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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 December 1642Abel Tasman reaches New Zealand.

    Abel Tasman

    Abel Janszoon Tasman (Dutch: [ˈɑbəl ˈjɑnsoːn ˈtɑsmɑn]; 1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He was the first known European explorer to reach the islands of Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) and New Zealand, and to sight the Fiji islands.

     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 December 1836 – The Toledo War unofficially ends.

    Toledo War

    The Toledo War (1835–36), also known as the Michigan–Ohio War, was an almost bloodless boundary dispute between the U.S. state of Ohio and the adjoining territory of Michigan.

    Poor geographical understanding of the Great Lakes helped produce conflicting state and federal legislation between 1787 and 1805, and varying interpretations of the laws led the governments of Ohio and Michigan to both claim jurisdiction over a 468-square-mile (1,210 km2) region along the border, now known as the Toledo Strip. The situation came to a head when Michigan petitioned for statehood in 1835 and sought to include the disputed territory within its boundaries. Both sides passed legislation attempting to force the other side's capitulation, while Ohio's Governor Robert Lucas and Michigan's 24-year-old "Boy Governor" Stevens T. Mason helped institute criminal penalties for citizens submitting to the other's authority. Both states deployed militias on opposite sides of the Maumee River near Toledo, but besides mutual taunting, there was little interaction between the two forces. The single military confrontation of the "war" ended with a report of shots being fired into the air, incurring no casualties.

    During the summer of 1836, Congress proposed a compromise whereby Michigan gave up its claim to the strip in exchange for its statehood and about three-quarters of the Upper Peninsula. The compromise was considered a poor outcome for Michigan. Voters in a state convention in September soundly rejected the proposal. But in December, the Michigan government, facing a dire financial crisis and pressure from Congress and President Andrew Jackson, called another convention (called the "Frostbitten Convention") which accepted the compromise that resolved the Toledo War.

    The later discovery of copper and iron deposits and the plentiful timber in the Upper Peninsula more than offset Michigan's economic loss in surrendering Toledo.

     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 December 2001 – The Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens after 11 years and $27,000,000 spent to stabilize it, without fixing its famous lean.

    Leaning Tower of Pisa

    The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa [ˈtorre di ˈpiːza]) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt. The tower is situated behind the Pisa Cathedral and is the third oldest structure in the city's Cathedral Square (Piazza del Duomo), after the cathedral and the Pisa Baptistry.

    The tower's tilt began during construction in the 12th century, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structure's weight. The tilt increased in the decades before the structure was completed in the 14th century. It gradually increased until the structure was stabilized (and the tilt partially corrected) by efforts in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

    The height of the tower is 55.86 metres (183.27 feet) from the ground on the low side and 56.67 metres (185.93 feet) on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m (8 ft 0.06 in). Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons (16,000 short tons).[1] The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. Prior to restoration work performed between 1990 and 2001, the tower leaned at an angle of 5.5 degrees,[2][3][4] but the tower now leans at about 3.99 degrees.[5] This means the top of the tower is displaced horizontally 3.9 metres (12 ft 10 in) from the centre.[6]

    1. ^ "Leaning Tower of Pisa Facts". Leaning Tower of Pisa. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
    2. ^ "Europe | Saving the Leaning Tower". BBC News. December 15, 2001. Retrieved May 9, 2009. 
    3. ^ "Tower of Pisa". Archidose.org. June 17, 2001. Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved May 9, 2009. 
    4. ^ "Leaning Tower of Pisa (tower, Pisa, Italy) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved May 9, 2009. 
    5. ^ "E la Torre di Pisa non oscilla più". Scienze.TV. May 28, 2008. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2009. 
    6. ^ tan(3.99 degrees) * (55.86 m + 56.70 m)/2 = 3.9 m
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 December 1903Taj Mahal Palace & Tower hotel in Bombay first opens its doors to guests.

    The Taj Mahal Palace Hotel

    The Taj Mahal Palace Hotel is a heritage[1] five-star hotel in the Colaba region of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, next to the Gateway of India. Historically it was known as the "Taj Mahal Hotel"[2][3] or the "Taj Palace Hotel"[4] or simply "the Taj".

    Part of the Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces, this hotel is considered the flagship property of the group and contains 560 rooms and 44 suites. There are some 1,600 staff including 35 butlers. From a historical and architectural point of view, the two buildings that make up the hotel, the Taj Mahal Palace, and the Tower are two distinct buildings, built at different times and in different architectural designs. In 2017, the Taj Mahal Palace Hotel has acquired an image trademark.[5] It is the first building in the country to get intellectual property rights protection for its architectural design.[6][7]

    The hotel has hosted many notable guests, from presidents to captains of industry and stars of show business.[8][9] Pakistan's founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah's second wife Ratanbai Petit lived in the hotel during her last days in 1929—her mother, Sylla Tata, was born into the Tata family.[10]

     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 December 1892 – First issue of Vogue is published

    Vogue (magazine)

    Vogue is a fashion and lifestyle magazine covering many topics including fashion, beauty, culture, living, and runway. Vogue began as a weekly newspaper in 1892 in the United States, before becoming a monthly publication years later.

    The British Vogue was the first international edition launched in 1916, while the Italian version has been called the top fashion magazine in the world.[2] As of today, there are 23 international editions.

     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 December 1967Harold Holt, the Prime Minister of Australia, is officially presumed dead.

    Harold Holt

    Harold Edward Holt, CH (5 August 1908 – 17 December 1967), was an Australian politician who served as the 17th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1966 until his presumed drowning death in 1967. He was the leader of the Liberal Party during that time.

    Holt was born in Sydney, but lived in Melbourne from a young age. He was the first prime minister born in the 20th century. He studied law at the University of Melbourne and eventually opened his own legal practice. Holt entered parliament at a 1935 by-election, standing for the United Australia Party (UAP). He was a protégé of Robert Menzies, and was added to cabinet when Menzies became prime minister in 1939. Aged only 30 at the time of his appointment, he held a series of minor portfolios until the government's defeat in 1941, under both Menzies and Arthur Fadden. Holt's tenure was interrupted by a brief stint in the Australian Army, which ended when he was recalled to cabinet following the deaths of three ministers in the 1940 Canberra air disaster. He joined the new Liberal Party upon its creation in 1945.

    When Menzies regained the prime ministership in 1949, Holt became a senior figure in the new government. As Minister for Immigration (1949–56), he expanded the post-war immigration scheme and relaxed the White Australia policy for the first time. He was also influential as Minister for Labour and National Service (1949–58), where he handled several industrial relations disputes. Holt was elected deputy leader of the Liberal Party in 1956, and after the 1958 election replaced Arthur Fadden as Treasurer. He oversaw the creation of the Reserve Bank of Australia and the decimal Australian dollar, but was blamed for a credit crunch that almost cost the Coalition the 1961 election. However, the economy soon rebounded and Holt retained his place as Menzies' heir apparent.

    Holt became prime minister in January 1966, elected unopposed as Liberal leader following Menzies' retirement. He fought a general election later that year, winning a landslide victory. The Holt Government continued the dismantling of the White Australia policy, amended the constitution to give the federal government responsibility for indigenous affairs, and took Australia out of the sterling area. Holt promoted greater engagement with Asia and the Pacific, and made visits to a number of Asian countries. His government expanded Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War, and maintained close ties with the United States under President Lyndon B. Johnson. While visiting the White House, Holt proclaimed that he was "all the way with LBJ", a remark which was poorly received at home.

    After just under two years in office, Holt disappeared while swimming at Cheviot Beach, Victoria, in rough conditions. His body was never recovered, and he was declared dead in absentia; his disappearance spawned a number of conspiracy theories. Holt was the third Australian prime minister to die in office, and was succeeded by John McEwen on an interim basis and then by John Gorton. His death was commemorated in a number of ways, among them by the establishment of the Harold Holt Memorial Swimming Centre.

     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 December 1995NATO begins peacekeeping in Bosnia.

    NATO

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO /ˈnt/; French: Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The alliance is based on the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949.[3][4] NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO Headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium.

    NATO was little more than a political association until the Korean War galvanized the organization's member states, and an integrated military structure was built up under the direction of two US Supreme Commanders. The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact which formed in 1955. Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defense against a prospective Soviet invasion—doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of France from NATO's military structure in 1966 for 30 years. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989, the organization conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and later Yugoslavia in 1999 during the breakup of Yugoslavia.[5] Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004.

    Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the September 11 attacks,[6] after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF. The organization has operated a range of additional roles since then, including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations[7] and in 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973. The less potent Article 4, which merely invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times following incidents in the Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, and annexation of Crimea.

    Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29. The most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017. NATO currently recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members.[8] An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.[9] Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP by 2024.[10]

    1. ^ "English and French shall be the official languages for the entire North Atlantic Treaty Organization.", Final Communiqué following the meeting of the North Atlantic Council on 17 September 1949. "(..) the English and French texts [of the Treaty] are equally authentic (...)" The North Atlantic Treaty, Article 14
    2. ^ "Defence Expenditure of NATO Countries (2010-2017)" (PDF). Nato.int. Retrieved 10 July 2018. 
    3. ^ "What is NATO?". NATO Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium. 26 May 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
    4. ^ Cook, Lorne (25 May 2017). "NATO: The World's Largest Military Alliance Explained". MilitaryTimes.com. The Associated Press, US. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
    5. ^ Jing Ke (2008). "Did the US Media Reflect the Reality of the Kosovo War in an Objective Manner? A Case Study of The Washington Post and The Washington Times" (PDF). University of Rhode Island. In 1999, NATO unprecedently involved itself in the Kosovo War by bombing the FRY (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) without the UN approval. 
    6. ^ "Invocation of Article 5 confirmed". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 3 October 2001. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
    7. ^ "Counter-piracy operations". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Retrieved 27 May 2011. 
    8. ^ NATO. "Enlargement". NATO. Retrieved 2018-03-18. 
    9. ^ "The SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Milexdata.sipri.org. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
    10. ^ Erlanger, Steven (26 March 2014). "Europe Begins to Rethink Cuts to Military Spending". nytimes.com. Retrieved 3 April 2014. Last year, only a handful of NATO countries met the target, according to NATO figures, including the United States, at 4.1 percent, and Britain, at 2.4 percent. 
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 December 1995 – The city of Bethlehem passes from Israeli to Palestinian control.

    Bethlehem

    Bethlehem (/ˈbɛθlɪhɛm/; Arabic: بيت لحمAbout this sound Bayt Lahm [beːt.laħm], "House of Meat"; Hebrew: בֵּית לֶחֶםBet Lehem, [bet ˈleχem], "House of Bread"; Ancient Greek: Βηθλεέμ Greek pronunciation: [bɛːtʰle.ém]; Latin: Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem[3]) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about 10 km (6.2 miles) south of Jerusalem. Its population is approximately 25,000 people.[4][5] It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. The economy is primarily tourist-driven.[6][7]

    The earliest known mention of the city was in the Amarna correspondence of 1350–1330 BCE during its habitation by the Canaanites. The Hebrew Bible, which says that the city of Bethlehem was built up as a fortified city by Rehoboam,[8] identifies it as the city David was from and where he was crowned as the king of Israel. The New Testament identifies Bethlehem as the birthplace of Jesus. Bethlehem was destroyed by the Emperor Hadrian during the second-century Bar Kokhba revolt; its rebuilding was promoted by Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, who commissioned the building of its great Church of the Nativity in 327 CE. The church was badly damaged by the Samaritans, who sacked it during a revolt in 529, but was rebuilt a century later by Emperor Justinian I.

    Bethlehem became part of Jund Filastin following the Muslim conquest in 637. Muslim rule continued in Bethlehem until its conquest in 1099 by a crusading army, who replaced the town's Greek Orthodox clergy with a Latin one. In the mid-13th century, the Mamluks demolished the city's walls, which were subsequently rebuilt under the Ottomans in the early 16th century.[9] Control of Bethlehem passed from the Ottomans to the British at the end of World War I. Bethlehem came under Jordanian rule during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and was later captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. Since the 1995 Oslo Accords, Bethlehem has been administered by the Palestinian Authority.[9]

    Bethlehem now has a Muslim majority, but is still home to a significant Palestinian Christian community. Bethlehem's chief economic sector is tourism, which peaks during the Christmas season when Christians make pilgrimage to the Church of the Nativity, as they have done for almost 2,000 years. Bethlehem has over 30 hotels and 300 handicraft workshops.[10] Rachel's Tomb, an important Jewish holy site, is located at the northern entrance of Bethlehem.

    1. ^ Kuttab, Daoud (2012-12-23). "Bethlehem Has New Female Mayor, Yet Same Old Problems". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 2016-03-17. 
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference PCBS07 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Loschp51 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Amara, 1999, p. 18.
    5. ^ Brynen, 2000, p. 202.
    6. ^ Kaufman, David; Katz, Marisa S. (2006-04-16). "In the West Bank, Politics and Tourism Remain Bound Together Inextricably – New York Times". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2013-06-15. Retrieved 2008-01-22. 
    7. ^ "Places to Visit In & Around Bethlehem". Bethlehem Hotel. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 29 November 2013. 
    8. ^ 2 Chronicles 11:5–6 (Note: Though v. 6 is frequently translated to say simply that Rehoboam built the city, the Hebrew phrase in v. 5, just prior, וַיִּ֧בֶן עָרִ֛ים לְמָצ֖וֹר wayyiḇen ‘ārîm lemāṣôr means "(and) he built cities into fortresses". Verse 5 is cited by at least one prominent Hebrew lexicon in illustration of this fact. See Koehler, L., Baumgartner, W., Richardson, M. E. J., & Stamm, J. J., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (electronic edition; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994–2000), entry for the pertinent root בנה bnh, p. 139. Def. 3 reads as follows: "—3. with לְ to develop buildings: עָרִים לְמָצוֹר cities into fortresses 2C[hronicles] 11:5".)
    9. ^ a b "History and Mithology of Bethlehem". Bethlehem Municipality. Archived from the original on 2008-01-13. Retrieved 2008-01-22. 
    10. ^ Patience, Martin (2007-12-22). "Better times return to Bethlehem". BBC News. BBC. Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 2008-01-22. 
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 December 1937 – The Lincoln Tunnel opens to traffic in New York City.

    Lincoln Tunnel

    The Lincoln Tunnel is an approximately 1.5-mile-long (2.4 km) tunnel under the Hudson River, consisting of three vehicular tubes. It connects Weehawken, New Jersey, on the west bank of the Hudson River, with Midtown Manhattan in New York City on the eastern bank. An important travel corridor within the New York metropolitan area, it was designed by Norwegian-born civil engineer Ole Singstad and named after U.S. President Abraham Lincoln.

    The Lincoln Tunnel was originally proposed in the late 1920s and early 1930s as the Midtown Hudson Tunnel. The tubes of the Lincoln Tunnel were constructed in stages between 1934 and 1957, having been delayed due to various reasons. The central tube, which originally lacked sufficient funding due to the Great Depression, started construction in 1934 and opened in 1937. The northern tube, which started construction in 1936, was delayed due to World War II-related material shortages and was opened in 1945. Although the original plans for the Lincoln Tunnel called for two tubes, a third tube to the south of the existing tunnels was planned in 1950 due to high traffic demand on the other two tubes. Due to disputes over tunnel approaches, construction on the third tube did not start until 1954, and the third tube opened in 1957. The Lincoln Tunnel underwent a series of gradual improvements in following decades, including changes to security and tolling methods.

    The Lincoln Tunnel is one of two automobile tunnels built under the Hudson River, the other being the Holland Tunnel between Jersey City, New Jersey and Lower Manhattan. The Lincoln Tunnel is also one of six tolled crossings in the New York area owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The tolls on each crossing are only collected in the eastbound direction. As of 2016, both directions of the tunnel carry a combined average of 112,995 vehicular crossings every day. The tunnel is part of New Jersey Route 495 on the western half of the river, and the New York State Route 495 on the eastern half of the river, although the latter designation is not signed, and its use is inconsistent in official documents.

    1. ^ "New York City Bridge Traffic Volumes" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. 2016. p. 11. Retrieved March 16, 2018. 
    2. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference :20 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Traffic Restrictions". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved November 24, 2012. 
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 December 1893 – The opera Hansel and Gretel by Engelbert Humperdinck is first performed.

    Hansel and Gretel (opera)

    Hansel and Gretel (German: Hänsel und Gretel) is an opera by nineteenth-century composer Engelbert Humperdinck, who described it as a Märchenoper (fairy-tale opera). The libretto was written by Humperdinck's sister, Adelheid Wette, based on the Grimm brothers' fairy tale "Hansel and Gretel". It is much admired for its folk music-inspired themes, one of the most famous being the "Abendsegen" ("Evening Benediction") from act 2.

    The idea for the opera was proposed to Humperdinck by his sister, who approached him about writing music for songs that she had written for her children for Christmas based on "Hansel and Gretel". After several revisions, the musical sketches and the songs were turned into a full-scale opera.

    Humperdinck composed Hansel and Gretel in Frankfurt in 1891 and 1892.[1] The opera was first performed in Hoftheater in Weimar on 23 December 1893, conducted by Richard Strauss. It has been associated with Christmas since its earliest performances and today it is still most often performed at Christmas time.

    1. ^ Plaque: Scheffelstraße 1, Frankfurt am Main: "In this house in the years 1891 and 1892 Engelbert Humperdinck composed the opera Hänsel und Gretel"
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 December 1865 – The Ku Klux Klan is formed.

    Ku Klux Klan

    The Ku Klux Klan (/ˈk ˈklʌks ˈklæn, ˈkj/),[a] commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, refers to three distinct secret movements at different points in time in the history of the United States. Each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white supremacy, white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in later iterations—Nordicism[7][8] and anti-Catholicism. Historically, the KKK used terrorism—both physical assault and murder—against groups or individuals whom they opposed.[9] All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations.[10][11][12][13] In each era, membership was secret and estimates of the total were highly exaggerated by both the friends and enemies.

    The first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s, then died out by the early 1870s. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South during the Reconstruction Era, especially by using violence against African-American leaders. With numerous autonomous chapters across the South, it was suppressed around 1871, through federal law enforcement. Members made their own, often colorful, costumes: robes, masks and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities.[14][15]

    The second group was founded in the South in 1915 and it flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, including urban areas of the Midwest and West. Taking inspiration from D. W. Griffith's 1915 silent film The Birth of a Nation, which mythologized the founding of the first Klan, it employed marketing techniques and a popular fraternal organization structure. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacy, often took a pro-prohibition stance, and it opposed Catholics and Jews, while also stressing its opposition to the Catholic Church at a time of high immigration from the mostly Catholic nations of Central Europe and Southern Europe.[6] This second organization was funded by selling its members a standard white costume. It used K-words which were similar to those used by the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades to intimidate others. It rapidly declined in the later half of the 1920s.

    The third and current manifestation of the KKK emerged after 1950, in the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name. They have focused on opposition to the civil rights movement, often using violence and murder to suppress activists. It is classified as a hate group by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center.[16] As of 2016, the Anti-Defamation League puts total Klan membership nationwide at around 3,000, while the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) puts it at 6,000 members total.[17]

    The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to America's "Anglo-Saxon" blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism.[18] Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality, virtually every Christian denomination has officially denounced the KKK.[19]

    1. ^ McVeigh, Rory. "Structural Incentives for Conservative Mobilization: Power Devaluation and the Rise of the Ku Klux Klan, 1915–1925." Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 4 (June 1999), p. 1463.
    2. ^ "Ku Klux Klan". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved February 7, 2013. 
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference pegram was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. pp. 21, 30, 55. 
    5. ^ Michael, Robert, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of antisemitism from the earliest times to the present. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press, 1997, p. 267.
    6. ^ a b Kelly Baker, Gospel According to the Klan: The KKK's Appeal to Protestant America, 1915–1930 (U Press of Kadas, 2011)
    7. ^ Petersen, William. Against the Stream: Reflections of an Unconventional Demographer. Transaction Publishers. p. 89. ISBN 9781412816663. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 
    8. ^ Pratt Guterl, Matthew (2009). The Color of Race in America, 1900-1940. Harvard University Press. p. 42. ISBN 9780674038059. 
    9. ^ O'Donnell, Patrick (Editor), 2006. Ku Klux Klan America's First Terrorists Exposed, p. 210. ISBN 1-4196-4978-7.
    10. ^ Rory McVeigh, The Rise of the Ku Klux Klan: Right-Wing Movements and National Politics (2009).
    11. ^ Matthew N. Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America (2000), ch. 3, 5, 13.
    12. ^ Chalmers, David Mark, 2003. Backfire: How the Ku Klux Klan Helped the Civil Rights Movement, p. 163. ISBN 978-0-7425-2311-1.
    13. ^ Charles Quarles, 1999. The Ku Klux Klan and Related American Racialist and Antisemitic Organizations: A History and Analysis, p. 100. McFarland.
    14. ^ See, e.g., Klanwatch Project (2011), illustrations, pp. 9–10.
    15. ^ Elaine Frantz Parsons, "Midnight Rangers: Costume and Performance in the Reconstruction-Era Ku Klux Klan". Journal of American History 92.3 (2005): 811–36.
    16. ^ Both the Anti-Defamation League Archived October 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. and the Southern Poverty Law Center include it in their lists of hate groups. See also Brian Levin, "Cyberhate: A Legal and Historical Analysis of Extremists' Use of Computer Networks in America", in Perry, Barbara (ed.), Hate and Bias Crime: A Reader, Routledge, 2003, p. 112.
    17. ^ "At 150, KKK sees opportunities in US political trends". Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
    18. ^ Newton, Michael (2001). The Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Florida. 
    19. ^ Perlmutter, Philip (January 1, 1999). Legacy of Hate: A Short History of Ethnic, Religious, and Racial Prejudice in America. M.E. Sharpe. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7656-0406-4. Kenneth T. Jackson, in his The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915-1930, reminds us that "virtually every" Protestant denomination denounced the KKK, but that most KKK members were not "innately depraved or anxious to subvert American institutions," but rather believed their membership in keeping with "one-hundred percent Americanism" and Christianity morality. 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 December 1559Pope Pius IV is elected.

    Pope Pius IV

    Pope Pius IV (31 March 1499 – 9 December 1565), born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was Pope from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565.[1]

    He is known for presiding over the final session of the Council of Trent.

    1. ^ "The List of Popes." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 4 Sept. 2014
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 December 1805 – Austria and France sign the Treaty of Pressburg.

    Peace of Pressburg (1805)

    Contemporary print advertising the Peace of Pressburg

    The fourth Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; German: Preßburger Frieden; French: Traité de Presbourg) was signed on 26 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm (25 September – 20 October) and Austerlitz (2 December). A truce was agreed on 4 December, and negotiations for the treaty began. The treaty was signed in Pressburg (now Bratislava), at that time in Hungary, by Johann I Josef, Prince of Liechtenstein, and the Hungarian Count Ignaz Gyulai for Austria and Charles Maurice de Talleyrand for France.

    Beyond the clauses establishing "peace and amity" and the Austrian withdrawal from the Third Coalition, the treaty also mandated substantial European territorial concessions from Austria. The gains of the previous treaties of Campo Formio and Lunéville were reiterated and Austrian holdings in Italy and Bavaria were ceded to France. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies: the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg, and the Elector of Baden. Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. The most notable territorial exchanges concerned the Tyrol and Vorarlberg, which went to Bavaria, and Venetia, Istria, and Dalmatia, which were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, of which Napoleon had become king earlier that year. Augsburg, previously an independent Free Imperial City, was ceded to Bavaria. As a minor compensation, Austria received the Electorate of Salzburg.

    The Primate's Palace, where the Peace of Pressburg was signed

    Emperor Francis II also recognized the kingly titles assumed by the Electors of Bavaria and Württemberg, which foreshadowed the end of the Holy Roman Empire. Within months of the signing of the treaty and after a new entity, the Confederation of the Rhine, had been created by Napoleon, Francis II renounced his title as Holy Roman Emperor and became Emperor Francis I of Austria. An indemnity of 40 million francs to France was also provided for in the treaty.

     
  15. Admin2

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    27 December 1945 – The International Monetary Fund is created with the signing of an agreement by 29 nations.

    International Monetary Fund

    The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world."[1] Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes,[5] it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system. It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises.[6] Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had SDR477 billion (about $666 billion).[7]

    Through the fund, and other activities such as the gathering of statistics and analysis, surveillance of its members' economies and the demand for particular policies,[8] the IMF works to improve the economies of its member countries.[9] The organisation's objectives stated in the Articles of Agreement are:[10] to promote international monetary co-operation, international trade, high employment, exchange-rate stability, sustainable economic growth, and making resources available to member countries in financial difficulty.[11]

    The current Managing Director (MD) and Chairman of the International Monetary Fund is noted French lawyer and former politician, Christine Lagarde, who has held the post since 5 July 2011.

    1. ^ a b c "About the IMF". IMF. Retrieved 14 October 2012. 
    2. ^ Boughton 2001, p. 7 n.5.
    3. ^ "Factsheet: The IMF and the World Bank". IMF. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015. 
    4. ^ "About the IMF Overview". www.imf.org. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
    5. ^ Broughton, James (2002). "IMF working paper" (PDF). imf.org. 
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Explaining Change was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "The IMF at a Glance". www.imf.org. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
    8. ^ Schlefer, Jonathan. "There is No Invisible Hand". Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Review. 
    9. ^ Escobar, Arturo. 1980. Power and Visibility: Development and the Invention and Management of the Third World. Cultural Anthropology 3 (4): 428–443.
    10. ^ "imf.org: "Articles of Agreement, International Monetary Fund" (2011)" (PDF). 
    11. ^ "Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund – 2016 Edition". 
     
  16. Admin2

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    28 December 1973 – The Endangered Species Act is passed in the United States.

    Endangered Species Act of 1973

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).[1] Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation", the ESA was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973. The U.S. Supreme Court found that "the plain intent of Congress in enacting" the ESA "was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost."[2] The Act is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the Commerce Department's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).

    1. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. "International Affairs: CITES" Retrieved on 25 June 2015.
    2. ^ "Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill", 437 U.S. 153 (1978) Retrieved 24 November 2015.
     
  17. Admin2

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    29 December 2003 – The last known speaker of Akkala Sami dies, rendering the language extinct.

    Akkala Sami language

    Akkala Sami is a Sami language that was spoken in the Sami villages of A´kkel (Russian Бабинский, Finnish Akkala), Ču´kksuâl (Russian Экостровский) and Sââ´rvesjäu´rr (Russian Гирвасозеро, Finnish Hirvasjärvi), in the inland parts of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. Formerly erroneously regarded as a dialect of Kildin Sami, it has recently become recognized as an independent Sami language that is most closely related to its western neighbor Skolt Sami.

    Akkala Sami is the most endangered eastern Sami language. On December 29, 2003, Maria Sergina – one of the last fluent native speakers of Akkala Sami – died.[3][4] However, there are at least two people, both aged 70, with some knowledge of Akkala Sami.[5] Remaining ethnic Akkala Samis live in the village Yona.

    Although there exist a description of Akkala Sami phonology and morphology, a few published texts, and archived audio recordings,[5] the Akkala Sami language remains among the most poorly documented Sami languages.[citation needed]

    Sami dialects and settlements in Russia:
      Akkala (Russian Babinsky)

    A-1 A´kkel (Russian Babinsky, Finnish Akkala)
    A-2 Ču´kksuâl (Russian Ekostrovsky)
    A-3 Yona
    A-4 Sââ´rvesjäu´rr (Russian Girvasozero, Finnish Hirvasjärvi)
    1. ^ Akkala Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Akkala Sami". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
    3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-04-11. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
    4. ^ Rantala, Leif, Aleftina Sergina 2009. Áhkkila sápmelaččat. Oanehis muitalus sámejoavkku birra, man maŋimuš sámegielalaš olmmoš jámii 29.12.2003. Roavvenjárga.
    5. ^ a b Scheller, Elisabeth 2011. The Sami Language Situation in Russia. In: "Ethnic and Linguistic Context of Identity: Finno-Ugric Minorities." Uralica Helsingiensia 5. Helsinki. 79–96.
     
  18. Admin2

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    30 December 2006Madrid–Barajas Airport is bombed.

    2006 Madrid–Barajas Airport bombing

    The 2006 Madrid–Barajas Airport bombing occurred on 30 December 2006 when a van bomb exploded in the Terminal 4 parking area at the Madrid–Barajas Airport in Spain, killing two and injuring 52. On 9 January 2007, the Basque nationalist and separatist organisation ETA claimed responsibility for the attack. The attack, one of the most powerful carried out by ETA, damaged the airport terminal and destroyed the entire parking structure. The bombing ended a nine-month ceasefire declared by the armed organisation and prompted the government to halt plans for negotiations with the organisation. Despite the attack, ETA claimed that the ceasefire was still in place and regretted the death of civilians. The organisation eventually announced the end of the ceasefire in June 2007.

    Ordered and planned by then head of commandos Miguel Garikoitz Aspiazu Rubina alias Txeroki, the attack was carried out by the "commando Elurra", whose members were arrested in early 2008 and sentenced for the attack in May 2010. Txeroki was arrested in November 2008 and is awaiting trial for the bombing.

     
  19. Admin2

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    31 December 2004 – The official opening of Taipei 101, the tallest skyscraper at that time in the world, standing at a height of 509 metres (1,670 ft).

    Taipei 101

    The Taipei 101 / TAIPEI 101[1], formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center – is a landmark supertall skyscraper in Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan. The building was officially classified as the world's tallest in 2004, and remained such until the completion of the Burj Khalifa in Dubai in 2010. In 2011, the building was awarded the LEED platinum certification, the highest award according to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, and became the tallest and largest green building in the world.[11][12] It used to have the fastest elevator in the world, traveling at 60.6 km/h (37.7 mph) and transporting passengers from the 5th to 89th floor in 37 seconds.[13] In 2016, the title for the fastest elevator was given to the Shanghai Tower in Shanghai.[14]

    Construction on the 101-story tower started in 1999 and finished in 2004. The tower has served as an icon of modern Taiwan ever since its opening. The building was architecturally created as a symbol of the evolution of technology and Asian tradition. Its postmodernist approach to style incorporates traditional design elements and gives them modern treatments. The tower is designed to withstand typhoons and earthquakes. A multi-level shopping mall adjoining the tower houses hundreds of stores, restaurants and clubs. 2004 to present, fireworks launched from Taipei 101 feature prominently in international New Year's Eve broadcasts and the structure appears frequently in travel literature and international media.

    Taipei 101 is owned by Taipei Financial Center Corporation. The name that was originally planned for the building, Taipei World Financial Center, until 2003, was derived from the name of the owner.

    1. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference skyscraperCenter was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference Report13 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b c d e f Cite error: The named reference emporis was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Taipei 101, Taipei". 
    5. ^ History - Samsung C&T
    6. ^ Building Taipei 101, AZoBuild, AZoNetwork
    7. ^ "TAIPEI 101 - The Skyscraper Center". skyscrapercenter.com. 
    8. ^ "Taipei 101". findthedata.com. 
    9. ^ "Taipei 101". SkyscraperPage. . Retrieved 25 March 2015.
    10. ^ Taipei 101 at Structurae. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference FTleed was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference STleed was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ "World's fastest elevator: In Taiwan, skyscraper's lift travels at 60 km/h | Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
    14. ^ CNN, Jenni Marsh and Jane Sit. "Which 3 Guinness World Records did the Shanghai Tower just win?". CNN. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
     
  20. Admin2

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    1 January 1651Charles II is crowned King of Scotland.

    Charles II of England

    Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death.

    Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649.

    Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, and Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed "Popish Plot" sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir (James, Duke of York) was a Catholic. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed.

    Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England,[1] known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. He was succeeded by his brother James.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Ogg 1955, p. 139.
     
  21. Admin2

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    2 January 1967Ronald Reagan sworn in as Governor of California

    Ronald Reagan

    Ronald Wilson Reagan (/ˈrɡən/; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to the presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and trade union leader before serving as the 33rd Governor of California from 1967 to 1975.

    Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois. He graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to Hollywood in 1937, he became an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman. Building a network of supporters, he was elected Governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, and was re-elected in 1970. He twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years later in 1980, he won the nomination, and then defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his inauguration, he became the oldest president-elect to take the oath of office (a distinction now held by Donald Trump, since 2017). Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, and defeated him in a landslide with the largest electoral college victory in American history.

    Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new political and economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, and reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, and fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, and an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, and increased military spending contributed to increased federal outlays overall, even after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, and the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate. He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty, which shrank both countries' nuclear arsenals. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, and the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, and on December 26, 1991 (nearly three years after he left office), the Soviet Union collapsed.

    When Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of sixty-eight percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and later Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era.[1] He was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent as the disease progressed. He died at home on June 5, 2004. An icon among American conservatives, he is viewed favorably in historical rankings of U.S. presidents, and his tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States.

    1. ^ "A Look Back At The Polls". CBS News. Retrieved May 15, 2015. 
     
  22. Admin2

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    3 January 1925Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy.

    Benito Mussolini

    Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (/bəˈnt mʊsəˈlni, m-/; Italian: [beˈniːto mussoˈliːni];[1] 29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF). He ruled Italy as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943; he constitutionally led the country until 1925, when he dropped the pretense of democracy and established a dictatorship.

    Known as Il Duce ("The Leader"), Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism.[2][3][4] In 1912, Mussolini had been a leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI),[5] but was expelled from the PSI for advocating military intervention in World War I, in opposition to the party's stance on neutrality. Mussolini served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism and later founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism[6] and class conflict, instead advocating revolutionary nationalism transcending class lines.[7] Following the March on Rome in October 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014. After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes,[8] Mussolini and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. Mussolini remained in power until he was deposed by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1943, but a few months later he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic, a German client regime in northern Italy – Mussolini held this post until his death in 1945.[9]

    Mussolini had sought to delay a major war in Europe, but Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939. This resulted in declarations of war by France and the UK and the start of World War II. On 10 June 1940—with the Fall of France imminent—Italy officially entered the war on the side of Germany, though he was aware that Italy did not have the military capacity and resources to carry out a long war with the British Empire.[10] Mussolini believed that after the imminent French armistice, Italy could gain territorial concessions from France and then he could concentrate his forces on a major offensive in North Africa, where British and Commonwealth forces were outnumbered by Italian forces.[11] However, the British government refused to accept proposals for a peace that would involve accepting Axis victories in Eastern and Western Europe; plans for an invasion of the UK did not proceed and the war continued. In the summer of 1941, Mussolini sent Italian forces to participate in the invasion of the Soviet Union and Italy declared war on the United States in December. In 1943, Italy suffered one disaster after another: by February the Red Army had completely destroyed the Italian Army in Russia (ARMIR), May saw the collapse of the Axis in North Africa, on 9 July the Allies invaded Sicily, and by the 16th it became clear the German summer offensive in the USSR had failed. As a consequence, early on 25 July, the Grand Council of Fascism passed a motion of no confidence for Mussolini; later that day the King dismissed him as head of government and had him placed in custody, appointing Pietro Badoglio to succeed him as Prime Minister. On 12 September 1943, Mussolini was rescued from captivity in the Gran Sasso raid by German paratroopers and Waffen-SS commandos led by Major Otto-Harald Mors.

    Adolf Hitler, after meeting with the rescued former dictator, then put Mussolini in charge of a puppet regime in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic (Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana, RSI),[12] informally known as the Salò Republic. In late April 1945, in the wake of near total defeat, Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci attempted to flee to Switzerland,[13] but both were captured by Italian communist partisans and summarily executed by firing squad on 28 April 1945 near Lake Como. His body was then taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station to publicly confirm his demise.[14]

    1. ^ See Benito and Mussolini in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di pronuncia italiana online
    2. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
    3. ^ "BBC - History - Historic Figures: Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)". bbc.co.uk. 
    4. ^ "Mussolini founds the Fascist party – Mar 23, 1919". HISTORY.com. 
    5. ^ Anthony James Gregor (1979). Young Mussolini and the Intellectual Origins of Fascism. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520037991. 
    6. ^ Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi (1997). Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. U of California Press. p. 45. 
    7. ^ Gregor 1979, p. 191.
    8. ^ Haugen, pp. 9, 71
    9. ^ Luisa Quartermaine (2000). Mussolini's Last Republic: Propaganda and Politics in the Italian Social Republic (R.S.I.) 1943–45. Intellect Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-902454-08-5. 
    10. ^ MacGregor Knox. Mussolini unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. Edition of 1999. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 122–123.
    11. ^ MacGregor Knox. Mussolini unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. Edition of 1999. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 122–127.
    12. ^ Moseley 2004.
    13. ^ Viganò, Marino (2001), "Un'analisi accurata della presunta fuga in Svizzera", Nuova Storia Contemporanea (in Italian), 3 
    14. ^ "1945: Italian partisans kill Mussolini". BBC News. 28 April 1945. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
     
  23. Admin2

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    4 January 1951Korean War: Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul.

    Third Battle of Seoul

    Coordinates: 37°34′08″N 126°58′36″E / 37.56889°N 126.97667°E / 37.56889; 126.97667 (Seoul)

    The Third Battle of Seoul, also known as the Chinese New Year's Offensive, the January–Fourth Retreat (Korean: 1•4 후퇴) or the Third Phase Campaign Western Sector[nb 4] (Chinese: 第三次战役西线; pinyin: Dì Sān Cì Zhàn Yì Xī Xiàn), was a battle of the Korean War, which took place from December 31, 1950 to January 7, 1951 around the South Korean capital of Seoul. In the aftermath of the major Chinese victory at the Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River, the United Nations Command started to contemplate the possibility of evacuation from the Korean Peninsula. Upon learning of this development, China's Chairman Mao Zedong ordered the Chinese People's Volunteer Army to cross the 38th parallel in an effort to pressure the United Nations forces to withdraw from South Korea.

    On 31 December 1950, the Chinese 13th Army attacked the South Korean army's 1st, 2nd, 5th and 6th Infantry Divisions along the 38th parallel, breaching United Nations Forces' defenses at the Imjin River, Hantan River, Gapyeong and Chuncheon in the process. To prevent the Chinese forces from overwhelming the defenders, the U.S. Eighth Army under the command of Lieutenant General Matthew B. Ridgway evacuated Seoul on January 3, 1951.

    Although Chinese forces captured Seoul by the end of the battle, the Chinese invasion of South Korea galvanized the United Nations' support for South Korea, while the idea of evacuation was soon abandoned by the United Nations Command. At the same time, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army were exhausted after months of nonstop fighting since the start of the Chinese intervention, thereby allowing the United Nations forces to regain the initiative in Korea.

    1. ^ Ryan, Finkelstein & McDevitt 2003, pp. 131–132.
    2. ^ Chae, Chung & Yang 2001, p. 302.
    3. ^ Chae, Chung & Yang 2001, p. 242.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference appleman63 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs 2010, p. 119.
    6. ^ Chinese Military Science Academy 2000, p. 369.
    7. ^ Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs 2010, p. 72.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference appleman40 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference appleman42 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Coulthard-Clark 2001, p. 262.
    11. ^ Appleman 1990, p. 71.
    12. ^ Ecker 2005, p. 74.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference zhang132 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

     
  24. Admin2

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    5 January 1968Alexander Dubček comes to power; "Prague Spring" begins in Czechoslovakia.

    Prague Spring

    The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), and continued until 21 August 1968 when the Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to halt the reforms.

    The Prague Spring reforms were a strong attempt by Dubček to grant additional rights to the citizens of Czechoslovakia in an act of partial decentralization of the economy and democratization. The freedoms granted included a loosening of restrictions on the media, speech and travel. After national discussion of dividing the country into a federation of three republics, Bohemia, Moravia-Silesia and Slovakia, Dubček oversaw the decision to split into two, the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic.[1] This was the only formal change that survived the end of Prague Spring, though the relative success of the nonviolent resistance undoubtedly prefigured and facilitated the peaceful transition to liberal democracy with the collapse of Soviet hegemony in 1989.[citation needed]

    The reforms, especially the decentralization of administrative authority, were not received well by the Soviets, who, after failed negotiations, sent half a million Warsaw Pact troops and tanks to occupy the country. The New York Times cited reports of 650,000 men equipped with the most modern and sophisticated weapons in the Soviet military catalogue.[2] A large wave of emigration swept the nation. A spirited non-violent resistance was mounted throughout the country, involving attempted fraternization, painting over and turning street signs (on one occasion an entire invasion force from Poland was routed back out of the country after a day's wandering),[citation needed] defiance of various curfews, etc. While the Soviet military had predicted that it would take four days to subdue the country, the resistance held out for eight months and was only circumvented by diplomatic stratagems (see below). There were sporadic acts of violence and several suicides by self-immolation (such as that of Jan Palach), but there was no military resistance. Czechoslovakia remained Soviet-controlled until 1989, when the Velvet Revolution ended pro-Soviet rule peacefully, undoubtedly drawing upon the successes of the non-violent resistance twenty years earlier.[citation needed] The resistance also became an iconic example of civilian-based defense which, along with unarmed civilian peacekeeping, constitute the two ways that nonviolence can be and occasionally has been applied directly to military or paramilitary threats.

    After the invasion, Czechoslovakia entered a period known as "normalization": subsequent leaders attempted to restore the political and economic values that had prevailed before Dubček gained control of the KSČ. Gustáv Husák, who replaced Dubček and also became President, reversed almost all of Dubček's reforms. The Prague Spring inspired music and literature such as the work of Václav Havel, Karel Husa, Karel Kryl and Milan Kundera's novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being.

    1. ^ Czech radio broadcasts 18–20 August 1968
    2. ^ New York Times September 2, 1968
     
  25. Admin2

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    6 January 2001 – Congress certifies George W. Bush winner of 2000 elections.

    George W. Bush

    George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He was also the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

    Bush was born on July 6, 1946, in New Haven, Connecticut. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter. He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida. He became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent.[3] Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st President of the United States. He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams.[4] His brother, Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election. His paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U.S. Senator from Connecticut.

    The September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003. He signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, and funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, and torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another relatively close election. After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from across the political spectrum[5][6][7] for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina,[8][9][10] and other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession, often referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system.

    Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U.S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the September 11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis.[11] Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published his memoir, Decision Points.[12] His presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s—he has consistently fallen in the bottom two sextiles. However, his favorability ratings with the public have increased since leaving office.[13][14][15][16]

    1. ^ CBS News, George W. Bush Timeline
    2. ^ "Veteran Tributes: George W. Bush". 
    3. ^ "Selection and Succession of the President". Ushistory.org. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2012. 
    4. ^ "George W. Bush". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. Archived from the original on May 6, 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
    5. ^ "Republican right abandoning Bush". MSNBC. Associated Press. May 5, 2006. Archived from the original on June 9, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
    6. ^ Kelley Beaucar Vlahos (February 13, 2006). "Illegal Immigration, Unchecked Spending Siphon Conservatives From GOP Base". Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2008. 
    7. ^ Baker, Kevin, "Second-Term Blues: Why Have Our Presidents Almost Always Stumbled after Their First Four Years?". American Heritage. Aug–Sep 2006. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. 
    8. ^ "Katrinagate fury spreads to US media". TVNZ. September 7, 2005. Archived from the original on July 17, 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
    9. ^ Mike M. Ahlers (April 14, 2006). "Report: Criticism of FEMA's Katrina response deserved". CNN. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
    10. ^ "Online NewsHour Update: Amid Widespread Criticism, Government Prepares for Next Hurricane Season". PBS. May 9, 2006. Archived from the original on August 12, 2010. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
    11. ^ "Bush Job Approval at 28%, Lowest of His Administration". Gallup Poll. April 11, 2008. Archived from the original on July 2, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
    12. ^ Italie, Hillel (October 7, 2010). "George W. Bush's memoir, 'Decision Points', to have print run of 1.5M copies". USA Today. Associated Press. 
    13. ^ "Historians Rank George W. Bush Among Worst Presidents, Lincoln and Washington were rated as the best". US News. September 2, 2009. Archived from the original on February 2, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2012. 
    14. ^ Austin, David. "History News Network | Historians Still Despise George W. Bush". HNN. Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
    15. ^ Mann, James. "It's not too soon to judge George W. Bush's presidency on key issues". Retrieved August 27, 2015. 
    16. ^ Saad, Lydia (June 19, 2017). "George W. Bush and Barack Obama Both Popular in Retirement". Gallup. Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
     
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    8 January 1982Breakup of the Bell System: AT&T agrees to divest itself of twenty-two subdivisions.

    Breakup of the Bell System

    The breakup of the Bell System was mandated on January 8, 1982, by an agreed consent decree providing that AT&T Corporation would, as had been initially proposed by AT&T, relinquish control of the Bell Operating Companies that had provided local telephone service in the United States and Canada up until that point.[1] This effectively took the monopoly that was the Bell System and split it into entirely separate companies that would continue to provide telephone service. AT&T would continue to be a provider of long distance service, while the now-independent Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) would provide local service, and would no longer be directly supplied with equipment from AT&T subsidiary Western Electric.

    This divestiture was initiated by the filing in 1974 by the United States Department of Justice of an antitrust lawsuit against AT&T.[2] AT&T was, at the time, the sole provider of telephone service throughout most of the United States. Furthermore, most telephonic equipment in the United States was produced by its subsidiary, Western Electric. This vertical integration led AT&T to have almost total control over communication technology in the country, which led to the antitrust case, United States v. AT&T. The plaintiff in the court complaint asked the court to order AT&T to divest ownership of Western Electric.[3]

    Feeling that it was about to lose the suit, AT&T proposed an alternative — the breakup of the biggest corporation in American history. It proposed that it retain control of Western Electric, Yellow Pages, the Bell trademark, Bell Labs, and AT&T Long Distance. It also proposed that it be freed from a 1956 antitrust consent decree, then administered by Judge Vincent Pasquale Biunno in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, that barred it from participating in the general sale of computers.[4] In return, it proposed to give up ownership of the local operating companies. This last concession, it argued, would achieve the Government's goal of creating competition in supplying telephone equipment and supplies to the operative companies. The settlement was finalized on January 8, 1982, with some changes ordered by the decree court: the regional holding companies got the Bell trademark, Yellow Pages, and about half of Bell Labs.

    Effective January 1, 1984, the Bell System’s many member companies were variously merged into seven independent "Regional Holding Companies", also known as Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs), or "Baby Bells". This divestiture reduced the book value of AT&T by approximately 70%.

    1. ^ "The End of AT&T". Celnet. Celnet. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
    2. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 327. ISBN 0-465-04195-7. 
    3. ^ "Bell Telephone System". 
    4. ^ "AT&T BREAKUP II : Highlights in the History of a Telecommunications Giant". latimes. 
     
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    9 January 1792Treaty of Jassy between Russian and Ottoman Empire is signed.

    Treaty of Jassy

    The Treaty of Jassy, signed at Jassy (Iași) in Moldavia (presently in Romania), was a pact between the Russian and Ottoman Empires ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92 and confirming Russia's increasing dominance in the Black Sea.[1]

    The treaty was signed on 9 January 1792 by Grand Vizier Koca Yusuf Pasha and Prince Bezborodko (who had succeeded Prince Potemkin as the head of the Russian delegation when Potemkin died). The Treaty of Jassy formally recognized the Russian Empire's annexation of the Crimean Khanate via the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca of 1783[2] and transferred Yedisan (the territory between Dniester and Bug rivers) to Russia making the Dniester the Russo-Turkish frontier in Europe, and leaving the Asiatic frontier (Kuban River) unchanged.

    1. ^ Hitchens, Keith (2012). "Great Powers, Small Powers: Wallachia and Georgia Confront the Eastern Question, 1768–1802". In Ivan Biliarsky; Ovidiu Cristea; Anca Oroveanu. The Balkans and Caucasus: Parallel Processes on the Opposite Sides of the Black Sea. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-4438-3705-7. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
    2. ^ "Russia and Turkey signed the Treaty of Jassy". Presidential Library of Russia. 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
     
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    10 January 2015 – A mass poisoning at a funeral in Mozambique involving beer that was deliberately contaminated with crocodile bile leaving at least 56 dead and nearly 200 hospitalized.

    Mozambique funeral beer poisoning

    In January 2015, 75 people died and 230 were made ill after drinking contaminated beer at a funeral in Mozambique. All of the people affected had consumed the local beer, pombe on 9 January, which had been contaminated with the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli which produced the toxic compound bongkrekic acid.[2]

    Early speculation on the source of the illness by Mozambique officials blamed crocodile bile.[3] A Forbes article opposed this hypothesis and instead pointed to the toxic flowering plant foxglove as the likely source of the poison.[4][5] Only in November 2015 was it determined that the deaths and illnesses were a result of bacterial contamination of the beer.[6]

    1. ^ "Where is Chitima in Tete, Mozambique Located?". GoMapper. n.d. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015. 
    2. ^ a b "OUP accepted manuscript" (PDF). Clinical Infectious Diseases. doi:10.1093/cid/cix1005. 
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference RT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "At least 69 die after drinking contaminated beer at Mozambique funeral". The Guardian. Associated Press. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
    5. ^ Camillo, Emmanuel (12 January 2015). "At Least 52 Dead After Drinking Poisoned Beer In Mozambique". The Huffington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
    6. ^ "Mozambique: Mass Poisoning Caused By Bacterial Contamination". allafrica.com. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
     
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    11 January 1908Grand Canyon National Monument is created.

    Grand Canyon National Park

    From Powell Point on the South Rim

    Grand Canyon National Park, located in northwestern Arizona, is the 15th site in the United States to have been named a national park. The park's central feature is the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, which is often considered one of the Wonders of the World. The park, which covers 1,217,262 acres (1,901.972 sq mi; 4,926.08 km2) of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties, received more than six million recreational visitors in 2017, which is the second highest count of all American national parks after Great Smoky Mountains National Park.[3] The Grand Canyon was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979.

    1. ^ "Grand Canyon National Park Visitor Center". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-08-14. 
    2. ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-07. 
    3. ^ a b "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2018-02-26. 
     
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    12 January 1970Biafra capitulates, ending the Nigerian Civil War.

    Biafra

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country with unknown parameter "country" (this message is shown only in preview).
    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country with unknown parameter "largest city" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, was a secessionist state in West Africa which existed from 30 May 1967 to January 1970; it was made up of the states in the Eastern Region of Nigeria.

    Biafra's attempt to leave Nigeria resulted in the Nigerian Civil War. The state was formally recognised by Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania and Zambia.[1] Other nations, which did not give official recognition but provided support and assistance to Biafra, included Israel, France, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Rhodesia, South Africa and the Vatican City.[2][3][unreliable source?] Biafra also received aid from non-state actors, including Joint Church Aid, Holy Ghost Fathers of Ireland,[4] and under their direction Caritas International,[5] MarkPress and U.S. Catholic Relief Services.[3][unreliable source?]

    Its inhabitants were mostly Igbo, who led the secession due to economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria. Other ethnic groups that were present were the Efik, Ibibio, Annang, Ejagham, Eket, Ibeno and the Ijaw among others.

    After two-and-a-half years of war, during which almost two million Biafran civilians died from starvation caused by the total blockade of the region by the Nigerian government and the migration of Biafra's Igbo people into increasingly shrinking territory, Biafran forces under the motto of "No-victor, No-vanquished" surrendered to the Nigerian Federal Military Government (FMG), and Biafra was reintegrated into Nigeria. The surrender was facilitated by the Biafran Vice President and Chief of General Staff, Major General Philip Effiong who assumed leadership of the defunct Republic after the original President, Col. Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu fled to Ivory Coast.[6]

    1. ^ "Biafra | secessionist state, Nigeria". Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
    2. ^ "Biafra Free State". www.africafederation.net. Retrieved 30 November 2017. 
    3. ^ a b Nowa Omoigui. "Federal Nigerian Army Blunders of the Nigerian Civil War – Part 2". Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
    4. ^ McCormack, Fergus (4 December 2016). "Would You Believe? Flights of Angels". RTÉ Press Centre. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
    5. ^ "The Forgotten War". 8 (3). History Ireland Magazine. Autumn 2000. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
    6. ^ Barnaby Philips (13 January 2000). "Biafra: Thirty years on". BBC News. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
     
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    13 January 1968Johnny Cash performs live at Folsom State Prison

    At Folsom Prison

    At Folsom Prison is a live album and 27th overall album by Johnny Cash, released on Columbia Records in May 1968. After his 1955 song "Folsom Prison Blues", Cash had been interested in recording a performance at a prison. His idea was put on hold until 1967, when personnel changes at Columbia Records put Bob Johnston in charge of producing Cash's material. Cash had recently controlled his drug abuse problems, and was looking to turn his career around after several years of limited commercial success. Backed with June Carter, Carl Perkins and the Tennessee Three, Cash performed two shows at Folsom State Prison in California on January 13, 1968. The resulting album consisted of fifteen tracks from the first show and two tracks from the second.

    Despite little initial investment by Columbia, the album was a hit in the United States, reaching number one on the country charts and the top 15 of the national album chart. The lead single from the album, a live version of "Folsom Prison Blues", was a top 40 hit, Cash's first since 1964's "Understand Your Man". At Folsom Prison received positive reviews and revitalized Cash's career, becoming the first in a series of live albums recorded at prisons that includes "At San Quentin" (1969), "Pa Osteraker" (1973), and "A Concert Behind Prison Walls" (1976). The album was rereleased with additional tracks in 1999, a three-disc set in 2008, and a five LP box set with bonus rehearsals in 2018 for Record Store Day. It was certified three times Platinum on March 27, 2003 by the Recording Industry Association of America for US sales exceeding three million.

     
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    13 January 1968Johnny Cash performs live at Folsom State Prison

    At Folsom Prison

    At Folsom Prison is a live album and 27th overall album by Johnny Cash, released on Columbia Records in May 1968. After his 1955 song "Folsom Prison Blues", Cash had been interested in recording a performance at a prison. His idea was put on hold until 1967, when personnel changes at Columbia Records put Bob Johnston in charge of producing Cash's material. Cash had recently controlled his drug abuse problems, and was looking to turn his career around after several years of limited commercial success. Backed with June Carter, Carl Perkins and the Tennessee Three, Cash performed two shows at Folsom State Prison in California on January 13, 1968. The resulting album consisted of fifteen tracks from the first show and two tracks from the second.

    Despite little initial investment by Columbia, the album was a hit in the United States, reaching number one on the country charts and the top 15 of the national album chart. The lead single from the album, a live version of "Folsom Prison Blues", was a top 40 hit, Cash's first since 1964's "Understand Your Man". At Folsom Prison received positive reviews and revitalized Cash's career, becoming the first in a series of live albums recorded at prisons that includes "At San Quentin" (1969), "Pa Osteraker" (1973), and "A Concert Behind Prison Walls" (1976). The album was rereleased with additional tracks in 1999, a three-disc set in 2008, and a five LP box set with bonus rehearsals in 2018 for Record Store Day. It was certified three times Platinum on March 27, 2003 by the Recording Industry Association of America for US sales exceeding three million.

     
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    14 January 1539 – Spain annexes Cuba.

    Cuba

    Coordinates: 22°00′N 80°00′W / 22.000°N 80.000°W / 22.000; -80.000

    Cuba (/ˈkjuːbə/; Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkuβa]), officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: About this sound República de Cuba ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of Jamaica. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The island of Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, with an area of 109,884 square kilometres (42,426 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.[13]

    The territory that is now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century.[14] From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902. As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1952.[15] Further unrest and instability led to Batista's ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro.[16][17][18] Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba. The country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of the few remaining Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment.[19]

    Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America.[20] It is a multiethnic country whose people, culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.

    Cuba is a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country has currently one of the world's only planned economies, and its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco, coffee and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world.[21] It also ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education.[22][23]

    1. ^ "Cuban Peso Bills". Central Bank of Cuba. 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
    2. ^ "National symbols". Government of Cuba. Retrieved September 7, 2009. 
    3. ^ official 2012 Census Archived June 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
    4. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, 1976 (as Amended to 2002)" (PDF). National Assembly of People's Power. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2012. 
      For discussion of the 1992 amendments, see Domínguez 2003.
    5. ^ "Resumen del Balance Demográfico" (PDF). Retrieved July 15, 2017. 
    6. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP 2015, 28 April 2017 PDF". Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
    7. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP 2015, 28 April 2017 PDF". Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
    8. ^ "World Bank total population of Cuba in 2015 (GDP PPP divided by Population data)". Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
    9. ^ "GDP (current US$)". 
    10. ^ "GDP per capita (current US$)". 
    11. ^ "Cuba grapples with growing inequality". Reuters. Retrieved July 21, 2013. 
    12. ^ "Table 2: Trends in the Human Development Index, 1990–2014". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved December 15, 2015. 
    13. ^ "Cuba profile: Facts". BBC News. Retrieved March 26, 2013. 
    14. ^ Allaire, p. 678
    15. ^ "Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy at Democratic Dinner, Cincinnati, Ohio". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum – Jfklibrary.org. October 6, 1960. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
    16. ^ "Fidel Castro". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 June 2017. Castro created a one-party government to exercise dictatorial control over all aspects of Cuba's political, economic, and cultural life. All political dissent and opposition were ruthlessly suppressed 
    17. ^ Fernández, Gonzalo (2009). Cuba's Primer – Castro's Earring Economy. ISBN 9780557065738. The number of individuals who have been jailed or deprived of their freedom in labor camps over the 50 years of Castro's dictatorship is estimated at around 200,000 
    18. ^ "Fidel Castro – Cuba's hero and dictator". Deutsche Welle. 26 November 2016. 
    19. ^ "World Report 2018: Rights Trends in Cuba". Human Rights Watch. 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2018-07-15. 
    20. ^ Rangel, Carlos (1977). The Latin Americans: Their Love-Hate Relationship with the United States. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-15-148795-0.  Skidmore, Thomas E.; Peter H. Smith (2005). Modern Latin America (6 ed.). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-0-19-517013-9. 
    21. ^ "Human Development Report 2015 – "Rethinking Work for Human Development"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. 
    22. ^ "GHO – By category – Life expectancy – Data by country". 
    23. ^ Field Listing: Literacy Archived November 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. CIA World Factbook.
     
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    14 January 1539 – Spain annexes Cuba.

    Cuba

    Coordinates: 22°00′N 80°00′W / 22.000°N 80.000°W / 22.000; -80.000

    Cuba (/ˈkjuːbə/; Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkuβa]), officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: About this sound República de Cuba ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of Jamaica. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The island of Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, with an area of 109,884 square kilometres (42,426 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.[13]

    The territory that is now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century.[14] From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902. As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1952.[15] Further unrest and instability led to Batista's ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro.[16][17][18] Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba. The country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of the few remaining Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment.[19]

    Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America.[20] It is a multiethnic country whose people, culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.

    Cuba is a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country has currently one of the world's only planned economies, and its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco, coffee and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world.[21] It also ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education.[22][23]

    1. ^ "Cuban Peso Bills". Central Bank of Cuba. 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
    2. ^ "National symbols". Government of Cuba. Retrieved September 7, 2009. 
    3. ^ official 2012 Census Archived June 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
    4. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, 1976 (as Amended to 2002)" (PDF). National Assembly of People's Power. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2012. 
      For discussion of the 1992 amendments, see Domínguez 2003.
    5. ^ "Resumen del Balance Demográfico" (PDF). Retrieved July 15, 2017. 
    6. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP 2015, 28 April 2017 PDF". Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
    7. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP 2015, 28 April 2017 PDF". Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
    8. ^ "World Bank total population of Cuba in 2015 (GDP PPP divided by Population data)". Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
    9. ^ "GDP (current US$)". 
    10. ^ "GDP per capita (current US$)". 
    11. ^ "Cuba grapples with growing inequality". Reuters. Retrieved July 21, 2013. 
    12. ^ "Table 2: Trends in the Human Development Index, 1990–2014". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved December 15, 2015. 
    13. ^ "Cuba profile: Facts". BBC News. Retrieved March 26, 2013. 
    14. ^ Allaire, p. 678
    15. ^ "Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy at Democratic Dinner, Cincinnati, Ohio". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum – Jfklibrary.org. October 6, 1960. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
    16. ^ "Fidel Castro". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 June 2017. Castro created a one-party government to exercise dictatorial control over all aspects of Cuba's political, economic, and cultural life. All political dissent and opposition were ruthlessly suppressed 
    17. ^ Fernández, Gonzalo (2009). Cuba's Primer – Castro's Earring Economy. ISBN 9780557065738. The number of individuals who have been jailed or deprived of their freedom in labor camps over the 50 years of Castro's dictatorship is estimated at around 200,000 
    18. ^ "Fidel Castro – Cuba's hero and dictator". Deutsche Welle. 26 November 2016. 
    19. ^ "World Report 2018: Rights Trends in Cuba". Human Rights Watch. 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2018-07-15. 
    20. ^ Rangel, Carlos (1977). The Latin Americans: Their Love-Hate Relationship with the United States. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-15-148795-0.  Skidmore, Thomas E.; Peter H. Smith (2005). Modern Latin America (6 ed.). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-0-19-517013-9. 
    21. ^ "Human Development Report 2015 – "Rethinking Work for Human Development"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. 
    22. ^ "GHO – By category – Life expectancy – Data by country". 
    23. ^ Field Listing: Literacy Archived November 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. CIA World Factbook.
     
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    15 January 1943 – The Pentagon is dedicated in Arlington, Virginia.

    The Pentagon

    The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.

    The Pentagon was designed by American architect George Bergstrom (1876–1955), and built by general contractor John McShain of Philadelphia. Ground was broken for construction on September 11, 1941, and the building was dedicated on January 15, 1943. General Brehon Somervell provided the major motivating power behind the project;[5] Colonel Leslie Groves was responsible for overseeing the project for the U.S. Army.

    The Pentagon is the world's largest office building, with about 6,500,000 sq ft (600,000 m2), of which 3,700,000 sq ft (340,000 m2) are used as offices.[6][7] Approximately 23,000 military and civilian employees[7] and about 3,000 non-defense support personnel work in the Pentagon. It has five sides, five floors above ground, two basement levels, and five ring corridors per floor with a total of 17.5 mi (28.2 km)[7] of corridors. The Pentagon includes a five-acre (20,000 m2) central plaza, which is shaped like a pentagon and informally known as "ground zero," a nickname originating during the Cold War on the presumption that it would be targeted by the Soviet Union at the outbreak of nuclear war.[8]

    On September 11, 2001, exactly 60 years after the building's construction began, American Airlines Flight 77 was hijacked and flown into the western side of the building, killing 189 people (59 victims and the five perpetrators on board the airliner, as well as 125 victims in the building), according to the official report.[9] It was the first significant foreign attack on Washington's governmental facilities since the city was burned by the British during the War of 1812.

    1. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018. 
    2. ^ "Facts: Navigating The Pentagon". pentagontours.osd.mil. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
    3. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
    4. ^ "Virginia Landmarks Register". Virginia Department of Historic Resources. Retrieved May 12, 2013. 
    5. ^ Steve Vogel, The Pentagon: a History (2003).
    6. ^ "The Pentagon – George Bergstrom – Great Buildings Online". Greatbuildings.com. Retrieved October 26, 2008. 
    7. ^ a b c The Pentagon, Facts & Figures Archived August 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. (accessed August 23, 2014)
    8. ^ "Pentagon Hot Dog Stand, Cold War Legend, to be Torn Down". United States Department of Defense. September 20, 2006. Retrieved May 6, 2010. 'It's rumored that a portion of their (Soviet) nuclear arsenal was directed at that building, the Pentagon hot dog stand,' tour guides tell visitors as they pass the stand. 'This is where the building earned the nickname Cafe Ground Zero, the deadliest hot dog stand in the world.' 
    9. ^ "Pentagon Memorial Dedication". DefenseLink.mil. Retrieved May 27, 2009. 
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    16 January 1964Hello, Dolly! opened on Broadway, beginning a run of 2,844 performances.

    Hello, Dolly! (musical)

    Hello, Dolly! is a 1964 musical with lyrics and music by Jerry Herman and a book by Michael Stewart. Based on Thornton Wilder's 1938 farce The Merchant of Yonkers (which Wilder revised and retitled The Matchmaker in 1955), the musical follows the story of Dolly Gallagher Levi (a strong-willed matchmaker), as she travels to Yonkers, New York, to find a match for the miserly "well-known unmarried half-a-millionaire" Horace Vandergelder. In doing so she persuades his niece, his niece's intended, and Horace's two clerks to travel to New York City.

    Hello, Dolly! was first produced on Broadway by David Merrick in 1964, winning a record-tying (tied with South Pacific) 10 Tony Awards, including Best Musical, a record held for 37 years. The show album Hello, Dolly! An Original Cast Recording was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002.[1] The album reached number one on the Billboard album chart on June 6, 1964 and was replaced the next week by Louis Armstrong's album Hello, Dolly! [2]

    The show has become one of the most enduring musical theatre hits, with four Broadway revivals and international success. It was also made into the 1969 film Hello Dolly! that was nominated for seven Academy Awards, and won three.

    1. ^ Grammy Hall of Fame Award Archived 2015-07-07 at the Wayback Machine.
    2. ^ Whitburn, Joel. Top Pop Albums (2010), Record Research, ISBN 0-89820-183-7, p.973
     
  38. NewsBot

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    1
    17 January 1946 – The UN Security Council holds its first session.

    United Nations Security Council

    The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations,[1] charged with the maintenance of international peace and security[2] as well as accepting new members to the United Nations[3] and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.[4] Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions; it is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states. The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946.

    Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following World War II to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations, in maintaining world peace. In its early decades, the Security Council was largely paralyzed by the Cold War division between the US and USSR and their respective allies, though it authorized interventions in the Korean War and the Congo Crisis and peacekeeping missions in the Suez Crisis, Cyprus, and West New Guinea. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, UN peacekeeping efforts increased dramatically in scale, and the Security Council authorized major military and peacekeeping missions in Kuwait, Namibia, Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    The Security Council consists of fifteen members.[5] The great powers that were the victors of World War II—the Soviet Union (now represented by the Russian Federation), the United Kingdom, France, the Republic of China (now represented by the People's Republic of China), and the United States—serve as the body's five permanent members. These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for Secretary-General. The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body's presidency rotates monthly among its members.

    Security Council resolutions are typically enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget. As of 2016, 103,510 peacekeepers and 16,471 civilians were deployed on sixteen peacekeeping operations and one special political mission.[6]

     
  39. Admin2

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    18 January 1976Lebanese Christian militias kill at least 1,000 in Karantina, Beirut.

    Karantina massacre

    The Karantina massacre took place early in the Lebanese Civil War on January 18, 1976. With the breakdown in authority of the Lebanese government the militancy of radical factions increased.[3]

    Karantina was a predominantly Palestinian Muslim slum district in mostly Christian east Beirut controlled by forces of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO),[4] inhabited by Kurds, Syrians, Armenians[5] and Palestinians.[6] The fighting and subsequent killings also involved an old quarantine area near the port and nearby Maslakh quarter.[7][8][9]

    Karantina was overrun by militias of the right-wing and mostly Christian Lebanese Front, specifically the Kataeb Party (Phalangists),[10][11] resulting in the deaths of approximately 1,500 people, mostly Muslims.[8] After Kataeb Regulatory Forces (KRF), Guardians of the Cedars (GoC), NLP Tiger militia and Lebanese Youth Movement (LYM) forces took control of the Karantina district on 18 January 1976, Tel al-Zaatar was placed under siege, leading to the Tel al-Zaatar massacre.[2]

    The Damour massacre was a reprisal for the Karantina massacre.[8][12]

    1. ^ 1976 - World Press Photo
    2. ^ a b Kazziha, Walid (1979) Palestine in the Arab dilemma Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-85664-864-7 p 52
    3. ^ Kissinger, Henry (1999) Years of Renewal Simon Schuster, ISBN 1-84212-042-5 p 1022
    4. ^ Noam Chomsky (1989) Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies South End Press, ISBN 0-89608-366-7 p 171
    5. ^ Jonathan C. Randal (1990) The Tragedy of Lebanon: Christian Warlords, Israeli Adventurers and American Bunglers Hogarth, ISBN 0-7012-0909-7 p 88-90
    6. ^ Michael Johnson (2001) All Honourable Men: The Social Origins of War in Lebanon I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1-86064-715-4 p 62
    7. ^ Lokman I. Meho, Kelly L. Maglaughlin (2001) Kurdish culture and society: an annotated bibliography Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-31543-4 p 35
    8. ^ a b c Harris (p. 162) notes "the massacre of 1,500 Palestinians, Shi'is, and others in Karantina and Maslakh, and the revenge killings of hundreds of Christians in Damur"[1]
    9. ^ Jonathan C. Randal (1990) The Tragedy of Lebanon: Christian Warlords, Israeli Adventurers and American Bunglers Hogarth, ISBN 0-7012-0909-7 p 88
    10. ^ William W. Harris (January 2006). The New Face of Lebanon: History's Revenge. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-55876-392-0. Retrieved July 27, 2013. the massacre of 1,500 Palestinians, Shi'is, and others in Karantina and Maslakh, and the revenge killings of hundreds of Christians in Damour 
    11. ^ Noam Chomsky, Edward W. Said (1999) Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians South End Press, ISBN 0-89608-601-1 pp 184–185
    12. ^ Noam Chomsky, Edward W. Said (1999) Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians South End Press, ISBN 0-89608-601-1 pp 184-185
     
  40. Admin2

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    19 January 1942 – World War II: The Japanese conquest of Burma begins.

    Japanese conquest of Burma

    The Japanese conquest of Burma was the opening chapter of the Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945. During the first year of the campaign, the Japanese Army (with aid from Thai forces and Burmese insurgents) drove British Empire and Chinese forces out of Burma, then began the Japanese occupation of Burma and formed a nominally independent Burmese administrative government.

    1. ^ a b Bradford, James. International Encyclopedia of Military History. Routledge, Sep 19, 2006, pg. 221
    2. ^ a b >Facts on File: World War II in the China-Burma-India theater Retrieved 20 March 2016
    3. ^ a b c Japanese conquest of Burma, December 1941 – May 1942 Retrieved 20 March 2016
    4. ^ McLynn, The Burma Campaign: Disaster into Triumph, 1942–1945, pg. 67.
    5. ^ Air Force Sixtieth Anniversary Commemorative Edition: The Flying Tigers pp. 33 Retrieved 20 March 2016
    6. ^ a b Allen (1984), p.638
    7. ^ Beevor, Antony (2012). "16". The Second World War. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. [page needed]
    8. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2003). The Second World War. p. 122. (includes 15,000 missing)
    9. ^ Zaloga, Steven. "M3 and M5 Stuart Light Tank 1940–45". Osprey Publishing, Nov 18, 1999. Page 14. According to Zaloga, all but one tank of the two regiments of the 7th Armoured Brigade had been lost.
    10. ^ Black, Jeremy. Air Power: A Global History pp. 108
     

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