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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 May 1966 – The Communist Party of China issues the "May 16 Notice", marking the beginning of the Cultural Revolution.

    Cultural Revolution

    The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976. Launched by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society, and to re-impose Mao Zedong Thought as the dominant ideology within the Party. The Revolution marked Mao's return to a position of power after the Great Leap Forward. The movement paralyzed China politically and negatively affected the country's economy and society to a significant degree.

    The movement was launched in May 1966, after Mao alleged that bourgeois elements had infiltrated the government and society at large, aiming to restore capitalism. To eliminate his rivals within the Communist Party of China, Mao insisted that these "revisionists" be removed through violent class struggle. China's youth responded to Mao's appeal by forming Red Guard groups around the country. The movement spread into the military, urban workers, and the Communist Party leadership itself. It resulted in widespread factional struggles in all walks of life. In the top leadership, it led to a mass purge of senior officials, most notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. During the same period, Mao's personality cult grew to immense proportions.

    In the violent struggles that ensued across the country, millions of people were persecuted and suffered a wide range of abuses including public humiliation, arbitrary imprisonment, torture, hard labor, sustained harassment, seizure of property and sometimes execution. A large segment of the population was forcibly displaced, most notably the transfer of urban youth to rural regions during the Down to the Countryside Movement. Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed. Cultural and religious sites were ransacked.

    Mao officially declared the Cultural Revolution to have ended in 1969, but its active phase lasted until the death of military leader and proposed Mao successor Lin Biao in 1971. After Mao's death and the arrest of the Gang of Four in 1976, reformers led by Deng Xiaoping gradually began to dismantle the Maoist policies associated with the Cultural Revolution. In 1981, the Party declared that the Cultural Revolution was "responsible for the most severe setback and the heaviest losses suffered by the Party, the country, and the people since the founding of the People's Republic".[1]

    1. ^ "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China," adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on June 27, 1981 Resolution on CPC History (1949–81). (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1981). p. 32.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 May 1966 – The Communist Party of China issues the "May 16 Notice", marking the beginning of the Cultural Revolution.

    Cultural Revolution

    The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976. Launched by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society, and to re-impose Mao Zedong Thought as the dominant ideology within the Party. The Revolution marked Mao's return to a position of power after the Great Leap Forward. The movement paralyzed China politically and negatively affected the country's economy and society to a significant degree.

    The movement was launched in May 1966, after Mao alleged that bourgeois elements had infiltrated the government and society at large, aiming to restore capitalism. To eliminate his rivals within the Communist Party of China, Mao insisted that these "revisionists" be removed through violent class struggle. China's youth responded to Mao's appeal by forming Red Guard groups around the country. The movement spread into the military, urban workers, and the Communist Party leadership itself. It resulted in widespread factional struggles in all walks of life. In the top leadership, it led to a mass purge of senior officials, most notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. During the same period, Mao's personality cult grew to immense proportions.

    In the violent struggles that ensued across the country, millions of people were persecuted and suffered a wide range of abuses including public humiliation, arbitrary imprisonment, torture, hard labor, sustained harassment, seizure of property and sometimes execution. A large segment of the population was forcibly displaced, most notably the transfer of urban youth to rural regions during the Down to the Countryside Movement. Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed. Cultural and religious sites were ransacked.

    Mao officially declared the Cultural Revolution to have ended in 1969, but its active phase lasted until the death of military leader and proposed Mao successor Lin Biao in 1971. After Mao's death and the arrest of the Gang of Four in 1976, reformers led by Deng Xiaoping gradually began to dismantle the Maoist policies associated with the Cultural Revolution. In 1981, the Party declared that the Cultural Revolution was "responsible for the most severe setback and the heaviest losses suffered by the Party, the country, and the people since the founding of the People's Republic".[1]

    1. ^ "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China," adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on June 27, 1981 Resolution on CPC History (1949–81). (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1981). p. 32.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 May 1875Aristides wins the first Kentucky Derby.

    Kentucky Derby

    The Kentucky Derby /ˈdɜːrbi/, is a horse race that is held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, United States, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. The race is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds at a distance of one and a quarter miles (2 km) at Churchill Downs. Colts and geldings carry 126 pounds (57 kilograms) and fillies 121 pounds (55 kilograms).[1]

    The race is often called "The Run for the Roses" for the blanket of roses draped over the winner. It is also known in the United States as "The Most Exciting Two Minutes In Sports" or "The Fastest Two Minutes in Sports" in reference to its approximate duration. It is the first leg of the American Triple Crown and is followed by the Preakness Stakes, then the Belmont Stakes. Unlike the Preakness and Belmont Stakes, which took hiatuses in 1891–1893 and 1911–1912, respectively, the Kentucky Derby has been run every consecutive year since 1875, even during both World Wars. A horse must win all three races to win the Triple Crown.[2] In the 2015 listing of the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA), the Kentucky Derby tied with the Whitney Handicap as the top Grade 1 race in the United States outside the Breeders' Cup races.[3]

    The attendance at the Kentucky Derby ranks first in North America and usually surpasses the attendance of all other stakes races including the Preakness Stakes, Belmont Stakes, and the Breeders' Cup.[4]

    1. ^ "Tenth Race Churchill May 1, 2004". May 1, 2004. Daily Racing Forum. Accessed on May 9, 2006.
    2. ^ Novak, Claire (September 23, 2013). "Will Take Charge Wins Pennsylvania Derby". Blood Horse. Retrieved February 22, 2014. 
    3. ^ "The World's Top 100 G1 Races for 3yo's and upwards" (PDF). www.ifhaonline.org. International Federation of Horseracing Authorities. Retrieved March 3, 2015. 
    4. ^ ^ 2009 The Original Racing Almanac, page 140 for Kentucky Derby, page 156 for the Preakness Stakes, page 241 for Kentucky Oaks, page 167 for Belmont Stakes, page 184 Breeders' Cup, June 26, 2008.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 May 1756 – The Seven Years' War begins when Great Britain declares war on France.

    Seven Years' War

    The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain (including Prussia, Portugal, Hanover, and other small German states) on one side and the Kingdom of France (including the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire, Bourbon Spain, and Sweden) on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal. The war's extent has led some historians to describe it as "World War Zero", similar in scale to other world wars.[4]

    Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might, France and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side. Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, and Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power.

     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 May 1756 – The Seven Years' War begins when Great Britain declares war on France.

    Seven Years' War

    The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain (including Prussia, Portugal, Hanover, and other small German states) on one side and the Kingdom of France (including the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire, Bourbon Spain, and Sweden) on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal. The war's extent has led some historians to describe it as "World War Zero", similar in scale to other world wars.[4]

    Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might, France and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side. Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, and Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power.

     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 May 1802Napoleon Bonaparte founds the Legion of Honour.

    Legion of Honour

    The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (French: Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur),[2] is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

    The order's motto is "Honneur et Patrie" ("Honour and Fatherland"), and its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the River Seine in Paris.[3]

    The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier (Knight), Officier (Officer), Commandeur (Commander), Grand-officier (Grand Officer), and Grand-croix (Grand Cross).

    1. ^ le petit Larousse 2013 p1567
    2. ^ Formerly the Royal Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre royal de la Légion d'honneur)
    3. ^ The award for the French Legion of Hono(u)r is known by many titles, also depending on the five levels of degree: Knight of the Legion of Honour; Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur; Officer of the Legion of Honour; Officier de la Légion d'honneur; Commander of the Legion of Honour; Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur; Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour; Grand-officier de la Légion d'honneur; Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour; Grand'Croix de la Légion d'honneur. The word honneur is often capitalised, as in the name of the palace Palais de la Légion d'Honneur.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 May 1969 – The Battle of Hamburger Hill in Vietnam ends.

    Battle of Hamburger Hill

    The Battle of Hamburger Hill was a battle of the Vietnam War that was fought by U.S. Army and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces against People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) forces from 10 to 20 May 1969 during Operation Apache Snow. Although the heavily fortified Hill 937 was of little strategic value, U.S. command ordered its capture by a frontal assault, only to abandon it soon thereafter. The action caused a controversy both in the American military and public.

    The battle was primarily an infantry engagement, with the U.S. Airborne troops moving up the steeply-sloped hill against well entrenched troops. Attacks were repeatedly repelled by the PAVN defenses. Bad weather also hindered operations. Nevertheless, the Airborne troops took the hill through direct assault, causing extensive casualties to the PAVN forces.

     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 May 1904 – The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) is founded in Paris.

    FIFA

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox organization with unknown parameter "motto" (this message is shown only in preview).

    The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA /ˈffə/ FEEF; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991.

    FIFA was founded in 1904[3] to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. Member countries must each also be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Asia, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean, Oceania, and South America.

    Although FIFA does not control the rules of football (that being the responsibility of the International Football Association Board), it is responsible for both the organization of a number of tournaments and their promotion, which generate revenue from sponsorship. In 2013, FIFA had revenues of over US$1.3 billion, for a net profit of 72 million, and had cash reserves of over US$1.4 billion.[4]

    Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption, bribery, and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA President Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively. These allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U.S. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, and money laundering. On 27 May 2015, several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the 2018 and 2022 World Cups. Those among these officials who were also indicted in the U.S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well.[5][6][7] Many officials were suspended by FIFA's ethics committee including Sepp Blatter[8] and Michel Platini.[9] In early 2017 reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections[10] of both chairmen of the ethics committee, Cornel Borbély and Hans-Joachim Eckert, during the FIFA congress in May 2017.[11][12] On May 9, 2017, following Infantino's proposal,[13] FIFA Council decided not to renew the mandates of Borbély and Eckert.[13] Together with the chairmen, eleven of 13 committee members were removed.[14]

    1. ^ "Fédération Internationale de Football Association". Filmcircle.com. 11 June 2014. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
    2. ^ FIFA.com. "FIFA Committees - FIFA Council - FIFA.com". Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
    3. ^ FIFA.com. "History of FIFA - Foundation - FIFA.com". FIFA.com. Retrieved 2018-06-15. 
    4. ^ "FIFA Financial Report 2013". FIFA. 
    5. ^ "FIFA officials arrested on corruption charges; Sepp Blatter isn't among them". 27 May 2015. 
    6. ^ "Nine FIFA Officials and Five Corporate Executives Indicted for Racketeering Conspiracy and Corruption". U.S. DOJ Office of Public Affairs. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
    7. ^ Mike Collett & Brian Homewood (27 May 2015). "World soccer rocked as top officials held in U.S., Swiss graft cases". Reuters. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
    8. ^ "Sepp Blatter and Michel Platini banned for eight years by Fifa". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
    9. ^ "Rise and fall of Michel Platini - the self-proclaimed 'football man' who forgot the meaning of integrity". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
    10. ^ Conn, David (2017-03-02). "Trust in Fifa has improved only slightly under Gianni Infantino, survey finds". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
    11. ^ Reuters (2017-03-15). "FIFA Ethics Chiefs Facing Uncertain Future". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
    12. ^ "Infantino at 1. Are the Ethics bigwigs the next stop on his personal 'reform' agenda?". Inside World Football. 2017-02-27. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
    13. ^ a b "FIFA Ethics Committee still investigating 'hundreds' of cases: Borbely". Reuters. 2017-05-10. Retrieved 2017-05-10. 
    14. ^ Conn, David (2017-05-10). "Fifa's ousted ethics heads were investigating 'hundreds' of cases". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-05-10. 
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 May 1906 – The Wright brothers are granted U.S. patent number 821,393 for their "Flying-Machine".

    Wright brothers

    The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane. They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft on December 17, 1903, four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1904–05 the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.

    The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of three-axis control, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.[4][5][6][7] This method became and remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds.[8][9] From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on developing a reliable method of pilot control as the key to solving "the flying problem". This approach differed significantly from other experimenters of the time who put more emphasis on developing powerful engines.[10] Using a small homebuilt wind tunnel, the Wrights also collected more accurate data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers that were more efficient than any before.[11][12] Their first U.S. patent, 821,393, did not claim invention of a flying machine, but rather, the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated a flying machine's surfaces.[13]

    They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice.[14] From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots. Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first airplane engine in close collaboration with the brothers.

    The Wright brothers' status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties. Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators. Edward Roach, historian for the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park argues that they were excellent self-taught engineers who could run a small company, but they did not have the business skills or temperament to dominate the growing aviation industry.[15]

    1. ^ "The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Aerial Age". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
    2. ^ Mary Ann. Johnson (September 28, 2001). "Following the Footsteps of the Wright Brothers: Their Sites and Stories Symposium Papers". Wright State University. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015. 
    3. ^ "Flying through the ages". BBC News. March 19, 1999. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2009. 
    4. ^ "Inventing a Flying Machine – The Breakthrough Concept". The Wright Brothers and the Invention of the Aerial Age, Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    5. ^ "Wagging Its Tail". The Wright Story – Inventing the Airplane, wright-brothers.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    6. ^ "Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms". National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    7. ^ Gareth D Padfield; Ben Lawrence. "The Birth of Flight Control: An Engineering Analysis of the Wright Brothers' 1902 Glider" (PDF). The Aeronautical Journal. Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, UK (December 2003): 697. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
    8. ^ Howard 1988, p. 89.
    9. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 183.
    10. ^ Mortimer 2009, p. 2.
    11. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 156.
    12. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 228.
    13. ^ "Flying Machine patent". google.com/patents. May 22, 1906. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
    14. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 169.
    15. ^ Roach, Edward J. The Wright Company: From Invention to Industry. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-0-8214-2051-5, page 2.
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 May 1906 – The Wright brothers are granted U.S. patent number 821,393 for their "Flying-Machine".

    Wright brothers

    The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane. They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft on December 17, 1903, four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1904–05 the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.

    The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of three-axis control, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.[4][5][6][7] This method became and remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds.[8][9] From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on developing a reliable method of pilot control as the key to solving "the flying problem". This approach differed significantly from other experimenters of the time who put more emphasis on developing powerful engines.[10] Using a small homebuilt wind tunnel, the Wrights also collected more accurate data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers that were more efficient than any before.[11][12] Their first U.S. patent, 821,393, did not claim invention of a flying machine, but rather, the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated a flying machine's surfaces.[13]

    They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice.[14] From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots. Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first airplane engine in close collaboration with the brothers.

    The Wright brothers' status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties. Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators. Edward Roach, historian for the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park argues that they were excellent self-taught engineers who could run a small company, but they did not have the business skills or temperament to dominate the growing aviation industry.[15]

    1. ^ "The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Aerial Age". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
    2. ^ Mary Ann. Johnson (September 28, 2001). "Following the Footsteps of the Wright Brothers: Their Sites and Stories Symposium Papers". Wright State University. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015. 
    3. ^ "Flying through the ages". BBC News. March 19, 1999. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2009. 
    4. ^ "Inventing a Flying Machine – The Breakthrough Concept". The Wright Brothers and the Invention of the Aerial Age, Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    5. ^ "Wagging Its Tail". The Wright Story – Inventing the Airplane, wright-brothers.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    6. ^ "Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms". National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    7. ^ Gareth D Padfield; Ben Lawrence. "The Birth of Flight Control: An Engineering Analysis of the Wright Brothers' 1902 Glider" (PDF). The Aeronautical Journal. Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, UK (December 2003): 697. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
    8. ^ Howard 1988, p. 89.
    9. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 183.
    10. ^ Mortimer 2009, p. 2.
    11. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 156.
    12. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 228.
    13. ^ "Flying Machine patent". google.com/patents. May 22, 1906. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
    14. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 169.
    15. ^ Roach, Edward J. The Wright Company: From Invention to Industry. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-0-8214-2051-5, page 2.
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 May 2006 – Alaskan stratovolcano Mount Cleveland erupts.

    Mount Cleveland (Alaska)

    Mount Cleveland (also known as Cleveland Volcano) is a nearly symmetrical stratovolcano on the western end of Chuginadak Island, which is part of the Islands of Four Mountains just west of Umnak Island in the Fox Islands of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Mt. Cleveland is 5,675 ft (1,730 m) high, and one of the most active of the 75 or more volcanoes in the larger Aleutian Arc. Aleutian natives named the island after their fire goddess, Chuginadak, who they believed inhabited the volcano. In 1894 a team from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey visited the island and gave Mount Cleveland its current name, after then-president Grover Cleveland.

    One of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc, Cleveland has erupted at least 22 times in the last 230 years. A VEI 3 eruption in 1944 produced the arc's only known volcanic fatality. Most recently Mount Cleveland has erupted three times in 2009, twice in 2010, once in 2011 and in 2016 and 2017.[1] The volcano's remoteness limits opportunities for its study, and the Alaska Volcano Observatory relies heavily on satellites for monitoring. The volcano is primarily hazardous to aircraft; many of the flights over the north Pacific approach the vicinity of the volcano, and volcanic ash released from eruptions can damage sensitive electronic equipment and sensors.

    1. ^ a b c d "Cleveland description and statistics". Alaska Volcano Observatory. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
    2. ^ "Alaska & Hawaii P1500s - the Ultras". PeakList.org. Retrieved 2013-01-06. 
    3. ^ K .L. Wallace; R. G. McGimpsy & T. P. Miller (2000). "Historically Active Volcanoes in Alaska – A Quick Reference" (PDF). Fact Sheet FS 0118-00. United States Geological Survey. p. 2. Retrieved 9 September 2010. 
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 May 1956 – The first Eurovision Song Contest is held in Lugano, Switzerland.

    Eurovision Song Contest

    The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la chanson),[1] often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union. Each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio, then casts votes for the other countries' songs to determine the winner. Over 40 countries are currently eligible to compete[2] and since 2015 Australia has been allowed as a guest entrant.[3][4][5][6]

    Winning the Eurovision Song Contest often provides a short-term career boost for artists, but rarely results in long-term success.[7] Exceptions are ABBA (winner in 1974 for Sweden), Bucks Fizz (winner in 1981 for the United Kingdom), and Celine Dion (winner in 1988 for Switzerland), all of whom launched successful careers.

    Based on the Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951, Eurovision has been broadcast every year since its inauguration in 1956, making it the longest-running annual international television contest and one of the world's longest-running television programmes. It is also one of the most watched non-sporting events,[8] with audience figures of between 100 million and 600 million internationally.[9][10] It has been broadcast in several countries that do not compete, such as the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and China. Since 2000, it has been broadcast online via the Eurovision website.[11] The contest has been described as having kitsch appeal.[12][13]

    Ireland holds the record for most victories, with seven wins, including four times in five years in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. Under the current voting system, in place since 2015, the highest-scoring winner is Salvador Sobral of Portugal who won the 2017 contest in Kiev, Ukraine, with 758 points; under the previous system, the highest-scoring winner was Alexander Rybak of Norway with 387 points in 2009.

    1. ^ "Winners of the Eurovision Song Contest" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2007. 
    2. ^ "Eurovision recognised by Guinness World Records as the largest in the world and the longest-running annual TV programme (international)". Guinness World Records. 
    3. ^ "Eurovision Trivia" (PDF). BBC Online. 2002. Retrieved 18 July 2006. 
    4. ^ "Eurovision Song Contest 1972". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
    5. ^ "Eurovision Song Contest 2004 Final". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
    6. ^ Jordan, Paul (31 October 2016). "43 countries to participate in Eurovision 2017". eurovision.tv. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 31 October 2016. 
    7. ^ "Serbia's "Prayer" wins Eurovision Song Contest". Reuters. 14 May 2007. 
    8. ^ "Live Webcast". European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original on 25 May 2006. Retrieved 25 May 2006. 
    9. ^ "Finland wins Eurovision contest". Al Jazeera English. 21 May 2006. Retrieved 8 May 2007. 
    10. ^ Murray, Matthew. "Eurovision Song Contest – International Music Program". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on 13 January 2005. Retrieved 15 July 2006. 
    11. ^ Philip Laven (July 2002). "Webcasting and the Eurovision Song Contest". European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2006. 
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  13. Admin2

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    25 May 1833 – The Chilean Constitution of 1833 is promulgated.

    Chilean Constitution of 1833

    Painting of Diego Portales. The Constitution of 1833 has been seen as the embodiement of the "Portalian thought".

    The Constitution of 1833 was the constitution used in Chile from 1833 to 1925 when it was replaced by the Constitution of 1925. One of the most long-lived constitutions of Latin America it was used to endorse both an authoritarian presidentialist system and from 1891 onwards an oligarchic parliamentary system.

    The constitution emerged after the Chilean Civil War of 1829 in which the conservative Pelucones (Whigs) defeated the Pipiolos (liberals). Its main ideologues where Mariano Egaña, Manuel José Gandarillas and Diego Portales all of whom saw from a conservative point of view the necessity of a unitarian state under a strong leadership. The constitution made Catholicism the state religion and forbade the practise of other religions, both in public and private life.[1] The first president to be elected under the constitution was the general José Joaquín Prieto. The constitution allowed for 5 year terms with the possibility of one reelection which resulted in 3 consecutive conservative presidents ruling Chile each for 10 years. Mariano Egaña had initially aimed at not putting any restriction on reelection.

    Chilean liberals considered the constitution authoritarian and made attempts to overthrow the government. During the failed Revolution of 1851 liberals in La Serena declared the constitution abolished. After the first liberal 10-year-long government the constitution was amended in 1871 to eliminate reelections.

    After the 1891 Chilean Civil War the constitution was amended in 1891, 1892 and 1893, and was interpreted to endorse a parliamentary system. Chilean historiography refers to this period as the "pseudo-parliamentary epoch".

    It was not until the turmoils of the 1920s that the constitution was replaced by the Constitution of 1925.

    1. ^ Lagos Schuffeneger, Humberto and Chacón Herrera, Arturo. 1987. Los Evangélicos en Chile: Una lectura sociológica. Ediciones Literatura Americana Reunida. p. 17.
     
  14. Admin2

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    26 May 1966British Guiana gains independence, becoming Guyana.

    British Guiana

    British Guiana was the name of the British colony, part of the British West Indies (Caribbean), on the northern coast of South America, now known as the independent nation of Guyana. Its indigenous people are the Arawak-speaking Lucayan, part of the Taino people.

    The first European to discover Guiana was Sir Walter Raleigh, an English explorer. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle there, starting in the early 17th century, when they founded the colonies of Essequibo and Berbice, adding Demerara in the mid-18th century. In 1796, Great Britain took over these three colonies during hostilities with the French, who had occupied the Netherlands. Britain returned control to the Batavian Republic in 1802, but captured the colonies a year later during the Napoleonic Wars. The colonies were officially ceded to the United Kingdom in 1814, and consolidated into a single colony in 1831. The colony's capital was at Georgetown (known as Stabroek prior to 1812).

    As the British developed the colony for sugarcane plantations, they imported many Africans as slave labour.[citation needed] The economy became more diversified since the late 19th century, but has relied on resource exploitation. Guyana became independent of the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966.

    1. ^ "The British Empire in 1924". The British Empire. Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 May 1199John is crowned King of England.

    John, King of England

    John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre),[1] was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. John lost the Duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

    John, the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, however, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed the Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young; by the time Richard I became king in 1189, John was a potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's royal administrators whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade. Despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England, and came to an agreement with Philip II of France to recognise John's possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet in 1200.

    When war with France broke out again in 1202, John achieved early victories, but shortages of military resources and his treatment of Norman, Breton, and Anjou nobles resulted in the collapse of his empire in northern France in 1204. John spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances. John's judicial reforms had a lasting impact on the English common law system, as well as providing an additional source of revenue. An argument with Pope Innocent III led to John's excommunication in 1209, a dispute finally settled by the king in 1213. John's attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed due to the French victory over John's allies at the battle of Bouvines. When he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, who were unhappy with his fiscal policies and his treatment of many of England's most powerful nobles. Although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke out shortly afterwards, with the barons aided by Louis of France. It soon descended into a stalemate. John died of dysentery contracted whilst on campaign in eastern England during late 1216; supporters of his son Henry III went on to achieve victory over Louis and the rebel barons the following year.

    Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has since been the subject of significant debate and periodic revision by historians from the 16th century onwards. Historian Jim Bradbury has summarised the current historical opinion of John's positive qualities, observing that John is today usually considered a "hard-working administrator, an able man, an able general".[2] Nonetheless, modern historians agree that he also had many faults as king, including what historian Ralph Turner describes as "distasteful, even dangerous personality traits", such as pettiness, spitefulness, and cruelty.[3] These negative qualities provided extensive material for fiction writers in the Victorian era, and John remains a recurring character within Western popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories depicting the Robin Hood legends.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Norgate (1902), pp. 1–2.
    2. ^ Bradbury (2007), p.353.
    3. ^ Turner, p.23.
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 May 1871 – Fall of the Paris Commune.

    Paris Commune

    The Paris Commune (French: La Commune de Paris, IPA: [la kɔmyn də paʁi]) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871. Following the defeat of Emperor Napoleon III in September 1870, the Second French Empire swiftly collapsed. In its stead rose a Third Republic at war with Prussia, which laid siege to Paris for four months. A hotbed of working-class radicalism, France's capital was primarily defended during this time by the often politicized and radical troops of the National Guard rather than regular Army troops. In February 1871 Adolphe Thiers, the new chief executive of the French national government, signed an armistice with Prussia that disarmed the Army but not the National Guard.

    Soldiers of the Commune's National Guard killed two French army generals, and the Commune refused to accept the authority of the French government. The regular French Army suppressed the Commune during "La semaine sanglante" ("The Bloody Week") beginning on 21 May 1871.[7] Debates over the policies and outcome of the Commune had significant influence on the ideas of Karl Marx, who described it as an example of the "dictatorship of the proletariat".[8]

    1. ^ "Les aspects militaires de la Commune par le colonel Rol-Tanguy". Association des Amies et Amis de la Commune de Paris 1871. 
    2. ^ Milza, 2009a, p. 319
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Versailles1875 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Tombs, Robert, "How Bloody was la Semaine sanglante of 1871? A Revision". The Historical Journal, September 2012, vol. 55, issue 03, pp. 619-704
    5. ^ Rougerie, Jacques, La Commune de 1871," p. 118
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lissagaray1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. '^ Robert Tombs, The War Against Paris, 1871 (1981).
    8. ^ Rougerie, Jacques, Paris libre- 1871. pp. 264-270
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 May 1945 – First combat mission of the Consolidated B-32 Dominator heavy bomber.

    Consolidated B-32 Dominator

    The Consolidated B-32 Dominator (Consolidated Model 34) was an American heavy strategic bomber built for United States Army Air Forces during World War II, which had the distinction of being the last Allied aircraft to be engaged in combat during World War II. It was developed by Consolidated Aircraft in parallel with the Boeing B-29 Superfortress as a fallback design should the B-29 prove unsuccessful.[1] The B-32 only reached units in the Pacific during mid-1945, and subsequently only saw limited combat operations against Japanese targets before the end of the war. Most of the extant orders of the B-32 were canceled shortly thereafter and only 118 B-32 airframes of all types were built.

    1. ^ Jones 1974, p. 106.
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 May 1975European Space Agency is established.

    European Space Agency

    The European Space Agency (ESA; French: Agence spatiale européenne, ASE;[4][5] German: Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states[6] dedicated to the exploration of space. Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris, France, ESA has a worldwide staff of about 2,000[7] and an annual budget of about €5.25 billion / US$5.77 billion (2016).[8]

    ESA's space flight programme includes human spaceflight (mainly through participation in the International Space Station programme); the launch and operation of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon; Earth observation, science and telecommunication; designing launch vehicles; and maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana. The main European launch vehicle Ariane 5 is operated through Arianespace with ESA sharing in the costs of launching and further developing this launch vehicle.

    The agency's facilities are distributed among the following centres:

     
  19. Admin2

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    31 May 1859 – The clock tower at the Houses of Parliament, which houses Big Ben, starts keeping time.

    Big Ben

    Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London[1] and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower.[2][3] The official name of the tower in which Big Ben is located was originally the Clock Tower, but it was renamed Elizabeth Tower in 2012 to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

    The tower was designed by Augustus Pugin in a neo-gothic style. When completed in 1859, its clock was the largest and most accurate four-faced striking and chiming clock in the world.[4] The tower stands 315 feet (96 m) tall, and the climb from ground level to the belfry is 334 steps. Its base is square, measuring 39 feet (12 m) on each side. Dials of the clock are 23 feet (7.0 m) in diameter. On 31 May 2009, celebrations were held to mark the tower's 150th anniversary.[5]

    Big Ben is the largest of five bells and weighs 13.5 long tons (13.7 tonnes; 15.1 short tons).[1] It was the largest bell in the United Kingdom for 23 years. The origin of the bell's nickname is open to question; it may be named after Sir Benjamin Hall, who oversaw its installation, or heavyweight boxing champion Benjamin Caunt. Four quarter bells chime at 15, 30 and 45 minutes past the hour and just before Big Ben tolls on the hour. The clock uses its original Victorian mechanism, but an electric motor can be used as a backup.

    The tower is a British cultural icon recognised all over the world. It is one of the most prominent symbols of the United Kingdom and parliamentary democracy,[6] and it is often used in the establishing shot of films set in London.[7] The clock tower has been part of a Grade I listed building since 1970 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987.

    On 21 August 2017, a four-year schedule of renovation works began on the tower, which are to include the addition of a lift. There are also plans to re-glaze and repaint the clock dials. With a few exceptions, such as New Year's Eve and Remembrance Sunday, the bells are to be silent until the work has been completed in the 2020s.

    1. ^ a b "The Story of Big Ben". Whitechapel Bell Foundry. Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
    2. ^ Fowler, H. W. (1976). The Concise Oxford dictionary of current English. First edited by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler (Sixth ed.). Clarendon Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-19-861121-8. Big Ben, great bell, clock, and tower, of Houses of Parliament 
    3. ^ "Big Ben 'bongs' to be silenced for £29m refurbishment". BBC News. BBC. 26 April 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016. 
    4. ^ Excell, Jon (5 July 2016). "Why is Big Ben falling silent?". BBC. 
    5. ^ "Join in the anniversary celebrations". UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. 
    6. ^ "Palace of Westminster and Westminster Abbey including Saint Margaret's Church". UNESCO. 
    7. ^ "Big Ben in films and popular culture". The Daily Telegraph. 8 November 2016. 
     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 June 1980Cable News Network (CNN) begins broadcasting.

    CNN

    Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.[1] CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel.[2] Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage,[3] and was the first all-news television channel in the United States.[4]

    While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN primarily broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, and studios in Washington, D.C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U.S. (or CNN Domestic[5]) to distinguish the American channel from its international sister network, CNN International.

    As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U.S. households.[6] Broadcast coverage of the U.S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms,[6] as well as carriage on cable and satellite providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 cable, satellite, and telco television households (82.8% of households with at least one television set) in the United States.[7] Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories.[8]

    1. ^ Time Warner: Turner Broadcasting Archived January 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
    2. ^ "Charles Bierbauer, CNN senior Washington correspondent, discusses his 19-year career at CNN. (May 8, 2000)". Cnn.com. Retrieved October 12, 2013. 
    3. ^ "CNN changed news – for better and worse". Taipei Times. May 31, 2005. Retrieved January 24, 2009. 
    4. ^ Kiesewetter, John (May 28, 2000). "In 20 years, CNN has changed the way we view the news". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved January 24, 2009. 
    5. ^ "CNN Show Pages". www.cnn.com. Retrieved August 30, 2016. 
    6. ^ a b "This date in deal history: CNN begins broadcasting". Deal Magazine. May 31, 2006. Archived from the original on June 24, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2006. 
    7. ^ Staff (July 21, 2015). "List of how many homes each cable network is in as of July 2015". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved August 9, 2017. 
    8. ^ "CNN is Viewers Cable Network of Choice for Democratic and Republican National Convention Coverage". Time Warner. August 18, 2000. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 June 1964 – The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is formed.

    Palestine Liberation Organization

    The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; Arabic: منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية‎, About this sound Munaẓẓamat at-Taḥrīr al-Filasṭīniyyah ) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.[5][6][7][8][9][7][10][11] It is recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" by over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations,[12][13] and has enjoyed observer status at the United Nations since 1974.[14][15][16] The PLO was considered by the United States and Israel to be a terrorist organization[17][18] until the Madrid Conference in 1991. In 1993, the PLO recognized Israel's right to exist in peace, accepted UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, and rejected "violence and terrorism". In response, Israel officially recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people.[19] However, the PLO has employed violence in the years since 1993, particularly during the 2000-2005 Second Intifada.

    1. ^ Arabs Create Organization For Recovery of Palestine The New York Times; 29 May 1964; "JERUSALEM, (Jordanian Sector) 28 May (Reuters) -The creation of Palestine liberation organization was announced today..."
    2. ^ "In West Bank, Ramallah looks ever more like capital". 30 November 2010 – via Reuters. 
    3. ^ "Abbas: Referendum law is 'obstacle to peace' - Middle East - Jerusalem Post". Jpost.com. 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
    4. ^ National Anthems. "Palestine". 
    5. ^ Beyer, Lisa (2004-11-12). "Arafat: A Life in Retrospect - TIME". Content.time.com. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
    6. ^ "Profile: Fatah Palestinian movement". BBC News. 2009-08-04. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
    7. ^ a b "How Arafat's Palestinian Authority Became an "Entity Supporting Terrorism"". Jcpa.org. 2001-12-09. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
    8. ^ "Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)". Adl.org. 1993-09-09. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
    9. ^ "PLO to Limit Attacks, Arafat Says". Articles.latimes.com. 2000-10-17. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
    10. ^ "Arafat's Vision of Peace: - A Textual Analysis - The Washington Institute for Near East Policy". Washingtoninstitute.org. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
    11. ^ "Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) | Palestinian political organization". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
    12. ^ Madiha Rashid al Madfai, Jordan, the United States and the Middle East Peace Process, 1974–1991, Cambridge Middle East Library, Cambridge University Press (1993). ISBN 0-521-41523-3. p. 21:"On 28 October 1974, the seventh Arab summit conference held in Rabat designated the PLO as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people and reaffirmed their right to establish an independent state of urgency."
    13. ^ Geldenhuys, Deon (1990). Isolated states: a comparative analysis. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-521-40268-9. The organisation has also been recognized as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people by well over 100 states… 
    14. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3210. "Invites the Palestine Liberation Organization, the representative of the Palestinian people, to participate in the deliberations of the General Assembly on the question of Palestine in plenary meetings."
    15. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3236. "Having heard the statement of the Palestine Liberation Organization, the representative of the Palestinian people, …"
    16. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3237
    17. ^ U.S. Code TITLE 22 > CHAPTER 61 > § 5201. Findings; determinations, Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
    18. ^ Rachel Ehrenfeld. "FUNDING EVIL, How Terrorism Is Financed -- and How to Stop It" (PDF). Eufunding.org.uk\accessdate=2017-03-08. 
    19. ^ Kim Murphy. "Israel and PLO, in Historic Bid for Peace, Agree to Mutual Recognition," Los Angeles Times, 10 September 1993.
     
  22. Admin2

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    3 June 1940World War II: The Luftwaffe bombs Paris.

    Luftwaffe

    Luftwaffe review, 1937

    The Luftwaffe[N 2] (German pronunciation: [ˈlʊftvafə] (About this sound listen)) was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force.

    During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe was officially established on 26 February 1935. The Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a valuable testing ground for new doctrines and aircraft. Partially as a result of this combat experience, the Luftwaffe had become one of the most sophisticated, technologically advanced, and battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II broke out in 1939.[9] By the summer of 1939, the Luftwaffe had twenty-eight Geschwader (wings). The Luftwaffe also operated Fallschirmjäger paratrooper units.

    The Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in 1939 and 1940. During the Battle of Britain, however, despite inflicting severe damage to the RAF's infrastructure and, during the subsequent Blitz, devastating many British cities, the German air force failed to batter the beleaguered British into submission. From 1942, Allied bombing campaigns gradually destroyed the Luftwaffe's fighter arm. From late 1942, the Luftwaffe used its surplus ground, support and other personnel to raise Luftwaffe Field Divisions.

    In addition to its service in the West, the Luftwaffe operated over the Soviet Union, North Africa and Southern Europe. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket propelled aircraft for the destruction of Allied bombers, the Luftwaffe was overwhelmed by the Allies' superior numbers and improved tactics, and a lack of trained pilots and aviation fuel. In January 1945, during the closing stages of the Battle of the Bulge, the Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiority, and met with failure. With rapidly dwindling supplies of petroleum, oil, and lubricants after this campaign, and as part of the entire combined Wehrmacht military forces as a whole, the Luftwaffe ceased to be an effective fighting force. After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946. During World War II, German pilots claimed roughly 70,000 aerial victories, while over 75,000 Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or significantly damaged. Of these, nearly 40,000 were lost entirely. The Luftwaffe had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history: Hermann Göring and later Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim for the last two weeks of the war. The Luftwaffe High Command was involved in Nazi medical experiments.

    1. ^ "Control Council Law No. 34, Resolution of the Wehrmacht of 20 August 1946" (in German). Official Gazette of the Control Council for Germany, 1 May 2004 – 7 June 2004, p. 172.
    2. ^ Tom Philo. "WWII production figures". Taphilo.com. Retrieved April 26, 2014. 
    3. ^ Jason Pipes (2008). "Statistics and Numbers". Feldgrau.com. Retrieved April 26, 2014. 
    4. ^ Hartmann, Bert. "Luftarchiv.de - Kennzeichen - Allgemein, Abb.4 - Balkenkreuz auf Flügelunterseite und Rumpf". Luftarchiv.de. Retrieved April 15, 2018. 
    5. ^ Hartmann, Bert. "Luftarchiv.de - Kennzeichen - Allgemein, Abb.4 - Balkenkreuz auf Flügeloberseite". Luftarchiv.de. Retrieved April 15, 2018. 
    6. ^ Hartmann, Bert. "Luftarchiv.de - Kennzeichen - Varianten des Hakenkreuzes, Abb.2". Luftarchiv.de. Retrieved April 14, 2018. 
    7. ^ Entry in German dictionary Duden
    8. ^ Stedman, Robert F. (20 November 2012). Luftwaffe Air & Ground Crew 1939-45. Osprey Publishing Limited. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-78200-685-5. 
    9. ^ Killen 2003, p. 93


    Cite error: There are <ref group=N> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=N}} template (see the help page).

     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 June 1940World War II: The Luftwaffe bombs Paris.

    Luftwaffe

    Luftwaffe review, 1937

    The Luftwaffe[N 2] (German pronunciation: [ˈlʊftvafə] (About this sound listen)) was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force.

    During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe was officially established on 26 February 1935. The Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a valuable testing ground for new doctrines and aircraft. Partially as a result of this combat experience, the Luftwaffe had become one of the most sophisticated, technologically advanced, and battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II broke out in 1939.[9] By the summer of 1939, the Luftwaffe had twenty-eight Geschwader (wings). The Luftwaffe also operated Fallschirmjäger paratrooper units.

    The Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in 1939 and 1940. During the Battle of Britain, however, despite inflicting severe damage to the RAF's infrastructure and, during the subsequent Blitz, devastating many British cities, the German air force failed to batter the beleaguered British into submission. From 1942, Allied bombing campaigns gradually destroyed the Luftwaffe's fighter arm. From late 1942, the Luftwaffe used its surplus ground, support and other personnel to raise Luftwaffe Field Divisions.

    In addition to its service in the West, the Luftwaffe operated over the Soviet Union, North Africa and Southern Europe. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket propelled aircraft for the destruction of Allied bombers, the Luftwaffe was overwhelmed by the Allies' superior numbers and improved tactics, and a lack of trained pilots and aviation fuel. In January 1945, during the closing stages of the Battle of the Bulge, the Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiority, and met with failure. With rapidly dwindling supplies of petroleum, oil, and lubricants after this campaign, and as part of the entire combined Wehrmacht military forces as a whole, the Luftwaffe ceased to be an effective fighting force. After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946. During World War II, German pilots claimed roughly 70,000 aerial victories, while over 75,000 Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or significantly damaged. Of these, nearly 40,000 were lost entirely. The Luftwaffe had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history: Hermann Göring and later Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim for the last two weeks of the war. The Luftwaffe High Command was involved in Nazi medical experiments.

    1. ^ "Control Council Law No. 34, Resolution of the Wehrmacht of 20 August 1946" (in German). Official Gazette of the Control Council for Germany, 1 May 2004 – 7 June 2004, p. 172.
    2. ^ Tom Philo. "WWII production figures". Taphilo.com. Retrieved April 26, 2014. 
    3. ^ Jason Pipes (2008). "Statistics and Numbers". Feldgrau.com. Retrieved April 26, 2014. 
    4. ^ Hartmann, Bert. "Luftarchiv.de - Kennzeichen - Allgemein, Abb.4 - Balkenkreuz auf Flügelunterseite und Rumpf". Luftarchiv.de. Retrieved April 15, 2018. 
    5. ^ Hartmann, Bert. "Luftarchiv.de - Kennzeichen - Allgemein, Abb.4 - Balkenkreuz auf Flügeloberseite". Luftarchiv.de. Retrieved April 15, 2018. 
    6. ^ Hartmann, Bert. "Luftarchiv.de - Kennzeichen - Varianten des Hakenkreuzes, Abb.2". Luftarchiv.de. Retrieved April 14, 2018. 
    7. ^ Entry in German dictionary Duden
    8. ^ Stedman, Robert F. (20 November 2012). Luftwaffe Air & Ground Crew 1939-45. Osprey Publishing Limited. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-78200-685-5. 
    9. ^ Killen 2003, p. 93


    Cite error: There are <ref group=N> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=N}} template (see the help page).

     
  24. Admin2

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    4 June 1989 – The Tiananmen Square protests are violently ended in Beijing by the People's Liberation Army, with at least 241 dead.

    Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

    The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989. More broadly, it refers to the popular national movement inspired by the Beijing protests during that period, sometimes called the '89 Democracy Movement (八九民运). The protests were forcibly suppressed after Chinese Premier Li Peng declared martial law. In what became known in the West as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, troops with automatic rifles and tanks killed at least several hundred demonstrators trying to block the military's advance towards Tiananmen Square. The number of civilian deaths has been estimated variously from 180 to 10,454.[2][5]

    Set against a backdrop of rapid economic development and social changes in post-Mao China, the protests reflected anxieties about the country's future in the popular consciousness and among the political elite. The reforms of the 1980s had led to a nascent market economy which benefitted some people but seriously disaffected others; the one-party political system also faced a challenge of legitimacy. Common grievances at the time included inflation, limited preparedness of graduates for the new economy, and restrictions on political participation. The students called for democracy, greater accountability, freedom of the press, and freedom of speech, though they were loosely organized and their goals varied.[6][7] At the height of the protests, about a million people assembled in the Square.[8]

    As the protests developed, the authorities veered back and forth between conciliatory and hardline tactics, exposing deep divisions within the party leadership.[9] By May, a student-led hunger strike galvanized support for the demonstrators around the country and the protests spread to some 400 cities.[10] Ultimately, China's paramount leader Deng Xiaoping and other Communist Party elders believed the protests to be a political threat, and resolved to use force.[11][12] The State Council declared martial law on May 20, and mobilized as many as 300,000 troops to Beijing.[10] The troops ruthlessly suppressed the protests by firing at demonstrators with automatic weapons, killing hundreds of protesters and leading to mass civil unrest in the days following.

    The Chinese government was internationally denounced for the violent military response to the protests. Western countries imposed severe economic sanctions and arms embargoes on Chinese entities and officials.[13] In response, the Chinese government verbally attacked the protestors and denounced Western nations who had imposed sanctions on China by accusing them of interference in China's internal affairs, which elicited heavier condemnation by the West.[14][15][16] It made widespread arrests of protesters and their supporters, suppressed other protests around China, expelled foreign journalists, strictly controlled coverage of the events in the domestic press, strengthened the police and internal security forces, and demoted or purged officials it deemed sympathetic to the protests.[17] More broadly, the suppression temporarily halted the policies of liberalization in the 1980s. Considered a watershed event, the protests also set the limits on political expression in China well into the 21st century. Its memory is widely associated with questioning the legitimacy of Communist Party rule, and remains one of the most sensitive and most widely censored political topics in mainland China.[18][19]

    1. ^ Richard Bernstein, "In Taiwan, Sympathies Lean Toward Home," New York Times, 4 June 1989, 121
    2. ^ a b Cheng, Kris (21 December 2017). "Declassified: Chinese official said at least 10,000 civilians died in 1989 Tiananmen massacre, documents show". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  Political chief of 38th Army Li Zhiyun and US Government documents, respectively
    3. ^ Lusher, Adam (24 December 2017). "At least 10,000 people died in Tiananmen Square massacre, secret British cable from the time alleged". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 24 December 2017. 
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference reassessment was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Jan Wong, Red China Blues, Random House 1997, p. 278.
    6. ^ Nathan, Andrew J. (January–February 2001). "The Tiananmen Papers". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on July 6, 2004. Retrieved November 3, 2010. 
    7. ^ Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History; George Washington University
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference zhao171 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Anthony Saich, The People's Movement: Perspective on Spring 1989 M.E. Sharpe 1990, ISBN 9780873327466. p. 172.
    10. ^ a b Thomas 2006.
    11. ^ Miles, James (June 2, 2009). "Tiananmen killings: Were the media right?". BBC News. Retrieved January 15, 2012. 
    12. ^ "Declassified British cable" (PDF). Retrieved January 6, 2017. 
    13. ^ Clayton Dube, Talking Points, June 3–18, 2014
    14. ^ "China slams U.S. over Tiananmen statement". CNN. 4 June 2012. 
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference vog was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference TheAge was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Miles, James (1997). The Legacy of Tiananmen: China in Disarray. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08451-7. p. 28.
    18. ^ "The Consequences of Tiananmen", Andrew J. Nathan.
    19. ^ Goodman, David S. G. (1994). Deng Xiaoping and the Chinese revolution. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-11252-9. p. 112.
     
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    5 June 1963 – The British Secretary of State for War, John Profumo, resigns in a sex scandal known as the "Profumo affair".

    Profumo affair

    John Profumo in 1960, at his desk as Secretary of State for War

    The Profumo affair was a British political scandal that originated with a brief sexual relationship in 1961 between John Profumo, the Secretary of State for War in Harold Macmillan's Conservative government, and Christine Keeler, a 19-year-old would-be model. In March 1963, Profumo's denial of any impropriety, in a personal statement[n 1] to the House of Commons, was refuted a few weeks later with his admission of the truth. He resigned from the government and from Parliament. The repercussions of the affair severely damaged Macmillan's self-confidence, and he resigned as Prime Minister on health grounds in October 1963. His Conservative Party was marked by the scandal, which may have contributed to its defeat by the Labour Party in the 1964 general election.

    When the Profumo–Keeler affair was first revealed, public interest was heightened by reports that Keeler may have been simultaneously involved with Captain Yevgeny Ivanov, a Soviet naval attaché, thereby creating a possible security risk. Keeler knew both Profumo and Ivanov through her friendship with Stephen Ward, an osteopath and socialite who had taken her under his wing. The exposure of the affair generated rumours of other scandals, and drew official attention to the activities of Ward, who was charged with a series of immorality offences. Perceiving himself as a scapegoat for the misdeeds of others, Ward took a fatal overdose during the final stages of his trial, which found him guilty of living off the immoral earnings of Keeler and her friend Mandy Rice-Davies.

    An inquiry into the affair by a senior judge, Lord Denning, indicated that there had been no breaches of security arising from the Ivanov connection, although Denning's report was later condemned as superficial and unsatisfactory. Profumo subsequently sought private atonement as a volunteer worker at Toynbee Hall, an East London charitable trust. He died in 2006.

    Keeler found it difficult to escape the negative image attached to her by press, law and parliament throughout the Profumo affair. In various, sometimes contradictory accounts, she has challenged Denning's conclusions relating to security issues. Ward's conviction has been described by analysts as an act of Establishment revenge, rather than serving justice. In January 2014 his case was under review by the Criminal Cases Review Commission, with the possibility of a later reference to the Court of Appeal. Dramatisations of the Profumo affair have been shown on stage and screen.

    1. ^ Young, p. 17


    Cite error: There are <ref group=n> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=n}} template (see the help page).

     
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    6 June 1889 – The Great Seattle Fire destroys all of downtown Seattle.

    Great Seattle Fire

    Start of the Great Seattle Fire, looking south on 1st Avenue near Madison Street.

    The Great Seattle Fire was a fire that destroyed the entire central business district of Seattle, Washington, on June 6, 1889. The fire burned for several hours, destroying 25 blocks and causing as much as $20 million in damage ($527 million in today's dollars). As a result of the fire, streets in the Pioneer Square neighborhood in Seattle were elevated 22 feet (6.7 m) above the pre-fire street level and new buildings made of wood were banned. It also eventually led to the City of Seattle switching from multiple private water suppliers to a single municipal water supply.

     
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    7 June 1942 1942 – World War II: The Battle of Midway ends in American victory.

    Battle of Midway

    The Battle of Midway was a decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II which occurred between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea.[6][7][8] The United States Navy under Admirals Chester Nimitz, Frank Jack Fletcher, and Raymond A. Spruance defeated an attacking fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy under Admirals Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, and Nobutake Kondo near Midway Atoll, inflicting devastating damage on the Japanese fleet that proved irreparable. Military historian John Keegan called it "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare."[9]

    The Japanese operation, like the earlier attack on Pearl Harbor, sought to eliminate the United States as a strategic power in the Pacific, thereby giving Japan a free hand in establishing its Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The Japanese hoped another demoralizing defeat would force the U.S. to capitulate in the Pacific War and thus ensure Japanese dominance in the Pacific. Luring the American aircraft carriers into a trap and occupying Midway was part of an overall "barrier" strategy to extend Japan's defensive perimeter, in response to the Doolittle air raid on Tokyo. This operation was also considered preparatory for further attacks against Fiji, Samoa, and Hawaii itself.

    The plan was handicapped by faulty Japanese assumptions of the American reaction and poor initial dispositions. Most significantly, American cryptographers were able to determine the date and location of the planned attack, enabling the forewarned U.S. Navy to prepare its own ambush. There were seven aircraft carriers involved in the battle and four of Japan's large fleet carriers—Akagi, Kaga, Sōryū and Hiryū, part of the six-carrier force that had attacked Pearl Harbor six months earlier—and a heavy cruiser were sunk, while the U.S. lost only the carrier Yorktown and a destroyer.

    After Midway and the exhausting attrition of the Solomon Islands campaign, Japan's capacity to replace its losses in materiel (particularly aircraft carriers) and men (especially well-trained pilots and maintenance crewmen) rapidly became insufficient to cope with mounting casualties, while the United States' massive industrial and training capabilities made losses far easier to replace. The Battle of Midway, along with the Guadalcanal Campaign, is widely considered a turning point in the Pacific War.

    1. ^ Blair 1975, p. 240 map
    2. ^ Parshall & Tully 2005, pp. 90–91
    3. ^ "The Battle of Midway". Office of Naval Intelligence. 
    4. ^ Parshall & Tully 2005, p. 524
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference ParTulcas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ a b "Battle of Midway: June 4–7, 1942". Naval History & Heritage Command. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
    7. ^ Dull 1978, p. 166
    8. ^ "A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers: Battle of Midway". U.S. Navy. 2007. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007. 
    9. ^ Keegan 2005, p. 275
     
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    8 June 1949 – George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four is published.

    Nineteen Eighty-Four

    Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell.[2][3] The novel is set in the year 1984 when most of the world population have become victims of perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance and public manipulation.

    In the novel, Great Britain ("Airstrip One") has become a province of a superstate named Oceania. Oceania is ruled by the "Party", who employ the "Thought Police" to persecute individualism and independent thinking.[4] The Party's leader is Big Brother, who enjoys an intense cult of personality but may not even exist. The protagonist of the novel, Winston Smith, is a rank-and-file Party member. Smith is an outwardly diligent and skillful worker, but he secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion against Big Brother. Smith rebels by entering a forbidden relationship with fellow employee Julia.

    As literary political fiction and dystopian science-fiction, Nineteen Eighty-Four is a classic novel in content, plot, and style. Many of its terms and concepts, such as Big Brother, doublethink, thoughtcrime, Newspeak, Room 101, telescreen, 2 + 2 = 5, and memory hole, have entered into common usage since its publication in 1949. Nineteen Eighty-Four popularised the adjective Orwellian, which describes official deception, secret surveillance, brazenly misleading terminology, and manipulation of recorded history by a totalitarian or authoritarian state.[5] In 2005, the novel was chosen by Time magazine as one of the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005.[6] It was awarded a place on both lists of Modern Library 100 Best Novels, reaching number 13 on the editor's list, and 6 on the readers' list.[7] In 2003, the novel was listed at number 8 on the BBC's survey The Big Read.[8]

    1. ^ "OCLC Classify". classify.oclc.org. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
    2. ^ Murphy, Bruce (1996). Benét's reader's encyclopedia. New York: Harper Collins. p. 734. ISBN 0061810886. 
    3. ^ Aaronovitch, David (8 February 2013). "1984: George Orwell's road to dystopia". BBC News. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
    4. ^ Chernow, Barbara; Vallasi, George (1993). The Columbia Encyclopedia (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 2030. OCLC 334011745. 
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference English Literature 2000. p. 726 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Grossman, Lev; Lacayo, Richard (6 October 2005). "All-Time 100 Novels. 1984 (1949), by George Orwell". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 19 October 2012
    7. ^ "100 Best Novels". Modern Library. Retrieved 19 October 2012
    8. ^ "BBC – The Big Read". BBC. April 2003. Retrieved 19 October 2012
     
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    9 June 1923Bulgaria's military takes over the government in a coup.

    Bulgarian coup d'état of 1923

    The Bulgarian coup d'état of 1923, also known as the 9 June coup d'état (Bulgarian: Деветоюнски преврат, Devetoyunski prevrat), was a coup d'état in Bulgaria implemented by armed forces under General Ivan Valkov's Military Union on the eve of 9 June 1923. Hestitantly legitimated by a decree of Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria, it overthrew the government of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union headed by Aleksandar Stamboliyski and replaced it with one under Aleksandar Tsankov.

     
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    10 June 1838Myall Creek massacre: Twenty-eight Aboriginal Australians are murdered.

    Myall Creek massacre

    Recolouration of Myall Creek Massacre scene lithograph - "Australian Aborigines Slaughtered by Convicts, by Phiz, The Book of Remarkable Trials, 1840; Chronicles of Crime V. II, 1841." produced for a Gamilaraay Surviving Descendants community project

    The Myall Creek massacre near Gwydir River, in the central New South Wales district of Namoi, involved the killing of up to 30 unarmed indigenous Australians by ten Europeans and one African on 10 June 1838 at the Myall Creek near Bingara, Murchison County, in northern New South Wales.[1] After two trials, seven of the 11 colonists involved in the killings were found guilty of murder and hanged.[1]

    1. ^ a b "Myall Creek Massacre and Memorial Site". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 25 June 2008. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. 
     
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    11 June 1509Henry VIII of England marries Catherine of Aragon.

    Henry VIII of England

    Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII.

    Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings.[2]

    Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering into England the theory of the divine right of kings. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, he greatly expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quell dissent, and those accused were often executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder. He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry's administration. He was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money that was formerly paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly continental wars, particularly with Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, as he sought to enforce his claim to the Kingdom of France. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland.

    His contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated and accomplished king. He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne".[3] He was an author and composer. As he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.[4] He was succeeded by his son Edward VI.

    1. ^ Westminsterabbey 2017.
    2. ^ Scarisbrick 1997, p. 361
    3. ^ Guy 2000, p. 41.
    4. ^ Ives 2006, pp. 28–36
     
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    12 June 1939 – The Baseball Hall of Fame opens in Cooperstown, New York.

    National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum

    The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, and operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, and honors those who have excelled in playing, managing, and serving the sport. The Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations."

    The word Cooperstown is often used as shorthand (or a metonym) for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum.

    The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by Stephen Carlton Clark, the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, and Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, and the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939. (Clark's granddaughter, Jane Forbes Clark, is the current chairman of the Board of Directors.)

    The erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.

    An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994.[2] Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999.[3]

    In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years. The Hall of Fame has since also sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005. The Hall of Fame also presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game.

    Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008.[4] He had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum."[3]

    1. ^ "Staff Directory". National Baseball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 11 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
    2. ^ "Museum History". National Baseball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. Retrieved 2017-10-21. 
    3. ^ a b The Official Site of Major League Baseball: News: HOF president Petroskey resigns from the Major League Baseball website
    4. ^ "Jeff Idelson named Hall of Fame president". USA Today. Associated Press. 2008-04-16. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
     
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    13 June 2002 – The United States withdraws from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

    Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

    The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty or ABMT) (1972—2002) was an arms control treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons. Under the terms of the treaty, each party was limited to two ABM complexes, each of which was to be limited to 100 anti-ballistic missiles.[1]

    Signed in 1972, it was in force for the next 30 years.[2] In 1997, five years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, four former Soviet republics agreed with the United States to succeed the USSR's role in the treaty. In June 2002 the United States withdrew from the treaty, leading to its termination.

    1. ^ Henry T. Nash (1 May 1975). Nuclear Weapons and International Behaviour. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 9028602658. Each site would consist of 100 ABMs, or a total of 200 ABMs for each country 
    2. ^ "Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems". Bureau of Arms Control. United States Department of State. 26 May 1972. 
     
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    14 June 1907 – Norway grants women the right to vote.

    Women's suffrage

    Poster of the German Women's Movement, 1914:
    „Heraus mit dem Frauenwahlrecht“ (= "Get out with Women's Suffrage")
    British suffragettes demonstrating for the right to vote in 1911
    U.S. women suffragists demonstrating in February 1913
    Louise Weiss (front) along with other suffragettes demonstrating in Paris in 1935

    Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.[1] Limited voting rights were gained by women in Finland, Iceland, Sweden and some Australian colonies and western U.S. states in the late 19th century.[2] National and international organizations formed to coordinate efforts to gain voting rights, especially the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (founded in 1904, Berlin, Germany), and also worked for equal civil rights for women.[3]

    In 1881, the Isle of Man gave women who owned property the right to vote. In 1893, the British colony of New Zealand granted women the right to vote.[4] The colony of South Australia did the same in 1895 and women were able to vote in the next election, which was held in 1896.[5] South Australia also permitted women to stand for election alongside men.[6] In 1899 Western Australia enacted full women's suffrage, enabling women to vote in the constitutional referendum of 31 July 1900 and the 1901 state and federal elections.[7] In 1902 women in the remaining four colonies also acquired the right to vote and stand in federal elections after the six Australian colonies federated to become the Commonwealth of Australia. Discriminatory restrictions against Aboriginal people, including women, voting in national elections, were not completely removed until 1962.[8][9][10]

    The first European country to introduce women's suffrage was the Grand Duchy of Finland, then part of the Russian Empire, which elected the world's first women Members of Parliament in the 1907 parliamentary elections. Norway followed, granting full women's suffrage in 1913. Denmark followed in 1915, and the Soviet Union followed in 1917.

    Most independent countries enacted women's suffrage in the interwar era, including Canada in 1917, Britain (over 30 in 1918, over 21 in 1928), Germany, Poland in 1918, Austria and the Netherlands in 1919, and the United States in 1920 (Voting Rights Act of 1965 secured voting rights for racial minorities). Leslie Hume argues that the First World War changed the popular mood:

    The women's contribution to the war effort challenged the notion of women's physical and mental inferiority and made it more difficult to maintain that women were, both by constitution and temperament, unfit to vote. If women could work in munitions factories, it seemed both ungrateful and illogical to deny them a place in the polling booth. But the vote was much more than simply a reward for war work; the point was that women's participation in the war helped to dispel the fears that surrounded women's entry into the public arena.[11]

    Late adopters in Europe were Spain in 1933, France in 1944, Italy in 1946, Greece in 1952,[12] San Marino in 1959, Monaco in 1962,[13] Andorra in 1970,[14] Switzerland in 1971 at federal level,[15] and at local canton level between 1959 in the cantons of Vaud and Neuchâtel and 1991 in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden,[16] and Liechtenstein in 1984.[17] In addition, although women in Portugal obtained suffrage in 1931, this was with stronger restrictions than those of men; full gender equality in voting was only granted in 1976.[13][18]

    The United States gave women equal voting rights in all states with the Nineteenth Amendment ratified in 1920. Brazil implemented full voting rights for women in 1932. Canada and some Latin American nations passed women's suffrage before World War II while the vast majority of Latin American nations established women's suffrage in the 1940s, with the exception of Uruguay in 1917 (see table in Summary below). The last Latin American country to give women the right to vote was Paraguay in 1961.[19][20] In December 2015, women were first allowed to vote in Saudi Arabia (municipal elections).[21]

    Extended political campaigns by women and their supporters have generally been necessary to gain legislation or constitutional amendments for women's suffrage. In many countries, limited suffrage for women was granted before universal suffrage for men; for instance, literate women or property owners were granted suffrage before all men received it. The United Nations encouraged women's suffrage in the years following World War II, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979) identifies it as a basic right with 189 countries currently being parties to this Convention.

    1. ^ Anon. "Suffragist". oxforddictionaries.com. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 17 January 2018. 
    2. ^ Ellen Carol DuBois (1998). Woman Suffrage and Women's Rights. NYU Press. pp. 174–6. ISBN 9780814719015. 
    3. ^ Allison Sneider, "The New Suffrage History: Voting Rights in International Perspective", History Compass, (July 2010) 8#7 pp 692–703,
    4. ^ Christine., Lindop, (2008). Australia and New Zealand. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780194233903. OCLC 361237847. 
    5. ^ Taylor, Alyce (18 December 2012). "On this day: SA gives women the vote". Australian Geographic. Retrieved 16 June 2018. 
    6. ^ "Women's Suffrage Petition 1894" (PDF). parliament.sa.gov.au. 
    7. ^ "Legislative Assembly". The West Australian. Perth, WA. 15 December 1899. p. 7. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
    8. ^ Link text, additional text.
    9. ^ "Foundingdocs.gov.au". Foundingdocs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2010-12-03. Retrieved 2011-01-08. 
    10. ^ EC (2013-02-15). "First in the World". Elections.org.nz. New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
    11. ^ Leslie Hume (2016). The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies 1897–1914. Routledge. p. 281. ISBN 9781317213260. 
    12. ^ teske@fczb.de, Kerstin Teske:. "European Database: Women in Decision-making - Country Report Greece". www.db-decision.de. 
    13. ^ a b Seppälä, Nina. "Women and the Vote in Western Europe" (PDF). idea.int. pp. 33–35. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
    14. ^ "BBC News – Timeline: Andorra". bbc.co.uk. 
    15. ^ Bonnie G. Smith, ed. (2008). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 171 vol 1. ISBN 9780195148909. 
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Women dominate new Swiss cabinet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ "AROUND THE WORLD; Liechtenstein Women Win Right to Vote". The New York Times. 1984-07-02. 
    18. ^ BBC. "BBC – Radio 4 Woman's Hour – Timeline:When women got the vote". bbc.co.uk. 
    19. ^ "PARAGUAY: Women Growing in Politics – at Pace Set by Men". ipsnews.net. 
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference Timeline was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ Gorney, Cynthia (December 12, 2015). "In a Historic Election, Saudi Women Cast First-Ever Ballots". National Geographic. Retrieved December 12, 2015. 
     
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    15 June 1864American Civil War: The Second Battle of Petersburg begins.

    Second Battle of Petersburg

    The Second Battle of Petersburg, also known as the Assault on Petersburg, was fought June 15–18, 1864, at the beginning of the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign (popularly known as the Siege of Petersburg). Union forces under Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant attempted to capture Petersburg, Virginia, before Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia could reinforce the city.

    The four days included repeated Union assaults against substantially smaller forces commanded by Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard. Beauregard's strong defensive positions and poorly coordinated actions by the Union generals (notably Maj. Gen. William F. "Baldy" Smith, who squandered the best opportunity for success on June 15) made up for the disparity in the sizes of the armies. By June 18, the arrival of significant reinforcements from Lee's army made further assaults impractical. The failure of the Union to defeat the Confederates in these actions resulted in the start of the ten-month Siege of Petersburg.

    1. ^ a b c Further information: Official Records, Series I, Volume XL, Part 1, pages 218-238.
    2. ^ a b Eicher, pp. 689–90; Esposito, text for map 138.
    3. ^ a b Bonekemper, p. 313. The author presents casualty figures from a wide variety of sources and provides his best estimate. Trudeau, p. 55, agrees with the 4,000 Confederate losses, but cites Union killed and wounded at 8,150, with an additional 1,814 missing. Kennedy, p. 353, cites 9,964–10,600 for the Union, 2,974–4,700 for the Confederates; Salmon, p. 406, cites 8,150 Federal and 3,236 Confederate casualties.
     
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    16 June 1961Rudolf Nureyev defects from the Soviet Union.

    Rudolf Nureyev

    Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev (Tatar: Рудольф Хәмит улы Нуриев Rudolf Xämid ulı Nuriyev, Russian: Рудо́льф Хаме́тович Нуре́ев, IPA: [rʊˈdolʲf nʊˈrʲɛjɪf]; 17 March 1938 – 6 January 1993) was a Soviet ballet and contemporary dancer and choreographer. He was director of the Paris Opera Ballet from 1983 to 1989 and its chief choreographer until October 1992.

    Named Lord of the Dance,[1][2][3] Nureyev is regarded as the greatest male ballet dancer.[1][4][5][6][7]

    In addition to his technical prowess, Rudolf Nureyev was an accomplished choreographer. He produced his own interpretations of numerous classical works,[8] including Swan Lake, Giselle, and La Bayadère.[9]

    Nureyev had his early career with the Mariinsky Ballet in St. Petersburg. He defected from the Soviet Union to the West in 1961, despite KGB efforts to stop him.[10] This was the first defection of a Soviet artist during the Cold War and it created an international sensation.

    He went on to dance with The Royal Ballet in London and from 1983 to 1989 served as director of the Paris Opera Ballet.

    1. ^ a b Lord of the dance - Rudolf Nureyev at the National Film Theatre, London, 1-31 January 2003, by John Percival, The Independent, 26 December 2002.
    2. ^ A Couture Worthy Ode to la Mode of the Original Lord of the Dance: *RUDOLF NUREYEV A Life in Dance*, review, FashionTribes.com, 29 August 2012.
    3. ^ (in French) "The Lord of the Dance, Rudolf Nureyev died this evening" announcement by Christine Ockrent in the news program "Le soir" from 6 janvier 1993 on France 3 on the Occasion of the Death of Rudolf Nureyev, site Institut national de l'audiovisuel (1 min 47).
    4. ^ Rudolf Nureyev, Charismatic Dancer Who Gave Fire to Ballet's Image, Dies at 54, by Jack Anderson, The Independent, 7 January 1993.
    5. ^ (in French) Rudolf Noureev exercising at the barre, 21 December 1970, site INA (4 min 13).
    6. ^ Philippe Noisette, (in French) « Que reste-t-il de Noureev ? », Les Échos, 1 March 2013.
    7. ^ Famous Male Ballet Dancers, Ranker 2018.
    8. ^ Rudolf Nureyev's Choreographies, Rudolf Nureyev Foundation official website.
    9. ^ (in French) Benjamin Millepied, le pari de Stéphane Lissner, Paris Match, 26 January 2013.
    10. ^ Bridcut, John (17 September 2007). "The KGB's long war against Rudolf Nureyev". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
     
  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 June 1987 – With the death of the last individual of the species, the dusky seaside sparrow becomes extinct.

    Dusky seaside sparrow

    The dusky seaside sparrow, Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens, was a non-migratory subspecies of the seaside sparrow, found in Florida in the natural salt marshes of Merritt Island and along the St. Johns River. The last definite known individual died on June 17, 1987,[1] and the subspecies was officially declared extinct in December 1990.

    1. ^ Newsweek, June 9, 2008 page 45
     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 June 1979SALT II is signed by the United States and the Soviet Union.

    Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

    The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two rounds of bilateral conferences and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of arms control. The two rounds of talks and agreements were SALT I and SALT II.

    Negotiations commenced in Helsinki, Finland, in November 1969.[1] SALT I led to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and an interim agreement between the two countries. Although SALT II resulted in an agreement in 1979, the United States Senate chose not to ratify the treaty in response to the Soviet war in Afghanistan, which took place later that year. The Soviet legislature also did not ratify it. The agreement expired on December 31, 1985 and was not renewed.

    The talks led to the STARTs, or Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, which consisted of START I (a 1991 completed agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union) and START II (a 1993 agreement between the United States and Russia, which was never ratified by the United States), both of which proposed limits on multiple-warhead capacities and other restrictions on each side's number of nuclear weapons. A successor to START I, New START, was proposed and was eventually ratified in February 2011.

    1. ^ Paterson, Thomas G (2009). American foreign relations: a history. Vol. 2 Vol. 2 (7 ed.). Wadsworth. p. 376. ISBN 9780547225692. 
     
  39. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 June 1913Natives Land Act, 1913 in South Africa implemented.

    Natives Land Act, 1913

    The Natives Land Act, 1913 (subsequently renamed Bantu Land Act, 1913 and Black Land Act, 1913; Act No. 27 of 1913) was an Act of the Parliament of South Africa that was aimed at regulating the acquisition of land.

     
  40. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 June 1631 – The sack of Baltimore: The Irish village of Baltimore is attacked by Algerian pirates.

    Sack of Baltimore

    The Sack of Baltimore took place on June 20, 1631, when the village of Baltimore, West Cork, Ireland, was attacked by the Ottoman Algeria and Republic of Salé slavers from the Barbary Coast of North Africa – Moroccans, Dutchmen, Algerians and Ottoman Turks. The attack was the largest by Barbary pirates on either Ireland or Great Britain.[1]

    The attack was led by a Dutch captain, Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, also known as Murad Reis the Younger. Murad's force was led to the village by a man called Hackett, the captain of a fishing boat he had captured earlier, in exchange for his freedom. Hackett was subsequently hanged from the clifftop outside the village for his conspiracy.[2]

    1. ^ http://www.baltimore.ie/heritage-history/the-sack-of-baltimore-1631.html
    2. ^ Ó Domhnaill, Rónán Gearóid (2015). Fadó Fadó: More Tales of Lesser-Known Irish History. Troubador Publishing Ltd,. p. 34. ISBN 9781784622305. Retrieved 15 June 2015. The truth soon emerged and he was hanged from the cliff top outside the village for his conspiracy 
     

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