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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 July 1914 – The Cape Cod Canal opened.

    Cape Cod Canal

    The Cape Cod Canal is an artificial waterway in the U.S. state of Massachusetts connecting Cape Cod Bay in the north to Buzzards Bay in the south, and is part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. The approximately seven-mile-long (11 km) canal traverses the narrow neck of land joining Cape Cod to the state's mainland. Most of its length follows tidal rivers widened to 480 feet (150 m) and deepened to 32 feet (9.8 m) at mean low water, shaving 135 miles (217 km) off the journey around the Cape for its approximately 14,000 annual users.[2]

    Most of the canal is located in Bourne, Massachusetts, but its northeastern terminus is in Sandwich, Massachusetts. Scusset Beach State Reservation lies near the canal's north entrance, the Massachusetts Maritime Academy near its south. A swift running current changes direction every six hours and can reach 5.2 miles per hour (8.4 km/h) during the receding ebb tide. The waterway is maintained by the United States Army Corps of Engineers and has no toll fees.[3] It is spanned by the Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge, the Bourne Bridge, and the Sagamore Bridge. Traffic lights at either end govern the approach of vessels over 65 feet (20 m).

    The canal is occasionally used by whales and dolphins,[4] including endangered North Atlantic right whales; these can cause closure of the canal.[5][6]

    Cape Cod Canal is located in Cape Cod
    Cape Cod Canal
    Cape Cod Canal
    Location of Cape Cod Canal on Cape Cod
    Aerial photo of the East End of the Cape Cod Canal and Scusset Beach State Reservation in southeastern Massachusetts, USA
    1. ^ New England District. "Cape Cod Canal Navigation". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
    2. ^ New England District (November 12, 2015). "Cape Cod Canal (Buzzards Bay and Sandwich, Mass.)". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
    3. ^ "Cape Cod Canal". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Archived from the original on June 18, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
    4. ^ Pearson, Samantha. "Dolphins in Cape Cod Canal Saturday" (Video). Boston: WBZ-TV.
    5. ^ Bragg, Mary Ann (May 9, 2015). "Cape Cod Canal closed after right whale sighting". Cape Cod Times.
    6. ^ "Favorite Places". Archived from the original on September 8, 2008.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 July 1930 – In Montevideo, Uruguay wins the first FIFA World Cup.

    1930 FIFA World Cup

    The 1930 FIFA World Cup was the inaugural FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Uruguay from 13 to 30 July 1930. FIFA, football's international governing body, selected Uruguay as host nation, as the country would be celebrating the centenary of its first constitution, and the Uruguay national football team had successfully retained their football title at the 1928 Summer Olympics. All matches were played in the Uruguayan capital, Montevideo, the majority at the Estadio Centenario, which was built for the tournament.

    Thirteen teams (seven from South America, four from Europe and two from North America) entered the tournament. Only a few European teams chose to participate because of the difficulty of travelling to South America. The teams were divided into four groups, with the winner of each group progressing to the semi-finals. The first two World Cup matches took place simultaneously, and were won by France and the United States, who defeated Mexico 4–1 and Belgium 3–0, respectively. Lucien Laurent of France scored the first goal in World Cup history, while US goalkeeper Jimmy Douglas posted the first official "clean sheet" in the tournament.

    Argentina, Uruguay, the United States and Yugoslavia each won their respective groups to qualify for the semi-finals. In the final, hosts and pre-tournament favourites Uruguay defeated Argentina 4–2 in front of a crowd of 68,346 people, and became the first nation to win the World Cup.

     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 July 1970Black Tot Day: The last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy.

    Black Tot Day

    Measuring out the tot (diorama aboard HMS Belfast)
    The grog tub of HMS Cavalier

    Black Tot Day (31 July 1970) was the last day on which the Royal Navy issued sailors with a daily rum ration (the daily tot).

    In the 17th century, the daily drink ration for English sailors was a gallon of beer. Due to the difficulty in storing the large quantities of liquid that this required, in 1655 a half pint of rum was made equivalent and became preferred to beer. Over time, drunkenness on board naval vessels increasingly became a problem and the ration was formalised in naval regulations by Admiral Edward Vernon in 1740 and ordered to be mixed with water in a 4:1 water to rum ratio and split into two servings per day.[1]

    In the 19th century, there was a change in the attitude towards alcohol due to continued discipline problems in the navy. In 1824 the size of the tot was halved to a quarter pint in an effort to improve the situation. In 1850, the Admiralty's Grog Committee, convened to look into the issues surrounding the rum ration, recommended that it be eliminated completely. However, rather than ending it the navy further halved it to an eighth of a pint per day, eliminating the evening serving of the ration.[2] This led to the ending of the ration for officers in 1881 and warrant officers in 1918.[citation needed]

    On 17 December 1969 the Admiralty Board issued a written answer to a question from the MP for Woolwich East, Christopher Mayhew, saying "The Admiralty Board concludes that the rum issue is no longer compatible with the high standards of efficiency required now that the individual's tasks in ships are concerned with complex, and often delicate, machinery and systems on the correct functioning of which people's lives may depend". This led to a debate in the House of Commons on the evening of 28 January 1970, now referred to as the 'Great Rum Debate', started by James Wellbeloved, MP for Erith and Crayford, who believed that the ration should not be removed. The debate lasted an hour and 15 minutes and closed at 10:29pm with a decision that the rum ration was no longer appropriate.[3]

    31 July 1970 was the final day of the rum ration[4] and it was poured as usual at 6 bells in the forenoon watch (11am) after the pipe of 'up spirits'. Some sailors wore black armbands, tots were 'buried at sea' and in one navy training camp, HMS Collingwood, the Royal Naval Electrical College at Fareham in Hampshire, there was a mock funeral procession complete with black coffin and accompanying drummers and piper.[5] The move was not popular with the ratings despite an extra can of beer being added to the daily rations in compensation.[6]

    A special stamp was issued, available from Portsmouth General Post Office, with the slogan "Last Issue of Rum to the Royal Navy 31 July 1970".[7]

    Black Tot Day was subsequently followed in two other Commonwealth navies (the Royal Australian Navy having already discontinued the rum ration, in 1921): (i) 31 March 1972 was the final day of the rum ration in the Royal Canadian Navy; and (ii) 28 February 1990 was the final day of the rum ration in the Royal New Zealand Navy.[8]

    1. ^ Pack, James (1982). Nelson's Blood: The Story of Naval Rum. Naval Institute Press.
    2. ^ "Royal Navy - Index to Miscellaneous Notes - 19th and early 20th Century". www.pbenyon.plus.com. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
    3. ^ "ROYAL NAVY (RUM RATION) (Hansard, 28 January 1970)". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
    4. ^ Porges, Seth (2012-11-29). "7 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Rum - Forbes". Forbes. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
    5. ^ "What did they do with the drunken sailor?". BBC. 2010-07-30. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
    6. ^ "Day of Mourning". Royal Navy Memories. 2009-08-13. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
    7. ^ Woods Rum, Black Tot Day Archived 2 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
    8. ^ "RNZN and the Rum Issue". Torpedo Bay Navy Museum. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 August 1988 – A British soldier was killed in the Inglis Barracks bombing in London, England.

    Inglis Barracks bombing

    The Inglis Barracks bombing was a bomb attack carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) on 1 August 1988 on a British Army barracks called Inglis Barracks in Mill Hill, London. The attack killed one soldier from the Royal Engineers, injured nine more and destroyed large parts of the barracks.[1] It was the first IRA attack in England since the 1984 Brighton Bombing.[2]

    1. ^ Melaugh, Dr Martin. "CAIN: Chronology of the Conflict 1988". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
    2. ^ Sutton, Malcolm. "CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 August 1990Iraq invades Kuwait, eventually leading to the Gulf War.

    Invasion of Kuwait

    The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a two-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring State of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country. This invasion and Iraq's subsequent refusal to withdraw from Kuwait by a deadline mandated by the United Nations[8] led to military intervention by a United Nations-authorized coalition of forces led by the United States. These events came to be known as the first Gulf War and resulted in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and the Iraqis setting 600 Kuwaiti oil wells on fire during their retreat.

    In early 1990 Iraq was accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through slant drilling, although some Iraqi sources indicated Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was made a few months before the actual invasion.[9] Some feel there were several reasons for the Iraqi move, including Iraq's inability to pay the more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed to finance the Iran–Iraq War, and Kuwaiti high petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq.[10] The invasion started on 2 August 1990, and within two days most of the Kuwait Armed Forces were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or fell back to neighbouring Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Iraq set up a puppet government known as the "Republic of Kuwait" to rule over Kuwait and then annexed it outright, when Saddam Hussein announced a few days later that it was the 19th province of Iraq.

    1. ^ Al Moquatel Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ "1990: Iraq invades Kuwait". BBC On This Day. BBC. 2 August 1990. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
    3. ^ Johns, Dave (24 January 2006). "1990 The Invasion of Kuwait". Frontline/World. PBS. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
    4. ^ a b c "Kuwait Organization and Mission of the Forces". Country Studies. Library of Congress. January 1993. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
    5. ^ John Pike. "Kuwait – Army Equipment". Retrieved 19 December 2014.
    6. ^ "سير العمليات العسكرية للغزو العراقي للكويت", Al Moqatel
    7. ^ See the House of Lords case Kuwait Airways Corporation v Iraqi Airways Corporation [2002] UKHL 19.
    8. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 (Condemning the Invasion of Kuwait by Iraq), S.C. res. 660, 45 U.N. SCOR at 19, U.N. Doc. S/RES/660 (1990) Archived 20 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. umn.edu. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
    9. ^ Gause, F. Gregory, III (2005). "The International Politics of the Gulf". In Louise Fawcett. International Relations of the Middle East. Oxford: The University Press. pp. 263–274. ISBN 0-19-926963-7.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference airCombatInformationGroup was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 August 2014 – A 6.1 magnitude earthquake kills at least 617 people and injures more than 2,400 in Yunnan, China.

    2014 Ludian earthquake

    The 2014 Ludian earthquake struck Ludian County, Yunnan, China, with a moment magnitude of 6.1 on 3 August.[16] The earthquake killed at least 617 people, injuring at least 2,400 others.[17][18] As of 5 August 2014, 112 people remain missing.[19] Over 12,000 houses collapsed and 30,000 were damaged.[20] According to the United States Geological Survey, the earthquake occurred 29 km (18 mi) WSW of Zhaotong city at 16:03 local time (08:03 UTC).[21][22][23][24]

    1. ^ 云南省昭通市鲁甸县6.5级地震 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Ludian County, Zhaotong, Yunnan]. 中国地震台网. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
    2. ^ China Earthquake Network statistics
    3. ^ Government announcement
    4. ^ China Earthquake Administration statistics
    5. ^ Yahoo! Finance article
    6. ^ "M6.1 - 11km WNW of Wenping, China". United States Geological Survey. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
    7. ^ a b Armand Vervaeck (3 August 2014). "Deadly earthquake in Ludian county (Yunnan), China – at least 398 people killed + over 6 bn USD in damage". Earthquake-Report.com.
    8. ^ 云南鲁甸发生6.5级地震 极震区预估烈度达VIII度 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurs in Ludian, Yunnan; estimates from earthquake area indicate Mercalli intensity scale of VIII]. Phoenix Television (in Chinese). 3 August 2014.
    9. ^ [北京您早]云南鲁甸发生6.5级地震 此次地震最高烈度为VIII度 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurs in Ludian, Yunnan; maximum (Mercalli) intensity scale rating of VIII reached]. 中国经济网 (in Chinese). 4 August 2014.
    10. ^ a b c "Archived copy" 云南鲁甸地震遇难人数增至617人 [Ludian, Yunnan earthquake death toll rises to 617]. Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 8 August 2014. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    11. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2014-08/08/c_133542789.htm
    12. ^ "Archived copy" 云南省鲁甸县6.5级地震造成589人死亡9人失踪 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Ludian County, Yunnan results in 589 deaths and 9 missing]. Ministry of Civil Affairs Yunnan. 6 August 2014. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    13. ^ "Archived copy" 昭通市鲁甸县发生6.5级地震(续报二十一). Ministry of Civil Affairs Yunnan. 6 August 2014. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    14. ^ Euan McKirdy (6 August 2014). "Chinese earthquake death toll rises to 589". CNN.
    15. ^ 云南省鲁甸县6.5级地震已造成589人死亡 9人失踪 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Ludian County, Yunnan results in 589 deaths and 9 missing]. 和讯新闻 [Hexun News] (in Chinese). 6 August 2014.
    16. ^ "M6.1 – 11km WNW of Wenping, China". United States Geological Survey. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
    17. ^ "Archived copy" 云南省鲁甸县6.5级地震造成410人死亡12人失踪 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Ludian County, Yunnan results in 410 deaths and 12 missing] (in Chinese). 5 August 2014. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    18. ^ "Archived copy" 昭通市鲁甸县发生6.5级地震(续报十八) (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs Yunnan. 5 August 2014. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    19. ^ 云南鲁甸县6.5级地震造成381人死亡3人失踪 [Magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Ludian County, Yunnan results in 381 deaths and 3 missing] (in Chinese). Government of China. 4 August 2014.
    20. ^ "Un séisme fait au moins 367 morts en Chine". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 3 August 2014.
    21. ^ "Earthquake kills 26 in south-west China". BBC News. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
    22. ^ "China quake death toll rises to 381, over 1,800 injured – state media". Russia: RT. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
    23. ^ "At least 175 dead after quake hits southwest China". Reuters. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
    24. ^ "Earthquake killed 398 people and more than 1.800 were injured". BBC News. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 August 1947 – The Supreme Court of Japan is established.

    Supreme Court of Japan

    The Supreme Court of Japan (最高裁判所, Saikō-Saibansho, called 最高裁 Saikō-Sai for short), located in Hayabusachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo, is the highest court in Japan. It has ultimate judicial authority to interpret the Japanese constitution and decide questions of national law (including local bylaws). It has the power of judicial review; that is, it can declare Acts of the National Diet, local assemblies, and administrative actions, to be unconstitutional.

     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 August 1973Mars 6 is launched from the USSR.

    Mars 6

    Mars 6 (Russian: Марс-6), also known as 3MP No.50P was a Soviet spacecraft launched to explore Mars. A 3MP bus spacecraft launched as part of the Mars programme, it consisted of a lander, and a coast stage with instruments to study Mars as it flew past.

    1. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Interplanetary Probes". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
    2. ^ a b c "Mars 6". US National Space Science Data Centre. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
    3. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 August 1930 – Judge Joseph Force Crater steps into a taxi in New York and disappears never to be seen again.

    Joseph Force Crater

    Joseph Force Crater (January 5, 1889 – disappeared August 6, 1930, declared legally dead June 6, 1939) was a New York State Supreme Court Justice who vanished amid political scandal. He was last seen leaving a restaurant on West 45th Street in Manhattan, and entered popular culture as one of the most mysterious missing persons cases of the twentieth century. Despite massive publicity, the case was never solved and was officially closed 40 years after he disappeared. His disappearance fueled public disquiet about New York City corruption and was a factor in the downfall of the Tammany Hall political machine.

     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 August 1960Ivory Coast becomes independent from France.

    Ivory Coast

    Coordinates: 8°N 5°W / 8°N 5°W / 8; -5

    Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire,[a] officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro, while its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan. It borders Guinea and Liberia to the west, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north, Ghana to the east, and the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) to the south.

    Prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. The area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. Relatively stable by regional standards, Ivory Coast established close political and economic ties with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close relations to the West, especially France. Ivory Coast experienced a coup d'état in 1999 and two religiously-grounded civil wars, first between 2002 and 2007[7] and again during 2010–2011. In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution.[8]

    Ivory Coast is a republic with strong executive power vested in its president. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s, though it went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. In the 21st century, the Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.[1]

    The official language is French, with local indigenous languages also widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin, and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. There are large populations of Muslims, Christians (primarily Roman Catholics) and various indigenous religions.

    1. ^ a b "Côte d'Ivoire". The World Factbook. CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 24 July 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
    2. ^ "Côte d'Ivoire". The World Factbook. CIA Directorate of Intelligence. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
    3. ^ a b c d "Côte d'Ivoire". International Monetary Fund.
    4. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
    5. ^ http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2018_human_development_statistical_update.pdf
    6. ^ "Cote d'Ivoire definition". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
    7. ^ "Loi n° 2000-513 du 1er août 2000 portant Constitution de la République de Côte d'Ivoire" (PDF). Journal Officiel de la République de Côte d'Ivoire (in French). 42 (30): 529–538. 3 August 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
    8. ^ Loi no 2000-513 du 1er août 2000 portant constitution de la République de Côte d’Ivoire, Journal officiel de la République de Côte d’Ivoire, no 30, Abidjan, jeudi 3 août 2000, p. 529–538


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  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 August 1960Ivory Coast becomes independent from France.

    Ivory Coast

    Coordinates: 8°N 5°W / 8°N 5°W / 8; -5

    Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire,[a] officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro, while its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan. It borders Guinea and Liberia to the west, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north, Ghana to the east, and the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) to the south.

    Prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. The area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. Relatively stable by regional standards, Ivory Coast established close political and economic ties with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close relations to the West, especially France. Ivory Coast experienced a coup d'état in 1999 and two religiously-grounded civil wars, first between 2002 and 2007[7] and again during 2010–2011. In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution.[8]

    Ivory Coast is a republic with strong executive power vested in its president. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s, though it went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. In the 21st century, the Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.[1]

    The official language is French, with local indigenous languages also widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin, and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. There are large populations of Muslims, Christians (primarily Roman Catholics) and various indigenous religions.

    1. ^ a b "Côte d'Ivoire". The World Factbook. CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 24 July 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
    2. ^ "Côte d'Ivoire". The World Factbook. CIA Directorate of Intelligence. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
    3. ^ a b c d "Côte d'Ivoire". International Monetary Fund.
    4. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
    5. ^ http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2018_human_development_statistical_update.pdf
    6. ^ "Cote d'Ivoire definition". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
    7. ^ "Loi n° 2000-513 du 1er août 2000 portant Constitution de la République de Côte d'Ivoire" (PDF). Journal Officiel de la République de Côte d'Ivoire (in French). 42 (30): 529–538. 3 August 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
    8. ^ Loi no 2000-513 du 1er août 2000 portant constitution de la République de Côte d’Ivoire, Journal officiel de la République de Côte d’Ivoire, no 30, Abidjan, jeudi 3 août 2000, p. 529–538


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  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 August 2013 – A suicide bombing at a funeral in the Pakistani city of Quetta kills at least 31 people.

    August 2013 Quetta bombing

    On 8 August 2013, a suicide attacker exploded a bomb at a funeral being held for a police officer in Quetta, Pakistan, and killed as many as thirty-one people and injured over fifty people. No group has taken responsibility for the bombing, but it is believed[by whom?] that the Taliban were behind the bombing. A senior police officer, Fayaz Sumbal, noticed the suicide bomber before he blew himself up. As Fayaz began searching the suicide bomber's body, the bomber blew himself up. The bomber was wearing a jacket that had ball bearings and shrapnel inside.[1]

    1. ^ "Pakistan Quetta suicide bomber kills at least 28 people". BBC. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 August 1969 – The Manson Family commits the Tate murders.

    Tate murders

    The Tate murders were a mass murder conducted by members of the Manson Family on August 8–9, 1969, which claimed the lives of five people. Four members of the Family invaded the home of married celebrity couple, actress Sharon Tate and director Roman Polanski at 10050 Cielo Drive in Los Angeles. They murdered Tate, who was eight and a half months pregnant, along with three friends who were visiting at the time, and an 18-year-old visitor, who was slain as he was departing the home. Polanski was not present on the night of the murders, as he was working on a film in Europe.

    The murders were carried out by Tex Watson, Susan Atkins, and Patricia Krenwinkel, under the direction of Charles Manson. Watson drove Atkins, Krenwinkel, and Linda Kasabian from Spahn Ranch to the residence on Cielo Drive. Manson, a would-be musician, had previously attempted to enter into a recording contract with record producer Terry Melcher, who was a previous renter of the house along with musician Mark Lindsay and Melcher's then-girlfriend, actress Candice Bergen. Melcher had snubbed Manson, leaving him disgruntled.


     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 August 1557Battle of St. Quentin: Spanish victory over the French in the Italian War of 1551–59.

    Battle of St. Quentin (1557)

    The Battle of Saint-Quentin of 1557 was fought at Saint-Quentin in Picardy, during the Italian War of 1551–1559. The Spanish[a] of Philip II's Spanish Empire, who had regained the support of the English whose Mary I of England he had married, won a significant victory over the French at Saint-Quentin, in northern France.

    1. ^ a b c Bonner 1992, p. 35.
    2. ^ a b Nolan 2006, p. 756.
    3. ^ Kamen 2004, p. 28.
    4. ^ Parker 1989, p. 41.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 August 1972Vietnam War: The last United States ground combat unit leaves South Vietnam.

    Vietnam War

    The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War,[77] and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955[A 1] to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975, with U.S. involvement ending in 1973.[78] It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China,[30] and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.[79] The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives.[80] It lasted some 19 years and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. The outcome of the war humiliated the United States and diminished its reputation in the world.[81][82]

    Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was then French Indochina.[83][A 3] Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U.S.[84] The Việt Cộng, also known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF (the National Liberation Front), a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region, while the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA), engaged in more conventional warfare, and had launched armed struggles from 1959 onward. U.S. involvement escalated in 1960 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels gradually surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963.[85][86]

    By 1964, there were 23,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U.S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U.S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000.[85] Every year onward there was significant build-up despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.[87] U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes. The U.S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. After the Tet Offensive of 1968, the unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders; bordering areas of Laos and Cambodia were used by North Vietnam as supply routes and were heavily bombed by U.S. forces.

    Gradual withdrawal of U.S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.S. Congress.[88] The capture of Saigon by the PAVN in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties). Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000[44] to 3.8 million.[73] Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians,[74][75][76] 20,000–62,000 Laotians,[73] and 58,220 U.S. service members also died in the conflict, and a further 1,626 remain missing in action.[A 2] The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and ties between the DRV and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, and the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War. The end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.

    1. ^ "Vietnamese NLF Victory Map". Cornell University Library Digital Collections.
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rohn, Alan (November 26, 2012). "What countries involved in the Vietnam War?". The Vietnam War. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h "America Wasn't the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War". Military History Now. October 2, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
    4. ^ The Cuban Military Under Castro, 1989. p. 76
    5. ^ Cuba in the World, 1979. p. 66
    6. ^ "Korejská záhada zůstává nevyřešena" [The Korean mystery remains unresolved] (in Czech). Cesky a slovensky svet. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
    7. ^ "Bilaterální vztahy České republiky a Vietnamské socialistické republiky" [Bilateral Relations of the Czech Republic and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam] (in Czech). e-Polis – Internetový politologický časopis. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
    8. ^ Horten, Gerd (2013). "Sailing in the Shadow of the Vietnam War: The GDR Government and the "Vietnam Bonus" of the Early 1970s" (PDF). German Studies Review. 36 (3): 557–578. doi:10.1353/gsr.2013.0114.
    9. ^ "Stasi Aid and the Modernization of the Vietnamese Secret Police". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 20 August 2014.
    10. ^ a b Radvanyi, Janos (1980). "Vietnam War Diplomacy: Reflections of a Former Iron Curtain Official" (PDF). Parameters: Journal of the US Army War College. 10 (3): 8–15.
    11. ^ Margaret K. Gnoinska (March 2005). "Poland and Vietnam, 1963: New Evidence on Secret Communist Diplomacy and the "Maneli Affair"". Cold War International History Project (Working Paper #45). CiteSeerX 10.1.1.401.5833.
    12. ^ a b c d "Intelligence Memorandum: Sources of Military Equipment to Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Military Forces" (PDF). Directorate of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency. 1998 [4 November 1968].
    13. ^ "Foreign Affairs in the 1960s and 1970s". Library of Congress. 1992. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Bulgaria gave official military support to many national liberation causes, most notably in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, (North Vietnam)…
    14. ^ Crump 2015, p. 183
    15. ^ "Why did Sweden support the Viet Cong?". HistoryNet. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
    16. ^ "Sweden announces support to Viet Cong". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016. In Sweden, Foreign Minister Torsten Nilsson reveals that Sweden has been providing assistance to the Viet Cong, including some $550,000 worth of medical supplies. Similar Swedish aid was to go to Cambodian and Laotian civilians affected by the Indochinese fighting. This support was primarily humanitarian in nature and included no military aid.
    17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Friedman, Herbert. "Allies of the Republic of Vietnam". psywarrior.com. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
    18. ^ Moïse 1996, pp. 3–4.
    19. ^ Weil, Thomas E. et. al. Area Handbook for Brazil (1975), p. 293
    20. ^ "Chapter Three: 1957–1969 Early Relations between Malaysia and Vietnam" (PDF). University of Malaya Student Repository. p. 72. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
    21. ^ Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (Profiles of Malaysia's Foreign Ministers) (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia). 2008. p. 31. ISBN 978-9832220268. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015. The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February 1962, he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon. These included a total of 45,707 single-barrel shotguns, 611 armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in 1975, he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early 1958. Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5,000 Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of 150 U.S. soldiers in handling Tracker Dogs; a rather impressive list of military equipment and weapons given to Viet-Nam after the end of the Malaysian insurgency (for example, 641 armored personnel carriers, 56,000 shotguns); and a creditable amount of civil assistance (transportation equipment, cholera vaccine, and flood relief)". It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint.
    22. ^ DoD 1998
    23. ^ Lawrence 2009, p. 20.
    24. ^ Olson & Roberts 1991, p. 67.[citation not found]
    25. ^ Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954–1960, The Pentagon Papers (Gravel Edition), Volume 1, Chapter 5, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Section 3, pp. 314–46; International Relations Department, Mount Holyoke College.
    26. ^ The Paris Agreement on Vietnam: Twenty-five Years Later Conference Transcript, The Nixon Center, Washington, DC, April 1998. Reproduced on mtholyoke.edu. Accessed 5 September 2012.
    27. ^ Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975. Translated by Merle Pribbenow, Lawerence KS: University of Kansas Press, 2002, p. 211: "By the end of 1966 the total strength of our armed forces was 690,000 soldiers.". According to Hanoi's official history, the Viet Cong was a branch of the People's Army of Vietnam.
    28. ^ Doyle, The North, pp. 45–49
    29. ^ a b The A to Z of the Vietnam War. The Scarecrow Press. 2005. ISBN 978-1461719038.
    30. ^ a b "China admits 320,000 troops fought in Vietnam". Toledo Blade. Reuters. 16 May 1989. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
    31. ^ Roy, Denny (1998). China's Foreign Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 27. ISBN 978-0847690138.
    32. ^ a b Womack, Brantly (2006). China and Vietnam. ISBN 978-0521618342.
    33. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 376. ISBN 978-1851099603.
    34. ^ [1][dead link]
    35. ^ Pham Thi Thu Thuy (1 August 2013). "The colorful history of North Korea-Vietnam relations". NK News. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
    36. ^ Le Gro, p. 28.
    37. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. xlv. ISBN 978-1851099610.
    38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 December 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    39. ^ "The rise of Communism". www.footprinttravelguides.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
    40. ^ "Hmong rebellion in Laos".
    41. ^ Pike, John. "Cambodia Civil War, 1970s". www.globalsecurity.org.
    42. ^ "Vietnam War Allied Troop Levels 1960-73". Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016., accessed 7 Nov 2017
    43. ^ Pike, John. "Pathet Lao Uprising".
    44. ^ a b c d e f Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate", Population and Development Review, December 1995.
    45. ^ a b c Lewy 1978, pp. 450–53.
    46. ^ "Battlefield:Vietnam - Timeline". PBS.
    47. ^ Cite error: The named reference :11 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    48. ^ "Công tác tìm kiếm, quy tập hài cốt liệt sĩ từ nay đến năm 2020 và những năn tiếp theo" [The work of searching and collecting the remains of martyrs from now to 2020 and the next] (in Vietnamese). Ministry of Defence, Government of Vietnam.
    49. ^ Communist Party of Vietnam. "Đời đời nhớ ơn các anh hùng liệt sĩ!" [Eternal gratitude to the heroes and martyrs!] (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2018-06-11.
    50. ^ a b Lewy, Guenter (1978). America in Vietnam. Oxford University Press. pp. 450–1. ISBN 9780199874231.
    51. ^ Soames, John. A History of the World, Routledge, 2005.
    52. ^ "North Korea fought in Vietnam War". BBC News Online. 31 March 2000. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
    53. ^ James F. Dunnigan; Albert A. Nofi (2000). Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-25282-3.
    54. ^ Thayer 1985, chap. 12.
    55. ^ Clarke, Jeffrey J. (1988), United States Army in Vietnam: Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973, Washington, D.C: Center of Military History, United States Army, p. 275: "The Army of the Republic of Vietnam suffered 254,256 recorded combat deaths between 1960 and 1974, with the highest number of recorded deaths being in 1972, with 39,587 combat deaths"
    56. ^ Rummel, R.J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations" (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System
    57. ^ a b Tucker, Spencer E. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1851099611
    58. ^ Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund (29 May 2017). "3 new names added to Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall" (Press release). Associated Press.
    59. ^ America's Wars (PDF) (Report). Department of Veterans Affairs. May 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2014.
    60. ^ Anne Leland; Mari–Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu (26 February 2010). American War and Military Operations: Casualties: Lists and Statistics (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service.
    61. ^ Lawrence 2009, pp. 65, 107, 154, 217
    62. ^ Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director) (2005, 2006). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software) (Documentary). Koch Vision. Event occurs at 321 minutes. ISBN 1417229209.
    63. ^ Kueter, Dale. Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended. AuthorHouse (21 March 2007). ISBN 978-1425969318
    64. ^ T. Lomperis, From People's War to People's Rule (1996)
    65. ^ "Australian casualties in the Vietnam War, 1962–72". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
    66. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 2nd Edition [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851099610.
    67. ^ "Overview of the war in Vietnam". New Zealand and the Vietnam War. 16 July 1965. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
    68. ^ "America Wasn't the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War". 2013-10-02. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
    69. ^ "Chapter III: The Philippines". History.army.mil. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
    70. ^ "Asian Allies in Vietnam" (PDF). Embassy of South Vietnam. March 1970. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
    71. ^ Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011. The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam.
    72. ^ Obermeyer, Ziad; Murray, Christopher J L; Gakidou, Emmanuela (23 April 2008). "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme". British Medical Journal. 336 (336): 1482–1486. doi:10.1136/bmj.a137. PMC 2440905. PMID 18566045. Retrieved 5 January 2013. From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths ... 3.8 million in Vietnam
    73. ^ a b c d Obermeyer, Murray & Gakidou 2008.
    74. ^ a b Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia". Forced Migration and Mortality. National Academy Press. pp. 102–04, 120, 124. ISBN 978-0309073349. As best as can now be estimated, over two million Cambodians died during the 1970s because of the political events of the decade, the vast majority of them during the mere four years of the 'Khmer Rouge' regime. ... Subsequent reevaluations of the demographic data situated the death toll for the [civil war] in the order of 300,000 or less.
    75. ^ a b Banister, Judith; Johnson, E. Paige (1993). "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia". Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community. Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. p. 87. ISBN 978-0938692492. An estimated 275,000 excess deaths. We have modeled the highest mortality we can justify for the early 1970s.
    76. ^ a b Sliwinski, Marek (1995). Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique [The Khmer Rouge genocide: A demographic analysis]. Paris: L'Harmattan. pp. 42–43, 48. ISBN 978-2738435255.
    77. ^ Cite error: The named reference Factasy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    78. ^ The Paris Agreement on Vietnam: Twenty-five Years Later Conference Transcript, The Nixon Center, Washington, DC, April 1998. Reproduced on mtholyoke.edu. Accessed 5 September 2012.
    79. ^ "Vietnam War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 March 2008. Meanwhile, the United States, its military demoralized and its civilian electorate deeply divided, began a process of coming to terms with defeat in its longest and most controversial war
    80. ^ Lind, Michael (1999). "Vietnam, The Necessary War: A Reinterpretation of America's Most Disastrous Military Conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
    81. ^ Callahan, Maureen (2017-09-14). "'Vietnam' reveals the folly of a war that scarred America". New York Post. Retrieved 2019-02-03.
    82. ^ "Today in history: A humiliating end to the Vietnam War". theweek.com. 2014-04-28. Retrieved 2019-02-03.
    83. ^ Major General George S. Eckhardt, Vietnam Studies Command and Control 1950–1969, Department of the Army, Washington, DC (1991), p. 6
    84. ^ "Could Vietnam have been nuked in 1954?". BBC News. 5 May 2014 – via www.bbc.com.
    85. ^ a b "Vietnam War Allied Troop Levels 1960-73". www.americanwarlibrary.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
    86. ^ Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1, 25th Aviation Battalion website.
    87. ^ "McNamara becomes Vietnam War skeptic, Oct. 14, 1966". Politico. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
    88. ^ Kolko 1985, pp. 457, 461ff.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=A> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=A}} template (see the help page).

     
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    12 August 1865Joseph Lister, British surgeon and scientist, performs 1st antiseptic surgery.

    Joseph Lister

    Lister's carbolic steam spray apparatus, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow

    Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, OM PC PRS FRS (5 April 1827 – 10 February 1912),[1] known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.

    Lister promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid (now known as phenol) to sterilise surgical instruments and to clean wounds.

    Applying Louis Pasteur's advances in microbiology, Lister championed the use of carbolic acid as an antiseptic, so that it became the first widely used antiseptic in surgery. He first suspected it would prove an adequate disinfectant because it was used to ease the stench from fields irrigated with sewage waste. He presumed it was safe because fields treated with carbolic acid produced no apparent ill-effects on the livestock that later grazed upon them.

    Lister's work led to a reduction in post-operative infections and made surgery safer for patients, distinguishing him as the "father of modern surgery".[2]

    1. ^ Cartwright, Frederick F. "Joseph Lister". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
    2. ^ Pitt, Dennis; Aubin, Jean-Michel (2012-10-01). "Joseph Lister: father of modern surgery". Canadian Journal of Surgery. 55 (5): E8–E9. doi:10.1503/cjs.007112. ISSN 0008-428X. PMC 3468637. PMID 22992425.
     
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    13 August 1645 – Sweden and Denmark sign Peace of Brömsebro.

    Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645)

    The Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645. Brown: Denmark-Norway; Green: Sweden; Yellow: the provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna and the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel, which were ceded to Sweden; Red: the province of Halland, ceded for 30 years

    The Second Treaty of Brömsebro (or the Peace of Brömsebro) was signed on 13 August 1645, and ended the Torstenson War, a local conflict that began in 1643 (and was part of the larger Thirty Years' War) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway. Negotiations for the treaty began in February the same year.

     
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    14 August 1975The Rocky Horror Picture Show, the longest-running release in film history, opens in London.

    The Rocky Horror Picture Show

    The Rocky Horror Picture Show is a 1975 musical science-fiction horror-comedy film by 20th Century Fox produced by Lou Adler and Michael White and directed by Jim Sharman. The screenplay was written by Sharman and actor Richard O'Brien, who is also a member of the cast. The film is based on the 1973 musical stage production The Rocky Horror Show, with music, book, and lyrics by O'Brien. The production is a parody tribute to the science fiction and horror B movies of the 1930s through to the early 1960s. Along with O'Brien, the film stars Tim Curry, Susan Sarandon, and Barry Bostwick and is narrated by Charles Gray with cast members from the original Royal Court Theatre, Roxy Theatre, and Belasco Theatre productions including Nell Campbell and Patricia Quinn.

    The story centres on a young engaged couple whose car breaks down in the rain near a castle where they seek a telephone to call for help. The castle or country home is occupied by strangers in elaborate costumes celebrating an annual convention. They discover the head of the house is Dr. Frank N. Furter, an apparent mad scientist who actually is an alien transvestite who creates a living muscle man in his laboratory. The couple are seduced separately by the mad scientist and eventually released by the servants who take control.

    The film was shot in the United Kingdom at Bray Studios and on location at an old country estate named Oakley Court, best known for its earlier use by Hammer Film Productions. A number of props and set pieces were reused from the Hammer horror films. Although the film is both a parody of and tribute to many of kitsch science fiction and horror films, costume designer Sue Blane conducted no research for her designs. Blane stated that costumes from the film have directly affected the development of punk rock fashion trends such as ripped fishnets and dyed hair.[6]

    Although largely critically panned on initial release, it soon became known as a midnight movie when audiences began participating with the film at the Waverly Theater in New York City in 1976. Audience members returned to the cinemas frequently and talked back to the screen and began dressing as the characters, spawning similar performance groups across the United States. At almost the same time, fans in costume at the King's Court Theater in Pittsburgh began performing alongside the film. This "shadow cast" mimed the actions on screen above and behind them, while lip-synching their character's lines. Still in limited release four decades after its premiere, it is the longest-running theatrical release in film history. It is often shown close to Halloween. Today, the film has a large international cult following. It was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress in 2005.

    1. ^ "ROCKY HORROR PICTURE SHOW (AA)". British Board of Film Classification. 17 June 1975. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
    2. ^ Armstrong, Richard; et al. (7 November 2007). The Rough Guide to Film. Rough Guides. p. 506. ISBN 978-1-4053-8498-8.
    3. ^ a b "The Rocky Horror Picture Show". American Film Institute. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
    4. ^ Solomon, Aubrey (1989). Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History. Scarecrow Press. p. 258.
    5. ^ Box Office Information for The Rocky Horror Picture Show. The Numbers. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
    6. ^ Thompson, Dave (1 February 2016). The Rocky Horror Picture Show FAQ: Everything Left to Know About the Campy Cult Classic. Applause Theatre & Cinema Books. p. 1785. ISBN 978-1495007477.
     
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    15 August 1695 – French forces end the bombardment of Brussels.

    Bombardment of Brussels

    A contemporary map and illustration of the 1695 bombardment of Brussels and the subsequent fire

    The bombardment of Brussels by troops of Louis XIV of France on August 13, 14, and 15, 1695, and the resulting fire were together the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels.[1] The Grand Place was destroyed, along with a third of the buildings in the city. The reconstruction of the city centre, effected during subsequent years, profoundly changed the appearance of the city and left numerous traces still visible today.

    The bombardment was part of the Nine Years' War. The French forces hoped that by bombarding, or threatening to bombard Brussels, they would be able to divert Allied troops from the Siege of Namur. The strategy was unsuccessful, and no military gain came of the bombardment, although Louis XIV's reputation suffered for such a barbarous act.

    1. ^ Brussels was mostly untouched by most other conflicts. It did not suffer significant damage during World War I, and bombing during World War II was not nearly as extensive as that of 1695. See [1].
     
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    16 August 2012South African police fatally shoot 34 miners and wound 78 more during an industrial dispute at Marikana near Rustenburg.

    Marikana killings

    Marikana is located in South Africa
    Marikana
    Marikana
    The massacre took place on the periphery of Wonderkop, near Marikana, South Africa

    The Marikana massacre,[4] which took place on 16 August 2012, was the most lethal use of force by South African security forces against civilians since 1976.[5] The shootings have been described as a massacre in the South African media and have been compared to the Sharpeville massacre in 1960.[6][7] The incident took place on the 25-year anniversary of a nationwide South African miners' strike.[8]

    The killings took place at two locations, roughly 500 metres away from each other, with 17 people fatally wounded at each of these locations. The vast majority of those killed were killed by fire from the R5 assault rifle used by the South African Police Service (SAPS). The official figure for strikers injured during the shooting is 78.

    The strike was considered a seminal event in modern South African history, and was followed by similar strikes at other mines across South Africa,[9][10] events which collectively made 2012 the most protest-filled year in the country since the end of apartheid.[11]

    The Marikana massacre started as a wildcat strike at a mine owned by Lonmin in the Marikana area, close to Rustenburg, South Africa in 2012. The event garnered international attention following a series of violent incidents between the South African Police Service, Lonmin security and members of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) on the one side and strikers themselves on the other. The first incidents of violence were reported to have started on 11 August after NUM leaders opened fire on NUM members who were on strike. Initial reports indicated that it was widely believed that two strikers died that day;[12] however, it later turned out that two strikers were seriously wounded, but not killed, in the shooting by NUM members.[13]

    During the period from Sunday 12 August to Tuesday 14 August, 10 people were killed including 6 mine workers, 2 Lonmin security guards and 2 SAPS members. Three of the mine workers, and the two SAPS members, were killed in a clash between strikers and SAPS members on the afternoon of 13 August. The remaining 5 people are also known to or believed to have been killed by strikers. In response to the Lonmin strikers, there were a wave of wildcat strikes across the South African mining sector.[14]

    1. ^ "Marikana Prequel: NUM and the murders that started it all", Daily Maverick, retrieved 23 October 2012
    2. ^ Marikana Inquiry updates 23 October, Times Live, retrieved 23 October 2012
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference aljazreturnspread was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "South Africa's ANC to discuss mine shootings row". BBC News. 27 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
    5. ^ "South African police open fire as striking miners charge, killing and wounding workers". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
    6. ^ Richard Stupart (16 August 2012). "The Night Before Lonmin's Explanation". African Scene. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
    7. ^ Monde Maoto and Natsha Marrian (17 August 2012). "BDlive". BDlive. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
    8. ^ John D. Battersby (16 August 1987). "Miners' Strike in South Africa Raises the Spirit of Resistance". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
    9. ^ "Bokoni platinum mine strike shootings" (Video). The Guardian. London. 17 October 2012.
    10. ^ "AngloGold says illegal strike spreads in South Africa". JOHANNESBURG: Reuters, Ed Stoddard and Sherilee Lakmidas. 26 September 2012.
    11. ^ Maeve McClenaghan (18 October 2012). "South African massacre was the tip of an iceberg". The Bureau of Investigative Journalism.
    12. ^ "Marikana Prequel – NUM and the murders that started it all". Daily Maverick. 12 October 2012.
    13. ^ Marikana Commission: NUM in a deep hole over the fight that started it all, by Sipho Hhlongwane, The Daily Maverick, 1 February 2013
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC12000 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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  22. Admin2

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    18 August 1868 – French astronomer Pierre Janssen discovers helium.

    Pierre Janssen

    Photo taken by Janssen, from the Meudon observatory, of Renard and Krebs' La France dirigible (1885)

    Pierre Jules César Janssen (22 February 1824 – 23 December 1907), also known as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gaseous nature of the solar chromosphere, and with some justification the element helium.

     
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    19 August 1909 – The first automobile race at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

    Indianapolis Motor Speedway

    The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is an automobile racing circuit located in Speedway, Indiana (an enclave suburb of Indianapolis) in the United States. It is the home of the Indianapolis 500 and the Brickyard 400,[4] and formerly the home of the United States Grand Prix. It is located on the corner of 16th Street and Georgetown Road, approximately six miles (10 km) west of Downtown Indianapolis.

    Constructed in 1909, it is the second purpose-built, banked oval racing circuit after Brooklands and the first to be called a 'speedway'. It has a permanent seating capacity of 257,325[1] with infield seating raising the grand total capacity to an approximate 400,000.[5] It is the highest-capacity sports venue in the world.[6]

    Considered relatively flat by American standards, the track is a 2.5-mile-long (4.0 km) rectangular oval with dimensions that have remained essentially unchanged since its construction. It has two 58-mile-long (1,000 m) straightaways, four geometrically identical 14-mile (400 m) turns, connected by two 18-mile (200 m) short straightaways, termed "short chutes", between turns 1 and 2, and between turns 3 and 4.

    A modern, FIA Grade One infield road course was completed in 2000, incorporating part of the oval, including the main stretch and the southeast turn, measuring 2.605 miles (4.192 km). In 2008, and again in 2014, the road course layout was modified to accommodate motorcycle racing, as well as to improve competition. Altogether, the current grounds have expanded from an original 320 acres (1.3 km2) on which the speedway was first built to cover an area of over 559 acres (2.3 km2). Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, it is the only such site to be affiliated with automotive racing history.

    In addition to the Indianapolis 500, the speedway also hosts NASCAR's Brickyard 400 and Lilly Diabetes 250. From 2000 to 2007, the speedway hosted the Formula One United States Grand Prix, and from 2008 to 2015 the Moto GP.

    On the grounds of the speedway is the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum, which opened in 1956, and houses the Hall of Fame. The museum moved into its current building located in the infield in 1976. Also on the grounds is the Brickyard Crossing Golf Resort, which originally opened as the Speedway Golf Course in 1929. The golf course has 14 holes outside the track, along the backstretch, and four holes in the infield. The speedway also served as the venue for the opening ceremonies for the 1987 Pan American Games. The track is nicknamed "The Brickyard" (see below), and the garage area is famously known as Gasoline Alley.

    1. ^ a b "USATODAY.com - Take a seat: Study puts Indy's capacity at 257,325". usatoday30.usatoday.com. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
    2. ^ National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
    3. ^ "Indianapolis Motor Speedway". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
    4. ^ Charleton, James H. (October 1985). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form: Indianapolis Motor Speedway". National Park Service. and Accompanying two photos from 1985
    5. ^ "World Stadiums - Stadium List :: 100 000+ Stadiums". www.worldstadiums.com. Archived from the original on April 19, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
    6. ^ "100 000+ Stadiums". World Stadiums. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
     
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    20 August 1997Souhane massacre in Algeria; over 60 people are killed and 15 kidnapped

    Souhane massacre

    The largest of the Souhane massacres took place in the small mountain town of Souhane (about 25 km south of Algiers, between Larbaa and Tablat) on 20–21 August 1997. 64 people were killed, and 15 women kidnapped; the resulting terror provoked a mass exodus, bringing the town's population down from 4000 before the massacre to just 103 in 2002. Smaller-scale massacres later took place on November 27, 1997 (18 men, 3 women, 4 children killed) and 2 March 2000, when some 10 people from a single household were killed by guerrillas. The massacres were blamed on Islamist groups such as the GIA.

     
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    21 August 1821Jarvis Island is discovered by the crew of the ship, Eliza Frances.

    Jarvis Island

    Jarvis Island (/ˈɑːrvɪs/; formerly known as Bunker Island, or Bunker's Shoal) is an uninhabited 1 34-square-mile (4.5 km2) coral island located in the South Pacific Ocean at 0°22′S 160°01′W / 0.367°S 160.017°W / -0.367; -160.017Coordinates: 0°22′S 160°01′W / 0.367°S 160.017°W / -0.367; -160.017, about halfway between Hawaii and the Cook Islands.[1] It is an unincorporated, unorganized territory of the United States, administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service of the United States Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system.[2] Unlike most coral atolls, the lagoon on Jarvis is wholly dry.

    Jarvis is one of the Line Islands and for statistical purposes is also grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands.

    1. ^ Darwin, Charles; Bonney, Thomas George (1897). The structure and distribution of coral reefs. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 207. ISBN 0-520-03282-9.
    2. ^ "Jarvis Island". DOI Office of Insular Affairs. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
     
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    22 AUgust 1851 – The first America's Cup is won by the yacht America.

    America's Cup

    The America's Cup, affectionately known as the Auld Mug, is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two sailing yachts. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club that currently holds the America's Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club that is challenging for the cup. The timing of each match is determined by an agreement between the defender and the challenger. The America's Cup is the oldest international sporting trophy.[1][2][3] It will next be raced for in the southern summer, in the early part of 2021.[4]

    The cup was originally awarded in 1851 by the Royal Yacht Squadron for a race around the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom, which was won by the schooner America. The trophy, originally named the '£100 Cup', was renamed the America's Cup after the yacht and was donated to the New York Yacht Club (NYYC) under the terms of the Deed of Gift, which made the cup available for perpetual international competition.

    Any yacht club that meets the requirements specified in the deed of gift has the right to challenge the yacht club that holds the cup. If the challenging club wins the match, it gains stewardship of the cup.

    The history and prestige associated with the America's Cup attracts not only the world's top sailors and yacht designers but also the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs and sponsors. It is a test not only of sailing skill and boat and sail design, but also of fundraising and management skills.

    The trophy was held by the NYYC from 1857 (when the syndicate that won the cup donated the trophy to the club) until 1983. The NYYC successfully defended the trophy twenty-four times in a row before being defeated by the Royal Perth Yacht Club, represented by the yacht Australia II. The NYYC's reign was the longest winning streak (in terms of date) in the history of all sports.[5]

    From the first defence of the cup in 1870 through the twentieth defence in 1967, there was always only one challenger. In 1970, for the first time, there were multiple challengers, so the NYYC agreed that the challengers could run a selection series with the winner becoming the official challenger and competing against the defender in the America's Cup match. Since 1983, Louis Vuitton has sponsored the Louis Vuitton Cup as a prize for the winner of the challenger selection series.

    Early matches for the cup were raced between yachts 65–90 ft (20–27 m) on the waterline owned by wealthy sportsmen. This culminated with the J-Class regattas of the 1930s. After World War II and almost twenty years without a challenge, the NYYC made changes to the deed of gift to allow smaller, less expensive 12-metre class yachts to compete; this class was used from 1958 until 1987. It was replaced in 1990 by the International America’s Cup Class which was used until 2007.

    After a long legal battle, the 2010 America's Cup was raced in 90 ft (27 m) waterline multihull yachts in a best of three "deed of gift" match in Valencia, Spain. The victorious Golden Gate Yacht Club then elected to race the 2013 America's Cup in AC72 foiling, wing-sail catamarans. Golden Gate Yacht Club successfully defended the cup. The 35th America's Cup match was announced to be sailed in 50 ft foiling catamarans.[6]

    The history of the America's Cup has included legal battles and disputes over rule changes including most recently over the rule changes for the 2017 America's Cup.[7]

    The America's Cup is currently held by the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron,[8] who will stage the 36th defence of the Cup in 2021.

    1. ^ "A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE AMERICA'S CUP". America's Cup Event Authority LLC. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
    2. ^ "America's Cup". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
    3. ^ "About America's Cup". Sir Peter Blake Trust. 2 August 2014. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015.
    4. ^ "36th America's Cup Announcement". Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
    5. ^ John Rousmaniere (1983). The America's Cup 1851–1983. Pelham Books. ISBN 978-0-7207-1503-3.
    6. ^ BBC Staff Reporters (2 April 2015). "America's Cup: Sir Ben Ainslie backs move to smaller boats". BBC, London. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
    7. ^ "America’s Cup boat size row escalates as teams close ranks after Luna Rossa exit' Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 3 April 2015
    8. ^ Cary, Tom; Dilworth, Miles (26 June 2017). "New Zealand bury the demons of San Francisco in crushing America's Cup victory over the USA". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
     
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    23 August 1328Battle of Cassel: French troops stop an uprising of Flemish farmers.

    Battle of Cassel (1328)

    The battle between the Flemish and the French at Cassel
    The Virgil Master, c. 1410
    15th century illustration of the battle
    Bataille de Cassel du 23 août 1328

    On 23 August 1328, the Battle of Cassel took place near the city of Cassel, 30 km south of Dunkirk in present-day France. Philip VI, (King of France from 1328 to 1350) fought Nicolaas Zannekin, a wealthy farmer from Lampernisse. Zannekin was the leader of a band of Flemish independence rebels. The fighting erupted over taxation and punitive edicts of the French over the Flemish. The battle was won decisively by the French. Zannekin and about 3200 Flemish rebels were killed in the battle.

    1. ^ Jan Frans Verbruggen (2002). The Battle of the Golden Spurs: (Courtrai, 11 July 1302) ; a Contribution to the History on Flanders' War of Liberation, 1297 - 1305. Boydell & Brewer. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-85115-888-4. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
     
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    24 August 1561Willem of Orange marries duchess Anna of Saxony.

    William the Silent

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    William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Dutch: Willem de Zwijger),[1][2] or more commonly known as William of Orange (Dutch: Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. Within the Netherlands he is also known as Father of the Fatherland (Dutch: Vader des Vaderlands).

    A wealthy nobleman, William originally served the Habsburgs as a member of the court of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Unhappy with the centralisation of political power away from the local estates and with the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters. The most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several successes in the fight against the Spanish. Declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard (also written as "Gerardts") in Delft in 1584.

    1. ^ "William The Taciturn"L.Abelous, translated by J.P. Lacroix, Nelson&Phillips of NewYork, 1872. library of congress [1] catalogued with subject "William I, Prince of Orange (1534–1584)
    2. ^ John Whitehead Historian, Oxford, Oriel College, weblog page about William I Once I was a clever boy
     
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    25 August 1835 – The first Great Moon Hoax article is published in The New York Sun, announcing the discovery of life and civilization on the Moon.

    Great Moon Hoax

    A lithograph of the hoax's "ruby amphitheater", as printed in The Sun

    The "Great Moon Hoax" refers to a series of six articles that were published in The Sun, a New York newspaper, beginning on August 25, 1835, about the supposed discovery of life and even civilization on the Moon. The discoveries were falsely attributed to Sir John Herschel, one of the best-known astronomers of that time.

    The story was advertised on August 21, 1835, as an upcoming feature allegedly reprinted from The Edinburgh Courant.[1] The first in a series of six was published four days later on August 25.

    1. ^ Maliszewski, Paul. "Paper Moon," Wilson Quarterly. Winter 2005. p. 26
     
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    27 August 410 – The sacking of Rome by the Visigoths ends after three days.

    Sack of Rome (410)

    The Sack of Rome occurred on 24 August 410 AD. The city was attacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric. At that time, Rome was no longer the capital of the Western Roman Empire, having been replaced in that position first by Mediolanum in 286 and then by Ravenna in 402. Nevertheless, the city of Rome retained a paramount position as "the eternal city" and a spiritual center of the Empire. The sack was a major shock to contemporaries, friends, and foes of the Empire alike.

    This was the first time in almost 800 years that Rome had fallen to a foreign enemy. The previous sack of Rome had been accomplished by the Gauls under their leader Brennus in 390 or 387/6 BC. The sacking of 410 is seen as a major landmark in the fall of the Western Roman Empire. St. Jerome, living in Bethlehem at the time, wrote; "the city which had taken the whole world was itself taken."[2]

    1. ^ Peter Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford University Press, 2006), page 224.
    2. ^ St Jerome, Letter CXXVII. To Principia, s:Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Series II/Volume VI/The Letters of St. Jerome/Letter 127 paragraph 12.
     
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    28 August 1609Henry Hudson discovers Delaware Bay.

    Henry Hudson

    Henry Hudson (c. 1565 – 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.[4]

    In 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a rumored Northeast Passage to Cathay (China) via a route above the Arctic Circle. In 1609 he landed in North America and explored the region around the modern New York metropolitan area, looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia on behalf of the Dutch East India Company.[5] He sailed up the Hudson River, which was later named after him, and thereby laid the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region.

    Hudson discovered the Hudson Strait and the immense Hudson Bay on his final expedition, while still searching for the Northwest Passage.[6] In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied. The mutineers cast Hudson, his son, and seven others adrift;[7] the Hudsons and their companions were never seen again.

    Besides being the namesake of numerous geographical features, Hudson is also the namesake of the Hudson's Bay Company that explored and traded in the vast Hudson Bay watershed in the following centuries.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Butts, Edward (2009). Henry Hudson:New World Voyager. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 17.
    2. ^ Hunter, Douglas (2007). God's Mercies:Rivalry, Betrayal and the Dream of Discovery. Doubleday Canada. p. 12.
    3. ^ "Fun Henry Hudson Facts for Kids". easyscienceforkids.com. 26 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
    4. ^ Sandler, Corey (2007). Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession. Citadel Press. ISBN 978-0-8065-2739-0.
    5. ^ Nieuwe Wereldt ofte Beschrijvinghe van West-Indien, uit veelerhande Schriften ende Aen-teekeningen van verscheyden Natien (Leiden, Bonaventure & Abraham Elseviers, 1625) p.83: "/in den jare 1609 sonden de bewindt-hebbers van de gheoctroyeerde Oost-Indischische compagnie het jacht de halve mane/ daer voor schipper ende koopman op roer Hendrick Hudson, om in 't noordt-oosten een door-gaat naer China te soecken[...]"("in the year 1609 the administrators of the East Indies Company sent the half moon under Hudson to seek a northeast passage to China[...]")
    6. ^ Rink, Oliver3 (1986). Holland on the Hudson: An Economic and Social History of Dutch New York. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 29.
    7. ^ Did Henry Hudson's crew murder him?[permanent dead link] Yahoo news Possible alternative link:Did Henry Hudson's crew murder him in the Arctic?, which draws on Mancall, Peter C. (2009), Fatal Journey: The Final Expedition of Henry Hudson, Basic Books[dead link]
     
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    29 August 1484Pope Innocent VIII succeeds Pope Sixtus IV.

    Pope Innocent VIII

    Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Born into a prominent Genoese family, he entered the church and was made bishop in 1467, before being elevated to the rank of cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV. He was elected Pope in 1484, as a compromise candidate, after a stormy conclave.

     
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    30 August 1574Guru Ram Das becomes the Fourth Sikh Guru/Master.

    Guru Ram Das

    Guru Ram Das ([ɡʊru ɾɑm dɑs]; 1534–1581) was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism.[2][3] He was born on 24 September 1534 in a poor Hindu family based in Lahore, part of what is now Pakistan.[3][1] His birth name was Jetha, he was orphaned at age 7, and thereafter grew up with his maternal grandmother in a village.[3]

    At age 12, Bhai Jetha and his grandmother moved to Goindval, where they met Guru Amar Das.[3] The boy thereafter accepted Guru Amar Das as his mentor and served him. The daughter of Guru Amar Das got married to Bhai Jetha, and he thus became part of Guru Amar Das's family. As with the first two Gurus of Sikhism, Guru Amar Das instead of choosing his own sons, chose Bhai Jetha as his successor and renamed him as Ram Das or "servant or slave of god ".[3][1][4]

    Ram Das became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574 and served as the Sikh leader until his death in 1581.[5] He faced hostilities from the sons of Amar Das, shifted his official base to lands identified by Amar Das as Guru-ka-Chak.[3] This newly founded town was eponymous Ramdaspur, later to evolve and get renamed as Amritsar – the holiest city of Sikhism.[6][7] He is also remembered in the Sikh tradition for expanding the manji organization for clerical appointments and donation collections to theologically and economically support the Sikh movement.[3] He appointed his own son as his successor, and unlike the first four Gurus who were not related through descent, the fifth through tenth Sikh Gurus were the direct descendants of Ram Das.[7][8]

    1. ^ a b c G.S. Mansukhani. "Ram Das, Guru (1534-1581)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjab University Patiala. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
    2. ^ a b William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4.
    3. ^ a b c d e f g Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 38–40. ISBN 978-1-4411-5366-1.
    4. ^ Shakti Pawha Kaur Khalsa (1998). Kundalini Yoga: The Flow of Eternal Power. Penguin. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-399-52420-2.
    5. ^ Arvind-pal Singh Mandair (2013). Religion and the Specter of the West: Sikhism, India, Postcoloniality, and the Politics of Translation. Columbia University Press. pp. 251–252. ISBN 978-0-231-51980-9.
    6. ^ W.H. McLeod (1990). Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism. University of Chicago Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-0-226-56085-4.
    7. ^ a b Christopher Shackle; Arvind Mandair (2013). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. Routledge. pp. xv–xvi. ISBN 978-1-136-45101-0.
    8. ^ W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.
     
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    31 August 1888Mary Ann Nichols is murdered. She is the first of Jack the Ripper's confirmed victim

    Mary Ann Nichols

    Mary Ann "Polly" Nichols (née Walker; 26 August 1845 – 31 August 1888) was one of the Whitechapel murder victims.[2] Her death has been attributed to the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper, who is believed to have killed and mutilated at least five women, all of whom worked as prostitutes, in the Whitechapel area of London from late August to early November 1888.[2]

    1. ^ Evans and Skinner, p. 22
    2. ^ a b Metropolitan Police. "History". met.police.uk. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013.
     
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    2 September 1912Arthur Rose Eldred is awarded the first Eagle Scout award of the Boy Scouts of America.

    Eagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America)

    Eagle Scout is the highest achievement or rank attainable in the Scouts BSA program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). The designation "Eagle Scout" was founded over one hundred years ago. Only four percent of Boy Scouts are granted this rank after a lengthy review process.[2] The requirements necessary to achieve this rank take years to fulfill. Since its founding, the Eagle Scout rank has been earned by almost 2.5 million young men.[3]

    Requirements include earning at least 21 merit badges. The Eagle Scout must demonstrate Scout Spirit, an ideal attitude based upon the Scout Oath and Law, service, and leadership. This includes an extensive service project that the Scout plans, organizes, leads, and manages. Eagle Scouts are presented with a medal and a badge that visibly recognizes the accomplishments of the Scout. Additional recognition can be earned through Eagle Palms, awarded for completing additional tenure, leadership, and merit badge requirements.

    1. ^ Wendell, Bryan (February 21, 2018). "Eagle Scout Class of 2017: A look at the 4th-biggest class ever". Bryan on Scouting. Scouting.
    2. ^ Malone, Michael S. (2012). Four percent : the story of uncommon youth in a century of American life. ISBN 9780985909710.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2mill was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    3 September 1666 – The Royal Exchange burns down in the Great Fire of London.

    Royal Exchange, London

    The Royal Exchange in London was founded in the 16th century by the merchant Thomas Gresham on the suggestion of his factor Richard Clough to act as a centre of commerce for the City of London.[1] The site was provided by the City of London Corporation and the Worshipful Company of Mercers, who still jointly own the freehold. It is trapezoidal in shape and is flanked by Cornhill and Threadneedle Street, which converge at Bank junction in the heart of the City. The building's original design was inspired by a bourse Gresham had seen in Antwerp and was Britain's first specialist commercial building.

    It has twice been destroyed by fire and subsequently rebuilt. The present building was designed by William Tite in the 1840s. The site was notably occupied by the Lloyd's insurance market for nearly 150 years. Today the Royal Exchange contains a Courtyard Grand Cafe, Threadneedle Cocktail Bar, Sauterelle Restaurant, luxury shops, and offices.

    Traditionally, the steps of the Royal Exchange is the place where certain royal proclamations (such as the dissolution of parliament) are read out by either a herald or a crier. Following the death or abdication of a monarch and the confirmation of the next monarch's accession to the throne by the Accession Council, the Royal Exchange Building is one of the locations where a herald proclaims the new monarch's reign to the public.

    1. ^ grisham.weebly.com; accessed 31 July 2016
     
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    4 September 1797Coup of 18 Fructidor in France.

    Coup of 18 Fructidor

    The Coup of 18 Fructidor, Year V, was a seizure of power by members of the French Directory on 4 September 1797 when their opponents, the Royalists, were gaining strength. Howard G. Brown, Professor of History at Binghamton University, stresses the turn toward dictatorship and the failure of liberal democracy under the Directory, blaming it on "chronic violence, ambivalent forms of justice, and repeated recourse to heavy-handed repression."[1]

    1. ^ Brown (2007). Ending the French Revolution: Violence, Justice, and Repression from the Terror to Napoleon. p. 1.
     
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    5 September 1941 – Whole territory of Estonia is occupied by Nazi Germany.

    Estonia

    Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km).[11] The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea,[12] covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.

    The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I. Initially democratic, after the Great Depression Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II (1939–1945), Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany, ultimately being incorporated into the former as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991.

    The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union since joining in 2004, the economic monetary Eurozone, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Schengen Area, and of the Western military alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU.[13] Estonia ranks very high in the Human Development Index,[7] and performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education,[14] and press freedom (third in the world in 2012 and 2007).[15] Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care,[16] free education,[17] and the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD.[18] One of the world's most digitally advanced societies,[19] in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency.

    1. ^ "POPULATION BY SEX, ETHNIC NATIONALITY AND COUNTY, 1 JANUARY. ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION". stat.ee.
    2. ^ "Minifacts About Estonia 2017". Retrieved 19 July 2017.
    3. ^ Alis, Tammur. "Immigration exceeded emigration for the third year in a row". Statistics Estonia.
    4. ^ "PHC 2011 RESULTS". Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
    5. ^ a b c d "Estonia". International Monetary Fund.
    6. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
    7. ^ a b "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
    8. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, 6th article
    9. ^ Võrokesed ees, setod järel. postimees.ee (13 July 2012).
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