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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 July 1914 – The Cape Cod Canal opened.

    Cape Cod Canal

    The Cape Cod Canal is an artificial waterway in the U.S. state of Massachusetts connecting Cape Cod Bay in the north to Buzzards Bay in the south, and is part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. The approximately seven-mile-long (11 km) canal traverses the narrow neck of land joining Cape Cod to the state's mainland. Most of its length follows tidal rivers widened to 480 feet (150 m) and deepened to 32 feet (9.8 m) at mean low water, shaving 135 miles (217 km) off the journey around the Cape for its approximately 14,000 annual users.[2]

    Most of the canal is located in Bourne, Massachusetts, but its northeastern terminus is in Sandwich, Massachusetts. Scusset Beach State Reservation lies near the canal's north entrance, the Massachusetts Maritime Academy near its south. A swift running current changes direction every six hours and can reach 5.2 miles per hour (8.4 km/h) during the receding ebb tide. The waterway is maintained by the United States Army Corps of Engineers and has no toll fees.[3] It is spanned by the Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge, the Bourne Bridge, and the Sagamore Bridge. Traffic lights at either end govern the approach of vessels over 65 feet (20 m).

    The canal is occasionally used by whales and dolphins,[4] including endangered North Atlantic right whales; these can cause closure of the canal.[5][6]

    Cape Cod Canal is located in Cape Cod
    Cape Cod Canal
    Cape Cod Canal
    Location of Cape Cod Canal on Cape Cod
    Aerial photo of the East End of the Cape Cod Canal and Scusset Beach State Reservation in southeastern Massachusetts, USA
    1. ^ New England District. "Cape Cod Canal Navigation". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 
    2. ^ New England District (November 12, 2015). "Cape Cod Canal (Buzzards Bay and Sandwich, Mass.)". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved February 24, 2016. 
    3. ^ "Cape Cod Canal". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Archived from the original on June 18, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2009. 
    4. ^ Pearson, Samantha. "Dolphins in Cape Cod Canal Saturday" (Video). Boston: WBZ-TV. 
    5. ^ Bragg, Mary Ann (May 9, 2015). "Cape Cod Canal closed after right whale sighting". Cape Cod Times. 
    6. ^ "Favorite Places". Archived from the original on September 8, 2008. 
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 July 1930 – In Montevideo, Uruguay wins the first FIFA World Cup.

    1930 FIFA World Cup

    The 1930 FIFA World Cup was the inaugural FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Uruguay from 13 to 30 July 1930. FIFA, football's international governing body, selected Uruguay as host nation, as the country would be celebrating the centenary of its first constitution, and the Uruguay national football team had successfully retained their football title at the 1928 Summer Olympics. All matches were played in the Uruguayan capital, Montevideo, the majority at the Estadio Centenario, which was built for the tournament.

    Thirteen teams (seven from South America, four from Europe and two from North America) entered the tournament. Only a few European teams chose to participate because of the difficulty of travelling to South America. The teams were divided into four groups, with the winner of each group progressing to the semi-finals. The first two World Cup matches took place simultaneously, and were won by France and the United States, who defeated Mexico 4–1 and Belgium 3–0, respectively. Lucien Laurent of France scored the first goal in World Cup history, while US goalkeeper Jimmy Douglas posted the first official "clean sheet" in the tournament.

    Argentina, Uruguay, the United States and Yugoslavia each won their respective groups to qualify for the semi-finals. In the final, hosts and pre-tournament favourites Uruguay defeated Argentina 4–2 in front of a crowd of 68,346 people, and became the first nation to win the World Cup.

    1. ^ "World Cup Best Players (Golden Ball)". Topend Sports. Retrieved 23 June 2018. 
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 July 1970Black Tot Day: The last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy.

    Black Tot Day

    Measuring out the tot (diorama aboard HMS Belfast)
    The grog tub of HMS Cavalier

    Black Tot Day (31 July 1970) is the name given to the last day on which the Royal Navy issued sailors with a daily rum ration (the daily tot).

    In the 17th century, the daily drink ration for English sailors was a gallon of beer. Due to the difficulty in storing the large quantities of liquid that this required, in 1655 a half pint of rum was made equivalent and became preferred to beer. Over time, drunkenness on board naval vessels increasingly became a problem and the ration was formalised in naval regulations by Admiral Edward Vernon in 1740 and ordered to be mixed with water in a 4:1 water to rum ratio and split into two servings per day.[1]

    In the 19th century, there was a change in the attitude towards alcohol due to continued discipline problems in the navy. In 1824 the size of the tot was halved to a quarter pint in an effort to improve the situation. In 1850, the Admiralty's Grog Committee, convened to look into the issues surrounding the rum ration, recommended that it be eliminated completely. However, rather than ending it the navy further halved it to an eighth of a pint per day, eliminating the evening serving of the ration.[2] This led to the ending of the ration for officers in 1881 and warrant officers in 1918.[citation needed]

    On 17 December 1969 the Admiralty Board issued a written answer to a question from the MP for Woolwich East, Christopher Mayhew, saying "The Admiralty Board concludes that the rum issue is no longer compatible with the high standards of efficiency required now that the individual's tasks in ships are concerned with complex, and often delicate, machinery and systems on the correct functioning of which people's lives may depend". This led to a debate in the House of Commons on the evening of 28 January 1970, now referred to as the 'Great Rum Debate', started by James Wellbeloved, MP for Erith and Crayford, who believed that the ration should not be removed. The debate lasted an hour and 15 minutes and closed at 10:29pm with a decision that the rum ration was no longer appropriate.[3]

    31 July 1970 was the final day of the rum ration[4] and it was poured as usual at 6 bells in the forenoon watch (11am) after the pipe of 'up spirits'. Some sailors wore black armbands, tots were 'buried at sea' and in one navy training camp, HMS Collingwood, the Royal Naval Electrical College at Fareham in Hampshire, there was a mock funeral procession complete with black coffin and accompanying drummers and piper.[5] The move was not popular with the ratings despite an extra can of beer being added to the daily rations in compensation.[6]

    A special stamp was issued, available from Portsmouth General Post Office, with the slogan "Last Issue of Rum to the Royal Navy 31 July 1970".[7]

    Black Tot Day was subsequently followed in two other Commonwealth navies (the Royal Australian Navy having already discontinued the rum ration, in 1921): (i) 31 March 1972 was the final day of the rum ration in the Royal Canadian Navy; and (ii) 28 February 1990 was the final day of the rum ration in the Royal New Zealand Navy.[8]

    1. ^ Pack, James (1982). Nelson's Blood: The Story of Naval Rum. Naval Institute Press. 
    2. ^ "Royal Navy - Index to Miscellaneous Notes - 19th and early 20th Century". www.pbenyon.plus.com. Retrieved 2016-08-06. 
    3. ^ "ROYAL NAVY (RUM RATION) (Hansard, 28 January 1970)". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 2016-08-06. 
    4. ^ Porges, Seth (2012-11-29). "7 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Rum - Forbes". Forbes. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
    5. ^ "What did they do with the drunken sailor?". BBC. 2010-07-30. Retrieved 2016-08-06. 
    6. ^ "Day of Mourning". Royal Navy Memories. 2009-08-13. Retrieved 2016-08-06. 
    7. ^ Woods Rum, Black Tot Day Archived 2 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
    8. ^ "RNZN and the Rum Issue". Torpedo Bay Navy Museum. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 August 1988 – A British soldier was killed in the Inglis Barracks bombing in London, England.

    Inglis Barracks bombing

    The Inglis Barracks bombing was a bomb attack carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) on 1 August 1988 on a British Army barracks called Inglis Barracks in Mill Hill, London. The attack killed one soldier from the Royal Engineers, injured nine more and destroyed large parts of the barracks.[1] It was the first IRA attack in England since the 1984 Brighton Bombing.[2]

    1. ^ Melaugh, Dr Martin. "CAIN: Chronology of the Conflict 1988". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
    2. ^ Sutton, Malcolm. "CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 August 1990Iraq invades Kuwait, eventually leading to the Gulf War.

    Invasion of Kuwait

    The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a two-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country. This invasion and Iraq's subsequent refusal to withdraw from Kuwait by a deadline mandated by the United Nations[8] led to military intervention by a United Nations-authorized coalition of forces led by the United States. These events came to be known as the first Gulf War and resulted in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and the Iraqis setting 600 Kuwaiti oil wells on fire during their retreat.

    In early 1990 Iraq was accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through slant drilling, although some Iraqi sources indicated Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was made a few months before the actual invasion.[9] Some feel there were several reasons for the Iraqi move, including Iraq's inability to pay the more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed to finance the Iran–Iraq war, and Kuwaiti high petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq.[10] The invasion started on 2 August 1990, and within two days most of the Kuwait Armed Forces were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or fell back to neighbouring Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Iraq set up a puppet government known as the "Republic of Kuwait" to rule over Kuwait and then annexed it outright, when Saddam Hussein announced a few days later that it was the 19th province of Iraq.

    1. ^ Al Moquatel Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
    2. ^ "1990: Iraq invades Kuwait". BBC On This Day. BBC. 2 August 1990. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
    3. ^ Johns, Dave (24 January 2006). "1990 The Invasion of Kuwait". Frontline/World. PBS. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
    4. ^ a b c "Kuwait Organization and Mission of the Forces". Country Studies. Library of Congress. January 1993. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
    5. ^ John Pike. "Kuwait – Army Equipment". Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
    6. ^ "سير العمليات العسكرية للغزو العراقي للكويت", Al Moqatel
    7. ^ House of Lords Judgments – Kuwait Airways Corporation v Iraqi Airways Company and Others on 16 May2002, [2002] UKHL 19
    8. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 (Condemning the Invasion of Kuwait by Iraq), S.C. res. 660, 45 U.N. SCOR at 19, U.N. Doc. S/RES/660 (1990) Archived 20 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. umn.edu. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
    9. ^ Gause, F. Gregory, III (2005). "The International Politics of the Gulf". In Louise Fawcett. International Relations of the Middle East. Oxford: The University Press. pp. 263–274. ISBN 0-19-926963-7. 
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference airCombatInformationGroup was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 August 2014 – A 6.1 magnitude earthquake kills at least 617 people and injures more than 2,400 in Yunnan, China.

    2014 Ludian earthquake

    The 2014 Ludian earthquake struck Ludian County, Yunnan, China, with a moment magnitude of 6.1 on 3 August.[16] The earthquake killed at least 617 people, injuring at least 2,400 others.[17][18] As of 5 August 2014, 112 people remain missing.[19] Over 12,000 houses collapsed and 30,000 were damaged.[20] According to the United States Geological Survey, the earthquake occurred 29 km (18 mi) WSW of Zhaotong city at 16:03 local time (08:03 UTC).[21][22][23][24]

    1. ^ 云南省昭通市鲁甸县6.5级地震 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Ludian County, Zhaotong, Yunnan]. 中国地震台网. Retrieved 2014-08-03. 
    2. ^ China Earthquake Network statistics
    3. ^ Government announcement
    4. ^ China Earthquake Administration statistics
    5. ^ Yahoo! Finance article
    6. ^ "M6.1 - 11km WNW of Wenping, China". United States Geological Survey. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
    7. ^ a b Armand Vervaeck (3 August 2014). "Deadly earthquake in Ludian county (Yunnan), China – at least 398 people killed + over 6 bn USD in damage". Earthquake-Report.com. 
    8. ^ 云南鲁甸发生6.5级地震 极震区预估烈度达VIII度 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurs in Ludian, Yunnan; estimates from earthquake area indicate Mercalli intensity scale of VIII]. Phoenix Television (in Chinese). 3 August 2014. 
    9. ^ [北京您早]云南鲁甸发生6.5级地震 此次地震最高烈度为VIII度 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurs in Ludian, Yunnan; maximum (Mercalli) intensity scale rating of VIII reached]. 中国经济网 (in Chinese). 4 August 2014. 
    10. ^ a b c 云南鲁甸地震遇难人数增至617人 [Ludian, Yunnan earthquake death toll rises to 617]. Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 2014-08-08. Retrieved 2014-08-08. 
    11. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2014-08/08/c_133542789.htm
    12. ^ 云南省鲁甸县6.5级地震造成589人死亡9人失踪 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Ludian County, Yunnan results in 589 deaths and 9 missing]. Ministry of Civil Affairs Yunnan. 2014-08-06. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
    13. ^ 昭通市鲁甸县发生6.5级地震(续报二十一). Ministry of Civil Affairs Yunnan. 2014-08-06. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
    14. ^ Euan McKirdy (6 August 2014). "Chinese earthquake death toll rises to 589". CNN. 
    15. ^ 云南省鲁甸县6.5级地震已造成589人死亡 9人失踪 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Ludian County, Yunnan results in 589 deaths and 9 missing]. 和讯新闻 [Hexun News] (in Chinese). 6 August 2014. 
    16. ^ "M6.1 – 11km WNW of Wenping, China". United States Geological Survey. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
    17. ^ 云南省鲁甸县6.5级地震造成410人死亡12人失踪 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Ludian County, Yunnan results in 410 deaths and 12 missing] (in Chinese). 5 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
    18. ^ 昭通市鲁甸县发生6.5级地震(续报十八) (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs Yunnan. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
    19. ^ 云南鲁甸县6.5级地震造成381人死亡3人失踪 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Ludian County, Yunnan results in 381 deaths and 3 missing] (in Chinese). Government of China. 4 August 2014. 
    20. ^ "Un séisme fait au moins 367 morts en Chine". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
    21. ^ "Earthquake kills 26 in south-west China". BBC News. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
    22. ^ "China quake death toll rises to 381, over 1,800 injured – state media". Russia: RT. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
    23. ^ "At least 175 dead after quake hits southwest China". Reuters. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
    24. ^ "Earthquake killed 398 people and more than 1.800 were injured". BBC News. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 August 1947 – The Supreme Court of Japan is established.

    Supreme Court of Japan

    The Supreme Court of Japan (最高裁判所, Saikō-Saibansho, called 最高裁 Saikō-Sai for short), located in Hayabusachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo, is the highest court in Japan. It has ultimate judicial authority to interpret the Japanese constitution and decide questions of national law (including local bylaws). It has the power of judicial review; that is, it can declare Acts of the National Diet, local assemblies, and administrative actions, to be unconstitutional.

     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 August 1973Mars 6 is launched from the USSR.

    Mars 6

    Mars 6 (Russian: Марс-6), also known as 3MP No.50P was a Soviet spacecraft launched to explore Mars. A 3MP bus spacecraft launched as part of the Mars programme, it consisted of a lander, and a coast stage with instruments to study Mars as it flew past.

    1. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Interplanetary Probes". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
    2. ^ a b "Mars 6". US National Space Science Data Centre. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
    3. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 August 1930 – Judge Joseph Force Crater steps into a taxi in New York and disappears never to be seen again.

    Joseph Force Crater

    Joseph Force Crater (January 5, 1889 – disappeared August 6, 1930, declared legally dead June 6, 1939) was a New York State Supreme Court Justice who vanished amid political scandal. He was last seen leaving a restaurant on West 45th Street in Manhattan, and entered popular culture as one of the most mysterious missing persons cases of the twentieth century. Despite massive publicity, the case was never solved and was officially closed 40 years after he disappeared. His disappearance fueled public disquiet about New York City corruption and was a factor in the downfall of the Tammany Hall political machine.

     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 August 1960Ivory Coast becomes independent from France.

    Ivory Coast

    Coordinates: 8°N 5°W / 8°N 5°W / 8; -5

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox country with unknown parameter "area_magnitude" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire,[6] is a sovereign state located in West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro, and its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan. Its bordering countries are Guinea and Liberia in the west, Burkina Faso and Mali in the north, and Ghana in the east. The Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) is located south of Ivory Coast.

    Prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Two Anyi kingdoms, Indénié and Sanwi, attempted to retain their separate identity through the French colonial period and after independence.[7] Ivory Coast became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and later a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. Ivory Coast achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. The country maintained close political and economic association with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close ties to the West, especially France. Since the end of Houphouët-Boigny's rule in 1993, Ivory Coast has experienced a coup d'état, in 1999, and two religion-grounded civil wars. The first took place between 2002 and 2007[8] and the second during 2010–2011. In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution.[9]

    Ivory Coast is a republic with a strong executive power invested in its President. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Ivory Coast went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. In the 21st century the Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.[1]

    The official language is French, with local indigenous languages also widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin, and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. Popular religions include Christianity (primarily Roman Catholicism), Islam, and various indigenous religions.

    1. ^ a b "Côte d'Ivoire". The World Factbook. CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 24 July 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008. 
    2. ^ "Côte d'Ivoire". The World Factbook. CIA Directorate of Intelligence. Retrieved 18 February 2017. 
    3. ^ a b c d "Côte d'Ivoire". International Monetary Fund. 
    4. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
    5. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
    6. ^
    7. ^ "Pre-European Period". Library of Congress Country Studies. Library of Congress. November 1988. Retrieved 11 April 2009. 
    8. ^ "Loi n° 2000-513 du 1er août 2000 portant Constitution de la République de Côte d'Ivoire" (PDF). Journal Officiel de la République de Côte d'Ivoire (in French). 42 (30): 529–538. 3 August 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2008. 
    9. ^ Loi no 2000-513 du 1er août 2000 portant constitution de la République de Côte d’Ivoire, Journal officiel de la République de Côte d’Ivoire, no 30, Abidjan, jeudi 3 août 2000, p. 529–538
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 August 1960Ivory Coast becomes independent from France.

    Ivory Coast

    Coordinates: 8°N 5°W / 8°N 5°W / 8; -5

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox country with unknown parameter "area_magnitude" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire,[6] is a sovereign state located in West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro, and its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan. Its bordering countries are Guinea and Liberia in the west, Burkina Faso and Mali in the north, and Ghana in the east. The Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) is located south of Ivory Coast.

    Prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Two Anyi kingdoms, Indénié and Sanwi, attempted to retain their separate identity through the French colonial period and after independence.[7] Ivory Coast became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and later a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. Ivory Coast achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. The country maintained close political and economic association with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close ties to the West, especially France. Since the end of Houphouët-Boigny's rule in 1993, Ivory Coast has experienced a coup d'état, in 1999, and two religion-grounded civil wars. The first took place between 2002 and 2007[8] and the second during 2010–2011. In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution.[9]

    Ivory Coast is a republic with a strong executive power invested in its President. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Ivory Coast went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. In the 21st century the Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.[1]

    The official language is French, with local indigenous languages also widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin, and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. Popular religions include Christianity (primarily Roman Catholicism), Islam, and various indigenous religions.

    1. ^ a b "Côte d'Ivoire". The World Factbook. CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 24 July 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008. 
    2. ^ "Côte d'Ivoire". The World Factbook. CIA Directorate of Intelligence. Retrieved 18 February 2017. 
    3. ^ a b c d "Côte d'Ivoire". International Monetary Fund. 
    4. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
    5. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
    6. ^
    7. ^ "Pre-European Period". Library of Congress Country Studies. Library of Congress. November 1988. Retrieved 11 April 2009. 
    8. ^ "Loi n° 2000-513 du 1er août 2000 portant Constitution de la République de Côte d'Ivoire" (PDF). Journal Officiel de la République de Côte d'Ivoire (in French). 42 (30): 529–538. 3 August 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2008. 
    9. ^ Loi no 2000-513 du 1er août 2000 portant constitution de la République de Côte d’Ivoire, Journal officiel de la République de Côte d’Ivoire, no 30, Abidjan, jeudi 3 août 2000, p. 529–538
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 August 2013 – A suicide bombing at a funeral in the Pakistani city of Quetta kills at least 31 people.

    August 2013 Quetta bombing

    On 8 August 2013, a suicide attacker exploded a bomb at a funeral being held for a police officer in Quetta, Pakistan, and killed as many as thirty-one people and injured over fifty people. No group has taken responsibility for the bombing, but it is believed[by whom?] that the Taliban were behind the bombing. A senior police officer, Fayaz Sumbal, noticed the suicide bomber before he blew himself up. As Fayaz began searching the suicide bomber's body, the bomber blew himself up. The bomber was wearing a jacket that had ball bearings and shrapnel inside.[1]

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 August 1969 – The Manson Family commits the Tate murders.

    Tate murders

    The Tate murders were a series of killings conducted by members of the Manson Family on August 8–9, 1969, which claimed the lives of five people. Four members of the Family invaded the home of married celebrity couple, actress Sharon Tate and director Roman Polanski at 10050 Cielo Drive in Los Angeles. They murdered Tate (who was eight and a half months pregnant), along with three friends who were visiting at the time, and an 18-year-old visitor, who was slain as he was departing the home. Polanski was not present on the night of the murders as he was working on a film in Europe.

    The murders were carried out by Tex Watson under the direction of Charles Manson. Watson drove, with Susan Atkins, Linda Kasabian, and Patricia Krenwinkel, from Spahn Ranch to the residence on Cielo Drive. Manson, a would-be musician, had previously attempted to enter into a recording contract with record producer Terry Melcher, who was a previous renter of the house along with musician Mark Lindsay and Melcher's then-girlfriend, actress Candice Bergen. Melcher had snubbed Manson, leaving him disgruntled.


     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 August 1557Battle of St. Quentin: Spanish victory over the French in the Italian War of 1551–59.

    Battle of St. Quentin (1557)

    The Battle of Saint-Quentin of 1557 was fought at Saint-Quentin in Picardy, during the Italian War of 1551–1559. The Spanish, which is to say the international forces[7] of Philip II's Spanish Empire, who had regained the support of the English whose Mary I of England he had married, won a significant victory over the French at Saint-Quentin, in northern France.[8]

    1. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. II, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 518.
    2. ^ Berenger, Jean: A History of the Habsburg Empire 1273-1700. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2014. ISBN 1317895703, p. 213
    3. ^ Potter, David: Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, C.1480-1560. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2008. ISBN 1843834057, p. 12
    4. ^ a b c Continuing the 'Auld Alliance' in the Sixteenth Century, E.A. Bonner, The Scottish Soldier Abroad, 1247-1967, ed. Grant G. Simpson, (Rowman & Littlefield, 1992), 35.
    5. ^ a b Nolan, Cathal J.: The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization, Vol. 2. London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 9780313337345, p. 756
    6. ^ a b Fernández San Román, Federico: Batalla de San Quintín. Madrid: Vicente y Lavajos, 1863, p. 84
    7. ^ Henry Kamen, Philip of Spain (1997) gives a brief account based on contemporary sources, noting that Spanish troops constistuted about 10% of the Habsburg total. Kamen claims that the battle was "won by a mainly Netherlandish army commanded by the non-Spaniards the duke of Savoy and the earl of Egmont". Kamen, Henry: Golden Age Spain. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ISBN 023080246X, p. 28. On the other hand, Geoffrey Parker states that Spanish troops were decisive in defeating the French at St. Quentin owing to their high value, as well as in defeating the Ottomans at Hungary in 1532 and at Tunis in 1535, and the German protestants at Mühlberg in 1547. Parker, Geoffrey: España y la rebelión de Flandes. Madrid: Nerea, 1989. ISBN 8486763266, p. 41
    8. ^ Henning von Koss, 1914. "Die Schlachten bei St. Quentin (10. August 1557) und bei Gravelingen (13. Juli 1558)", Historische Studien vol. 118. xvi+161 pp, 2 plates Ebering, Berlin. (Reprint 1965, Kraus Reprint (Vaduz).


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  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 August 1972Vietnam War: The last United States ground combat unit leaves South Vietnam.

    Vietnam War

    The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War,[76] and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955[A 1] to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union, China,[29] and other communist allies and the South Vietnamese army was supported by the United States, South Korea, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.[77] The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some US perspectives.[78] The majority of Americans believe the war was unjustified.[79] The war would last roughly 19 years and would also form the Laotian Civil War as well as the Cambodian Civil War, which also saw all three countries become communist states in 1975.

    There are several competing views on the conflict, with some on the North Vietnamese and National Liberation Front side viewing the struggle against US forces as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and later on the United States[80] especially the light of the failed 1954 Geneva Conference calls for elections. Other interpretations of the North Vietnamese side include viewing it as a civil war especially in the early and later phases following the U.S interlude between 1965 and 1970[81] as well as a war of liberation.[80] The perspective of some Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, the successor to the Việt Cộng were motivated in part by significant social changes in the post-World War II Vietnam, and had initially saw it as a revolutionary war supported by Hanoi.[82][83] The pro-government side in South Vietnam viewed it as a civil war, a defensive war against communism[81][84] or were motivated to fight to defend their homes and families.[85] The U.S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam. This was part of the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism.[86]

    Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was then French Indochina.[87][A 3] Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U.S.[88] The Việt Cộng, also known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or FNL (the National Liberation Front), a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region, while the People's Army of Vietnam, also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA), engaged in more conventional warfare, and had launched armed struggles from 1959 onward. U.S. involvement escalated in 1960 under Kennedy, with troop levels gradually surging under the MAAG program, from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963.[89][90]

    By 1964 there were already 23,000 U.S troops involved, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U.S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. This was followed by the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave Lyndon B. Johnson authorisation to increase U.S. military presence, deploying for the first time ground combat units and increasing troop levels to 184,000.[89] Every year onward there was significant build-up despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principle architects of the war begin to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.[91] U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes. In the course of the war, the U.S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. Following the Tết Offensive, US forces begun withdrawal under the Vietnamization phase, while Army of the Republic of Vietnam unconventional and conventional capabilities increased following a period of neglect and became modelled on heavy fire-power focused doctrines modelled after US Forces. Operations crossed international borders: bordering areas of Laos and Cambodia were used by North Vietnam as supply routes and were heavily bombed by U.S. forces.

    Gradual withdrawal of U.S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and begun the task of modernising their armed forces. Morale declined significantly among US forces during the wind-down period and incidents of fragging, drug-use and insubordination increased[92] with General Creighton Abrams remarking "I need to get this army home to save it".[93] From 1969 onwards the military actions of the Việt Cộng insurgency decreased as the role and engagement of the NVA grew. Initially fielding less conventional and poorer weaponry, from 1970 onward the People's Army of Vietnam and its branch People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam had increasingly became mechanised and armoured, capable of modernised combined arms and mobile warfare and begun to widely deploy newer, untested weapons.[94] These two sides would see significant, rapid changes throughout its lifetime from their original post-colonial armies, and by mid-1970s the ARVN became the fourth largest army[95] with the PAVN became the fifth largest army in the world[96] in two countries with a population of roughly 20 million each.[97]

    Despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued in the "war-of-the-flags" period in which both Saigon and Hanoi attempted to take territory before and after the accord and the ceasefire was broken just days after its signing.[98] In the U.S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture, the largest such anti-war movement up to that point in history.[99] The war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations,[100] and had significantly influenced the political landscape in the United States,[101] across much of Western Europe[102] and U.S. ground-force intervention spurred the rise of transnational political movements and campaigning.[103]

    Direct U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.S. Congress.[104] The capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties). Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000[43] to 3.8 million.[72] Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians,[73][74][75] 20,000–62,000 Laotians,[72] and 58,220 U.S. service members also died in the conflict, and a further 1,626 remain missing in action.[A 2] The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and ties between the DRV and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War. The end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.

    1. ^ "Vietnamese NLF Victory Map". Cornell University Library Digital Collections. 
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rohn, Alan (November 26, 2012). "What countries involved in the Vietnam War?". The Vietnam War. Retrieved April 8, 2018. 
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h "America Wasn't the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War". Military History Now. October 2, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2018. 
    4. ^ The Cuban Military Under Castro, 1989. p. 76
    5. ^ Cuba in the World, 1979. p. 66
    6. ^ "Korejská záhada zůstává nevyřešena" [The Korean mystery remains unresolved] (in Czech). Cesky a slovensky svet. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
    7. ^ "Bilaterální vztahy České republiky a Vietnamské socialistické republiky" [Bilateral Relations of the Czech Republic and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam] (in Czech). e-Polis – Internetový politologický časopis. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
    8. ^ "Sailing in the Shadow of the Vietnam War: The GDR Government and the "Vietnam Bonus" of the Early 1970s" (PDF). Project MUSE. 
    9. ^ "Stasi Aid and the Modernization of the Vietnamese Secret Police". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 20 August 2014. 
    10. ^ a b Radvanyi, Janos (1980). "Vietnam War Diplomacy: Reflections of a Former Iron Curtain Official" (PDF). Parameters: Journal of the US Army War College. Carlise Barracks, PA. 10 (3): 8–15. 
    11. ^ Margaret K. Gnoinska (March 2005). "Poland and Vietnam, 1963: New Evidence on Secret Communist Diplomacy and the "Maneli Affair"" (PDF). Cold War International History Project. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars – via Pennsylvania State University. 
    12. ^ a b c d "Intelligence Memorandum: Sources of Military Equipment to Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Military Forces" (PDF). Directorate of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency. 1998 [4 November 1968]. 
    13. ^ "Foreign Affairs in the 1960s and 1970s". Library of Congress. 1992. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Bulgaria gave official military support to many national liberation causes, most notably in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, (North Vietnam)… 
    14. ^ Crump 2015, p. 183
    15. ^ "Why did Sweden support the Viet Cong?". HistoryNet. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2016. 
    16. ^ "Sweden announces support to Viet Cong". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016. In Sweden, Foreign Minister Torsten Nilsson reveals that Sweden has been providing assistance to the Viet Cong, including some $550,000 worth of medical supplies. Similar Swedish aid was to go to Cambodian and Laotian civilians affected by the Indochinese fighting. This support was primarily humanitarian in nature and included no military aid. 
    17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Friedman, Herbert. "Allies of the Republic of Vietnam". psywarrior.com. Retrieved April 8, 2018. 
    18. ^ Moïse 1996, pp. 3–4.
    19. ^ Weil, Thomas E. et. al. Area Handbook for Brazil (1975), p. 293
    20. ^ "Chapter Three: 1957–1969 Early Relations between Malaysia and Vietnam" (PDF). University of Malaya Student Repository. p. 72. Retrieved 17 October 2015. 
    21. ^ Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (Profiles of Malaysia's Foreign Ministers) (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia). 2008. p. 31. ISBN 978-9832220268. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015. The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February 1962, he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon. These included a total of 45,707 single-barrel shotguns, 611 armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in 1975, he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early 1958. Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5,000 Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of 150 U.S. soldiers in handling Tracker Dogs; a rather impressive list of military equipment and weapons given to Viet-Nam after the end of the Malaysian insurgency (for example, 641 armored personnel carriers, 56,000 shotguns); and a creditable amount of civil assistance (transportation equipment, cholera vaccine, and flood relief)". It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint. 
    22. ^ DoD 1998
    23. ^ Lawrence 2009, p. 20.
    24. ^ Olson & Roberts 1991, p. 67.[citation not found]
    25. ^ Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954–1960, The Pentagon Papers (Gravel Edition), Volume 1, Chapter 5, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Section 3, pp. 314–46; International Relations Department, Mount Holyoke College.
    26. ^ Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975. Translated by Merle Pribbenow, Lawerence KS: University of Kansas Press, 2002, p. 211: "By the end of 1966 the total strength of our armed forces was 690,000 soldiers.”. According to Hanoi's official history, the Viet Cong was a branch of the People's Army of Vietnam.
    27. ^ Doyle, The North, pp. 45–49
    28. ^ a b The A to Z of the Vietnam War. The Scarecrow Press. 2005. ISBN 978-1461719038. 
    29. ^ a b "China admits 320,000 troops fought in Vietnam". Toledo Blade. Reuters. 16 May 1989. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
    30. ^ Roy, Denny (1998). China's Foreign Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 27. ISBN 978-0847690138. 
    31. ^ a b Womack, Brantly (2006). China and Vietnam. ISBN 978-0521618342. 
    32. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 376. ISBN 978-1851099603. 
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    34. ^ Pham Thi Thu Thuy (1 August 2013). "The colorful history of North Korea-Vietnam relations". NK News. Retrieved 3 October 2016. 
    35. ^ Le Gro, p. 28.
    36. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. xlv. ISBN 978-1851099610. 
    37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 December 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
    38. ^ Pike, John. "Cambodia Civil War, 1970s". www.globalsecurity.org. 
    39. ^ "The rise of Communism". www.footprinttravelguides.com. 
    40. ^ "Hmong rebellion in Laos". 
    41. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016. , accessed 7 Nov 2017
    42. ^ Pike, John. "Pathet Lao Uprising". 
    43. ^ a b c d e f Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate", Population and Development Review, December 1995.
    44. ^ a b c Lewy 1978, pp. 450–53.
    45. ^ "Battlefield:Vietnam - Timeline". PBS. 
    46. ^ Cite error: The named reference :11 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    47. ^ "Công tác tìm kiếm, quy tập hài cốt liệt sĩ từ nay đến năm 2020 và những năn tiếp theo" [The work of searching and collecting the remains of martyrs from now to 2020 and the next] (in Vietnamese). Ministry of Defence, Government of Vietnam. 
    48. ^ Communist Party of Vietnam. "Đời đời nhớ ơn các anh hùng liệt sĩ!" [Eternal gratitude to the heroes and martyrs!] (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2018-06-11. 
    49. ^ a b Lewy, Guenter (1978). America in Vietnam. Oxford University Press. pp. 450–51. ISBN 978-0199874231. 
    50. ^ Soames, John. A History of the World, Routledge, 2005.
    51. ^ "North Korea fought in Vietnam War". BBC News Online. 31 March 2000. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
    52. ^ James F. Dunnigan; Albert A. Nofi (2000). Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know. Macmillan. ISBN 031225282X. 
    53. ^ Thayer 1985, chap. 12.
    54. ^ Clarke, Jeffrey J. (1988), United States Army in Vietnam: Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973, Washington, D.C: Center of Military History, United States Army, p. 275: "The Army of the Republic of Vietnam suffered 254,256 recorded combat deaths between 1960 and 1974, with the highest number of recorded deaths being in 1972, with 39,587 combat deaths"
    55. ^ Rummel, R.J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations" (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System 
    56. ^ a b Tucker, Spencer E. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1851099611
    57. ^ Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund (29 May 2017). "3 new names added to Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall" (Press release). Associated Press. 
    58. ^ America's Wars (PDF) (Report). Department of Veterans Affairs. May 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2014. 
    59. ^ Anne Leland; Mari–Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu (26 February 2010). American War and Military Operations: Casualties: Lists and Statistics (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service. 
    60. ^ Lawrence 2009, pp. 65, 107, 154, 217
    61. ^ Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director) (2005, 2006). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software) (Documentary). Koch Vision. Event occurs at 321 minutes. ISBN 1417229209. 
    62. ^ Kueter, Dale. Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended. AuthorHouse (21 March 2007). ISBN 978-1425969318
    63. ^ T. Lomperis, From People's War to People's Rule (1996)
    64. ^ "Australian casualties in the Vietnam War, 1962–72". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
    65. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2011). "The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 2nd Edition [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History". ABC-CLIO – via Google Books. 
    66. ^ "Overview of the war in Vietnam". New Zealand and the Vietnam War. 16 July 1965. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
    67. ^ "America Wasn't the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War". Retrieved 10 June 2017. 
    68. ^ "Chapter III: The Philippines". History.army.mil. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
    69. ^ "Asian Allies in Vietnam" (PDF). Embassy of South Vietnam. March 1970. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
    70. ^ Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011. The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam. 
    71. ^ Obermeyer, Ziad; Murray, Christopher J L; Gakidou, Emmanuela (23 April 2008). "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme". British Medical Journal (336): 1482. doi:10.1136/bmj.a137. Retrieved 5 January 2013. From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths ... 3.8 million in Vietnam 
    72. ^ a b c d Obermeyer, Murray & Gakidou 2008.
    73. ^ a b Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia". Forced Migration and Mortality. National Academy Press. pp. 102–04, 120, 124. ISBN 978-0309073349. As best as can now be estimated, over two million Cambodians died during the 1970s because of the political events of the decade, the vast majority of them during the mere four years of the 'Khmer Rouge' regime. ... Subsequent reevaluations of the demographic data situated the death toll for the [civil war] in the order of 300,000 or less. 
    74. ^ a b Banister, Judith; Johnson, E. Paige (1993). "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia". Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community. Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. p. 87. ISBN 978-0938692492. An estimated 275,000 excess deaths. We have modeled the highest mortality we can justify for the early 1970s. 
    75. ^ a b Sliwinski, Marek (1995). Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique [The Khmer Rouge genocide: A demographic analysis]. Paris: L'Harmattan. pp. 42–43, 48. ISBN 978-2738435255. 
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    77. ^ "Vietnam War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 March 2008. Meanwhile, the United States, its military demoralized and its civilian electorate deeply divided, began a process of coming to terms with defeat in its longest and most controversial war 
    78. ^ Lind, Michael (1999). "Vietnam, The Necessary War: A Reinterpretation of America's Most Disastrous Military Conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2014. 
    79. ^ Wyatt-Brown, Bertram (2014). "Chapter 8: Honor and Shame in Vietnam and Iraq". A Warring Nation: Honor, Race, and Humiliation in America and Abroad. University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0813934754. 
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    82. ^ Elliott, David W.P. (2007). The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0765606037. 
    83. ^ Donnell, John C; Pauker, Guy J; Zasloff, Joseph J (March 1965). "Viet Cong Motivation and Morale in 1964: A Preliminary Report". 
    84. ^ Nguyễn, Nathalie Huỳnh Châu (2016). South Vietnamese Soldiers: Memories of the Vietnam War and After. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1440832413. 
    85. ^ Wiest, Andrew (October 2009). Vietnam's Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in the ARVN. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0814794678. 
    86. ^ Digital History; Steven Mintz. "The Vietnam War". Digitalhistory.uh.edu. Archived from the original on 30 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
    87. ^ Major General George S. Eckhardt, Vietnam Studies Command and Control 1950–1969, Department of the Army, Washington, DC (1991), p. 6
    88. ^ "Could Vietnam have been nuked in 1954?". 5 May 2014 – via www.bbc.com. 
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    90. ^ Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1, 25th Aviation Battalion website.
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    92. ^ Stanton, Shelby L. (2003). The Rise and Fall of an American Army. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0891418276. 
    93. ^ Ward, Geoffrey C. (2017). The Vietnam War: An Intimate History. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 411. ISBN 978-0307700254. 
    94. ^ Warren, James A. (2013). Giáp: The General Who Defeated America in Vietnam. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1137098917. 
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  16. Admin2

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    12 August 1865Joseph Lister, British surgeon and scientist, performs 1st antiseptic surgery.

    Joseph Lister

    Lister's carbolic steam spray apparatus, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow

    Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, OM PC PRS FRS (5 April 1827 – 10 February 1912[1]), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.

    He promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid (now known as phenol) to sterilise surgical instruments and to clean wounds.

    Applying Louis Pasteur's advances in microbiology, Lister championed the use of carbolic acid as an antiseptic, so that it became the first widely used antiseptic in surgery. He first suspected it would prove an adequate disinfectant because it was used to ease the stench from fields irrigated with sewage waste. He presumed it was safe because fields treated with carbolic acid produced no apparent ill-effects on the livestock that later grazed upon them.

    Lister's work led to a reduction in post-operative infections and made surgery safer for patients, distinguishing him as the "father of modern surgery".[2]

    1. ^ Cartwright, Frederick F. "Joseph Lister". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 February 2018. 
    2. ^ Pitt, Dennis; Aubin, Jean-Michel (2012-10-01). "Joseph Lister: father of modern surgery". Canadian Journal of Surgery. 55 (5): E8–E9. doi:10.1503/cjs.007112. ISSN 0008-428X. PMC 3468637Freely accessible. PMID 22992425. 
     
  17. Admin2

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    13 August 1645 – Sweden and Denmark sign Peace of Brömsebro.

    Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645)

    The Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645. Brown: Denmark-Norway; Green: Sweden; Yellow: the provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna and the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel, which were ceded to Sweden; Red: the province of Halland, ceded for 30 years

    The Second Treaty of Brömsebro (or the Peace of Brömsebro) was signed on 13 August 1645, and ended the Torstenson War, a local conflict that began in 1643 (and was part of the larger Thirty Years' War) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway. Negotiations for the treaty began in February the same year.

     
  18. Admin2

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    14 August 1975The Rocky Horror Picture Show, the longest-running release in film history, opens in London.

    The Rocky Horror Picture Show

    The Rocky Horror Picture Show is a 1975 musical science-fiction horror-comedy film by 20th Century Fox produced by Lou Adler and Michael White and directed by Jim Sharman. The screenplay was written by Sharman and actor Richard O'Brien, who is also a member of the cast. The film is based on the 1973 musical stage production The Rocky Horror Show, with music, book, and lyrics by O'Brien. The production is a parody tribute to the science fiction and horror B movies of the 1930s through to the early 1970s. Along with O'Brien, the film stars Tim Curry, Susan Sarandon, and Barry Bostwick and is narrated by Charles Gray with cast members from the original Royal Court Theatre, Roxy Theatre, and Belasco Theatre productions.

    The story centres on a young engaged couple whose car breaks down in the rain near a castle where they seek a telephone to call for help. The castle or country home is occupied by strangers in elaborate costumes celebrating an annual convention. They discover the head of the house is Dr. Frank N. Furter, an apparent mad scientist who actually is an alien transvestite who creates a living muscle man in his laboratory. The couple are seduced separately by the mad scientist and eventually released by the servants who take control.

    The film was shot in the United Kingdom at Bray Studios and on location at an old country estate named Oakley Court, best known for its earlier use by Hammer Film Productions. A number of props and set pieces were reused from the Hammer horror films. Although the film is both a parody of and tribute to many of the kitsch science fiction and horror films, costume designer Sue Blane conducted no research for her designs. Blane stated that costumes from the film have directly affected the development of punk rock fashion trends such as ripped fishnets and dyed hair.

    Although largely critically panned on initial release, it soon became known as a midnight movie when audiences began participating with the film at the Waverly Theater in New York City in 1976. Audience members returned to the cinemas frequently and talked back to the screen and began dressing as the characters, spawning similar performance groups across the United States. At almost the same time, fans in costume at the King's Court Theater in Pittsburgh began performing alongside the film. This "shadow cast" mimed the actions on screen above and behind them, while lip-syncing their character's lines. Still in limited release four decades after its premiere, it is the longest-running theatrical release in film history. It is often shown close to Halloween. Today, the film has a large international cult following. It was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress in 2005.

    1. ^ "ROCKY HORROR PICTURE SHOW (AA)". British Board of Film Classification. 17 June 1975. Retrieved 18 April 2015. 
    2. ^ Armstrong, Richard; et al. (7 November 2007). The Rough Guide to Film. Rough Guides. p. 506. ISBN 978-1-4053-8498-8. 
    3. ^ a b "The Rocky Horror Picture Show". American Film Institute. Retrieved 11 December 2015. 
    4. ^ Solomon, Aubrey (1989). Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History. Scarecrow Press. p. 258. 
    5. ^ Box Office Information for The Rocky Horror Picture Show. The Numbers. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
     
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    15 August 1695 – French forces end the bombardment of Brussels.

    Bombardment of Brussels

    A contemporary map and illustration of the 1695 bombardment of Brussels and the subsequent fire

    The bombardment of Brussels by French troops of Louis XIV on August 13, 14, and 15, 1695, and the resulting fire were together the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels.[1] The Grand Place was destroyed, along with a third of the buildings in the city. The reconstruction of the city centre, effected during subsequent years, profoundly changed the appearance of the city and left numerous traces still visible today.

    The bombardment was part of the Nine Years' War. The French forces hoped that by bombarding, or threatening to bombard Brussels, they would be able to divert Allied troops from the Siege of Namur. The strategy was unsuccessful, and no military gain came of the bombardment, although Louis XIV's reputation suffered for such a barbarous act.

    1. ^ Brussels was mostly untouched by most other conflicts. It did not suffer significant damage during World War I, and bombing during World War II was not nearly as extensive as that of 1695. See [1].
     
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    16 August 2012South African police fatally shoot 34 miners and wound 78 more during an industrial dispute at Marikana near Rustenburg.

    Marikana killings

    Marikana in South Africa

    The Marikana massacre,[4] which took place on 16 August 2012, was the most lethal use of force by South African security forces against civilians since 1960.[5] The shootings have been described as a massacre in the South African media and have been compared to the Sharpeville massacre in 1960.[6][7] The incident took place on the 25-year anniversary of a nationwide South African miners' strike.[8]

    The killings took place at two locations, roughly 500 metres away from each other, with 17 people fatally wounded at each of these locations. The vast majority of those killed were killed by fire from the R5 assault rifle used by the South African Police Service (SAPS). The official figure for strikers injured during the shooting is 78.

    The strike was considered a seminal event in modern South African history, and was followed by similar strikes at other mines across South Africa,[9][10] events which collectively made 2012 the most protest-filled year in the country since the end of apartheid.[11]

    The Marikana massacre started as a wildcat strike at a mine owned by Lonmin in the Marikana area, close to Rustenburg, South Africa in 2012. The event garnered international attention following a series of violent incidents between the South African Police Service, Lonmin security and members of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) on the one side and strikers themselves on the other. The first incidents of violence were reported to have started on 11 August after NUM leaders opened fire on NUM members who were on strike. Initial reports indicated that it was widely believed that two strikers died that day;[12] however, it later turned out that two strikers were seriously wounded, but not killed, in the shooting by NUM members.[13]

    During the period from Sunday 12 August to Tuesday 14 August, 10 people were killed including 6 mine workers, 2 Lonmin security guards and 2 SAPS members. Three of the mine workers, and the two SAPS members, were killed in a clash between strikers and SAPS members on the afternoon of 13 August. The remaining 5 people are also known to or believed to have been killed by strikers. In response to the Lonmin strikers, there were a wave of wildcat strikes across the South African mining sector.[14]

    1. ^ "Marikana Prequel: NUM and the murders that started it all", Daily Maverick, retrieved 23 October 2012 
    2. ^ Marikana Inquiry updates 23 October, Times Live, retrieved 23 October 2012 
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference aljazreturnspread was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "South Africa's ANC to discuss mine shootings row". BBC News. 27 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
    5. ^ "South African police open fire as striking miners charge, killing and wounding workers". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
    6. ^ Richard Stupart (16 August 2012). "The Night Before Lonmin's Explanation". African Scene. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
    7. ^ Monde Maoto and Natsha Marrian (17 August 2012). "BDlive". BDlive. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
    8. ^ John D. Battersby (16 August 1987). "Miners' Strike in South Africa Raises the Spirit of Resistance". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
    9. ^ "Bokoni platinum mine strike shootings" (Video). The Guardian. London. 17 October 2012. 
    10. ^ "AngloGold says illegal strike spreads in South Africa". JOHANNESBURG: Reuters, Ed Stoddard and Sherilee Lakmidas. 26 September 2012. 
    11. ^ Maeve McClenaghan (18 October 2012). "South African massacre was the tip of an iceberg". The Bureau of Investigative Journalism. 
    12. ^ "Marikana Prequel – NUM and the murders that started it all". Daily Maverick. 12 October 2012. 
    13. ^ Marikana Commission: NUM in a deep hole over the fight that started it all, by Sipho Hhlongwane, The Daily Maverick, 1 February 2013
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC12000 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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