fire in the Cocoanut Grove nightclub kills 492 people.

    Cocoanut Grove fire

    The Cocoanut Grove Fire was a nightclub fire in the United States. The Cocoanut Grove was a premier nightclub during the post-Prohibition 1930s and 1940s in Boston, Massachusetts. On November 28, 1942, it was the scene of the deadliest nightclub fire in history, killing 492 people (which was 32 more than the building's authorized capacity) and injuring hundreds more. The scale of the tragedy shocked the nation and briefly replaced the events of World War II in newspaper headlines. It led to a reform of safety standards and codes across the US, and to major changes in the treatment and rehabilitation of burn victims internationally.

    It was the second-deadliest single-building fire in American history; only the 1903 Iroquois Theatre fire in Chicago had a higher death toll, of 602. It was only two years after the Rhythm Club fire which had killed 209.[1]

    1. ^ "'Complete panic' as 233 killed in Brazil nightclub fire." USA Today. January 27, 2013. Retrieved on January 27, 2013.
     
  25. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 November 1549 – The papal conclave of 1549–50 begins.

    Papal conclave, 1549–50

    The papal conclave from November 29, 1549, to February 7, 1550, convened after the death of Pope Paul III and eventually elected Giovanni Del Monte to the papacy as Pope Julius III. It was the second-longest papal conclave of the 16th century, and (at the time) the largest papal conclave in history in terms of the number of cardinal electors.[1] The cardinal electors (who at one point totalled fifty-one) were roughly divided between the factions of Henry II of France, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Alessandro Farnese, the cardinal-nephew of Paul III.[1]

    Noted for the extensive interference of European powers, the conclave was to determine whether and on what terms the Council of Trent would reconvene (supported by Charles V and opposed by Henry II) and the fate of the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza (claimed by both Charles V and the House of Farnese).[2] Although the conclave nearly elected Reginald Pole, the late arrival of additional French cardinals pushed the conclave back into deadlock,[3] and eventually Giovanni del Monte was elected Pope Julius III as a compromise candidate.

    The French hoped that Julius III would be hostile to the interests of the Holy Roman Empire. Nevertheless, tensions between him and the French boiled over when he reconvened the Council of Trent in November 1550, culminating in the threat of schism in August 1551 and the brief War of Parma fought between French troops allied with Ottavio Farnese and a papal-imperial army.[4] French prelates did not attend the 1551–1552 sessions of the Council of Trent and were slow to accept its reforms; because Henry II would not allow any French cardinals to reside in Rome, many missed the election of Pope Marcellus II, arriving in Rome just in time to elect Marcellus II's successor Pope Paul IV after Marcellus II's brief reign.[5]

    1. ^ a b Baumgartner, 1985, p. 301.
    2. ^ Baumgartner, 1985, p. 302.
    3. ^ Baumgartner, 1985, pp. 306–308.
    4. ^ Baumgartner, 1985, pp. 313–314.
    5. ^ Baumgartner, 1985, p. 314.
     
  26. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 November 1864American Civil War: The Confederate Army of Tennessee suffers heavy losses in an attack on the Union Army of the Ohio in the Battle of Franklin.

    Battle of Franklin (1864)

    The Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864, in Franklin, Tennessee, as part of the Franklin–Nashville Campaign of the American Civil War. It was one of the worst disasters of the war for the Confederate States Army. Confederate Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood's Army of Tennessee conducted numerous frontal assaults against fortified positions occupied by the Union forces under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield and was unable to break through or to prevent Schofield from a planned, orderly withdrawal to Nashville.

    The Confederate assault of six infantry divisions containing eighteen brigades with 100 regiments numbering almost 20,000 men, sometimes called the "Pickett's Charge of the West", resulted in devastating losses to the men and the leadership of the Army of Tennessee—fourteen Confederate generals (six killed, seven wounded, and one captured) and 55 regimental commanders were casualties. After its defeat against Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas in the subsequent Battle of Nashville, the Army of Tennessee retreated with barely half the men with which it had begun the short offensive, and was effectively destroyed as a fighting force for the remainder of the war.

    The 1864 Battle of Franklin was the second military action in the vicinity; a battle in 1863 was a minor action associated with a reconnaissance in force by Confederate cavalry leader Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn on April 10.

    1. ^ NPS
    2. ^ a b c d Eicher, p. 774.
    3. ^ War of the Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series 1, Volume 45, part 1, p.344[1]
    4. ^ "Our loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners was 4,500." War of the Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series 1, Volume 45, part 1, p.654[2]
    5. ^ "During the month of November: Killed, 1089; wounded, 3131; total, 4220. These casualties include the bloody battle of Franklin, Tenn., fought, November 30, 1864." (Report of Surgeon A. J. Foard, Medical Director, Army of Tennessee), United Confederate Veterans. Minutes of the Third Annual Meeting and Reunion (1892), p.133[3]
     
  27. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 December 1973Papua New Guinea gains self-governance from Australia.

    Papua New Guinea

    Coordinates: 6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147

    Papua New Guinea (PNG; /ˈpæpuə nj ˈɡɪn, ˈpɑː-, -pju-/, US: /ˈpæpjuə, pɑːˈpə/;[9]Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.

    At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975. This followed nearly 60 years of Australian administration, which started during World War I. It became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1975 with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right.

    Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. There are 852 known languages in the country, of which 12 now have no known living speakers.[10] Most of the population of more than 7 million people live in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages.[11] It is also one of the most rural, as only 18 percent of its people live in urban centres.[12] The country is one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically. It is known to have numerous groups of uncontacted peoples, and researchers believe there are many undiscovered species of plants and animals in the interior.[13]

    Papua New Guinea is classified as a developing economy by the International Monetary Fund.[14] Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector led to the country becoming the sixth fastest-growing economy in the world in 2011.[15] Growth was expected to slow once major resource projects came on line in 2015.[16] Mining remains a major economic factor, however. Local and national governments are discussing the potential of resuming mining operations in Panguna mine in Bougainville Province, which has been closed since the civil war in the 1980s–1990s.[17] Nearly 40 percent of the population lives a self-sustainable natural lifestyle with no access to global capital.[18]

    Most of the people still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming. Their social lives combine traditional religion with modern practices, including primary education.[11] These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged by the Papua New Guinea Constitution, which expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society"[19] and protects their continuing importance to local and national community life.

    1. ^ Somare, Michael (6 December 2004). "Stable Government, Investment Initiatives, and Economic Growth". Keynote address to the 8th Papua New Guinea Mining and Petroleum Conference. Archived from the original on 2006-06-28. Retrieved 9 August 2007. 
    2. ^ "Never more to rise". The National (February 6, 2006). Archived from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2005. 
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Sign language becomes an official language in PNG". Radio New Zealand. 21 May 2015. 
    5. ^ "Papua New Guinea Population (2016)". worldbank.org. Retrieved October 19, 2017. 
    6. ^ a b c d "Papua New Guinea". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
    7. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
    8. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
    9. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 
    10. ^ Papua New Guinea, Ethnologue
    11. ^ a b James, Paul; Nadarajah, Yaso; Haive, Karen; Stead, Victoria (2012). Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Development: Other Paths for Papua New Guinea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
    12. ^ "World Bank data on urbanisation". World Development Indicators. World Bank. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 15 July 2005. 
    13. ^ Gelineau, Kristen (26 March 2009). "Spiders and frogs identified among 50 new species". The Independent. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
    14. ^ World Economic Outlook Database, October 2015, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 6 October 2015. Accessed on 6 October 2015.
    15. ^ "Raising the profile of PNG in Australia". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
    16. ^ Asian Development Outlook 2015: Financing Asia’s Future Growth. Asian Development Bank (March 2015)
    17. ^ "Bougainville Copper Limited". Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
    18. ^ World Bank. 2010. World Development Indicators. Washington DC.
    19. ^ "Constitution of Independent State of Papua New Guinea (consol. to amendment #22)". Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 16 July 2005. 
     
  28. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 December 1973Papua New Guinea gains self-governance from Australia.

    Papua New Guinea

    Coordinates: 6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147

    Papua New Guinea (PNG; /ˈpæpuə nj ˈɡɪn, ˈpɑː-, -pju-/, US: /ˈpæpjuə, pɑːˈpə/;[9]Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.

    At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975. This followed nearly 60 years of Australian administration, which started during World War I. It became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1975 with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right.

    Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. There are 852 known languages in the country, of which 12 now have no known living speakers.[10] Most of the population of more than 7 million people live in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages.[11] It is also one of the most rural, as only 18 percent of its people live in urban centres.[12] The country is one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically. It is known to have numerous groups of uncontacted peoples, and researchers believe there are many undiscovered species of plants and animals in the interior.[13]

    Papua New Guinea is classified as a developing economy by the International Monetary Fund.[14] Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector led to the country becoming the sixth fastest-growing economy in the world in 2011.[15] Growth was expected to slow once major resource projects came on line in 2015.[16] Mining remains a major economic factor, however. Local and national governments are discussing the potential of resuming mining operations in Panguna mine in Bougainville Province, which has been closed since the civil war in the 1980s–1990s.[17] Nearly 40 percent of the population lives a self-sustainable natural lifestyle with no access to global capital.[18]

    Most of the people still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming. Their social lives combine traditional religion with modern practices, including primary education.[11] These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged by the Papua New Guinea Constitution, which expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society"[19] and protects their continuing importance to local and national community life.

    1. ^ Somare, Michael (6 December 2004). "Stable Government, Investment Initiatives, and Economic Growth". Keynote address to the 8th Papua New Guinea Mining and Petroleum Conference. Archived from the original on 2006-06-28. Retrieved 9 August 2007. 
    2. ^ "Never more to rise". The National (February 6, 2006). Archived from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2005. 
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Sign language becomes an official language in PNG". Radio New Zealand. 21 May 2015. 
    5. ^ "Papua New Guinea Population (2016)". worldbank.org. Retrieved October 19, 2017. 
    6. ^ a b c d "Papua New Guinea". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
    7. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
    8. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
    9. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 
    10. ^ Papua New Guinea, Ethnologue
    11. ^ a b James, Paul; Nadarajah, Yaso; Haive, Karen; Stead, Victoria (2012). Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Development: Other Paths for Papua New Guinea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
    12. ^ "World Bank data on urbanisation". World Development Indicators. World Bank. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 15 July 2005. 
    13. ^ Gelineau, Kristen (26 March 2009). "Spiders and frogs identified among 50 new species". The Independent. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
    14. ^ World Economic Outlook Database, October 2015, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 6 October 2015. Accessed on 6 October 2015.
    15. ^ "Raising the profile of PNG in Australia". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
    16. ^ Asian Development Outlook 2015: Financing Asia’s Future Growth. Asian Development Bank (March 2015)
    17. ^ "Bougainville Copper Limited". Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
    18. ^ World Bank. 2010. World Development Indicators. Washington DC.
    19. ^ "Constitution of Independent State of Papua New Guinea (consol. to amendment #22)". Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 16 July 2005. 
     
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 December 1848Franz Joseph I becomes Emperor of Austria.

    Emperor of Austria

    The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was a hereditary imperial title and position proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and continually held by him and his heirs until Charles I relinquished power in 1918. The emperors retained the title of Archduke of Austria. The wives of the emperors bore the title of empress, while other members of the family bore the title archduke or archduchess.

     
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 December 1994 – The PlayStation was released in Japan

    PlayStation (console)

    The PlayStation[note 1] (officially abbreviated to PS, and commonly known as the PS1 or PSX) is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. The console was released on 3 December 1994 in Japan,[2] 9 September 1995 in North America, 29 September 1995 in Europe, and for 15 November 1995 in Australia. The console was the first of the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles. It primarily competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn as part of the fifth generation of video game consoles.

    The PlayStation is the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch.[9] In 2000, a redesigned, slim version called the PS one was released, replacing the original grey console and named appropriately to avoid confusion with its successor, the PlayStation 2.

    In 1999, Sony announced the successor to the PlayStation, the PlayStation 2, which is backwards compatible with the PlayStation's DualShock controller and games, and launched the console in 2000. The last PS one units were sold in winter 2004 before it was officially discontinued in 2006, for a total of 102 million units shipped since its launch 11 years earlier. Games for the PlayStation continued to sell until Sony ceased production of both the PlayStation and PlayStation games on 23 March 2006 – over 11 years after it had been released, and less than a year before the debut of the PlayStation 3.[6]

    1. ^ "Business Development/North America". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
    2. ^ a b "Business Development/Japan". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Archived from the original on 22 April 2004. Retrieved 19 December 2007. 
    3. ^ "Business Development/Europe". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on 22 April 2004. Retrieved 19 December 2007. 
    4. ^ "SCEE 1995—Key Facts and Figures". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on 12 August 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
    5. ^ a b "PlayStation Cumulative Production Shipments of Hardware". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
    6. ^ a b Sinclair, Brendan (24 March 2006). "Sony stops making original PS". GameSpot. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
    7. ^ "Gran Turismo Series Shipment Exceeds 50 Million Units Worldwide" (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. 9 May 2008. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008. 
    8. ^ "'Gran Turismo' Series Software Title List". Polyphony Digital. March 2010. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2010. 
    9. ^ "PlayStation 2 Breaks Record as the Fastest Computer Entertainment Platform to Reach Cumulative Shipment of 100 Million Units" (PDF) (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. 30 November 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 January 2006. Retrieved 8 June 2008. 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 December 1881 – The first edition of the Los Angeles Times is published

    Los Angeles Times

    The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers.[2] Since 2000 the Times is owned by tronc (previously Tribune Publishing).[3]

    1. ^ "Total Circ for US Newspapers". Alliance for Audited Media. March 31, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013. 
    2. ^ "The 10 Most Popular Daily Newspapers In The United States". Retrieved October 24, 2017. 
    3. ^ "Tribune, Times Mirror deal". Retrieved October 24, 2017. 
     
  32. Admin2

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    5 December 1560Charles IX becomes king of France.

    Charles IX of France

    Charles IX (27 June 1550 – 30 May 1574) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1560 until his death from tuberculosis. He ascended the throne of France upon the death of his brother Francis II.

    After decades of tension, war broke out between Protestants and Catholics after the massacre of Vassy in 1562. In 1572, after several unsuccessful peace attempts, Charles ordered the marriage of his sister Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre, a major Protestant nobleman and the future King Henry IV of France, in a last desperate bid to reconcile his people. Facing popular hostility against this policy of appeasement, Charles allowed the massacre of all Huguenot leaders who gathered in Paris for the royal wedding at the instigation of his mother Catherine de' Medici. This event, known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, was a significant blow to the Huguenot movement, though religious civil warfare soon began anew. Charles sought to take advantage of the disarray of the Huguenots by ordering the Siege of La Rochelle, but was unable to take the Protestant stronghold.

    Much of his decision making was influenced by his mother Catherine de' Medici, a fervent Roman Catholic who initially sought peace between Catholics and Protestants, but after the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre supported the persecution of Huguenots.

    Charles died of tuberculosis without legitimate male issue in 1574 and was succeeded by his brother Henry III.

     
  33. Admin2

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    6 December 1917Finland declares independence from Russia.

    Finnish Declaration of Independence

    Image of the Declaration in Finnish with the senators' signatures
    The Bolshevist government of Russia led by Lenin approve Finland's independence

    The Finnish Declaration of Independence (Finnish: Suomen itsenäisyysjulistus; Swedish: Finlands självständighetsförklaring; Russian: Провозглашение независимости Финляндии) was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917. It declared Finland an independent nation, among nations ending its autonomy within Russia as its Grand Duchy of Finland, with reference to a simultaneously delivered bill to the Diet to make Finland an independent republic instead.

    Declaring the independence was only part of the long process leading to the independence of Finland. The declaration is celebrated as the Independence Day in Finland.

     
  34. Admin2

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    6 December 1917Finland declares independence from Russia.

    Finnish Declaration of Independence

    Image of the Declaration in Finnish with the senators' signatures
    The Bolshevist government of Russia led by Lenin approve Finland's independence

    The Finnish Declaration of Independence (Finnish: Suomen itsenäisyysjulistus; Swedish: Finlands självständighetsförklaring; Russian: Провозглашение независимости Финляндии) was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917. It declared Finland an independent nation, among nations ending its autonomy within Russia as its Grand Duchy of Finland, with reference to a simultaneously delivered bill to the Diet to make Finland an independent republic instead.

    Declaring the independence was only part of the long process leading to the independence of Finland. The declaration is celebrated as the Independence Day in Finland.

     
  35. Admin2

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    7 December 1995 – The Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter, a little more than six years after it was launched by Space Shuttle Atlantis during Mission STS-34.

    Galileo (spacecraft)

    Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies. Named after the astronomer Galileo Galilei, it consisted of an orbiter and entry probe. It was launched on October 18, 1989, carried by Space Shuttle Atlantis, on the STS-34 mission. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7, 1995, after gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth, and became the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter. It launched the first probe into Jupiter, directly measuring its atmosphere.[5] Despite suffering major antenna problems, Galileo achieved the first asteroid flyby, of 951 Gaspra, and discovered the first asteroid moon, Dactyl, around 243 Ida. In 1994, Galileo observed Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9's collision with Jupiter.[5]

    Jupiter's atmospheric composition and ammonia clouds were recorded, the clouds possibly created by outflows from the lower depths of the atmosphere. Io's volcanism and plasma interactions with Jupiter's atmosphere were also recorded. The data Galileo collected supported the theory of a liquid ocean under the icy surface of Europa, and there were indications of similar liquid-saltwater layers under the surfaces of Ganymede and Callisto. Ganymede was shown to possess a magnetic field and the spacecraft found new evidence for exospheres around Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.[5]Galileo also discovered that Jupiter's faint ring system consists of dust from impacts on the four small inner moons. The extent and structure of Jupiter's magnetosphere was also mapped.[5]

    On September 21, 2003, after 14 years in space and 8 years in the Jovian system, Galileo's mission was terminated by sending it into Jupiter's atmosphere at a speed of over 48 kilometers per second (30 mi/s), eliminating the possibility of contaminating local moons with terrestrial bacteria.

    1. ^ a b "The Final Day on Galileo - Sunday, September 21, 2003". NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory via Spaceref.com. September 19, 2003. Retrieved December 18, 2016. 
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Galileo Jupiter Arrival" (PDF) (Press Kit). NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory. December 1995. 
    3. ^ a b c D'Amario, Louis A.; Bright, Larry E.; Wolf, Aron A. (May 1992). "Galileo Trajectory Design". Space Science Reviews. 60 (1-4): 23–78. Bibcode:1992SSRv...60...23D. doi:10.1007/BF00216849. 
    4. ^ Beyer, P. E.; O'Connor, R. C.; Mudgway, D. J. (May 15, 1992). "Galileo Early Cruise, Including Venus, First Earth, and Gaspra Encounters" (PDF). The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report. NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory: 265–281. TDA Progress Report 42-109. 
    5. ^ a b c d "Galileo End of Mission Press Kit" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2011. Retrieved May 15, 2011. 
     
  36. Admin2

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    8 December 1955 – The Flag of Europe is adopted by Council of Europe.

    Flag of Europe

    The Flag of Europe, or European Flag is an official symbol of two separate organisations—the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU). It consists of a circle of twelve five-pointed yellow (or) stars on a blue (azure) field.

    The flag was designed in 1955, and officially launched later that year by the Council of Europe as a symbol for the whole of Europe.[3] The Council of Europe urged it to be adopted by other European organisations, and in 1985 the European Communities (EC) adopted it.

    The EU inherited the flag's use when it was formed in 1993, being the successor organisation to the EC. It has been in wide official use by the EU since the 1990s, but it has never been given official status in any of the EU's treaties. Its adoption as an official symbol of the EU was planned as part of the proposed European Constitution, which failed to be ratified in 2005. Alternatively, it is sometimes called the Flag of the European Union when representing the EU.[4]

    Since its adoption by the European Union, it has become broadly associated with the supranational organisation, due to its high profile and heavy usage of the emblem. It has also been used by pro-EU protestors in the colour revolutions of the 2000s, e.g., in Belarus (2004)[5] or Moldova.[not in citation given][6]

    There are also a number of derivative designs used as logos or flags of other European organisations, and in the flags of the Republic of Kosovo (2008)[dubious ] and of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1998).[dubious ]

    1. ^ Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (8 December 1955), Resolution (55) 32 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, CVCE, retrieved 25 June 2014 
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference COE page was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ The European flag, Council of Europe. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
    4. ^ The name "flag of the European Union" is used in e.g. the Italian law no. 22 of 5 February 1998 (bandiera dell'Unione europea), and by the Centre virtuel de la connaissance sur l'Europe (Le drapeau de l'Union européenne, 2016)
    5. ^ Mite (20 October 2004), Belarus: Scores Arrested, Opposition Leader Hospitalized After Minsk Protests, rferl.org, retrieved 5 August 2007 
    6. ^ Romania slams Moldova's sanctions
     
  37. Admin2

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    9 December 1835Texas Revolution: The Texian Army captures San Antonio, Texas.

    Texian Army

    The campaigns of the Texian Army during the Texas Revolution

    The Texian Army, also known as the Army of Texas and the Army of the People, was a military organization consisting of volunteer and regular soldiers who fought against the Mexican army during the Texas Revolution. Approximately 3,700 men joined the army between October 2, 1835, during the Battle of Gonzales through the end of the war on April 21, 1836, at the Battle of San Jacinto. After gaining independence the Texian Army would be officially known as the Army of the Republic of Texas. In 1846, after the annexation of Texas by the United States, the Army of the Republic of Texas merged with the US Army. Sam Houston became the new commander in chief of the new Texas army.

     
  38. Admin2

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    10 December 1901 – The first Nobel Prizes are awarded.

    Nobel Prize

    The Nobel Prize (/ˈnbɛl/, Swedish pronunciation: [nʊˈbɛl]; Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural or scientific advances.

    The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901.[3] Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold, and later from 18 carat green gold plated with a 24 carat gold coating. Between 1901 and 2016, the Nobel Prizes and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 579 times to 911 people and organisations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 23 organisations, and 881 individuals.[4]

    The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the peace prize, which is held in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient, or laureate, receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that has been decided by the Nobel Foundation. (As of 2017, each prize is worth SEK 9,000,000 or about US$1,110,000, €944,000, £836,000, INR 72,693,900 Or CNR 376,000.)[1] The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, peace, and economics.[5]

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded not by a Swedish organisation but by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.

    The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented.[6] Though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.[7]

    1. ^ a b "Nobel Prize amount is raised by SEK 1 million". Nobelprize.org. 
    2. ^ Nobel Prize Medal Fetches Record-Breaking $4.76 Million
    3. ^ "Which country has the best brains?". BBC News. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
    4. ^ All Nobel Prizes. Nobel Prize. Retrieved on 10 February 2017.
    5. ^ Shalev, p. 8
    6. ^ "Montreal-born scientist dies before Nobel honour". CBC News. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
    7. ^ Schmidhuber, Jürgen. "Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th century". Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. 
     
  39. Admin2

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    11 December 1997 – The Kyoto Protocol opens for signature.

    Kyoto Protocol

    Refer to caption
    Kyoto Parties with first period (2008–12) greenhouse gas emissions limitations targets, and the percentage change in their carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion between 1990 and 2009. For more detailed country/region information, see Kyoto Protocol and government action.
    Refer to caption
    Overview map of states committed to greenhouse gas (GHG) limitations in the first Kyoto Protocol period (2008–12):[6]
      Annex I Parties who have agreed to reduce their GHG emissions below their individual base year levels (see definition in this article)
      Annex I Parties who have agreed to cap their GHG emissions at their base year levels
      Non-Annex I Parties who are not obligated by caps or Annex I Parties with an emissions cap that allows their emissions to expand above their base year levels or countries that have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol

    For specific emission reduction commitments of Annex I Parties, see the section of the article on 2012 emission targets and "flexible mechanisms".

    The European Union as a whole has in accordance with this treaty committed itself to an 6.7% reduction. However, many member states (such as Greece, Spain, Ireland and Sweden) have not committed themselves to any reduction while France has committed itself not to expand its emissions (0% reduction).[7]

    The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (a) global warming is occurring and (b) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997 and entered into force on February 16, 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew effective December 2012)[4] to the Protocol.

    The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to "a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" (Art. 2). The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities: it puts the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

    The Protocol's first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. A second commitment period was agreed on in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment to the protocol, in which 37 countries have binding targets: Australia, the European Union (and its 28 member states), Belarus, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine have stated that they may withdraw from the Protocol or not put into legal force the Amendment with second round targets.[8] Japan, New Zealand and Russia have participated in Kyoto's first-round but have not taken on new targets in the second commitment period. Other developed countries without second-round targets are Canada (which withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in 2012) and the United States (which has not ratified the Protocol). As of July 2016, 66[9] states have accepted the Doha Amendment, while entry into force requires the acceptances of 144 states. Of the 37 countries with binding commitments, 7 have ratified.

    Negotiations were held in the framework of the yearly UNFCCC Climate Change Conferences on measures to be taken after the second commitment period ends in 2020. This resulted in the 2015 adoption of the Paris Agreement, which is a separate instrument under the UNFCCC rather than an amendment of the Kyoto protocol.

    1. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference parties was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf
    3. ^ http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/status_of_ratification/items/2613.php
    4. ^ a b "7 .a Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". UN Treaty Database. Retrieved 27 November 2014. 
    5. ^ "7 .c Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol". UN Treaty Database. Retrieved April 19, 2015. 
    6. ^ "Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Annex B". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. n.d. Retrieved October 8, 2011. 
    7. ^ KOM(2007) final edition page 2[full citation needed]
    8. ^ Figueres, C. (15 December 2012), "Environmental issues: Time to abandon blame-games and become proactive - Economic Times", The Economic Times / Indiatimes.com, Times Internet, retrieved 2012-12-18 
    9. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
     
  40. Admin2

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    12 December 1911 – Delhi replaces Calcutta as the capital of India.

    Delhi

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    Delhi (/ˈdɛli/, Hindustani pronunciation: [d̪ɪlliː] Dilli, officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India.[13][14] It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million,[6] the second highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million.[7] Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the world's second largest urban area.[8] As of 2016 recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India.[10][11][15][12] Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a total wealth of $450 billion and home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.[16]

    Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BC.[17] Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and is the capital of the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 respectively, 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.

    Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region (NCR), which is a unique 'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.[18][19]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference 7thAmend56 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference ReorgAct56 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference NCTact was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Anil Baijal takes over as new Lt Governor of Delhi". Times of India. Delhi. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2016. 
    5. ^ "Amulya Kumar Patnaik Officially Takes Charge As Delhi Police Commissioner". Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
    6. ^ a b c Delhi Metropolitan/City Population section of "Delhi Population Sex Ratio in Delhi Literacy rate Delhi NCR". 2011 Census of India. 
    7. ^ a b "Delhi (India): Union Territory, Major Agglomerations & Towns - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". City Population. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
    8. ^ a b "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations. October 2016. p. 4. Retrieved 4 March 2017. 
    9. ^ a b "Official Language Act 2000" (PDF). Government of Delhi. 2 July 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
    10. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Brookings was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference pricewater was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference times Delhi-not-Mumbai was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ "The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991". Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
    14. ^ Habib, Irfan (1999). The agrarian system of Mughal India, 1556–1707. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-562329-1. ... The current Survey of India spellings are followed for place names except where they vary rather noticeably from the spellings in our sources: thus I read "Dehli" not "Delhi ... 
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference McKinsey was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ "Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion, Delhi comes second: Report". The Indian Express. 27 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
    17. ^ Asher, Catherine B (2000) [2000]. "Chapter 9:Delhi walled: Changing Boundaries". In James D. Tracy. City Walls. Cambridge University Press. pp. 247–281. ISBN 978-0-521-65221-6. Retrieved 1 November 2008. 
    18. ^ "Rationale". ncrpb.nic.in. NCR Planning Board. The National Capital Region (NCR) in India was constituted under the NCRPB Act, 1985 
    19. ^ "Census 2011" (PDF). National Capital Region Planning Board. National Informatics Centre. p. 3. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
     

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