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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 May 1966 – The Communist Party of China issues the "May 16 Notice", marking the beginning of the Cultural Revolution.

    Cultural Revolution

    The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976. Launched by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society, and to re-impose Maoist thought as the dominant ideology within the Party. The Revolution marked Mao's return to a position of power after the Great Leap Forward. The movement paralyzed China politically and negatively affected the country's economy and society to a significant degree.

    The movement was launched in May 1966, after Mao alleged that bourgeois elements had infiltrated the government and society at large, aiming to restore capitalism. To eliminate his rivals within the Communist Party of China, Mao insisted that these "revisionists" be removed through violent class struggle. China's youth responded to Mao's appeal by forming Red Guard groups around the country. The movement spread into the military, urban workers, and the Communist Party leadership itself. It resulted in widespread factional struggles in all walks of life. In the top leadership, it led to a mass purge of senior officials, most notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. During the same period, Mao's personality cult grew to immense proportions.

    In the violent struggles that ensued across the country, millions of people were persecuted and suffered a wide range of abuses including public humiliation, arbitrary imprisonment, torture, hard labor, sustained harassment, seizure of property and sometimes execution. A large segment of the population was forcibly displaced, most notably the transfer of urban youth to rural regions during the Down to the Countryside Movement. Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed. Cultural and religious sites were ransacked.

    Mao officially declared the Cultural Revolution to have ended in 1969, but its active phase lasted until the death of military leader and proposed Mao successor Lin Biao in 1971. After Mao's death and the arrest of the Gang of Four in 1976, reformers led by Deng Xiaoping gradually began to dismantle the Maoist policies associated with the Cultural Revolution. In 1981, the Party declared that the Cultural Revolution was "responsible for the most severe setback and the heaviest losses suffered by the Party, the country, and the people since the founding of the People's Republic".[1]

    1. ^ "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China," adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on June 27, 1981 Resolution on CPC History (1949–81). (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1981). p. 32.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 May 1966 – The Communist Party of China issues the "May 16 Notice", marking the beginning of the Cultural Revolution.

    Cultural Revolution

    The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976. Launched by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society, and to re-impose Maoist thought as the dominant ideology within the Party. The Revolution marked Mao's return to a position of power after the Great Leap Forward. The movement paralyzed China politically and negatively affected the country's economy and society to a significant degree.

    The movement was launched in May 1966, after Mao alleged that bourgeois elements had infiltrated the government and society at large, aiming to restore capitalism. To eliminate his rivals within the Communist Party of China, Mao insisted that these "revisionists" be removed through violent class struggle. China's youth responded to Mao's appeal by forming Red Guard groups around the country. The movement spread into the military, urban workers, and the Communist Party leadership itself. It resulted in widespread factional struggles in all walks of life. In the top leadership, it led to a mass purge of senior officials, most notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. During the same period, Mao's personality cult grew to immense proportions.

    In the violent struggles that ensued across the country, millions of people were persecuted and suffered a wide range of abuses including public humiliation, arbitrary imprisonment, torture, hard labor, sustained harassment, seizure of property and sometimes execution. A large segment of the population was forcibly displaced, most notably the transfer of urban youth to rural regions during the Down to the Countryside Movement. Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed. Cultural and religious sites were ransacked.

    Mao officially declared the Cultural Revolution to have ended in 1969, but its active phase lasted until the death of military leader and proposed Mao successor Lin Biao in 1971. After Mao's death and the arrest of the Gang of Four in 1976, reformers led by Deng Xiaoping gradually began to dismantle the Maoist policies associated with the Cultural Revolution. In 1981, the Party declared that the Cultural Revolution was "responsible for the most severe setback and the heaviest losses suffered by the Party, the country, and the people since the founding of the People's Republic".[1]

    1. ^ "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China," adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on June 27, 1981 Resolution on CPC History (1949–81). (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1981). p. 32.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 May 1875Aristides wins the first Kentucky Derby.

    Kentucky Derby

    The Kentucky Derby /ˈdɜːrbi/, is a horse race that is held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, United States, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. The race is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds at a distance of one and a quarter miles (2 km) at Churchill Downs. Colts and geldings carry 126 pounds (57 kilograms) and fillies 121 pounds (55 kilograms).[1]

    The race is often called "The Run for the Roses" for the blanket of roses draped over the winner. It is also known in the United States as "The Most Exciting Two Minutes In Sports" or "The Fastest Two Minutes in Sports" in reference to its approximate duration. It is the first leg of the American Triple Crown and is followed by the Preakness Stakes, then the Belmont Stakes. Unlike the Preakness and Belmont Stakes, which took hiatuses in 1891–1893 and 1911–1912, respectively, the Kentucky Derby has been run every consecutive year since 1875, even during both World Wars. A horse must win all three races to win the Triple Crown.[2] In the 2015 listing of the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA), the Kentucky Derby tied with the Whitney Handicap as the top Grade 1 race in the United States outside the Breeders' Cup races.[3]

    The attendance at the Kentucky Derby ranks first in North America and usually surpasses the attendance of all other stakes races including the Preakness Stakes, Belmont Stakes, and the Breeders' Cup.[4]

    1. ^ "Tenth Race Churchill May 1, 2004". May 1, 2004. Daily Racing Forum. Accessed on May 9, 2006.
    2. ^ Novak, Claire (September 23, 2013). "Will Take Charge Wins Pennsylvania Derby". Blood Horse. Retrieved February 22, 2014. 
    3. ^ "The World's Top 100 G1 Races for 3yo's and upwards" (PDF). www.ifhaonline.org. International Federation of Horseracing Authorities. Retrieved March 3, 2015. 
    4. ^ ^ 2009 The Original Racing Almanac, page 140 for Kentucky Derby, page 156 for the Preakness Stakes, page 241 for Kentucky Oaks, page 167 for Belmont Stakes, page 184 Breeders' Cup, June 26, 2008.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 May 1756 – The Seven Years' War begins when Great Britain declares war on France.

    Seven Years' War

    The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain (including Prussia, Portugal, Hanover, and other small German states) on one side and the Kingdom of France (including the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire, Bourbon Spain, and Sweden) on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal. The war's extent has led some historians to describe it as "World War Zero", similar in scale to other world wars.[4]

    Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might, France and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side. Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, and Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power.

     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 May 1756 – The Seven Years' War begins when Great Britain declares war on France.

    Seven Years' War

    The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain (including Prussia, Portugal, Hanover, and other small German states) on one side and the Kingdom of France (including the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire, Bourbon Spain, and Sweden) on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal. The war's extent has led some historians to describe it as "World War Zero", similar in scale to other world wars.[4]

    Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might, France and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side. Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, and Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power.

     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 May 1802Napoleon Bonaparte founds the Legion of Honour.

    Legion of Honour

    The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (French: Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur),[2] is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

    The order's motto is "Honneur et Patrie" ("Honour and Fatherland"), and its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the River Seine in Paris.[3]

    The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier (Knight), Officier (Officer), Commandeur (Commander), Grand-officier (Grand Officer), and Grand-croix (Grand Cross).

    1. ^ le petit Larousse 2013 p1567
    2. ^ Formerly the Royal Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre royal de la Légion d'honneur)
    3. ^ The award for the French Legion of Hono(u)r is known by many titles, also depending on the five levels of degree: Knight of the Legion of Honour; Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur; Officer of the Legion of Honour; Officier de la Légion d'honneur; Commander of the Legion of Honour; Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur; Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour; Grand-officier de la Légion d'honneur; Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour; Grand'Croix de la Légion d'honneur. The word honneur is often capitalised, as in the name of the palace Palais de la Légion d'Honneur.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 May 1969 – The Battle of Hamburger Hill in Vietnam ends.

    Battle of Hamburger Hill

    The Battle of Hamburger Hill was a battle of the Vietnam War that was fought by U.S. Army and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces against People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) forces from 10 to 20 May 1969 during Operation Apache Snow. Although the heavily fortified Hill 937 was of little strategic value, U.S. command ordered its capture by a frontal assault, only to abandon it soon thereafter. The action caused a controversy both in the American military and public.

    The battle was primarily an infantry engagement, with the U.S. Airborne troops moving up the steeply-sloped hill against well entrenched troops. Attacks were repeatedly repelled by the PAVN defenses. Bad weather also hindered operations. Nevertheless, the Airborne troops took the hill through direct assault, causing extensive casualties to the PAVN forces.

    1. ^ Smedberg, M(2008) (2008). Vietnamkrigen: 1880-1980. Historiska Media. p. 211. 
    2. ^ "Battle of Dong Ap Bia - Hill 937 10–21 May 1969" (PDF). 
    3. ^ "Battles of the Vietnam War". 
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 May 1904 – The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) is founded in Paris.

    FIFA

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox organization with unknown parameter "motto" (this message is shown only in preview).

    The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA /ˈffə/ FEEF; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991.

    FIFA was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. Member countries must each also be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Asia, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean, Oceania, and South America.

    Although FIFA does not control the rules of football (that being the responsibility of the International Football Association Board), it is responsible for both the organization of a number of tournaments and their promotion, which generate revenue from sponsorship. In 2013, FIFA had revenues of over 1.3 billion U.S. dollars, for a net profit of 72 million, and had cash reserves of over 1.4 billion U.S. dollars.[3]

    Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption, bribery, and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA President Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively. These allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U.S. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, and money laundering. On 27 May 2015, several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the 2018 and 2022 World Cups. Those among these officials who were also indicted in the U.S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well.[4][5][6] Many officials were suspended by FIFA's ethics committee including Sepp Blatter[7] and Michel Platini.[8] In early 2017 reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections[9] of both chairmen of the ethics committee, Cornel Borbély and Hans-Joachim Eckert, during the FIFA congress in May 2017.[10][11] On May 9, 2017, following Infantino's proposal,[12] FIFA Council decided not to renew the mandates of Borbély and Eckert.[12] Together with the chairmen, eleven of 13 committee members were removed.[13]

    1. ^ "Fédération Internationale de Football Association". Filmcircle.com. 11 June 2014. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
    2. ^ FIFA.com. "FIFA Committees - FIFA Council - FIFA.com". Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
    3. ^ "FIFA Financial Report 2013". FIFA. 
    4. ^ "FIFA officials arrested on corruption charges; Sepp Blatter isn't among them". 27 May 2015. 
    5. ^ "Nine FIFA Officials and Five Corporate Executives Indicted for Racketeering Conspiracy and Corruption". U.S. DOJ Office of Public Affairs. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
    6. ^ Mike Collett & Brian Homewood (27 May 2015). "World soccer rocked as top officials held in U.S., Swiss graft cases". Reuters. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
    7. ^ "Sepp Blatter and Michel Platini banned for eight years by Fifa". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
    8. ^ "Rise and fall of Michel Platini - the self-proclaimed 'football man' who forgot the meaning of integrity". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
    9. ^ Conn, David (2017-03-02). "Trust in Fifa has improved only slightly under Gianni Infantino, survey finds". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
    10. ^ Reuters (2017-03-15). "FIFA Ethics Chiefs Facing Uncertain Future". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
    11. ^ "Infantino at 1. Are the Ethics bigwigs the next stop on his personal 'reform' agenda?". Inside World Football. 2017-02-27. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
    12. ^ a b "FIFA Ethics Committee still investigating 'hundreds' of cases: Borbely". Reuters. 2017-05-10. Retrieved 2017-05-10. 
    13. ^ Conn, David (2017-05-10). "Fifa's ousted ethics heads were investigating 'hundreds' of cases". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-05-10. 
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 May 1906 – The Wright brothers are granted U.S. patent number 821,393 for their "Flying-Machine".

    Wright brothers

    The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane. They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft on December 17, 1903, four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1904–05 the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.

    The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of three-axis control, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.[4][5][6][7] This method became and remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds.[8][9] From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on developing a reliable method of pilot control as the key to solving "the flying problem". This approach differed significantly from other experimenters of the time who put more emphasis on developing powerful engines.[10] Using a small homebuilt wind tunnel, the Wrights also collected more accurate data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers that were more efficient than any before.[11][12] Their first U.S. patent, 821,393, did not claim invention of a flying machine, but rather, the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated a flying machine's surfaces.[13]

    They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice.[14] From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots. Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first airplane engine in close collaboration with the brothers.

    The Wright brothers' status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties. Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators. Edward Roach, historian for the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park argues that they were excellent self-taught engineers who could run a small company, but they did not have the business skills or temperament to dominate the growing aviation industry.[15]

    1. ^ "The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Aerial Age". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
    2. ^ Mary Ann. Johnson (September 28, 2001). "Following the Footsteps of the Wright Brothers: Their Sites and Stories Symposium Papers". Wright State University. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015. 
    3. ^ "Flying through the ages". BBC News. March 19, 1999. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2009. 
    4. ^ "Inventing a Flying Machine – The Breakthrough Concept". The Wright Brothers and the Invention of the Aerial Age, Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    5. ^ "Wagging Its Tail". The Wright Story – Inventing the Airplane, wright-brothers.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    6. ^ "Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms". National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    7. ^ Gareth D Padfield; Ben Lawrence. "The Birth of Flight Control: An Engineering Analysis of the Wright Brothers' 1902 Glider" (PDF). The Aeronautical Journal. Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, UK (December 2003): 697. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
    8. ^ Howard 1988, p. 89.
    9. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 183.
    10. ^ Mortimer 2009, p. 2.
    11. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 156.
    12. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 228.
    13. ^ "Flying Machine patent". google.com/patents. May 22, 1906. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
    14. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 169.
    15. ^ Roach, Edward J. The Wright Company: From Invention to Industry. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-0-8214-2051-5, page 2.
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 May 1906 – The Wright brothers are granted U.S. patent number 821,393 for their "Flying-Machine".

    Wright brothers

    The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane. They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft on December 17, 1903, four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1904–05 the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.

    The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of three-axis control, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.[4][5][6][7] This method became and remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds.[8][9] From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on developing a reliable method of pilot control as the key to solving "the flying problem". This approach differed significantly from other experimenters of the time who put more emphasis on developing powerful engines.[10] Using a small homebuilt wind tunnel, the Wrights also collected more accurate data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers that were more efficient than any before.[11][12] Their first U.S. patent, 821,393, did not claim invention of a flying machine, but rather, the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated a flying machine's surfaces.[13]

    They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice.[14] From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots. Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first airplane engine in close collaboration with the brothers.

    The Wright brothers' status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties. Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators. Edward Roach, historian for the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park argues that they were excellent self-taught engineers who could run a small company, but they did not have the business skills or temperament to dominate the growing aviation industry.[15]

    1. ^ "The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Aerial Age". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
    2. ^ Mary Ann. Johnson (September 28, 2001). "Following the Footsteps of the Wright Brothers: Their Sites and Stories Symposium Papers". Wright State University. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015. 
    3. ^ "Flying through the ages". BBC News. March 19, 1999. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2009. 
    4. ^ "Inventing a Flying Machine – The Breakthrough Concept". The Wright Brothers and the Invention of the Aerial Age, Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    5. ^ "Wagging Its Tail". The Wright Story – Inventing the Airplane, wright-brothers.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    6. ^ "Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms". National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
    7. ^ Gareth D Padfield; Ben Lawrence. "The Birth of Flight Control: An Engineering Analysis of the Wright Brothers' 1902 Glider" (PDF). The Aeronautical Journal. Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, UK (December 2003): 697. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
    8. ^ Howard 1988, p. 89.
    9. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 183.
    10. ^ Mortimer 2009, p. 2.
    11. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 156.
    12. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 228.
    13. ^ "Flying Machine patent". google.com/patents. May 22, 1906. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
    14. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 169.
    15. ^ Roach, Edward J. The Wright Company: From Invention to Industry. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-0-8214-2051-5, page 2.
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 May 2006 – Alaskan stratovolcano Mount Cleveland erupts.

    Mount Cleveland (Alaska)

    Mount Cleveland (also known as Cleveland Volcano) is a nearly symmetrical stratovolcano on the western end of Chuginadak Island, which is part of the Islands of Four Mountains just west of Umnak Island in the Fox Islands of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Mt. Cleveland is 5,675 ft (1,730 m) high, and one of the most active of the 75 or more volcanoes in the larger Aleutian Arc. Aleutian natives named the island after their fire goddess, Chuginadak, who they believed inhabited the volcano. In 1894 a team from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey visited the island and gave Mount Cleveland its current name, after then-president Grover Cleveland.

    One of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc, Cleveland has erupted at least 22 times in the last 230 years. A VEI 3 eruption in 1944 produced the arc's only known volcanic fatality. Most recently Mount Cleveland has erupted three times in 2009, twice in 2010, once in 2011 and in 2016 and 2017.[1] The volcano's remoteness limits opportunities for its study, and the Alaska Volcano Observatory relies heavily on satellites for monitoring. The volcano is primarily hazardous to aircraft; many of the flights over the north Pacific approach the vicinity of the volcano, and volcanic ash released from eruptions can damage sensitive electronic equipment and sensors.

    1. ^ a b c d "Cleveland description and statistics". Alaska Volcano Observatory. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
    2. ^ "Alaska & Hawaii P1500s - the Ultras". PeakList.org. Retrieved 2013-01-06. 
    3. ^ K .L. Wallace; R. G. McGimpsy & T. P. Miller (2000). "Historically Active Volcanoes in Alaska – A Quick Reference" (PDF). Fact Sheet FS 0118-00. United States Geological Survey. p. 2. Retrieved 9 September 2010. 
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 May 1956 – The first Eurovision Song Contest is held in Lugano, Switzerland.

    Eurovision Song Contest

    The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la chanson),[1] often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union. Each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio, then casts votes for the other countries' songs to determine the winner. Over 40 countries are currently eligible to compete[2] and since 2015 Australia has been allowed as a guest entrant.[3][4][5][6]

    Based on the Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951, Eurovision has been broadcast every year since its inauguration in 1956, making it the longest-running annual international television contest and one of the world's longest-running television programmes. It is also one of the most watched non-sporting events,[7] with audience figures of between 100 million and 600 million internationally.[8][9] It has been broadcast in several countries that do not compete, such as the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and China. Since 2000, it has been broadcast online via the Eurovision website.[10] The contest has been described as having kitsch appeal.[11][12]

    Ireland holds the record for most victories, with seven wins, including four times in five years in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. Under the current voting system, in place since 2015, the highest-scoring winner is Salvador Sobral of Portugal who won the 2017 contest in Kiev, Ukraine, with 758 points; under the previous system, the highest-scoring winner was Alexander Rybak of Norway with 387 points in 2009. Winning the Eurovision Song Contest often provides a short-term career boost for artists, but rarely results in long-term success.[13] Exceptions are ABBA (winner in 1974 for Sweden), Bucks Fizz (winner in 1981 for the United Kingdom), and Celine Dion (winner in 1988 for Switzerland), all of whom launched successful careers.

    1. ^ "Winners of the Eurovision Song Contest" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2007. 
    2. ^ "Eurovision recognised by Guinness World Records as the largest in the world and the longest-running annual TV programme (international)". Guinness World Records. 
    3. ^ "Eurovision Trivia" (PDF). BBC Online. 2002. Retrieved 18 July 2006. 
    4. ^ "Eurovision Song Contest 1972". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
    5. ^ "Eurovision Song Contest 2004 Final". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
    6. ^ Jordan, Paul (31 October 2016). "43 countries to participate in Eurovision 2017". eurovision.tv. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 31 October 2016. 
    7. ^ "Live Webcast". European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original on 25 May 2006. Retrieved 25 May 2006. 
    8. ^ "Finland wins Eurovision contest". Al Jazeera English. 21 May 2006. Retrieved 8 May 2007. 
    9. ^ Murray, Matthew. "Eurovision Song Contest – International Music Program". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on 13 January 2005. Retrieved 15 July 2006. 
    10. ^ Philip Laven (July 2002). "Webcasting and the Eurovision Song Contest". European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2006. 
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ "Serbia's "Prayer" wins Eurovision Song Contest". Reuters. 14 May 2007. 
     

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