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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 April 1947 – The first Tony Awards are presented for theatrical achievement.

    Tony Award

    The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Broadway Theatre,[1] more commonly known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League[2] at an annual ceremony in New York City. The awards are given for Broadway productions and performances, and an award is given for regional theatre. Several discretionary non-competitive awards are also given, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, and the Isabelle Stevenson Award.[3] The awards are named after Antoinette "Tony" Perry, co-founder of the American Theatre Wing.

    The rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document "Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wing's Tony Awards", which applies for that season only.[4] The Tony Awards are considered the highest U.S. theatre honor, the New York theatre industry's equivalent to the Academy Awards (Oscars) for film, the Emmy Awards for television, and the Grammy Awards for music. It also forms the fourth spoke in the EGOT, that is someone who has won all four awards. The Tony Awards are also considered the equivalent of the Laurence Olivier Awards in the United Kingdom and the Molière Awards in France.

    From 1997 to 2010, the Tony Awards ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City in June and broadcast live on CBS television, except in 1999, when it was held at the Gershwin Theatre.[5] In 2011 and 2012, the ceremony was held at the Beacon Theatre.[6] From 2013 to 2015, the 67th, 68th, and 69th ceremonies returned to Radio City Music Hall.[7] The 70th Tony Awards was held on June 12, 2016 at the Beacon Theatre. The 71st Tony Awards was held on June 11, 2017 at Radio City Music Hall with Kevin Spacey as host.[8]

    1. ^ American Theatre Wing. "2014 Rules for use of Tony Awards trademarks" tonyawards.com, Apr 8, 2017
    2. ^ Gans, Andrew (December 18, 2007). "League of American Theatres and Producers Announces Name Change" Archived December 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013. The League of American Theatres and Producers was renamed "The Broadway League".
    3. ^ Staff (undated). "Who's Who". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
    4. ^ "Tony Awards Rules and Regulations for 2013–14 season" tonyawards.com, accessed June 12, 2014
    5. ^ Lefkowitz, David and Simonson, Robert. " 'Fosse', 'Annie', 'Salesman' & 'Side Man' Win Top Tonys" Archived November 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. playbill.com, June 7, 1999
    6. ^ Gans, Andrew (April 18, 2011). "No Tickets Will Be Available to General Public for 2011 Tony Awards" Archived May 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
    7. ^ Purcell, Carey (June 9, 2013). Kinky Boots, Vanya and Sonia, Pippin and Virginia Woolf? Are Big Winners at 67th Annual Tony Awards" Archived June 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
    8. ^ McPhee, Ryan (April 18, 2017). "Kevin Spacey Will Host the 2017 Tony Awards". Playbill. 
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 April 1906Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples.

    Mount Vesuvius

    Mount Vesuvius ( /vɪˈsviəs/; Italian: Monte Vesuvio [ˈmonte veˈzuːvjo]; Neapolitan: Vesuvio; Latin: Mons Vesuvius [mõːs wɛˈsʊwɪ.ʊs]; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources)[1] is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure.

    Mount Vesuvius is best known for its eruption in AD 79 that led to the burying and destruction of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, as well as several other settlements. The eruption ejected a cloud of stones, ashes and volcanic gases to a height of 33 km (21 mi), spewing molten rock and pulverized pumice at the rate of 6×105 cubic metres (7.8×105 cu yd) per second,[2] ultimately releasing a hundred thousand times the thermal energy released by the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombings.[3] More than 1,000 people died in the eruption, but exact numbers are unknown. The only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of two letters by Pliny the Younger to the historian Tacitus.[4]

    Vesuvius has erupted many times since and is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years. Today, it is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3,000,000 people living nearby and its tendency towards violent, explosive eruptions of the Plinian type, making it the most densely populated volcanic region in the world.[5]

    1. ^ http://latinlexicon.org/definition.php?p1=2062800
    2. ^ Woods, Andrew W. (2013). "Sustained explosive activity: volcanic eruption columns and hawaiian fountains". In Fagents, Sarah A.; Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.(editors). Modeling Volcanic Processes: The Physics and Mathematics of Volcanism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0521895439. 
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference sciencepompeii was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference epistularum was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ McGuire, Bill (October 16, 2003). "In the shadow of the volcano". The Guardian. Retrieved May 8, 2010. 
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 April 1964 – The Gemini 1 test flight is conducted.

    Gemini 1

    Gemini 1 was the first unmanned test flight of the Gemini spacecraft in NASA's Gemini program. Its main objectives were to test the structural integrity of the new spacecraft and modified Titan II launch vehicle. It was also the first test of the new tracking and communication systems for the Gemini program and provided training for the ground support crews for the first manned missions.[3]

    The spacecraft stayed attached to the second stage of the rocket. The mission lasted for three orbits while test data were taken, but the spacecraft stayed in orbit for almost 64 orbits until the orbit decayed due to atmospheric drag. The spacecraft was not intended to be recovered; in fact, holes were drilled through its heat shield to ensure it would not survive re-entry.

    1. ^ Hacker, Barton C.; Grimwood, James M. (February 2003) [First published 1977]. "Table of Contents". On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. NASA SP-4203. Retrieved 12 September 2013. 
    2. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "SATCAT". Jonathan's Space Pages. Retrieved March 23, 2014. 
    3. ^ "Gunters Space Page". Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 April 2003Iraq War: Baghdad falls to American forces.

    Battle of Baghdad (2003)

    The Battle of Baghdad, also known as the Fall of Baghdad, was a military invasion of Baghdad that took place in early April 2003, as part of the invasion of Iraq.

    Three weeks into the invasion of Iraq, Coalition Forces Land Component Command elements, led by the U.S. Army 3rd Infantry Division moved into Baghdad. The United States declared victory on April 14, and President George W. Bush gave his Mission Accomplished Speech on May 1.

    Baghdad suffered serious damage to its civilian infrastructure, economy, and cultural inheritance from the fighting, as well as looting and arson. During the invasion, the Al-Yarmouk Hospital in south Baghdad saw a steady rate of about 100 new patients an hour.[7]

    Several thousand Iraqi soldiers as well as a small number of coalition forces were killed in the battle.

    After the fall of Baghdad, Coalition forces entered the city of Kirkuk on April 10 and Tikrit on April 15, 2003.

    1. ^ Woods, Kevin M. (2009). Iraqi Perspectives Project: A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam's Senior Leadership (PDF). p. 145; 210. ISBN 0-9762550-1-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2010. 
    2. ^ The Wages of War – Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War
    3. ^ Iraqi Death Toll, Health Perils Assessed by Medical Group Archived June 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
    4. ^ Iraq Coalition Casualties: Military Fatalities Archived March 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
    5. ^ "On April 4, 5th RCT ran into several hundred fedayeen from Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and other parts of the Middle East and Africa. The result was wholesale slaughter, but the cost was considerable: two Abrams tanks were destroyed by the attackers, while numerous vehicles sustained damage from RPG fire. The marines killed a senior general from the Republican Guard ... In addition, marine tankers destroyed twelve to fifteen T-72s and T-55s as well as numerous 37mm anti-aircraft guns, which the Iraqis attempted to use against advancing marines." The Iraq War, Wiiliamson Murray, Robert Scales, p.225, Harvard University Press, 2005
    6. ^ Iraqi Missile Hits Army Base
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference usa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 April 1970Paul McCartney announces that he is leaving The Beatles for personal and professional reasons.

    Paul McCartney

    Sir James Paul McCartney CH MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and composer. He gained worldwide fame as the bass guitarist and singer for the rock band the Beatles, widely considered the most popular and influential group in the history of pop music. His songwriting partnership with John Lennon was the most successful of the post-war era.[2] After the group disbanded in 1970, he pursued a solo career and formed the band Wings with his first wife, Linda, and Denny Laine.

    McCartney is one of the most successful composers and performers of all time. More than 2,200 artists have covered his Beatles song "Yesterday", making it one of the most covered songs in popular music history. Wings' 1977 release "Mull of Kintyre" is one of the all-time best-selling singles in the UK. A two-time inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (as a member of the Beatles in 1988, and as a solo artist in 1999), and an 18-time Grammy Award winner, McCartney has written, or co-written, 32 songs that have reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100, and as of 2009 he has 25.5 million RIAA-certified units in the United States. McCartney, Lennon, George Harrison and Ringo Starr all received appointment as Members of the Order of the British Empire in 1965 and, in 1997, McCartney was knighted for services to music. McCartney is also one of the wealthiest musicians in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$1.2 billion.

    McCartney has released an extensive catalogue of songs as a solo artist and has composed classical and electronic music. He has taken part in projects to promote international charities related to such subjects as animal rights, seal hunting, land mines, vegetarianism, poverty, and music education. He has married three times and is the father of five children.

    1. ^ "Paul McCartney". Front Row. 26 December 2012. BBC Radio 4. Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
    2. ^ Newman, Jason (23 August 2011). "It Takes Two: 10 Songwriting Duos That Rocked Music History". billboard.com. Retrieved 5 October 2017. By any measure, no one comes close to matching the success of The Beatles' primary songwriters. 
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 April 1970Apollo 13 is launched.

    Apollo 13

    Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The craft was launched on April 11, 1970, at 14:13 EST (19:13 UTC) from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days later, crippling the Service Module (SM) upon which the Command Module (CM) had depended. Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to make makeshift repairs to the carbon dioxide removal system, the crew returned safely to Earth on April 17, 1970, six days after launch.

    The flight passed the far side of the Moon at an altitude of 254 kilometers (137 nautical miles) above the lunar surface, and 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth, a spaceflight record marking the farthest humans have ever traveled from Earth. The mission was commanded by James A. Lovell with John L. "Jack" Swigert as Command Module Pilot and Fred W. Haise as Lunar Module Pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for the original CM pilot Ken Mattingly, who was grounded by the flight surgeon after exposure to German measles.

    The story of the Apollo 13 mission has been dramatized multiple times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13.

    1. ^ Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Table of Contents". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Retrieved April 15, 2012. 
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 April 1831 – Soldiers marching on the Broughton Suspension Bridge in Manchester, England cause it to collapse.

    Broughton Suspension Bridge

    Broughton Suspension Bridge was an iron chain suspension bridge built in 1826 to span the River Irwell between Broughton and Pendleton, now in Salford, Greater Manchester, England. One of Europe's first suspension bridges, it has been attributed to Samuel Brown, though some suggest it was built by Thomas Cheek Hewes, a Manchester millwright and textile machinery manufacturer.[1][2]

    On 12 April 1831, the bridge collapsed, reportedly due to mechanical resonance induced by troops marching in step.[3] As a result of the incident, the British Army issued an order that troops should "break step" when crossing a bridge. Though rebuilt and strengthened, the bridge was subsequently propped with temporary piles whenever crowds were expected. In 1924 it was replaced by a Pratt truss footbridge, still in use.

    1. ^ "Broughton Suspension Bridge". Dictionary of Scottish Architects. Retrieved 9 October 2008. 
    2. ^ Skempton, A. W.; Chrimes (2002). A biographical dictionary of civil engineers in Great Britain and Ireland. M (Illustrated ed.). Thomas Telford. ISBN 978-0-7277-2939-2. 
    3. ^ Bishop, R.E.D. (1979). Vibration (Second ed.). Cambridge University Press, London. 
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 April 1870 – The New York City Metropolitan Museum of Art is founded.

    Metropolitan Museum of Art

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met",[a] is the largest art museum in the United States. With 7.06 million visitors in 2016, it was the third most visited art museum in the world, and the fifth most visited museum of any kind. [8] Its permanent collection contains over two million works,[9] divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the eastern edge of Central Park along Manhattan's Museum Mile, is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art, architecture, and artifacts from Medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side; it extends the museum's modern and contemporary art program.

    The permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt, paintings, and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes, and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries.

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue.

    1. ^ "Today in Met History: April 13". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 2015-01-17. Retrieved 2015-01-16. 
    2. ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art: About". Artinfo. 2008. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Met History was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "The World's 20 most popular museums", CNN.com, 22 June 2017
    5. ^ National Park Service (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
    6. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-10-09. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
    7. ^ "A New Strategy at The Met". Archived from the original on 2017-03-22. Retrieved 2017-03-22. 
    8. ^ "The World's 20 most popular museums", CNN.com, 22 June 2017
    9. ^ "Metropolitan Museum Launches New and Expanded Web Site" Archived 2016-11-28 at the Wayback Machine., press release, The Met, January 25, 2000

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 April 1881 – The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight is fought in El Paso, Texas.

    Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight

    The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight was a famous gun fight that occurred on April 14, 1881, on El Paso Street, in El Paso, Texas. Witnesses generally agreed that the incident lasted no more than five seconds after the first gunshot, though a few would insist it was at least ten seconds. Marshal Dallas Stoudenmire accounted for three of the four fatalities with his twin .44 caliber Smith & Wesson revolvers.

  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 April 1945Bergen-Belsen concentration camp is liberated.

    Bergen-Belsen concentration camp

    Bergen-Belsen [ˈbɛʁɡn̩.bɛlsn̩], or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle. Originally established as a prisoner of war camp,[1] in 1943, parts of it became a concentration camp. Initially this was an "exchange camp", where Jewish hostages were held with the intention of exchanging them for German prisoners of war held overseas.[2] The camp was later expanded to accommodate Jews from other concentration camps.

    After 1945 the name was applied to the displaced persons camp established nearby, but it is most commonly associated with the concentration camp. From 1941 to 1945, almost 20,000 Soviet prisoners of war and a further 50,000 inmates died there.[3] Overcrowding, lack of food and poor sanitary conditions caused outbreaks of typhus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever and dysentery, leading to the deaths of more than 35,000 people in the first few months of 1945, shortly before and after the liberation.

    The camp was liberated on April 15, 1945, by the British 11th Armoured Division.[4] The soldiers discovered approximately 60,000 prisoners inside, most of them half-starved and seriously ill,[5] and another 13,000 corpses, including those of Anne and Margot Frank, lying around the camp unburied.[4] The horrors of the camp, documented on film and in pictures, made the name "Belsen" emblematic of Nazi crimes in general for public opinion in many countries in the immediate post-1945 period. Today, there is a memorial with an exhibition hall at the site.

    1. ^ "Belsen Military Camp". Archived from the original on March 29, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
    2. ^ Shephard, Ben (2006). After daybreak : the liberation of Belsen, 1945. London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-1844135400. 
    3. ^ Oppenheimer, Paul (1996). From Belsen to Buckingham Palace. Nottingham: Quill Press. ISBN 0-9536280-3-5. 
    4. ^ a b "The 11th Armoured Division (Great Britain)", United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
    5. ^ "Bergen-Belsen", United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 April 1941World War II: The Italian-German Tarigo convoy is attacked and destroyed by British ships.

    Battle of the Tarigo Convoy

    The Battle of the Tarigo Convoy (sometimes referred to as the Action off Sfax) was a naval battle of World War II, part of the Battle of the Mediterranean. It was fought on 16 April 1941, between four British and three Italian destroyers, near the Kerkennah Islands off Sfax, in the Tunisian coast. The battle was named after the Italian flagship, the destroyer Luca Tarigo.

    Control of the sea between Italy and Libya was heavily disputed as both sides sought to safeguard their own convoys while interdicting those of their opponent. Axis convoys to North Africa supplied the German and Italian armies there, and British attacks were based on Malta, itself dependent upon convoys.

  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 April 1961Bay of Pigs Invasion: A group of Cuban exiles financed and trained by the CIA lands at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba with the aim of ousting Fidel Castro.

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961. A counter-revolutionary military group (made up of mostly Cuban exiles who traveled to the United States after Castro's takeover, but also some US military personnel[5]), trained and funded by the CIA, Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF) and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro. Launched from Guatemala and Nicaragua, the invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, under the direct command of Castro.

    The coup of 1952 led by General Fulgencio Batista, an ally of the United States, against President Carlos Prio, forced Prio into exile to Miami, Florida. Prio's exile was the reason for the 26th July Movement led by Castro. The movement, which did not succeed until after the Cuban Revolution of 31 December 1958, severed the country's formerly strong links with the US after nationalizing American economic assets (banks, oil refineries, sugar and coffee plantations, along with other American owned businesses).

    It was after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, that Castro forged strong economic links with the Soviet Union, with which, at the time, the United States was engaged in the Cold War. US President Dwight D. Eisenhower was very concerned at the direction Castro's government was taking, and in March 1960 he allocated $13.1 million to the CIA to plan Castro's overthrow (though the plan was put off for Kennedy to decide). The CIA proceeded to organize the operation with the aid of various Cuban counter-revolutionary forces, training Brigade 2506 in Guatemala. Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy, approved the final invasion plan on 4 April 1961.

    Over 1,400 paramilitaries, divided into five infantry battalions and one paratrooper battalion, assembled in Guatemala before setting out for Cuba by boat on 13 April 1961. Two days later, on 15 April, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers attacked Cuban airfields and then returned to the US. On the night of 16 April, the main invasion landed at a beach named Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs. It initially overwhelmed a local revolutionary militia. The Cuban Army's counter-offensive was led by José Ramón Fernández, before Castro decided to take personal control of the operation. As the US involvement became apparent to the world, and with the initiative turning against the invasion, Kennedy decided against providing further air cover.[6] As a result, the operation only had half the forces the CIA had deemed necessary. The original plan devised during Eisenhower's presidency had required both air and naval support. On 20 April, the invaders surrendered after only three days, with the majority being publicly interrogated and put into Cuban prisons.

    The failed invasion helped to strengthen the position of Castro's leadership, made him a national hero, and entrenched the rocky relationship between the former allies. It also strengthened the relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union. This eventually led to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The invasion was a major failure for US foreign policy; Kennedy ordered a number of internal investigations across Latin America. Cuban forces under Castro's leadership clashed directly with US forces during the Invasion of Grenada over 20 years later.

    1. ^ Kellner 1989, pp. 69–70. "Historians give Guevara, who was director of instruction for Cuba's armed forces, a share of credit for the victory".
    2. ^ Szulc (1986), p. 450. "The revolutionaries won because Castro's strategy was vastly superior to the Central Intelligence Agency's; because the revolutionary morale was high; and because Che Guevara as the head of the militia training program and Fernández as commander of the militia officers' school, had done so well in preparing 200,000 men and women for war."
    3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference szulc1986 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b FRUS X, documents 19, 24, 35, 245, 271.
    5. ^ "Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Alabama Air National Guard | Encyclopedia of Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 2017-11-20. 
    6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 April 1909Joan of Arc is beatified in Rome.

    Joan of Arc

    Joan of Arc (French: Jeanne d'Arc,[5] IPA: [ʒan daʁk]; 6 January c. 1412[6] – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (French: La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. Joan of Arc was born to Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée, a peasant family, at Domrémy in north-east France. Joan said she received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims. This long-awaited event boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory.

    On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, which was allied with the English. She was later handed over to the English[7] and put on trial by the pro-English Bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges.[8] After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age.[9]

    In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr.[9] In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, and in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte.[10] She was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux.

    Joan of Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting, sculpture, and other cultural works since the time of her death, and many famous writers, filmmakers and composers have created works about her. Cultural depictions of her have continued in films, theater, television, video games, music, and performances to this day.

    1. ^ Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490, dated to the second half of the 15th century. "The later, fifteenth-century manuscript of Charles, Duke of Orléans contains a miniature of Joan in armour; the face has certain characteristic features known from her contemporaries' descriptions, and the artist may have worked from indications by someone who had known her." Joan M. Edmunds, The Mission of Joan of Arc (2008), p. 40.
    2. ^ An exact date of birth (6 January 1412) is uniquely indicated by Perceval de Boulainvilliers, councillor of king Charles VII, in a letter to the duke of Milan. Régine Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January". However, Marius Sepet has alleged that Boulainvilliers' letter is mythographic and therefore unreliable in his opinion (Marius Sepet, "Observations critiques sur l'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc. La lettre de Perceval de Boulainvilliers", in Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes, n°77, 1916, pp. 439–447, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k12454p/f439.image ; Gerd Krumeich, "La date de la naissance de Jeanne d'Arc", in De Domremy ... à Tokyo: Jeanne d'Arc et la Lorraine, 2013, pp. 21–31.)
    3. ^ "Chemainus Theatre Festival - The 2008 Season - Saint Joan - Joan of Arc Historical Timeline". Chemainustheatrefestival.ca. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
    4. ^ "Holy Days". 
    5. ^ Her name was written in a variety of ways, particularly prior to the mid-19th century. See Pernoud and Clin, pp. 220–221. Her signature appears as "Jehanne" (see www.stjoan-center.com/Album/, parts 47 and 49; it is also noted in Pernoud and Clin).
    6. ^ Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January").
    7. ^ Le Procès de Jeanne d'Arc, in Série "Les grands procès de l'histoire", Ministère de la Justice (France), 6 July 2012: http://www.justice.gouv.fr/histoire-et-patrimoine-10050/proces-historiques-10411/le-proces-de-jeanne-darc-24376.html
    8. ^ Régine Pernoud, "Joan of Arc By Herself And Her Witnesses", pp. 179, 220–222
    9. ^ a b Andrew Ward (2005) Joan of Arc on IMDb
    10. ^ Dirk Arend Berents, D. E. H. de Boer, Marina Warner (1994). Joan of Arc: Reality and Myth. Uitgeverij Verloren. p. 8. ISBN 90-6550-412-5. 
  14. Admin2

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    19 April 1971 – Launch of Salyut 1, the first space station.

    Salyut 1

    Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Russian: Салют-1; English translation: Salute 1) was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971. The Salyut program followed this with five more successful launches out of seven more stations. The final module of the program, Zvezda (DOS-8) became the core of the Russian segment of the International Space Station and remains in orbit.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Nasa 1971-032A was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. Admin2

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    20 April 1946 – The League of Nations officially dissolves, giving most of its power to the United Nations.

    League of Nations

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    The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations [la sɔsjete de nɑsjɔ̃] abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.[1] Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.[2] Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.[3] At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.

    The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the victorious Great Powers of World War I (France, the UK, Italy and Japan were the permanent members of the executive Council) to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, or provide an army when needed. The Great Powers were often reluctant to do so. Sanctions could hurt League members, so they were reluctant to comply with them. During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, when the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting Red Cross medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that "the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out."[4]

    After some notable successes and some early failures in the 1920s, the League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the 1930s. The credibility of the organization was weakened by the fact that the United States never officially joined the League and the Soviet Union joined late and only briefly.[5][6][7][8] Germany withdrew from the League, as did Japan, Italy, Spain and others. The onset of the Second World War showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, which was to prevent any future world war. The League lasted for 26 years; the United Nations (UN) replaced it after the end of the Second World War and inherited several agencies and organisations founded by the League.

    1. ^ Christian, Tomuschat (1995). The United Nations at Age Fifty: A Legal Perspective. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 77. ISBN 9789041101457. 
    2. ^ "Covenant of the League of Nations". The Avalon Project. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
    3. ^ See Article 23, "Covenant of the League of Nations". , "Treaty of Versailles".  and Minority Rights Treaties.
    4. ^ Jahanpour, Farhang. "The Elusiveness of Trust: the experience of Security Council and Iran" (PDF). Transnational Foundation of Peace and Future Research. p. 2. Retrieved 27 June 2008. 
    5. ^ Osakwe, C O (1972). The participation of the Soviet Union in universal international organizations.: A political and legal analysis of Soviet strategies and aspirations inside ILO, UNESCO and WHO. Springer. p. 5. 
    6. ^ Pericles, Lewis (2000). Modernism, Nationalism, and the Novel. Cambridge University Press. p. 52. 
    7. ^ Ginneken, Anique H. M. van (2006). Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations. Scarecrow Press. p. 174. 
    8. ^ Ellis, Charles Howard (2003). The Origin, Structure & Working of the League of Nations. Lawbook Exchange Ltd. p. 169. 
  16. Admin2

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    21 April 1977Annie opens on Broadway.

    Annie (musical)

    Annie is a Broadway musical based upon the popular Harold Gray comic strip Little Orphan Annie, with music by Charles Strouse, lyrics by Martin Charnin, and book by Thomas Meehan. The original Broadway production opened in 1977 and ran for nearly six years, setting a record for the Alvin Theatre (now the Neil Simon Theatre).[1] It spawned numerous productions in many countries, as well as national tours, and won the Tony Award for Best Musical. The musical's songs "Tomorrow" and "It's the Hard Knock Life" are among its most popular musical numbers.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Morrison was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 April 2005 – Japan's Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi apologizes for Japan's war record.

    List of war apology statements issued by Japan

    This is a list of war apology statements issued by the state of Japan with regard to the war crimes and atrocities committed by the Empire of Japan during World War II. The statements were made on and after the end of World War II in Asia, from the 1950s to the 2010s. There is an ongoing controversy regarding the way these statements are categorized, that being the question whether they are formal apologies or general statements of remorse, each of which carry a different level of responsibility and recognition.

  18. Admin2

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    23 April 1985Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than three months.

    New Coke

    New Coke was the unofficial name for the reformulation of Coca-Cola introduced in April 1985 by the Coca-Cola Company to replace the original formula of its flagship soft drink, Coca-Cola (also called Coke). New Coke originally had no separate name of its own but was simply known as "the new taste of Coca-Cola" until 1992, when it was renamed Coke Ⅱ.[1]

    Coca-Cola's market share had been losing ground to diet soft drinks and non-cola beverages for many years. Consumers who were purchasing regular colas seemed to prefer the sweeter taste of rival Pepsi-Cola, as Coca-Cola learned in conducting blind taste tests. However, the American public's reaction to the change was negative, even hostile, and the new cola was considered a major failure. The subsequent, rapid reintroduction of Coke's original formula, rebranded "Coca-Cola Classic" and put back into market within three months of New Coke's debut, resulted in a significant gain in sales. This led to speculation by some that the introduction of the New Coke formula was just a marketing ploy to stimulate sales of original Coca-Cola; however, the company has maintained it was a genuine attempt to replace the original product.[2]

    Coke Ⅱ was completely discontinued in July 2002. It remains influential as a cautionary tale against tampering too extensively with a well-established and successful brand.

    1. ^ Jamieson, Sean (April 5, 1990). "Coke II makes its Spokane debut". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). p. A8. 
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snopes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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