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Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 January 1841Hong Kong Island is occupied by the British.

    Hong Kong Island

    The panoramic night view of "Island side" as seen from "Kowloon side" - TST
    A view of Middle Island in the foreground and Repulse Bay in the background from the Ocean Park cable car ride (in the Southern District)
    Kornhill and Shau Kei Wan, located in the northern part of Eastern District

    Hong Kong Island (Chinese: 香港島; Cantonese Yale: Hēunggóng dóu) is an island in the southern part of Hong Kong. It has a population of 1,289,500 and its population density is 16,390/km²,[1] as of 2008. The island had a population of about 3,000 inhabitants scattered in a dozen fishing villages when it was occupied by the United Kingdom in the First Opium War. In 1842, the island was formally ceded in perpetuity to the UK under the Treaty of Nanking and the City of Victoria was then established on the island by the British Force in honour of Queen Victoria.

    The Central area on the island is the historical, political and economic centre of Hong Kong. The northern coast of the island forms the southern shore of the Victoria Harbour, which is largely responsible for the development of Hong Kong due to its deep waters favoured by large trade ships.

    The island is home to many of the most famous sights in Hong Kong, such as "The Peak", Ocean Park, many historical sites and various large shopping centres. The mountain ranges across the island are also famous for hiking. The northern part of Hong Kong Island, together with Kowloon and Tsuen Wan New Town, forms the core urban area of Hong Kong. Their combined area is approximately 88.3 square kilometres (34.1 square miles) and their combined population (that of the northern part of the island and of Kowloon) is approximately 3,156,500, reflecting a population density of 35,700/km² (91,500/sq. mi.).

    The island is often referred to locally as "Hong Kong side" or "Island side". This style was formerly applied to many locations (e.g. China-side or even Kowloon Walled City-side) but is now only heard in this form and Kowloon side, suggesting the two sides of the harbour.[2] The form was once more common in Britain than now, such as Surrey-side[3] and is still seen in British placenames like Cheapside, Tyneside, and Teesside, not all of which have an obvious watercourse or boundary with actual sides.

    1. ^ Census and Statistics Department (2008), Population and Vital Events (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2009, retrieved 31 August 2009 
    2. ^ Booth, Martin. Gweilo: A memoir of a Hong Kong childhood, Bantam Books, 2005. ISBN 0-553-81672-1, pp108, 173
    3. ^ The Professor and the Madman, Simon Winchester, Harper, ISBN 978-0-06-083978-9, p8,
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 January 1911 – The first Monte Carlo Rally takes place.

    Monte Carlo Rally

    1911–2011 Centenary logo
    1911 – Henri Rougier and the victorious 25Hp Turcat-Méry before the inaugural Monte Carlo rally
    1964 outright winning Morris-Mini Cooper S
    Stéphane Sarrazin driving a Subaru Impreza WRC2005 on the 2005 rally.
    Marcus Grönholm driving a Peugeot 307 WRC on the 2004 rally.
    Carlos Sainz driving a Toyota Corolla WRC on the 1999 rally.

    The Monte Carlo Rally or Rallye Monte Carlo (officially Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo) is a rallying event organised each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco which also organises the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique. The rally now takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and southeast France. Previously, competitors would set off from all four corners of Europe and ‘rally’, in other words, meet, in Monaco to celebrate the end of a unique event. From its inception in 1911 by Prince Albert I it was an important means of demonstrating improvements and innovations to automobiles.

     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 January 1970 – The Boeing 747, the world's first "jumbo jet", enters commercial service for launch customer Pan American Airways with its maiden voyage from John F. Kennedy International Airport to London Heathrow Airport.

    Boeing 747

    The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet". Its distinctive "hump" upper deck along the forward part of the aircraft has made it one of the most recognizable aircraft,[7] and it was the first wide-body airplane produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the 747 was originally envisioned to have 150 percent greater capacity than the Boeing 707,[8] a common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years.[9]

    The four-engine 747 uses a double-deck configuration for part of its length and is available in passenger, freighter and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first–class lounge or extra seating, and to allow the aircraft to be easily converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing expected supersonic airliners—the development of which was announced in the early 1960s—to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete, while the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would remain robust well into the future.[10] Though the 747 was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold,[11] it exceeded critics' expectations with production surpassing 1,000 in 1993.[12] By November 2017, 1,540 aircraft had been built, with 14 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order.[4] As of January 2017, the 747 has been involved in 60 hull losses, resulting in 3,722 fatalities.[13]

    The 747-400, the most common variant in service, has a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.85–0.855 (up to 570 mph or 920 km/h) with an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles (8,350 statute miles or 13,450 km).[14] The 747-400 can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or 660 passengers in a high–density one-class configuration.[15] The newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and received certification in 2011. Deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version began in October 2011; deliveries of the 747-8I passenger version began in May 2012.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference ucfc747 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Time_Jumbo-Gremlins was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Boeing: Commercial Airplanes - 747 - About the 747 Family". Archived from the original on October 2, 2012. 
    4. ^ a b "747 Model Orders and Deliveries data." The Boeing Company, November 2017. Retrieved: January 1, 2018.
    5. ^ "Building a legend". Flight International. June 24, 1989. 
    6. ^ "Airliner price index". Flight International. August 10, 1972. p. 183. 
    7. ^ Negroni, Christine (July 2014). "747: The World's Airliner". Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved January 2, 2015. 
    8. ^ Branson, Richard. "Pilot of the Jet Age." Time, December 7, 1998. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
    9. ^ "A380 superjumbo lands in Sydney." BBC, October 25, 2007. Retrieved: August 3, 2010. Quote: "The superjumbo's advent ends a reign of nearly four decades by the Boeing 747 as the world's biggest airliner."
    10. ^ Orlebar 2002, p. 50.
    11. ^ Haenggi 2003, pp. 14–15.
    12. ^ Sutter 2006, p. 259.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference ASNstats was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ "Technical Characteristics – Boeing 747-400", The Boeing Company. Retrieved: April 29, 2006.
    15. ^ "747." The Boeing Company. Retrieved: January 9, 2012.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 January 1912 – The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague.

    International Opium Convention

    The International Opium Convention, signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912 during the First International Opium Conference, was the first international drug control treaty. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on January 23, 1922.[1] The United States convened a 13-nation conference of the International Opium Commission in 1909 in Shanghai, China in response to increasing criticism of the opium trade. The treaty was signed by Germany, the United States, China, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Russia, and Siam. The Convention provided, "The contracting Powers shall use their best endeavours to control, or to cause to be controlled, all persons manufacturing, importing, selling, distributing, and exporting morphine, cocaine, and their respective salts, as well as the buildings in which these persons carry such an industry or trade."

    The Convention was implemented in 1915 by the United States, Netherlands, China, Honduras, and Norway. It went into force globally in 1919, when it was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles. The primary objective of the convention was to introduce restrictions on exports as opposed to imposing prohibition or criminalising the use and cultivation of opium, coca, and cannabis. That explains the withdrawal of the United States and China, which were gravitating towards prohibitionist approaches, as well as the beginning of negotiations leading to the 1925 International Opium Convention in Geneva.[2]

    A revised International Opium Convention International Convention relating to Dangerous Drugs was signed at Geneva on February 19, 1925, which went into effect on September 25, 1938, and was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on the same day.[3][4] It introduced a statistical control system to be supervised by a Permanent Central Opium Board, a body of the League of Nations. Egypt, with support from China and United States, recommended that a prohibition on hashish be added to the Convention, and a sub-committee proposed the following text:

    The use of Indian hemp and the preparations derived therefrom may only be authorized for medical and scientific purposes. The raw resin (charas), however, which is extracted from the female tops of the cannabis sativa L, together with the various preparations (hashish, chira, esrar, diamba, etc.) of which it forms the basis, not being at present utilized for medical purposes and only being susceptible of utilisation for harmful purposes, in the same manner as other narcotics, may not be produced, sold, traded in, etc., under any circumstances whatsoever.

    India and other countries objected to this language, citing social and religious customs and the prevalence of wild-growing cannabis plants that would make it difficult to enforce. Accordingly, this provision never made it into the final treaty. A compromise[5] was made that banned exportation of Indian hemp to countries that have prohibited its use, and requiring importing countries to issue certificates approving the importation and stating that the shipment was required "exclusively for medical or scientific purposes." It also required Parties to "exercise an effective control of such a nature as to prevent the illicit international traffic in Indian hemp and especially in the resin." These restrictions still left considerable leeway for countries to allow production, internal trade, and use of cannabis for recreational purposes.[6]

    The Convention was superseded by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 January 1980Mother Teresa is honored with India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna

    Mother Teresa

    Mother Teresa, known in the Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta[6] (born Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu; Albanian: [aˈɲɛzə ˈɡɔndʒɛ bɔjaˈdʒiu]; 26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), was an Albanian-Indian[4] Roman Catholic nun and missionary.[7] She was born in Skopje (now the capital of the Republic of Macedonia), then part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. After living in Macedonia for eighteen years she moved to Ireland and then to India, where she lived for most of her life.

    In 1950 Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation which had over 4,500 sisters and was active in 133 countries in 2012. The congregation manages homes for people dying of HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis; soup kitchens; dispensaries and mobile clinics; children's- and family-counselling programmes; orphanages, and schools. Members, who take vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, also profess a fourth vow: to give "wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor".[8]

    Teresa received a number of honours, including the 1962 Ramon Magsaysay Peace Prize and 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. She was canonised (recognised by the church as a saint) on 4 September 2016, and the anniversary of her death (5 September) is her feast day.

    A controversial figure during her life and after her death, Teresa was admired by many for her charitable work. She was praised and criticised for her opposition to abortion, and criticised for poor conditions in her houses for the dying. Her authorised biography was written by Navin Chawla and published in 1992, and she has been the subject of films and other books. On September 6, 2017, Teresa was named co-patron of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Calcutta, alongside St. Francis Xavier.

    1. ^ "Canonisation of Mother Teresa – September 4th". Diocese of Killala. September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016. 
    2. ^ Manik Banerjee (6 September 2017). "Vatican declares Mother Teresa a patron saint of Calcutta". Associated Press, ABC News.com. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
    3. ^ "Mother Teresa to be named co-patron of Calcutta Archdiocese on first canonization anniversary". First Post. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
    4. ^ a b Cannon, Mae Elise (25 January 2013). Just Spirituality: How Faith Practices Fuel Social Action. InterVarsity Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8308-3775-5. Retrieved 3 September 2016. When asked about her personal history, Mother Teresa said: 'By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world. As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus.' 
    5. ^ shqiptare, bota. "Kur Nënë Tereza vinte në Tiranë/2". 
    6. ^ "Mother Teresa | Canonization, Awards, Facts, & Feast Day". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 
    7. ^ Poplin, Mary (2011-02-28). Finding Calcutta: What Mother Teresa Taught Me About Meaningful Work and Service. InterVarsity Press. p. 112. ISBN 9780830868483. Remember, brother, I am a missionary and so are you. 
    8. ^ Muggeridge (1971), chapter 3, "Mother Teresa Speaks", pp. 105, 113
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 January 1808 – The Rum Rebellion is the only successful (albeit short-lived) armed takeover of the government in Australia.

    Rum Rebellion

    The Rum Rebellion of 1808 was the only successful armed takeover of government in Australian history. During the 19th century, it was widely referred to as the Great Rebellion.

    The Governor of New South Wales, William Bligh, was deposed by the New South Wales Corps under the command of Major George Johnston, working closely with John Macarthur, on 26 January 1808, 20 years to the day after Arthur Phillip founded the first European settlement in Australia. Afterwards, the colony was ruled by the military, with the senior military officer stationed in Sydney acting as the lieutenant-governor of the colony until the arrival from Britain of Major-General Lachlan Macquarie as the new governor at the beginning of 1810.

    1. ^ "First Australian political cartoon fuels Rum Rebellion folklore" (pdf). Media Releases. State Library of New South Wales. 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-04. When an unknown artist created Australia’s first political cartoon, little did he know his drawing would seep into the country’s folklore and shape the perceptions on Governor Bligh’s dramatic arrest and overthrow, 200 years ago on Australia Day. This cartoon [was] created within hours of the mutiny and ridicul[es] Bligh. ... The coloured work depicts the hunted Governor being dragged from underneath a bed by the red-coated members of the NSW Corps, later referred to as the Rum Corps. “It was very unlikely that Bligh would have hidden under the bed, the image was political propaganda, intending to portray Bligh as a coward.” The slur on Bligh’s character created by the cartoon was extremely powerful. The work was first illuminated by candles and displayed prominently in the window of Sergeant Major Whittle’s house. Throughout the years the image continued to blur the reality about the true events of the rebellion. 
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 January 1944 – World War II: The 900-day Siege of Leningrad is lifted.

    Siege of Leningrad

    The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Russian: Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada), was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the German Army Group North, Spanish Blue Division and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theater of World War II. The siege started on 8 September 1941, when the last road to the city was severed. Although the Soviets managed to open a narrow land corridor to the city on 18 January 1943, the siege was not lifted until 27 January 1944, 872 days after it began. It is regarded as one of the longest and most destructive sieges in history. It was possibly the costliest in casualties suffered.[10][11]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference autogenerated8 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference autogenerated3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Baryshnikov 2003; Juutilainen 2005, p. 670; Ekman, P-O: Tysk-italiensk gästspel på Ladoga 1942, Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet 1973 Jan.–Feb., pp. 5–46.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference autogenerated9 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
    6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 December 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 
    7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
    8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
    9. ^ a b c Glantz 2001, pp. 179
    10. ^ The Siege of Leningrad, 1941 – 1944
    11. ^ Walzer, Michael (1977). Just and Unjust Wars. p. 160. ISBN 978-0465037070. More civilians died in the siege of Leningrad than in the modernist infernos of Hamburg, Dresden, Tokyo, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki, taken together. 
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 January 1958 – The Lego company patents the design of its Lego bricks, still compatible with bricks produced today.

    Lego

    Lego (Danish: [ˈleːɡo];[1][2] stylized as LEGO) is a line of plastic construction toys that are manufactured by The Lego Group, a privately held company based in Billund, Denmark. The company's flagship product, Lego, consists of colourful interlocking plastic bricks accompanying an array of gears, figurines called minifigures, and various other parts. Lego pieces can be assembled and connected in many ways, to construct objects; vehicles, buildings, and working robots. Anything constructed can then be taken apart again, and the pieces used to make other objects.[3][4]

    The Lego Group began manufacturing the interlocking toy bricks in 1949. Since then a global Lego subculture has developed. Supporting movies, games, competitions, and six Legoland amusement parks have been developed under the brand. As of July 2015, 600 billion Lego parts had been produced.[5]

    In February 2015, Lego replaced Ferrari as Brand Finance's "world's most powerful brand".[6]

    1. ^ "LEGO® Brand LEGO Historien" on YouTube
    2. ^ "Lego pronunciation: How to pronounce Lego in Danish". Forvo. 
    3. ^ "Lego History-About Us". Lego. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015. 
    4. ^ "How a Lego Works". How Stuff Works. Retrieved 6 September 2015. 
    5. ^ "Lego Fun Facts". Brick Recycler. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015. 
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brand Finance was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 January 1959 – The first Melodifestivalen is held in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Melodifestivalen

    Melodifestivalen[a] (Swedish pronunciation: [mɛlʊ²dːfɛstiːˌvɑːlɛn]; literally "The Melody Festival")[b] is an annual music competition organised by Swedish public broadcasters Sveriges Television (SVT) and Sveriges Radio (SR). It determines the country's representative for the Eurovision Song Contest, and has been staged almost every year since 1959. Since 2000, the competition has been the most popular television programme in Sweden;[1] it is also broadcast on radio and the Internet. In 2012, the semifinals averaged 3.3 million viewers, and over an estimated four million people in Sweden watched the final, almost half of the Swedish population.[2][3]

    The festival has produced six Eurovision winners and eighteen top-five placings for Sweden at the contest. The winner of the Melodifestival has been chosen by panels of jurors since its inception. Since 1999, the juries have been joined by a public telephone vote which has an equal influence over the final outcome. The competition makes a considerable impact on music charts in Sweden.

    The introduction of semifinals in 2002 raised the potential number of contestants from around twelve to thirty-two. A children's version of the competition, Lilla Melodifestivalen, also began that year. Light orchestrated pop songs, known locally as schlager music, are so prevalent that the festival is sometimes referred to as Schlagerfestivalen ("The schlager festival") by the Swedish media.[4][5] However, other styles of music such as rap, reggae, and glam rock have made an appearance since the event's expansion. The introduction of a grand final in Stockholm has attracted substantial tourism to the city.[6]

    The most recent Melodifestivalen winner is Robin Bengtsson who won on 11 March 2017 with the song "I Can't Go On." He represented Sweden at the 2017 Eurovision Song Contest in Kiev, Ukraine and placed fifth out of the 42 competing participants from across Europe.

    1. ^ Television in Sweden. Sweden.se (30 September 2005). Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
    2. ^ "Månadsrapport Februari 2012" (PDF). MMS - Mediamätning i Skandinavien. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
    3. ^ Lindström, Therese (12 March 2012). "Över fyra miljoner såg finalen". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
    4. ^ "Jag koncentrerar mig på schlagerfestivalen" Archived 2006-10-17 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["I am concentrating on schlagerfestivalen"]. Aftonbladet.se (27 February 2002). Retrieved on October 20, 2006.
    5. ^ Anders Foghagen (13 October 2006) Agnes diskad från Schlagerfestivalen Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["Agnes disqualified from schlagerfestivalen"]. TV4.se. Retrieved on October 20, 2006.
    6. ^ The Swedish Research Institute of Tourism (17–18 March 2006). Melodifestivalen 2006 Archived 2008-02-29 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 23 January 2008.
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 January 1959 – The first Melodifestivalen is held in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Melodifestivalen

    Melodifestivalen[a] (Swedish pronunciation: [mɛlʊ²dːfɛstiːˌvɑːlɛn]; literally "The Melody Festival")[b] is an annual music competition organised by Swedish public broadcasters Sveriges Television (SVT) and Sveriges Radio (SR). It determines the country's representative for the Eurovision Song Contest, and has been staged almost every year since 1959. Since 2000, the competition has been the most popular television programme in Sweden;[1] it is also broadcast on radio and the Internet. In 2012, the semifinals averaged 3.3 million viewers, and over an estimated four million people in Sweden watched the final, almost half of the Swedish population.[2][3]

    The festival has produced six Eurovision winners and eighteen top-five placings for Sweden at the contest. The winner of the Melodifestival has been chosen by panels of jurors since its inception. Since 1999, the juries have been joined by a public telephone vote which has an equal influence over the final outcome. The competition makes a considerable impact on music charts in Sweden.

    The introduction of semifinals in 2002 raised the potential number of contestants from around twelve to thirty-two. A children's version of the competition, Lilla Melodifestivalen, also began that year. Light orchestrated pop songs, known locally as schlager music, are so prevalent that the festival is sometimes referred to as Schlagerfestivalen ("The schlager festival") by the Swedish media.[4][5] However, other styles of music such as rap, reggae, and glam rock have made an appearance since the event's expansion. The introduction of a grand final in Stockholm has attracted substantial tourism to the city.[6]

    The most recent Melodifestivalen winner is Robin Bengtsson who won on 11 March 2017 with the song "I Can't Go On." He represented Sweden at the 2017 Eurovision Song Contest in Kiev, Ukraine and placed fifth out of the 42 competing participants from across Europe.

    1. ^ Television in Sweden. Sweden.se (30 September 2005). Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
    2. ^ "Månadsrapport Februari 2012" (PDF). MMS - Mediamätning i Skandinavien. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
    3. ^ Lindström, Therese (12 March 2012). "Över fyra miljoner såg finalen". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
    4. ^ "Jag koncentrerar mig på schlagerfestivalen" Archived 2006-10-17 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["I am concentrating on schlagerfestivalen"]. Aftonbladet.se (27 February 2002). Retrieved on October 20, 2006.
    5. ^ Anders Foghagen (13 October 2006) Agnes diskad från Schlagerfestivalen Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["Agnes disqualified from schlagerfestivalen"]. TV4.se. Retrieved on October 20, 2006.
    6. ^ The Swedish Research Institute of Tourism (17–18 March 2006). Melodifestivalen 2006 Archived 2008-02-29 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 23 January 2008.
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 January 1933Adolf Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.

    Adolf Hitler

    Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] (About this sound listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.[a] As dictator, Hitler initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust.

    Hitler was born in Austria—then part of Austria-Hungary—and was raised near Linz. He moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party (DAP), the precursor of the NSDAP, and was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted to seize power in a failed coup in Munich and was imprisoned. While in jail he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his release from prison in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. He frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy.

    By 1933, the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, and no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. This led to former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuading President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I and the annexation of territories that were home to millions of ethnic Germans which gave him significant popular support.

    Hitler sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people in Eastern Europe and his aggressive foreign policy is considered to be the primary cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and on 1 September 1939 invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, he formally declared war on the United States, bringing them directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his long-time lover Eva Braun. Less than two days later on 30 April 1945, the two killed themselves to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army and their corpses were burned.

    Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (sub-humans) or socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare and the casualties constituted the deadliest conflict in human history.

    1. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 226–227.
    2. ^ Overy 2005, p. 63.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 January 1968 – Nauru gains independence from Australia.

    Nauru

    Coordinates: 0°32′S 166°56′E / 0.533°S 166.933°E / -0.533; 166.933 (Nauru)

    Nauru (Nauruan: Naoero, /nɑːˈr/ nah-OO-roo or /ˈnɑːr/ NAH-roo[5][6]), (officially the Republic of Nauru (Nauruan: Repubrikin Naoero) and formerly known as Pleasant Island), is a sovereign state in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 kilometres (186 mi) to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With 11,347 residents in a 21-square-kilometre (8.1 sq mi) area, Nauru is the smallest state in the South Pacific, smallest republic and third smallest state by area in the world, behind only Vatican City and Monaco.

    Settled by people from Micronesia and Polynesia c. 1000 BC, Nauru was annexed and claimed as a colony by the German Empire in the late 19th century. After World War I, Nauru became a League of Nations mandate administered by Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. During World War II, Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops, who were bypassed by the Allied advance across the Pacific. After the war ended, the country entered into UN trusteeship. Nauru gained its independence in 1968.

    Nauru is a phosphate rock island with rich deposits near the surface, which allowed easy strip mining operations. It has some remaining phosphate resources which, as of 2011, are not economically viable for extraction.[7] Nauru boasted the highest per-capita income enjoyed by any sovereign state in the world during the late 1960s and early 1970s. When the phosphate reserves were exhausted, and the island's environment had been seriously harmed by mining, the trust that had been established to manage the island's wealth diminished in value. To earn income, Nauru briefly became a tax haven and illegal money laundering centre.[8] From 2001 to 2008, and again from 2012, it accepted aid from the Australian Government in exchange for hosting the Nauru Regional Processing Centre. As a result of heavy dependence on Australia, many sources have identified Nauru as a client state of Australia.[9][10][11]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference state was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "National Report on Population ad Housing" (PDF). Nauru Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
    4. ^ a b c d Nauru. International Monetary Fund
    5. ^ "Nauru Pronunciation in English". Cambridge English Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. 
    6. ^ "Nauru — Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes". Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 
    7. ^ Hogan, C Michael (2011). "Phosphate". Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Retrieved 17 June 2012. 
    8. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/10/magazine/the-billion-dollar-shack.html?mcubz=1
    9. ^ "Pacific correspondent Mike Field". Radio New Zealand. 18 June 2015. 
    10. ^ "Nauru's former chief justice predicts legal break down". SBS News. Special Broadcasting Service. 
    11. ^ Ben Doherty. "This is Abyan's story, and it is Australia's story". The Guardian. 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  14. Admin2

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    1 February 2003Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated during the reentry of mission STS-107 into the Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts aboard.

    Space Shuttle Columbia disaster

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members. The disaster was the second fatal accident in the Space Shuttle program after Space Shuttle Challenger, which broke apart and killed the seven-member crew 73 seconds after liftoff in 1986.

    During the launch of STS-107, Columbia's 28th mission, a piece of foam insulation broke off from the Space Shuttle external tank and struck the left wing of the orbiter. A few previous shuttle launches had seen damage ranging from minor to major from foam shedding,[1][2] but some engineers suspected that the damage to Columbia was more serious. NASA managers limited the investigation, reasoning that the crew could not have fixed the problem if it had been confirmed.[3] When Columbia re-entered the atmosphere of Earth, the damage allowed hot atmospheric gases to penetrate and destroy the internal wing structure, which caused the spacecraft to become unstable and break apart.[4]

    After the disaster, Space Shuttle flight operations were suspended for more than two years, as they had been after the Challenger disaster. Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) was put on hold; the station relied entirely on the Russian Roscosmos State Corporation for resupply for 29 months until Shuttle flights resumed with STS-114 and 41 months for crew rotation until STS-121.

    Several technical and organizational changes were made, including adding a thorough on-orbit inspection to determine how well the shuttle's thermal protection system had endured the ascent, and keeping a designated rescue mission ready in case irreparable damage was found. Except for one final mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope, subsequent shuttle missions were flown only to the ISS so that the crew could use it as a haven in case damage to the orbiter prevented safe reentry.

    1. ^ Columbia Accident Investigation Board (August 2003). "6.1 A History of Foam Anomalies (page 121)" (PDF). Retrieved June 26, 2014. 
    2. ^ "Spaceflight Now | STS-119 Shuttle Report | Legendary commander tells story of shuttle's close call". spaceflightnow.com. Retrieved 2017-03-31. 
    3. ^ Marcia Dunn (February 2, 2003). "Columbia's problems began on left wing". Associated Press via staugustine.com. 
    4. ^ "Molten Aluminum found on Columbia's thermal tiles". USA Today. Associated Press. March 4, 2003. Retrieved August 13, 2007. 
     
  15. Admin2

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    2 February 1901 – Funeral of Queen Victoria.

    Queen Victoria

    Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

    Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

    Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.

    Her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors, and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.

     
  16. Admin2

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    3 February 1931 – The Hawke's Bay earthquake, New Zealand's worst natural disaster, kills 258.

    1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake

    Damage to the Hawkes Bay Tribune building

    The 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake, also known as the Napier earthquake, occurred in New Zealand at 10:47 am on 3 February, killing 256,[1] injuring thousands and devastating the Hawke's Bay region. It remains New Zealand's deadliest natural disaster. Centred 15 km north of Napier, it lasted for two and a half minutes and measured magnitude 7.8 Ms (magnitude 7.9 Mw). There were 525 aftershocks recorded in the following two weeks, with 597 being recorded by the end of February. The main shock could be felt in much of New Zealand, with reliable reports coming in from as far south as Timaru, on the east coast of the South Island.[2]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference deathtoll was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "M 7.4 Hawke's Bay Tue, Feb 3 1931". GeoNet. 
     
  17. Admin2

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    4 February 974 – The Symbionese Liberation Army kidnaps Patty Hearst in Berkeley, California.

    Patty Hearst

    Patricia Campbell Hearst (born February 20, 1954), granddaughter of American publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst, became internationally known for events following her 1974 kidnapping and physical violation by a domestic American terrorist group known as the Symbionese Liberation Army. Hearst was found nineteen months after being abducted, by which time she was a fugitive wanted for serious crimes. She was held in custody, despite speculation that her family's resources would prevent her from spending time in jail. At her trial, the prosecution suggested that she had joined the Symbionese Liberation Army of her own volition. Hearst said she had been raped and threatened with death. She was found guilty of bank robbery. Hearst's sentence was commuted by President Jimmy Carter, and she was later pardoned by President Bill Clinton.

     
  18. Admin2

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    5 February 1971 – Astronauts land on the moon in the Apollo 14 mission

    Apollo 14

    Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon. It was the last of the "H missions," targeted landings with two-day stays on the Moon with two lunar EVAs, or moonwalks.

    Commander Alan Shepard, Command Module Pilot Stuart Roosa, and Lunar Module Pilot Edgar Mitchell launched on their nine-day mission on January 31, 1971 at 4:04:02 p.m. local time after a 40-minute, 2 second delay due to launch site weather restrictions, the first such delay in the Apollo program.[2] Shepard and Mitchell made their lunar landing on February 5 in the Fra Mauro formation - originally the target of the aborted Apollo 13 mission. During the two lunar EVAs, 42.80 kilograms (94.35 lb) of Moon rocks were collected,[3] and several scientific experiments were performed. Shepard hit two golf balls on the lunar surface with a makeshift club he had brought with him. Shepard and Mitchell spent 33½ hours on the Moon, with almost 9½ hours of EVA.

    In the aftermath of Apollo 13, several modifications had been made to the Service Module electrical power system to prevent a repeat of that accident, including a redesign of the oxygen tanks and the addition of a third tank.

    While Shepard and Mitchell were on the surface, Roosa remained in lunar orbit aboard the Command/Service Module Kitty Hawk, performing scientific experiments and photographing the Moon, including the landing site of the future Apollo 16 mission. He took several hundred seeds on the mission, many of which were germinated on return, resulting in the so-called Moon trees. Shepard, Roosa, and Mitchell landed in the Pacific Ocean on February 9.

    1. ^ Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Table of Contents". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Archived from the original on September 6, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
    2. ^ Wheeler, Robin (2009). "Apollo lunar landing launch window: The controlling factors and constraints". Apollo Flight Journal. NASA. Archived from the original on April 2, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
    3. ^ Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Extravehicular Activity". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. The NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Retrieved August 1, 2013.  For some reason, the total reported does not match the sum of the two EVAs.
     
  19. Admin2

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    6 February 1951 – The Canadian Army enters combat in the Korean War.

    Canadian Army

    The Canadian Army (French: Armée canadienne) is the command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2018 the Army has 23,000 regular soldiers, about 17,000 reserve soldiers, including 5,000 rangers, for a total of 40,000 soldiers. The Army is supported by 3,000 civilian employees.[3] It maintains regular forces units at bases across Canada, and is also responsible for the Army Reserve, the largest component of the Primary Reserve. The Commander of the Canadian Army and Chief of the Army Staff is Lieutenant-General Paul Wynnyk.

    The name "Canadian Army" came into official use beginning only in 1940; from before Confederation until the Second World War the official designation was "Canadian Militia". On 1 April 1966, as a precursor to the unification of Canada's armed services, all land forces were placed under a new entity called Mobile Command. In 1968 the "Canadian Army" ceased to exist as a legal entity as the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Canadian Army (CA), and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) were merged to form a single service called the Canadian Armed Forces. Mobile Command was renamed Land Force Command in the 1993 reorganization of the Canadian Armed Forces. In August 2011, Land Force Command reverted to the pre-1968 title of the Canadian Army.[4]

    1. ^ "About the Army". Canadian Army. Government of Canada. Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
    2. ^ "Canadian Army". Ottawa: Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. 2013. 
    3. ^ "About the Army". Department of National Defence. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
    4. ^ "Navy and air force to be royal once again". CBC News. 16 August 2011. 
     
  20. Admin2

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    7 February 2009Bushfires in Victoria leave 173 dead in the worst natural disaster in Australia's history.

    Black Saturday bushfires

    The Black Saturday bushfires[8] were a series of bushfires that ignited or were burning across the Australian state of Victoria on and around Saturday, 7 February 2009 and were Australia's all-time worst bushfire disasters. The fires occurred during extreme bushfire-weather conditions and resulted in Australia's highest ever loss of life from a bushfire;[9] 173 people died[6][10] and 414 were injured as a result of the fires.

    As many as 400 individual fires were recorded on 7 February. Following the events of 7 February 2009 and its aftermath, that day has become widely referred to in Australia as Black Saturday.

    1. ^ Collins, Pádraig (12 February 2009). "Rudd criticised over bush fire compensation". Irish Times. Retrieved 19 February 2009. 
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference VBRC-Vol.01-ch.5-p.075 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Rennie, Reko (1 April 2009). "deliberately lit: police". The Age. Melbourne: Fairfax Media. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
    4. ^ "Lightning starts new bushfires in Grampians". ABC News. 8 February 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2009. 
    5. ^ "Police track arsonists responsible for Victoria bushfires". News Limited. The Australian. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2009. 
    6. ^ a b Victoria Police, Press conference: Bushfires death toll revised to 173, Release date: Mon 30 March 2009 http://www.police.vic.gov.au/content.asp?Document_ID=20350
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Australian Medical Journal was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Zwartz, Barney (9 February 2009). "Counting the terrible cost of a state burning". Fairfax Media. Melbourne: The Age. Retrieved 15 February 2009. 
    9. ^ Huxley, John (11 February 2009). "Horrific, but not the worst we've suffered". Fairfax Media. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 February 2009. 
    10. ^ "Bushfire death toll revised down". News Limited. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2009. 
     
  21. Admin2

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    8 February 1879 – The England cricket team led by Lord Harris is attacked during a riot during a match in Sydney.

    Sydney Riot of 1879

    An 1887 cricket match in progress at Sydney's Association Ground, the site of the riot

    The Sydney Riot of 1879 was an instance of civil disorder that occurred at an early international cricket match. It took place on 8 February 1879 at what is now the Sydney Cricket Ground (at the time known as the Association Ground), during a match between New South Wales, captained by Dave Gregory, and a touring English team, captained by Lord Harris.

    The riot was sparked by a controversial umpiring decision, when star Australian batsman Billy Murdoch was given out by George Coulthard, a Victorian employed by the Englishmen. The dismissal caused an uproar among the parochial spectators, many of whom surged onto the pitch and assaulted Coulthard and some English players. It was alleged that illegal gamblers in the New South Wales pavilion, who had bet heavily on the home side, encouraged the riot because the tourists were in a dominant position and looked set to win. Another theory given to explain the anger was that of intercolonial rivalry, that the New South Wales crowd objected to what they perceived to be a slight from a Victorian umpire.

    The pitch invasion occurred while Gregory halted the match by not sending out a replacement for Murdoch. The New South Wales skipper called on Lord Harris to remove umpire Coulthard, whom he considered to be inept or biased, but his English counterpart declined. The other umpire, Edmund Barton, defended Coulthard and Lord Harris, saying that the decision against Murdoch was correct and that the English had conducted themselves appropriately. Eventually, Gregory agreed to resume the match without the removal of Coulthard. However, the crowd continued to disrupt proceedings, and play was abandoned for the day. Upon resumption after the Sunday rest day, Lord Harris's men won convincingly by an innings.

    In the immediate aftermath of the riot, the England team cancelled the remaining games they were scheduled to play in Sydney. The incident also caused much press comment in England and Australia. In Australia, the newspapers were united in condemning the unrest, viewing the chaos as a national humiliation and a public relations disaster. An open letter by Lord Harris about the incident was later published in English newspapers, and caused fresh outrage in New South Wales when it was reprinted by the Australian newspapers. A defensive letter written in response by the New South Wales Cricket Association further damaged relations. The affair led to a breakdown of goodwill that threatened the future of Anglo-Australian cricket relations. However, friction between the cricketing authorities finally eased when Lord Harris agreed to lead an England representative side at The Oval in London against the touring Australians in 1880; this match became the fourth-ever Test and cemented the tradition of Anglo-Australian Test matches.

     
  22. Admin2

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    9 February 1900 – The Davis Cup competition is established

    Davis Cup

    The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format. It is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", and the winners are referred to as the World Champion team.[1] The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between Great Britain and the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition.[2] The most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States (winning 32 tournaments and finishing as runners-up 29 times) and Australia (winning 28 times, including four occasions with New Zealand as Australasia, and finishing as runners-up 19 times). The present champions are France, who beat Belgium to win their tenth title in 2017.

    The women's equivalent of the Davis Cup is the Fed Cup. Australia, the Czech Republic, and the United States are the only countries to have held both Davis Cup and Fed Cup titles in the same year. The Hopman Cup, a third competition for mixed teams, carries less prestige, but is a popular curtain raiser to the tennis season.

    1. ^ "Andy Murray wins Davis Cup for Great Britain - BBC Sport". BBC Sport. 
    2. ^ "Davis Cup Format". www.daviscup.com. Retrieved 20 January 2016. In 2016, 130 nations have entered Davis Cup by BNP Paribas 
     
  23. Admin2

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    10 February 1996IBM supercomputer Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov in chess for the first time.

    Deep Blue (chess computer)

    Deep Blue, at the Computer History Museum

    Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM. It is known for being the first computer chess-playing system to win both a chess game and a chess match against a reigning world champion under regular time controls.

    Deep Blue won its first game against a world champion on 10 February 1996, when it defeated Garry Kasparov in game one of a six-game match. However, Kasparov won three and drew two of the following five games, defeating Deep Blue by a score of 4–2. Deep Blue was then heavily upgraded, and played Kasparov again in May 1997.[1] Deep Blue won game six, therefore winning the six-game rematch 3½–2½ and becoming the first computer system to defeat a reigning world champion in a match under standard chess tournament time controls.[2] Kasparov accused IBM of cheating and demanded a rematch. IBM refused and retired Deep Blue.[3]

    Development for Deep Blue began in 1985 with the ChipTest project at Carnegie Mellon University. This project eventually evolved into Deep Thought, at which point the development team was hired by IBM.[4] The project evolved once more with the new name Deep Blue in 1989. Grandmaster Joel Benjamin was also part of the development team.

    1. ^ "IBM's Deep Blue beats chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
    2. ^ Saletan, William (11 May 2007). "Chess Bump: The triumphant teamwork of humans and computers". Slate. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. 
    3. ^ Hsu 2002, p.265
    4. ^ "A Brief History of Deep Blue, IBM's Chess Computer". 2017-07-29. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
     
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    12 February 1961 – The Soviet Union launches Venera 1 towards Venus.

    Venera 1

    Venera 1 (Russian: Венера-1 meaning Venus 1), also known as Venera-1VA No.2 and occasionally in the West as Sputnik 8 was the first spacecraft to fly past Venus, as part of the Soviet Union's Venera programme.[1] Launched in February 1961, it flew past Venus on 19 May of the same year; however, radio contact with the probe was lost before the flyby, resulting in it returning no data.

    1. ^ NSSDC Spacecraft 1961-003A (NASA Goddard Space Center), accessed August 9, 2010
     
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  27. Admin2

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    14 February 1929Saint Valentine's Day Massacre: Seven people, six of them gangster rivals of Al Capone's gang, are murdered in Chicago.

    Saint Valentine's Day Massacre

    The Saint Valentine's Day Massacre is the name given to the 1929 murder in Chicago of seven men of the North Side gang during the Prohibition Era.[2] It happened on February 14, and resulted from the struggle between the Irish American gang and the South Side Italian gang led by Al Capone to take control of organized crime in the city.[3] Former members of the Egan's Rats gang were suspected of a significant role in the incident, assisting Capone.

    1. ^ "John May". findagrave.com. Retrieved 11 September 2013. 
    2. ^ "Valentine's Day Massacre, 1929". Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
    3. ^ O'Brien, John (February 14, 2014). "The St. Valentine's Day Massacre". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 28, 2017. 
     
  28. Admin2

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    15 February 1971 – The decimalisation of British coinage is completed on Decimal Day.

    Decimal Day

    An introductory pack of the new currency.

    On 15 February 1971, known as Decimal Day, the United Kingdom and Ireland decimalised their currencies.

    Under the old currency of pounds, shillings and pence, the pound was made up of 240 pence (denoted by the letter d for Latin denarius and now referred to as "old pence"), with 12 pence in a shilling and 20 shillings (denoted by s for Latin solidus) in a pound.

    The loss of value of the currency meant that the "old" penny, with the same diameter as the US half-dollar, was of relatively slight value, while the farthing, which was worth one-quarter of an old penny, had been demonetised on 1 January 1961.

     
  29. Admin2

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    16 February 1985Hezbollah is founded.

    Hezbollah

    Hezbollah (pronounced /ˌhɛzbəˈlɑː/;[21] Arabic: حزب اللهḤizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.[22]—is a Shi'a Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon.[23][24] Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council,[25] and its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. After the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. The group is considered a terrorist organization by the governments of the United States, Israel, Canada, the Arab League,[26] the Gulf Cooperation Council,[27][28] along with its military/security wing by the United Kingdom, Australia and the European Union.

    After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 in support of the Free Lebanon State, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, which was controlled by the South Lebanon Army (SLA), a Lebanese Christian militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shi'a groups under one roof. Hezbollah acts as a proxy for Iran in the ongoing Iran–Israel proxy conflict.[29] Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran primarily to harass the Israeli occupation.[5] Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government,[30] which was in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians", and permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government".[31]

    Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon and as a result, Israel withdrew from Lebanon on 24 May 2000, and SLA collapsed and surrendered. Backed by Iran, Hezbollah fighters fought against Serbian forces during the Bosnian War.[32] Hezbollah's military strength has grown so significantly[33][34] that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army.[35][36] Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state",[37] and has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders.[38][39][40] Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population,[41] while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda.[42][43] Hezbollah also finds support from within some Christian areas of Lebanon that are Hezbollah strongholds.[44] Hezbollah receives military training, weapons, and financial support from Iran, and political support from Syria.[45] Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War.

    After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests[46] and clashes,[47] a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah and its opposition allies obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, which gives them veto power.[24] In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands" (such as the Shebaa Farms).[48] Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel.[49][50] It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against ISIS.[51][52] Once seen as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab world,[23] this image upon which the group's legitimacy rested has been severely damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled.[38][53][54]

    1. ^ Ekaterina Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects Archived 10 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press 2008, p. 113
    2. ^ Elie Alagha, Joseph (2011). Hizbullah's Documents: From the 1985 Open Letter to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 15, 20. ISBN 90-8555-037-8. 
      Shehata, Samer (2012). Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 0-415-78361-5. 
      Husseinia, Rola El (2010). "Hezbollah and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran and Syria". Third World Quarterly. 31 (5). doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.502695. 
    3. ^ a b Philip Smyth (February 2015). The Shiite Jihad in Syria and Its Regional Effects (PDF) (Report). The Washington Institute for Near East Studies. pp. 7–8. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
    4. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 356. Hezbollah's anti-Western militancy began with attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, then expanded to attacks abroad intended to exact revenge for actions threatening its or Iran's interests, or to press foreign governments to release captured operatives. 
      An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences. p. 267. Based upon these beliefs, Hezbollah became vehemently anti-West and anti-Israel. 
      Criminology: Theories, Patterns & Typology. p. 396. Hezbollah is anti-West and anti-Israel and has engaged in a series of terrorist actions including kidnappings, car bombings, and airline hijackings. 
    5. ^ a b "Who are Hezbollah". BBC News. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
    6. ^ Julius, Anthony. "Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England." Google Books. 1 May 2015.
      Michael, Robert and Philip Rosen. "Dictionary of Antisemitism from the Earliest Times to the Present." Google Books. 1 May 2015.
      Perry, Mark. "Talking to Terrorists: Why America Must Engage with Its Enemies." Google Books. 1 May 2015
      "Analysis: Hezbollah's lethal anti-Semitism". The Jerusalem Post – JPost.com. 
    7. ^ "Letter that was sent from Neturei Karta to His Excellency Sayyed Hasan Nasrallah:". nkusa.org. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2017. 
    8. ^ "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". United States Department of State. 11 October 2005. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. Retrieved 16 July 2006.  "Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations ... 14. Hizballah (Party of God)".
    9. ^ "Hezbollah – International terrorist organization". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 22 July 2013. 
    10. ^ "Bahrain's parliament declares Hezbollah a terrorist group". Jerusalem Post. 26 March 2013. 
    11. ^ "Listed Terrorist Entities – Currently Listed Entities". Government of Canada. Public Safety Canada. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
    12. ^ "Listed terrorist organisations – Hizballah's External Security Organisation (ESO)". Australian National Security. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
    13. ^ "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
    14. ^ Proscribed terrorist organisations (Report). Home Office. 27 March 2015. p. 10. Retrieved 6 July 2015. Hizballah’s External Security Organisation was proscribed March 2001 and in 2008 the proscription was extended to Hizballah’s Military apparatus including the Jihad Council. 
    15. ^ "Jewish Leaders Applaud Hezbollah Terror Designation by France". Algemeiner Journal. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
    16. ^ Norman, Lawrence; Fairclough, Gordon (7 September 2012). "Pressure Mounts for EU to Put Hezbollah on Terror List". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 
    17. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/azerbaijan-iranian-hezbollah-operatives-arrested-for-plotting-attack-against-foreign-targets-1.414008
    18. ^ "ヒズボラ - 国際テロリズム要覧(Web版) - 公安調査庁". www.moj.go.jp. 
    19. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/story/2006/08/08/taiwanese-official-admits-meeting-with-hezbollah-leader.html
    20. ^ https://www.algemeiner.com/2016/07/12/israels-un-ambassador-to-security-council-hezbollah-has-120000-hidden-missiles-more-than-all-of-nato-possesses/
    21. ^ "Hezbollah". The Collins English Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
      "Hezbollah". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Cleveland: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
    22. ^ Other transliterations include Hizbollah, Hezballah, Hisbollah, Hizbu'llah and Hizb Allah.
    23. ^ a b Jamail, Dahr (20 July 2006). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Retrieved 23 October 2007. 
    24. ^ a b "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. 13 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2008. 
    25. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 15. ... the Jihad Council coordinates 'resistance activity'. 
      Ghattas Saab, Antoine (15 May 2014). "Hezbollah cutting costs as Iranian aid dries up". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 June 2014. ... Hezbollah's military wing … Known as the "Jihad Council" 
    26. ^ "Arab League labels Hezbollah a terrorist organization". Reuters. 11 March 2016. 
    27. ^ "GCC: Hezbollah terror group". Arab News. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
    28. ^ "Hezbollah labelled a terrorist organization by Gulf Arab states". CBC. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
    29. ^ "A Proxy for Iran". www.washingtoninstitute.org. Retrieved 9 June 2017. 
    30. ^ Adam Shatz (29 April 2004). "In Search of Hezbollah". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2006. 
    31. ^ Itamar Rabinovich. Israel in the Middle East. UPNE. Retrieved 18 November 2010. 
    32. ^ Fisk, Robert (7 September 2014). "After the atrocities committed against Muslims in Bosnia, it is no wonder today's jihadis have set out on the path to war in Syria". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2016. 
    33. ^ "UN: Hezbollah has increased military strength since 2006 war". Haaretz. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
    34. ^ Frykberg, Mel (29 August 2008). "Mideast Powers, Proxies and Paymasters Bluster and Rearm". Middle East Times. Retrieved 31 May 2011. And if there is one thing that ideologically and diametrically opposed Hezbollah and Israel agree on, it is Hezbollah's growing military strength. 
    35. ^ Barnard, Anne (20 May 2013). "Hezbollah's Role in Syria War Shakes the Lebanese". New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Hezbollah, stronger than the Lebanese Army, has the power to drag the country into war without a government decision, as in 2006, when it set off the war by capturing two Israeli soldiers 
    36. ^ Morris, Loveday (12 June 2013). "For Lebanon's Sunnis, growing rage at Hezbollah over role in Syria". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. ... Hezbollah, which has a fighting force generally considered more powerful than the Lebanese army. 
    37. ^ "Iran-Syria vs. Israel, Round 1: Assessments & Lessons Learned". Defense Industry Daily. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
    38. ^ a b Hubbard, Ben (20 March 2014). "Syrian Fighting Gives Hezbollah New but Diffuse Purpose". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the fighting has also diluted the resources that used to go exclusively to facing Israel, exacerbated sectarian divisions in the region, and alienated large segments of the majority Sunni population who once embraced Hezbollah as a liberation force... Never before have Hezbollah guerrillas fought alongside a formal army, waged war outside Lebanon or initiated broad offensives aimed at seizing territory. 
    39. ^ Deeb, Lara (31 July 2006). "Hizballah: A Primer". Middle East Report. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
    40. ^ Goldman, Adam (28 May 2014). "Hezbollah operative wanted by FBI dies in fighting in Syria". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... Hasan Nasrallah has called the deployment of his fighters to Syria a 'new phase' for the movement, and it marks the first time the group has sent significant numbers of men outside Lebanon's borders. 
    41. ^ "Huge Beirut protest backs Syria". BBC News. 8 March 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2007. 
    42. ^ "Hariri: Sunnis 'refuse' to join Hezbollah-Al Qaida war". AFP, 25 January 2014.
    43. ^ The Christian Science Monitor. "Why Hezbollah has openly joined the Syrian fight". The Christian Science Monitor. 
    44. ^ Zirulnick, Ariel (21 December 2012). "In Hezbollah stronghold, Lebanese Christians find respect, stability". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 10 June 2017. 
    45. ^ Filkins, Dexter (30 September 2013). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 October 2013. From 2000 to 2006, Iran contributed a hundred million dollars a year to Hezbollah. Its fighters are attractive proxies: unlike the Iranians, they speak Arabic, making them better equipped to operate in Syria and elsewhere in the Arab world. 
    46. ^ Ghattas, Kim (1 December 2006). "Political ferment in Lebanon". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
    47. ^ Stern, Yoav; Issacharoff, Avi (10 May 2008). "Hezbollah fighters retreat from Beirut after 37 die in clashes". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2012. 
    48. ^ Nafez Qawas (6 August 2008). "Berri summons Parliament to vote on policy statement". The Daily Star. Retrieved 6 August 2008. 
    49. ^ Barnard, Anne (3 January 2014). "Mystery in Hezbollah Operatives Life and Death". The New York Times. 
    50. ^ Barnard, Anne (9 July 2013). "Car Bombing Injures Dozens in Hezbollah Section of Beirut". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Hezbollah has portrayed the Syrian uprising as an Israeli-backed plot to destroy its alliance with Mr. Assad against Israel. 
    51. ^ Liz Sly and Suzan Haidamous 'Lebanon’s Hezbollah acknowledges battling the Islamic State in Iraq,' Washington Post 16 February 2015.
    52. ^ Ali Hashem, arrives in Iraq. Al Monitor 25 November 2014
    53. ^ "Hezbollah's Syrian Quagmires" (PDF). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 17 September 2014. By siding with the Assad regime, the regime's Alawite supporters, and Iran, and taking up arms against Sunni rebels, Hezbollah has placed itself at the epicenter of a sectarian conflict that has nothing to do with the group's purported raison d’être: 'resistance' to Israeli occupation. 
    54. ^ Kershner, Isabel (10 March 2014). "Israel Watches Warily as Hezbollah Gains Battle Skills in Syria". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the Lebanese group's image at home and in the broader Arab world has been severely damaged because it is fighting Sunni rebels in Syria while its legitimacy rested on its role in fighting Israel. 
     
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 February 1979 – The Sino-Vietnamese War begins.

    Sino-Vietnamese War

    The Sino-Vietnamese War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh biên giới Việt-Trung; simplified Chinese: 中越战争; traditional Chinese: 中越戰爭; pinyin: Zhōng-Yuè Zhànzhēng), also known as the Third Indochina War, was a brief border war fought between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in early 1979. China launched the offensive in response to Vietnam's invasion and occupation of Cambodia in 1978 (which ended the rule of the Chinese-backed Khmer Rouge).

    Chinese forces entered northern Vietnam and captured several cities near the border. On March 6, 1979, China declared that the gate to Hanoi was open and that their punitive mission had been achieved, before withdrawing their troops from Vietnam. Both China and Vietnam claimed victory in the last of the Indochina Wars. As Vietnamese troops remained in Cambodia until 1989, it can be said that China was unsuccessful in their goal of dissuading Vietnam from involvement in Cambodia. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Sino-Vietnamese border was finalized.

    Although unable to deter Vietnam from Cambodia, China was able to demonstrate that its Cold War communist adversary, the Soviet Union, was unable to protect its Vietnamese ally.[20] Following worsening relations between the Soviet Union and China as a result of the Sino-Soviet split, as many as 1.5 million Chinese troops were stationed along the Sino-Soviet border, in preparation for a full-scale war with the Soviets.

    1. ^ name="digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu">http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=mscas
    2. ^ Elleman, Bruce A. (2001). Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Routledge. p. 297. ISBN 0415214742. 
    3. ^ http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR700/RR768/RAND_RR768.pdf
    4. ^ Nayan Chanda, "End of the Battle but Not of the War", p. 10. Khu vực có giá trị tượng trưng tinh thần nhất là khoảng 300m đường xe lửa giữa Hữu Nghị Quan và trạm kiểm soát biên giới Việt Nam.
    5. ^ Nguyen, Can Van. "Sino-Vietnamese Border Issues". NGO Realm. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
    6. ^ Nguyen, Can Van. "INTERVIEW ON TERRITORY AND TERRITORIAL WATERS". vlink.com. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
    7. ^ Zygmunt Czarnotta and Zbigniew Moszumański, Altair Publishing, Warszawa 1995, ISBN 83-86217-16-2
    8. ^ a b Zhang Xiaoming, "China's 1979 War with Vietnam: A Reassessment", China Quarterly, Issue no. 184 (December 2005), pp. 851–874. Actually are thought to have been 200,000 with 400 – 550 tanks. Zhang writes that: "Existing scholarship tends towards an estimate of as many as 25,000 PLA killed in action and another 37,000 wounded. Recently available Chinese sources categorize the PLA’s losses as 6,594 dead and approximately 21,000 injured, giving a total of 24,000 casualties from an invasion force of 200,000."
    9. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/prc-vietnam.htm
    10. ^ King V. Chen (1987): China's War With Việt Nam, 1979. Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, page 103
    11. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference mil.chinaiiss.org was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ China at War: An Encyclopedia, p. 413, at Google Books
    13. ^ Russell D. Howard, INSS Occasional Paper 28: Regional Security Series, USAF Institute for National Security Studies, USAF Academy, September 1999
    14. ^ a b Tonnesson, Bởi Stein (2010). Vietnam 1946: How the War Began. University of California Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780520256026. 
    15. ^ a b Chan, Gerald (1989). China and international organizations: participation in non-governmental organizations since 1971 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 80. ISBN 0195827384. 
    16. ^ a b Military Law Review, Volumes 119-122. Volumes 27-100 of DA pam. Contributors United States. Dept. of the Army, Judge Advocate General's School (United States. Army). Headquarters, Department of the Army. 1988. p. 72. 
    17. ^ a b c d e http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=mscas
    18. ^ a b https://books.google.com.hk/books?id=vY4tBfqGvZ4C&pg=PA114&redir_esc=y&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false
    19. ^ Vietnam, p. 158, at Google Books
    20. ^ Elleman, Bruce A. (2001). Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Routledge. p. 297. ISBN 0415214742. 
     
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 February 1930 – While studying photographs taken in January, Clyde Tombaugh discovers Pluto.

    Pluto

    Mosaic of best-resolution images of Pluto from different angles

    Pluto (minor-planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune. It was the first Kuiper belt object to be discovered.

    Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 and was originally considered to be the ninth planet from the Sun. After 1992, its status as a planet was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt. In 2005, Eris, a dwarf planet in the scattered disc which is 27% more massive than Pluto, was discovered. This led the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to define the term "planet" formally in 2006, during their 26th General Assembly. That definition excluded Pluto and reclassified it as a dwarf planet.

    Pluto is the largest and second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System, and the ninth-largest and tenth-most-massive known object directly orbiting the Sun. It is the largest known trans-Neptunian object by volume but is less massive than Eris. Like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is primarily made of ice and rock and is relatively small—about one-sixth the mass of the Moon and one-third its volume. It has a moderately eccentric and inclined orbit during which it ranges from 30 to 49 astronomical units or AU (4.4–7.4 billion km) from the Sun. This means that Pluto periodically comes closer to the Sun than Neptune, but a stable orbital resonance with Neptune prevents them from colliding. Light from the Sun takes about 5.5 hours to reach Pluto at its average distance (39.5 AU).

    Pluto has five known moons: Charon (the largest, with a diameter just over half that of Pluto), Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Pluto and Charon are sometimes considered a binary system because the barycenter of their orbits does not lie within either body.

    On July 14, 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft became the first spacecraft to fly by Pluto. During its brief flyby, New Horizons made detailed measurements and observations of Pluto and its moons. In September 2016, astronomers announced that the reddish-brown cap of the north pole of Charon is composed of tholins, organic macromolecules that may be ingredients for the emergence of life, and produced from methane, nitrogen and other gases released from the atmosphere of Pluto and transferred about 19,000 km (12,000 mi) to the orbiting moon.

    1. ^ a b c S. Alan Stern. William Grundy, William B. McKinnon, Harold A. Weaver, Leslie A. Young (18 December 2017). "The Pluto System After New Horizons" (PDF). Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cite error: The named reference Pluto Fact Sheet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference jpl-ssd-horizons was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference TOP2013 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Nimmo, Francis; et al. (2017). "Mean radius and shape of Pluto and Charon from New Horizons images". Icarus. 287: 12–29. arXiv:1603.00821Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017Icar..287...12N. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.06.027. 
    6. ^ a b c d Stern, S. A.; et al. (2015). "The Pluto system: Initial results from its exploration by New Horizons". Science. 350 (6258): 249–352. arXiv:1510.07704Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Sci...350.1815S. doi:10.1126/science.aad1815. PMID 26472913. 
    7. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Archinal was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hamilton was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference AstDys-Pluto was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference jpldata was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Physorg April 19, 2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Amos, Jonathan (July 23, 2015). "New Horizons: Pluto may have 'nitrogen glaciers'". BBC News. Retrieved July 26, 2015. It could tell from the passage of sunlight and radiowaves through the Plutonian "air" that the pressure was only about 10 microbars at the surface 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  32. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 February 1930 – While studying photographs taken in January, Clyde Tombaugh discovers Pluto.

    Pluto

    Mosaic of best-resolution images of Pluto from different angles

    Pluto (minor-planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune. It was the first Kuiper belt object to be discovered.

    Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 and was originally considered to be the ninth planet from the Sun. After 1992, its status as a planet was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt. In 2005, Eris, a dwarf planet in the scattered disc which is 27% more massive than Pluto, was discovered. This led the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to define the term "planet" formally in 2006, during their 26th General Assembly. That definition excluded Pluto and reclassified it as a dwarf planet.

    Pluto is the largest and second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System, and the ninth-largest and tenth-most-massive known object directly orbiting the Sun. It is the largest known trans-Neptunian object by volume but is less massive than Eris. Like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is primarily made of ice and rock and is relatively small—about one-sixth the mass of the Moon and one-third its volume. It has a moderately eccentric and inclined orbit during which it ranges from 30 to 49 astronomical units or AU (4.4–7.4 billion km) from the Sun. This means that Pluto periodically comes closer to the Sun than Neptune, but a stable orbital resonance with Neptune prevents them from colliding. Light from the Sun takes about 5.5 hours to reach Pluto at its average distance (39.5 AU).

    Pluto has five known moons: Charon (the largest, with a diameter just over half that of Pluto), Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Pluto and Charon are sometimes considered a binary system because the barycenter of their orbits does not lie within either body.

    On July 14, 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft became the first spacecraft to fly by Pluto. During its brief flyby, New Horizons made detailed measurements and observations of Pluto and its moons. In September 2016, astronomers announced that the reddish-brown cap of the north pole of Charon is composed of tholins, organic macromolecules that may be ingredients for the emergence of life, and produced from methane, nitrogen and other gases released from the atmosphere of Pluto and transferred about 19,000 km (12,000 mi) to the orbiting moon.

    1. ^ a b c S. Alan Stern. William Grundy, William B. McKinnon, Harold A. Weaver, Leslie A. Young (18 December 2017). "The Pluto System After New Horizons" (PDF). Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cite error: The named reference Pluto Fact Sheet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference jpl-ssd-horizons was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference TOP2013 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Nimmo, Francis; et al. (2017). "Mean radius and shape of Pluto and Charon from New Horizons images". Icarus. 287: 12–29. arXiv:1603.00821Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017Icar..287...12N. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.06.027. 
    6. ^ a b c d Stern, S. A.; et al. (2015). "The Pluto system: Initial results from its exploration by New Horizons". Science. 350 (6258): 249–352. arXiv:1510.07704Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Sci...350.1815S. doi:10.1126/science.aad1815. PMID 26472913. 
    7. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Archinal was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hamilton was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference AstDys-Pluto was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference jpldata was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Physorg April 19, 2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Amos, Jonathan (July 23, 2015). "New Horizons: Pluto may have 'nitrogen glaciers'". BBC News. Retrieved July 26, 2015. It could tell from the passage of sunlight and radiowaves through the Plutonian "air" that the pressure was only about 10 microbars at the surface 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  33. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 February 2006 – A methane explosion in a coal mine near Nueva Rosita, Mexico, kills 65 miners.

    Pasta de Conchos mine disaster

    The Pasta de Conchos mine disaster occurred at approximately 2:30 a.m. CST on February 19, 2006, after a methane explosion within a coal mine near Nueva Rosita, San Juan de Sabinas municipality, in the Mexican state of Coahuila. The mines were run by Grupo México, the largest mining company in the country. It was estimated that 65 miners, who were working the 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. shift that morning, were trapped underground by the explosion. Only 2 of the 65 bodies have been recovered.

    There have been conflicting reports regarding the depth at which the miners were trapped. The National Mining and Metal Workers Union (SNTMMSRM) stated that the trapped miners were approximately 1,600 feet (490 m) below ground, via a mile-long horizontal shaft. Grupo México released a statement saying that the miners were about 500 feet (150 m) below ground when the explosion occurred. Guadalupe Rosales Martínez, the sister of a worker saved from the mine opening, told the Los Angeles Times that the workers had previously complained about a gas leak in the mine.[1] Norma Vitela, the wife of a mine worker trapped inside the mine, told The Miami Herald that her husband complained about the same leak.[2]

    By February 21, 2006 Grupo México search teams and relatives of the trapped miners were beginning to lose hope. Each miner was allotted an oxygen pack, but the pack only guaranteed the miners six hours of oxygen. The Governor of Coahuila, Humberto Moreira Valdés, told the Televisa television network that the mine's ventilation service, which uses fans to import oxygen and export dangerous gases, was still in operation. However, the February 21 edition of The Miami Herald remarked, "Even so, they could not be certain the precious oxygen was arriving to where the miners were trapped."[2]

    It was reported that mine workers had gone on strike against Grupo México at least 14 times, "not only for salary increases… but because of its constant refusal to review security and health measures." Grupo México said that they, in conjunction with the mining union, signed a certificate on February 7, 2006 declaring the mine safe.[3]

    On February 23, 2006 Grupo México advanced to a part of the mine shaft where they believed two of the 65 workers were trapped. However, they found nobody, leading them to believe the force of the explosion knocked them through the mine shaft deeper than they had anticipated.[3] The next day, Grupo México advanced approximately halfway into the 1.75-mile long mine, where an additional twenty-four miners were expected to have been found. Again, nobody was found, and Grupo México hypothesized that either the miners were buried under debris or the miners were located in a deeper part of the mine.[3] On the evening of February 24, Grupo México announced that search efforts were to be suspended for two or three days, due to the search teams advancing to a portion of the mine which leaked out high levels of natural gas. On the afternoon of February 25 the CEO of Grupo México confirmed during a press conference that "there was no possibility of survival after the methane explosion", based on a scientific report.[4] The following day the Secretary of Labor, Francisco Javier Salazar Sáenz, and Governor Moreira announced the mine would be closed indefinitely once all the bodies were recovered.[5]

    The Diario newspaper of Ciudad Juárez published a report from Mexican officials and the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration, stating that due to the high levels of gas in the mine, it would be very rare, if not impossible, to have any survivors from the rescue efforts.[3]

    After the rescue of 33 trapped miners in October 2010 in Copiapó, Chile, bishop Raúl Vera demanded that the case be reopened.[6]

    According to the IndustriALL Global Union, as of August 2016, "Ten years after the mining homicide at Pasta de Conchos, Mexico, the government has still not conducted a thorough investigation into the real causes of the disaster, brought those responsible to justice, recovered the bodies or compensated the families of the victims."[7]

    1. ^ Gas Blast Traps 65 Mexican Miners, Los Angeles Times, February 19, 2006.
    2. ^ a b Kin of miners losing hope, The Miami Herald, February 21, 2006.
    3. ^ a b c d Search for Mexican miners suspended Diario, Ciudad Juárez, February 25, 2006.
    4. ^ Es oficial, no hay sobrevivientes en mina, El Universal Online, Mexico City, February 25, 2006.
    5. ^ Todos están muertos, El Universal Online, Mexico City, February 26, 2006.
    6. ^ Chilean rescue revives anger in Mexico over 2006 miners' tragedy Archived 2010-10-18 at the Wayback Machine., Monsters and Critics, October 14, 2010.
    7. ^ "Still no justice, ten years after the Pasta de Conchos homicide". IndustriALL Global Union. August 2, 2016. Retrieved August 28, 2016. 
     

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