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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 September 1642 – England's Parliament bans public stage-plays.

    London theatre closure 1642

    In September 1642 the Long Parliament ordered a closure of the London theatres. The order cited the current "times of humiliation" and their incompatibility with "public stage-plays", representative of "lascivious Mirth and Levity".[1] The ban, which was not completely effective, was reinforced by an Act of 11 February 1648. It provided for the treatment of actors as rogues, the demolition of theatre seating, and fines for spectators.[2]

    In 1660, after the English Restoration brought King Charles II to effective power in England, the theatrical ban was lifted. Under a new licensing system, two London theatres with royal patents were opened.[3]

    1. ^ Jane Milling; Peter Thomson (23 November 2004). The Cambridge History of British Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-521-65040-3.
    2. ^ Jane Milling; Peter Thomson (23 November 2004). The Cambridge History of British Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-521-65040-3.
    3. ^ Brian Corman (21 January 2013). The Broadview Anthology of Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Comedy. Broadview Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-1-77048-299-9.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 September 1945 – The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 is held.

    Berlin Victory Parade of 1945

    The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 was held by the Allies of World War II on 7 September 1945 in Berlin, the capital of the defeated Nazi Germany, shortly after the end of World War II. The four participating countries were the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom and France.

    The parade was proposed by the Soviet Union, following the June Moscow Victory Parade of 1945.[1][2] July in Berlin also saw a British parade (the 1945 British Berlin Victory Parade).[3][4] The September parade took place near the Reichstag building and the Brandenburg Gate.[2]

    Senior officers present at the parade were Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov from the USSR, General George S. Patton from the United States,[1] General Brian Robertson, from the United Kingdom, and General Marie-Pierre Kœnig from France.[5] General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery declined the invitations shortly before the parade, and sent Patton and Robertson as their representatives.[2][6][7] About 5,000 troops from the USSR, USA, UK and France took part in the parade (with 2,000 of the troops being Soviet).[2] The parade was opened by marching troops, followed by the armour.[2] Units present included the Soviet 248th Infantry Division, the French 2nd Infantry Division, the British 131st Infantry Brigade, and the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division; the forces present came primarily from the local garrisons.[7] The armoured contingent came from the British 7th Armoured Division, French 1st Armored Division, and U.S. 16th Mechanized Cavalry Group.[7] The Red Army used this occasion for the first public display of the IS-3 heavy tank, with 52 tanks from the 2nd Guards Tank Army participating.[8]

    Russian sources refer to this parade as a "forgotten parade", as it was mentioned in only a few Western sources.[2][9] The downplaying of the parade in the West can be seen as one of the early signs of the Cold War.[2] The forces of four Allies also participated in another Berlin parade a year later, on the Charlottenburger Chaussee, in front of the Brandenburg Gate, on the first anniversary of the German surrender on 8 May 1946, in the Berlin Victory Parade of 1946.[10][11] This parade was connected to the inauguration of the Soviet War Memorial at Tiergarten.[10][11] Soviet troops would not be present at the much more widely known in the West London Victory Celebrations of 1946.[12]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Roberts2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b c d e f g Cite error: The named reference rt was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference iwm was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference VE Day & Berlin Victory Parade Commemoration Page was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Soviet Forces - September 7, 1945 in Berlin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Forgotten Pages of Victory was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference ua was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Zaloga2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference SSEES Film and Video Database: Tape V-1889 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference ArenhövelBothe1991 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference SchulleriEschen2002 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference nla was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 September 1946 – The referendum abolishes the monarchy in Bulgaria.

    Bulgarian republic referendum, 1946

    A referendum on becoming a republic was held in Bulgaria on 8 September 1946.[1] The result was 95.6% in favour of the change, with voter turnout reported to be 91.7%.[2] Following the referendum, a republican constitution was introduced the following year.[3]

    1. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p368 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
    2. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p375
    3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p355
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 September 1924Hanapepe massacre occurs on Kauai, Hawaii.

    Hanapepe massacre

    The Hanapēpē Massacre (also called the Battle of Hanapēpē since both sides were armed) happened on September 9, 1924. Toward the end of a long-lasting strike of Filipino sugar workers on Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi, local police shot dead nine strikers and fatally wounded seven, strikers shot and stabbed three sheriffs to death and fatally wounded one; a total of 20 people died. The massacre brought an end to armed protests in Hawaii.

     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 September 1823Simón Bolívar is named President of Peru.

    Simón Bolívar

    Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco[1] (Spanish: [siˈmon boˈliβaɾ] (About this sound listen);[2] 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador,[3] was a Venezuelan military and political leader who liberated what are currently the republics of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of the Spanish Empire.

    Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Criollo family and, as was common for the heirs of upper-class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain when he was 16 and later moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment, which later motivated him to overthrow the reigning Spanish in colonial South America. Taking advantage of the disorder in Spain prompted by the Peninsular War, Bolívar began his campaign for independence in 1808.[4] The campaign for the independence of New Granada was consolidated with the victory at the Battle of Boyacá on 7 August 1819. Later he established an organized national congress within three years. Despite a number of hindrances, including the arrival of an unprecedentedly large Spanish expeditionary force, the revolutionaries eventually prevailed, culminating in the patriot victory at the Battle of Carabobo in 1821, which effectively made Venezuela an independent country.

    Following this triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Latin America, Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Through further military campaigns, he ousted Spanish rulers from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, the last of which was named after him. He was simultaneously president of Gran Colombia (present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador) and Peru, while his second-in-command, Antonio José de Sucre, was appointed president of Bolivia. Bolívar aimed at a strong and united Spanish America able to cope not only with the threats emanating from Spain and the European Holy Alliance but also with the emerging power of the United States. At the peak of his power, Bolívar ruled over a vast territory from the Argentine border to the Caribbean Sea.

    Bolívar is viewed as a national icon in much of modern South America, and is considered one of the great heroes of the Hispanic independence movements of the early 19th century, along with José de San Martín, Francisco de Miranda and others. Towards the end of his life, Bolívar despaired of the situation in his native region, with the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea".[5]:450 In an address to the Constituent Congress of the Republic of Colombia, Bolívar stated "Fellow citizens! I blush to say this: Independence is the only benefit we have acquired, to the detriment of all the rest."[6]

    1. ^ Arismendi Posada 1983, p. 9.
    2. ^ In isolation, Simón is pronounced [siˈmon], and that is the pronunciation in the recording.
    3. ^ El Libertador: Writings of Simón Bolívar, ed. David Bushnell. New York: Oxford University Press 2003.
    4. ^ ed, Thomas Riggs, (2013). The literature of propaganda. Detroit [u.a.]: St. James Press. pp. 153–55. ISBN 9781558628595.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Arana was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ quoted in Jeremy Adelman, "Independence in Latin America" in The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History, José C. Moya, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2011, p. 153.
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 September 1823Simón Bolívar is named President of Peru.

    Simón Bolívar

    Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco[1] (Spanish: [siˈmon boˈliβaɾ] (About this sound listen);[2] 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador,[3] was a Venezuelan military and political leader who liberated what are currently the republics of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of the Spanish Empire.

    Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Criollo family and, as was common for the heirs of upper-class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain when he was 16 and later moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment, which later motivated him to overthrow the reigning Spanish in colonial South America. Taking advantage of the disorder in Spain prompted by the Peninsular War, Bolívar began his campaign for independence in 1808.[4] The campaign for the independence of New Granada was consolidated with the victory at the Battle of Boyacá on 7 August 1819. Later he established an organized national congress within three years. Despite a number of hindrances, including the arrival of an unprecedentedly large Spanish expeditionary force, the revolutionaries eventually prevailed, culminating in the patriot victory at the Battle of Carabobo in 1821, which effectively made Venezuela an independent country.

    Following this triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Latin America, Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Through further military campaigns, he ousted Spanish rulers from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, the last of which was named after him. He was simultaneously president of Gran Colombia (present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador) and Peru, while his second-in-command, Antonio José de Sucre, was appointed president of Bolivia. Bolívar aimed at a strong and united Spanish America able to cope not only with the threats emanating from Spain and the European Holy Alliance but also with the emerging power of the United States. At the peak of his power, Bolívar ruled over a vast territory from the Argentine border to the Caribbean Sea.

    Bolívar is viewed as a national icon in much of modern South America, and is considered one of the great heroes of the Hispanic independence movements of the early 19th century, along with José de San Martín, Francisco de Miranda and others. Towards the end of his life, Bolívar despaired of the situation in his native region, with the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea".[5]:450 In an address to the Constituent Congress of the Republic of Colombia, Bolívar stated "Fellow citizens! I blush to say this: Independence is the only benefit we have acquired, to the detriment of all the rest."[6]

    1. ^ Arismendi Posada 1983, p. 9.
    2. ^ In isolation, Simón is pronounced [siˈmon], and that is the pronunciation in the recording.
    3. ^ El Libertador: Writings of Simón Bolívar, ed. David Bushnell. New York: Oxford University Press 2003.
    4. ^ ed, Thomas Riggs, (2013). The literature of propaganda. Detroit [u.a.]: St. James Press. pp. 153–55. ISBN 9781558628595.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Arana was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ quoted in Jeremy Adelman, "Independence in Latin America" in The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History, José C. Moya, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2011, p. 153.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 September 2008 – A major Channel Tunnel fire breaks out on a freight train, resulting in the closure of part of the tunnel for six months.

    2008 Channel Tunnel fire

    The 2008 Channel Tunnel fire occurred on 11 September 2008 in the Channel Tunnel. The incident involved a France-bound Eurotunnel Shuttle train carrying heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and their drivers.

    The fire lasted for sixteen hours and reached temperatures of up to 1000 °C.[1] Of the thirty-two people on board the train, fourteen people suffered minor injuries, including smoke inhalation and were taken to the hospital. When the fire was reported, the tunnel was immediately shut to all services except emergency traffic. The undamaged south tunnel was reopened on 13 September with a freight train entering the tunnel at Folkestone at 00:08 BST and a limited service provided with trains travelling in turn in alternating directions in the one tunnel. By the end of September, two thirds of the north tunnel had reopened. Full service resumed in February 2009 after repairs costing €60 million.

    This fire was the third to close the tunnel since it opened in 1994,[2] the first being the 1996 Channel Tunnel fire and, in August 2006, the tunnel was closed for several hours after fire broke out on a truck loaded onto a HGV Shuttle.

    1. ^ Rayner, Gordon; Millward, David; Simpson, Aislinn (11 September 2008). "Channel Tunnel closed after freight train fire". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2008.
    2. ^ "How the 2008 fire changed Channel Tunnel history". KentOnline. 5 May 2009. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 September 1940Cave paintings are discovered in Lascaux, France.

    Cave painting

    Paleolithic cave painting of bisons from the Altamira cave, Cantabria, Spain (replica), painted c. 20,000 years ago (Solutrean).
    Cueva de las Manos located Perito Moreno, Argentina. The art in the cave dates between 13,000–9,000 BP.

    Cave paintings are a type of parietal art (which category also includes petroglyphs, or engravings), found on the wall or ceilings of caves. The term usually implies prehistoric origin, but cave paintings can also be of recent production: In the Gabarnmung cave of northern Australia, the oldest paintings certainly predate 28,000 years ago, while the most recent ones were made less than a century ago.[1]

    The oldest known cave paintings are close to 40,000 years old (art of the Upper Paleolithic), found in both the Franco-Cantabrian region in western Europe, and in the caves in the district of Maros (Sulawesi, Indonesia). The oldest type of cave paintings are hand stencils and simple geometric shapes; the oldest undisputed examples of figurative cave paintings are somewhat younger, close to 35,000 years old.[2]

    A 2018 study claimed an age of 64,000 years for the oldest examples of (non-figurative) cave art in Iberia, which would imply that production by Neanderthals rather than modern humans.[3]

    1. ^ Robert Gunn, Bruno David, Jean-Jacques Delannoy and Margaret Katherine, "The past 500 years of rock art at Nawarla Gabarnmang, central-western Arnhem Land" in: Bruno David, Paul S.C. Taçon, Jean-Jacques Delannoy, Jean-Michel Geneste (eds.), The Archaeology of Rock Art in Western Arnhem Land, Australia (2017), pp. 303–328.
    2. ^ M. Aubert et al., "Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia", Nature volume 514, pages 223–227 (09 October 2014). "using uranium-series dating of coralloid speleothems directly associated with 12 human hand stencils and two figurative animal depictions from seven cave sites in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, we show that rock art traditions on this Indonesian island are at least compatible in age with the oldest European art. The earliest dated image from Maros, with a minimum age of 39.9 kyr, is now the oldest known hand stencil in the world. In addition, a painting of a babirusa (‘pig-deer’) made at least 35.4 kyr ago is among the earliest dated figurative depictions worldwide, if not the earliest one. Among the implications, it can now be demonstrated that humans were producing rock art by ∼40 kyr ago at opposite ends of the Pleistocene Eurasian world."
    3. ^ Represented by three red non-figurative symbols found in the caves of Maltravieso, Ardales and La Pasiega, Spain, these predate the arrival of modern humans to Europe by at least 20,000 years and thus must have been made by Neanderthals. D. L. Hoffmann; C. D. Standish; M. García-Diez; P. B. Pettitt; J. A. Milton; J. Zilhão; J. J. Alcolea-González; P. Cantalejo-Duarte; H. Collado; R. de Balbín; M. Lorblanchet; J. Ramos-Muñoz; G.-Ch. Weniger; A. W. G. Pike (2018). "U-Th dating of carbonate crusts reveals Neandertal origin of Iberian cave art". Science. 359 (6378): 912–915. doi:10.1126/science.aap7778. "we present dating results for three sites in Spain that show that cave art emerged in Iberia substantially earlier than previously thought. Uranium-thorium (U-Th) dates on carbonate crusts overlying paintings provide minimum ages for a red linear motif in La Pasiega (Cantabria), a hand stencil in Maltravieso (Extremadura), and red-painted speleothems in Ardales (Andalucía). Collectively, these results show that cave art in Iberia is older than 64.8 thousand years (ka). This cave art is the earliest dated so far and predates, by at least 20 ka, the arrival of modern humans in Europe, which implies Neandertal authorship."
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 September 1808Finnish War: Russians defeat the Swedes at the Battle of Oravais.

    Battle of Oravais

    The Battle of Oravais (Finnish: Oravaisten taistelu, Swedish: Slaget vid Oravais) was one of the decisive battles in the Finnish War, fought from 1808 to 1809 between Sweden and the Russian Empire as part of the wider Napoleonic Wars. Taking place in modern-day Vörå in western Finland, it is sometimes regarded as the turning point of the Finnish War: the last chance for Sweden to turn the war to her advantage. It was the bloodiest battle of the conflict, which some historians attribute to the exhaustion, resignation and desperation of the Swedish army: it was losing the war, and defeat led to its loss of Finland to Russia.

    1. ^ In commemoration of 200 years of the Battle of Oravais
    2. ^ Memoirs of Faddey Bulgarin, veteran of the Battle of Oravais. 1846—9 (in Russian): "С нашей стороны убит один офицер, ранено 25, без вести пропал один; нижних чинов убито 120, ранено 640, без вести пропало 108 человек."
    3. ^ In commemoration of 200 years of the Battle of Oravais
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 September 1947Typhoon Kathleen hit the Kanto Region in Japan killing 1,077.

    Category:1940–49 Pacific typhoon seasons

    The decade of the 1940s featured the 1941–44 Pacific typhoon seasons, Typhoon Cobra and others. The seasons had no official bounds, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

    The scope of this category is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the international date line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see the article 1940–1948 Pacific hurricane seasons. Tropical storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.

     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 September 1975Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia.

    Papua New Guinea

    Coordinates: 6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147

    Papua New Guinea (PNG; UK: /ˈpæp(j)uə ... ˈɡɪni, ˈpɑː-/, US: /ˈpæpjuə, pɑːˈpə/;[9] Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.

    At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975. This followed nearly 60 years of Australian administration, which started during World War I. It became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1975 with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right.

    Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. It is also one of the most rural, as only 18 per cent of its people live in urban centres.[10] There are 852 known languages in the country, of which 12 now have no known living speakers.[11] Most of the population of more than 8 million people lives in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages.[12] The country is one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically. It is known to have numerous groups of uncontacted peoples, and researchers believe there are many undiscovered species of plants and animals in the interior.[13]

    Papua New Guinea is classified as a developing economy by the International Monetary Fund.[14] Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector led to the country becoming the sixth-fastest-growing economy in the world in 2011.[15] Growth was expected to slow once major resource projects came on line in 2015.[16] Mining remains a major economic factor, however. Local and national governments are discussing the potential of resuming mining operations at the Panguna mine in Bougainville Province, which has been closed since the civil war in the 1980s–1990s.[17] Nearly 40 per cent of the population lives a self-sustainable natural lifestyle with no access to global capital.[18]

    Most of the people still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming. Their social lives combine traditional religion with modern practices, including primary education.[12] These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged by the Papua New Guinea Constitution, which expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society"[19] and protects their continuing importance to local and national community life.

    1. ^ Somare, Michael (6 December 2004). "Stable Government, Investment Initiatives, and Economic Growth". Keynote address to the 8th Papua New Guinea Mining and Petroleum Conference. Archived from the original on 2006-06-28. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
    2. ^ "Never more to rise". The National. 6 February 2006. Archived from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2005.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Sign language becomes an official language in PNG". Radio New Zealand. 21 May 2015.
    5. ^ "Papua New Guinea Population (2016)". worldbank.org. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    6. ^ a b c d "Papua New Guinea". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
    7. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
    8. ^ "2018 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
    9. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
    10. ^ "World Bank data on urbanisation". World Development Indicators. World Bank. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 15 July 2005.
    11. ^ Papua New Guinea, Ethnologue
    12. ^ a b James, Paul; Nadarajah, Yaso; Haive, Karen; Stead, Victoria (2012). Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Development: Other Paths for Papua New Guinea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    13. ^ Gelineau, Kristen (26 March 2009). "Spiders and frogs identified among 50 new species". The Independent. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
    14. ^ World Economic Outlook Database, October 2015, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 6 October 2015. Accessed on 6 October 2015.
    15. ^ "Raising the profile of PNG in Australia". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    16. ^ Asian Development Outlook 2015: Financing Asia’s Future Growth. Asian Development Bank (March 2015)
    17. ^ "Bougainville Copper Limited". Retrieved 24 August 2015.
    18. ^ World Bank. 2010. World Development Indicators. Washington DC.
    19. ^ "Constitution of Independent State of Papua New Guinea (consol. to amendment #22)". Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 16 July 2005.
     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 September 1787 – The United States Constitution is signed in Philadelphia.

    United States Constitution

    The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.[1] The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress; the executive, consisting of the President; and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. Articles Four, Five and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it. It is regarded as the oldest written and codified national constitution in force.[2]

    Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times, including an amendment to repeal a previous one,[3] in order to meet the changing needs of a nation that has profoundly changed since the eighteenth century.[4] In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government.[5][6] The majority of the seventeen later amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages[7] of the original U.S. Constitution are written on parchment.[8]

    According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, and of the federal and state governments."[4]

    The first permanent constitution of its kind,[a] adopted by the people's representatives for an expansive nation, it is interpreted, supplemented, and implemented by a large body of constitutional law, and has influenced the constitutions of other nations.

    1. ^ Maier 2010, p. 35
    2. ^ Goodlatte says U.S. has the oldest working national constitution, Politifact Virginia website, September 22, 2014.
    3. ^ United States Senate (1992). "Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America" (PDF). The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation (PDF)|format= requires |url= (help). U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 25 n.2. ISBN 9780160632686.
    4. ^ a b "Constitution Day". Senate.gov. United States Senate. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
    5. ^ Ritchie, Donald. "Bill of Rights". Annenberg Classroom – Glossary. Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
    6. ^ Lloyd, Gordon. "Introduction to the Bill of Rights". TeachingAmericanHistory.org. The Ashbrook Center at Ashland University. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
    7. ^ "America's Founding Documents". October 30, 2015.
    8. ^ "Differences between Parchment, Vellum and Paper". August 15, 2016.
    9. ^ "Pasquale Paoli – Corsican statesman".
    10. ^ Ruppert, Bob. "Paoli: Hero of the Sons of Liberty". Journal of the American Revolution. Retrieved May 20, 2017.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 September 1809 – The Royal Opera House in London opens.

    Royal Opera House

    The Royal Opera House (ROH) is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is often referred to as simply "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732. It is the home of The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet, and the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. Originally called the Theatre Royal, it served primarily as a playhouse for the first hundred years of its history. In 1734, the first ballet was presented. A year later, Handel's first season of operas began. Many of his operas and oratorios were specifically written for Covent Garden and had their premieres there.

    The current building is the third theatre on the site following disastrous fires in 1808 and 1856. The façade, foyer, and auditorium date from 1858, but almost every other element of the present complex dates from an extensive reconstruction in the 1990s. The main auditorium seats 2,256 people, making it the third largest in London, and consists of four tiers of boxes and balconies and the amphitheatre gallery. The proscenium is 12.20 m wide and 14.80 m high. The main auditorium is a Grade I listed building.[2]

    1. ^ Historic England (9 January 1970). "The Royal Opera House (1066392)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
    2. ^ "Royal Opera House (London)" description on theatrestrust.org.uk Retrieved 10 May 2013
     
  15. Admin2

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    19 September 1997 – The Guelb El-Kebir massacre in Algeria kills 53 people.

    Guelb El-Kebir massacre

    Coordinates: 36°14′46.9″N 3°24′29.9″E / 36.246361°N 3.408306°E / 36.246361; 3.408306

    The Guelb El-Kebir massacre took place in the village of Guelb el-Kebir, near Beni Slimane, in the Algerian province of Medea, on 20 September 1997.[1] 53 people were killed by attackers that were not immediately identified, though the attack was similar to others carried out by Islamic groups opposed to the Algerian government.[2]

    1. ^ "53 die in Algerian massacre". Daily Dispatch. 22 September 1997. Archived from the original on 27 February 2005. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
    2. ^ "53 Algerians Massacred as Killing Goes On". The New York Times. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
     
  16. Admin2

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    20 September 1967RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 is launched Clydebank, Scotland.

    Queen Elizabeth 2

    Queen Elizabeth 2, often referred to simply as QE2, is a floating hotel and retired ocean liner built for the Cunard Line which was operated by Cunard as both a transatlantic liner and a cruise ship from 1969 to 2008. Since 18 April 2018 she has been operating as a floating hotel in Dubai.[2]

    QE2 was designed for the transatlantic service from her home port of Southampton, UK, to New York, and was named after the earlier Cunard liner RMS Queen Elizabeth. She served as the flagship of the line from 1969 until succeeded by RMS Queen Mary 2 in 2004. Designed in Cunard's then headquarters and regional offices in Liverpool and Southampton respectively, and built in Clydebank, Scotland, QE2 was considered the last of the great transatlantic ocean liners until Queen Mary 2 entered service.

    The QE2 was also the last oil-fired passenger steamship to cross the Atlantic in scheduled liner service until she was refitted with a modern diesel powerplant in 1986/1987. During almost forty years of service, Queen Elizabeth 2 undertook regular world cruises and later operated predominantly as a cruise ship, sailing out of Southampton, England. QE2 had no running mate and never ran a year-round weekly transatlantic express service to New York. QE2 did, however, continue the Cunard tradition of regular scheduled transatlantic crossings every year of her service life. QE2 was never given a Royal Mail Ship designation, instead carrying the SS and later MV or MS prefixes in official documents.[3]

    QE2 was retired from active Cunard service on 27 November 2008. She had been acquired by the private equity arm of Dubai World, which planned to begin conversion of the vessel to a 500-room floating hotel moored at the Palm Jumeirah, Dubai.[4][5] The 2008 financial crisis, however, intervened and the ship was laid up at Dubai Drydocks and later Port Rashid.[6] Subsequent conversion plans were announced by Istithmar in 2012[7] and by the Oceanic Group in 2013[8] but these both stalled. In November, 2015 Cruise Arabia & Africa quoted DP World chairman Ahmed Sultan Bin Sulayem as saying that QE2 would not be scrapped[9] and in March, 2017, a Dubai-based construction company announced it had been contracted to refurbish the ship.[10] The restored QE2 opened to visitors on 18 April 2018,[11] with a soft opening, with discounted rates and only five of the planned 13 restaurants and bars completed.[12] The grand opening is set for October 2018.[13]

    1. ^ Maritime Information Exchange, search for Queen Elizabeth 2
    2. ^ https://chrisframe.com.au/post/172795288690/qe2-reopens-asa-hotel-in-dubai-on-april-18-after-9 QE2 reopens after 9 1/2 years
    3. ^ "QE2 not RMS". Retrieved 21 August 2012.
    4. ^ Fitch, Asa (19 January 2013). "QE II Ocean Liner Heads to Asia to Become Floating Hotel". Zawya.
    5. ^ "QE2 To Leave Cunard Fleet And Be Sold To Dubai World To Begin A New Life At The Palm". Cunard.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
    6. ^ Morris, Hugh (January 13, 2016). "'Forlorn' QE2 is not coming home from Dubai, campaigners concede". Teleegraph Media Group. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
    7. ^ "Cruise liner Queen Elizabeth 2 to be converted into hotel". HT Media Limited. 3 July 2012. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
    8. ^ "New home for Queen Elizabeth 2". CNN International. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
    9. ^ "There is a new plan for former Cunard liner QE2 – she will not be scrapped insists DP World Chairman". 2015-11-10. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
    10. ^ "Queen Elizabeth – 2 – Refurbishment Works – Shafa Al Nahda". www.shafaconstruction.com. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
    11. ^ https://www.hotelnewsresource.com/article99382.html
    12. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/travel_news/article-5621489/The-incredible-transformation-QE2-floating-five-star-hotel-Dubai.html
    13. ^ https://www.express.co.uk/travel/cruise/947336/qe2-queen-elizabeth-ii-ship-transformed-luxury-floating-hotel-dubai
     
  17. Admin2

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    21 September 1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit is published.

    The Hobbit

    The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien. It was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction[1]. The book remains popular and is recognized as a classic in children's literature.

    The Hobbit is set within Tolkien's fictional universe and follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by Smaug the dragon. Bilbo's journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into more sinister territory.

    The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien's geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity, competence, and wisdom by accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey, and adventurous sides of his nature and applying his wits and common sense. The story reaches its climax in the Battle of the Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict.

    Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story, along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view Tolkien's own experiences during World War I as instrumental in shaping the story. The author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in mythology and fairy tales are often noted as influences.

    The publisher was encouraged by the book's critical and financial success and, therefore, requested a sequel. As Tolkien's work progressed on the successor The Lord of the Rings, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled.

    The work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, screen, radio, board games, and video games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits.

    1. ^ 1892-1973., Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), (1981). The letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Carpenter, Humphrey., Tolkien, Christopher. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395315557. OCLC 7671235.
     
  18. Admin2

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    22 September 1711 – The Tuscarora War begins in present-day North Carolina.

    Tuscarora War

    The Tuscarora War was fought in North Carolina from September 22, 1711 until February 11, 1715 between the British, Dutch, and German settlers and the Tuscarora Native Americans. The Europeans enlisted the Yamasee and Cherokee as Indian allies against the Tuscarora, who had amassed several allies themselves. This was considered the bloodiest colonial war in North Carolina.[1] Defeated, the Tuscarora signed a treaty with colonial officials in 1718 and settled on a reserved tract of land in what became Bertie County.

    The first successful and permanent settlement of North Carolina by Europeans began in earnest in 1653. The Tuscarora lived in peace with the European settlers who arrived in North Carolina for over 50 years at a time when nearly every other colony in America was actively involved in some form of conflict with Native Americans. However, the settlers increasingly encroached on Tuscarora land, raided villages to take slaves, and introduced epidemic diseases. After their defeat, most of the Tuscarora migrated north to New York where they joined their Iroquoian cousins, the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. They were accepted as the sixth nation. Their chief said that Tuscarora remaining in the South after 1722 were no longer members of the tribe.

    1. ^ David La Vere. The Tuscarora War: Indians, Settlers, and the Fight for the Carolina Colonies. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013; pg. ???
     
  19. Admin2

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    23 September 1932 – The unification of Saudi Arabia is completed.

    Unification of Saudi Arabia

    The unification of Saudi Arabia was a military and political campaign, by which the various tribes, sheikhdoms, city-states, emirates, and kingdoms of most of the Arabian Peninsula were conquered by the House of Saud, or Al Saud, between 1902 and 1932, when the modern-day Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was proclaimed under the leadership of Ibn Saud, creating what is sometimes referred to as the Third Saudi State, to differentiate it from the Emirate of Diriyah, the First Saudi State and the Emirate of Nejd, the Second Saudi State, also House of Saud states.

    The Al-Saud had been in exile in the British protected emirate of Kuwait since 1893 following their second episode of removal from power and dissolution of their polity, this time by the Al Rashid emirate of Ha'il. In 1902, Ibn Saud recaptured Riyadh, the Al Saud dynasty's former capital. He went on to subdue the rest of Nejd, Al-Hasa, Jebel Shammar, Asir, and Hejaz (location of the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina) between 1913 and 1926. The resultant polity was named the Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz from 1927 until it was further consolidated with Al-Hasa and Qatif into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.

    1. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (25 March 2018). "The Encyclopedia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information". The Encyclopedia Britannica Co. Retrieved 25 March 2018 – via Google Books.
    2. ^ Peter W. Wilson, Douglas Graham. Saudi Arabia: the coming storm . M.E.Sharpe, 1994: p.45
    3. ^ Leatherdale, Clive. Britain and Saudi Arabia, 1925-1939: the Imperial Oasis. p.115.
    4. ^ Upbringing & Education 1902-1915 - The King Saud Foundation Website
    5. ^ a b Al Kahtani, Mohammad Zaid (December 2004). "The Foreign Policy of King Abdulaziz" (PDF). University of Leeds. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
    6. ^ Helmut Mejcher (May 2004). "King Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the Arena of World Politics: A Glimpse from Washington, 1950 to 1971" (PDF). British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 31 (1): 5–23. doi:10.1080/1353019042000203412. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
    7. ^ Sabri, Sharaf (2001). The House of Saud in commerce: A study of royal entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. New Delhi: I.S. Publications. ISBN 81-901254-0-0.
    8. ^ David Murphy, (Illustrated by Peter Dennis), The Arab Revolt 1916-18: Lawrence Sets Arabia Ablaze, Osprey Publishing, 2008, p. 26.
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference narrative was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  20. Admin2

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    24 September 1948 – The Honda Motor Company is founded.

    Honda

    Honda Motor Company, Ltd. (Japanese: 本田技研工業株式会社, Hepburn: Honda Giken Kōgyō KK, IPA: [honda] (About this sound listen); /ˈhɒndə/) is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.

    Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959,[2][3] as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year.[4] Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001.[5][6] Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world behind Toyota, Volkswagen Group, Hyundai Motor Group, General Motors, Ford, Nissan, and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles in 2015.[7]

    Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda also manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, and other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000. They have also ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012. Honda has three joint-ventures in China (Honda China, Dongfeng Honda, and Guangqi Honda).

    In 2013, Honda invested about 5.7% (US$6.8 billion) of its revenues in research and development.[8] Also in 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357.[9]

    1. ^ a b c d e f "Financial Results: Honda Motor Company". May 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
    2. ^ Grant, Robert M.; Neupert, Kent E. (2003). Cases in contemporary strategy analysis (3rd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-1180-1. Retrieved 12 November 2010
    3. ^ Johnson, Richard Alan (2005). Six men who built the modern auto industry. MotorBooks International. ISBN 0-7603-1958-8. Retrieved 12 November 2010
    4. ^ Miller, Edward (18 April 2008). "FIRST MOTORCYCLE AIRBAG EARNS TAKATA AND HONDA 2008 AUTOMOTIVE NEWS PACE INNOVATION PARTNERSHIP AWARD". Honda.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
    5. ^ "Harga Honda Mobilio". Mobilio. Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
    6. ^ "The History of Honda". Cars-directory.net. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
    7. ^ "World motor vehicle production OICA correspondents survey without double counts world ranking of manufacturers year 2011" (PDF).
    8. ^ Le top 20 des entreprises les plus innovantes du monde, Challenges, 22 October 2013
    9. ^ Ross, Jeffrey N. (29 January 2014). "Honda is first Japanese carmaker to be a net-exporter from US". autoblog. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
     
  21. Admin2

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    25 September 1964 – The Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal begins.

    Mozambican War of Independence

    The Mozambican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front or FRELIMO (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique), and Portugal. The war officially started on September 25, 1964, and ended with a ceasefire on September 8, 1974, resulting in a negotiated independence in 1975.

    Portugal's wars against independence guerrilla fighters in its 400-year-old African territories began in 1961 with Angola. In Mozambique, the conflict erupted in 1964 as a result of unrest and frustration amongst many indigenous Mozambican populations, who perceived foreign rule to be a form of exploitation and mistreatment, which served only to further Portuguese economic interests in the region. Many Mozambicans also resented Portugal's policies towards indigenous people, which resulted in discrimination, traditional lifestyle turning difficult for many Africans, and limited access to Portuguese-style education and skilled employment.

    As successful self-determination movements spread throughout Africa after World War II, many Mozambicans became progressively nationalistic in outlook, and increasingly frustrated by the nation's continued subservience to foreign rule. For the other side, many enculturated indigenous Africans who were fully integrated into the Portugal-ruled social organization of Portuguese Mozambique, in particular those from the urban centres, reacted to the independentist claims with a mixture of discomfort and suspicion. The ethnic Portuguese of the territory, which included most of the ruling authorities, responded with increased military presence and fast-paced development projects.

    A mass exile of Mozambique's political intelligentsia to neighbouring countries provided havens from which radical Mozambicans could plan actions and foment political unrest in their homeland. The formation of the Mozambican guerrilla organisation FRELIMO and the support of the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Tanzania, Zambia, Egypt, Algeria and Gaddafi regime in Libya through arms and advisers, led to the outbreak of violence that was to last over a decade.

    From a military standpoint, the Portuguese regular army held the upper hand during the conflict against the independentist guerrilla forces. Nonetheless, Mozambique succeeded in achieving independence on June 25, 1975, after a civil resistance movement known as the Carnation Revolution backed by portions of the military in Portugal overthrow the military dictatorship sponsored by US, thus ending 470 years of Portuguese colonial rule in the East African region. According to historians of the Revolution, the military coup in Portugal was in part fuelled by protests concerning the conduct of Portuguese troops in their treatment of some local Mozambican populace.[38][39] The role of the growing communist influence over the group of Portuguese military insurgents who led the Lisbon's military coup, and, on the other hand, the pressure of the international community over the direction of the Portuguese Colonial War in general, were main causes for the final outcome.[40]

    1. ^ Frontiersmen: Warfare In Africa Since 1950, 2002. Page 49.
    2. ^ China Into Africa: Trade, Aid, and Influence, 2009. Page 156.
    3. ^ Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography, 2008. Page 315
    4. ^ The Cuban Military Under Castro, 1989. Page 45
    5. ^ Translations on Sub-Saharan Africa 607–623, 1967. Page 65.
    6. ^ Underdevelopment and the Transition to Socialism: Mozambique and Tanzania, 2013. Page 38.
    7. ^ Southern Africa The Escalation of a Conflict : a Politico-military Study, 1976. Page 99.
    8. ^ Tito in the world press on the occasion of the 80th birthday, 1973. Page 33.
    9. ^ Mozambique, Resistance and Freedom: A Case for Reassessment, 1994. Page 64.
    10. ^ MOSCOW’S NEXT TARGET IN AFRICA by Robert Moss
    11. ^ FRELIMO. Departamento de Informação e Propaganda, Mozambique revolution, Page 10
    12. ^ Liberalism, Black Power, and the Making of American Politics, 1965–1980. 2009. Page 83
    13. ^ United Front against imperialism: China's foreign policy in Africa, 1986. Page 174
    14. ^ Portuguese Africa: a handbook, 1969. Page 423.
    15. ^ Frelimo candidate Filipe Nyusi leading Mozambique presidential election
    16. ^ Mozambique in the twentieth century: from colonialism to independence, 1979. Page 271
    17. ^ A History of FRELIMO, 1982. Page 13
    18. ^ Encyclopedia Americana: Sumatra to Trampoline, 2005. Page 275
    19. ^ Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era, 2007. Page 226
    20. ^ Culture And Customs of Mozambique, 2007. Page 16
    21. ^ Intercontinental Press, 1974. Page 857.
    22. ^ The Last Bunker: A Report on White South Africa Today, 1976. Page 122
    23. ^ Vectors of Foreign Policy of the Mozambique Front (1962–1975): A Contribution to the Study of the Foreign Policy of the People's Republic of Mozambique, 1988. Page 8
    24. ^ Africa's Armies: From Honor to Infamy, 2009. Page 76
    25. ^ Imagery and Ideology in U.S. Policy Toward Libya 1969–1982, 1988. Page 70
    26. ^ Qaddafi: his ideology in theory and practice, 1986. Page 140.
    27. ^ South Africa in Africa: A Study in Ideology and Foreign Policy, 1975. Page 173.
    28. ^ The dictionary of contemporary politics of Southern Africa, 1988. Page 250.
    29. ^ Terror on the Tracks: A Rhodesian Story, 2011. Page 5.
    30. ^ Chirambo, Reuben (2004). "'Operation Bwezani': The Army, Political Change, and Dr. Banda's Hegemony in Malawi" (PDF). Nordic Journal of African Studies. 13 (2): 146–163. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
    31. ^ Salazar: A Political Biography, 2009. Page 530.
    32. ^ Prominent African Leaders Since Independence, 2012. Page 383.
    33. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin. The Israeli connection: Whom Israel arms and why, pp. 64. IB Tauris, 1987.
    34. ^ Westfall, William C., Jr., Major, United States Marine Corps, Mozambique-Insurgency Against Portugal, 1963–1975, 1984. Retrieved on March 10, 2007
    35. ^ Walter C. Opello, Jr. Issue: A Journal of Opinion, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1974, p. 29
    36. ^ Cite error: The named reference Leonard38 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    37. ^ a b c Mid-Range Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century retrieved December 4, 2007
    38. ^ George Wright, The Destruction of a Nation, 1996
    39. ^ Phil Mailer, Portugal – The Impossible Revolution?, 1977
    40. ^ Stewart Lloyd-Jones, ISCTE (Lisbon), Portugal's history since 1974, "The Portuguese Communist Party (PCP–Partido Comunista Português), which had courted and infiltrated the MFA from the very first days of the revolution, decided that the time was now right for it to seize the initiative. Much of the radical fervour that was unleashed following Spínola's coup attempt was encouraged by the PCP as part of their own agenda to infiltrate the MFA and steer the revolution in their direction.", Centro de Documentação 25 de Abril, University of Coimbra
     
  22. Admin2

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    26 September 1580Francis Drake finishes his circumnavigation of the Earth

    Francis Drake

    Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540 – 28 January 1596[3]) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580, and was the first to complete the voyage as captain while leading the expedition throughout the entire circumnavigation. With his incursion into the Pacific Ocean, he claimed what is now California for the English and inaugurated an era of conflict with the Spanish on the western coast of the Americas,[4] an area that had previously been largely unexplored by western shipping.[5]

    Elizabeth I awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581 which he received on the Golden Hind in Deptford. As a Vice Admiral, he was second-in-command of the English fleet in the battle against the Spanish Armada in 1588. He died of dysentery in January 1596,[6] after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. Drake's exploits made him a hero to the English, but his privateering led the Spanish to brand him a pirate, known to them as El Draque.[7] King Philip II allegedly offered a reward for his capture or death of 20,000 ducats,[8] about £6 million (US$8 million) in modern currency.[9]

    1. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
    2. ^ Woolsey, Matt (September 19, 2008). "Top-Earning Pirates". Forbes.com. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
    3. ^ Paris Profiles. Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris. pp. Portfolio 17.
    4. ^ Helen Wallis (1984). "The Catography of Drake's Voyage". In Norman J. W. Thrower. Sir Francis Drake and the Famous Voyage, 1577-1580: Essays Commemorating the Quadricentennial of Drake's Circumnavigation of the Earth. University of California Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-520-04876-8.
    5. ^ Soto Rodríguez, José Antonio (2006). "La defensa hispana del Reino de Chile" (PDF). Tiempo y Espacio (in Spanish). 16. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
    6. ^ According to the English calendar then in use, Drake's date of death was 28 January 1595, as the new year began on 25 March.
    7. ^ His name in Latinised form was Franciscus Draco ("Francis the Dragon"). See Theodor de Bry.
    8. ^ John Cummins (1997). Francis Drake: The Lives of a Hero. St. Martin's Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-312-16365-5.
    9. ^ Mark G. Hanna (22 October 2015). Pirate Nests and the Rise of the British Empire, 1570-1740. UNC Press Books. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-4696-1795-4.
     
  23. Admin2

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    26 September 1580Francis Drake finishes his circumnavigation of the Earth

    Francis Drake

    Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540 – 28 January 1596[3]) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580, and was the first to complete the voyage as captain while leading the expedition throughout the entire circumnavigation. With his incursion into the Pacific Ocean, he claimed what is now California for the English and inaugurated an era of conflict with the Spanish on the western coast of the Americas,[4] an area that had previously been largely unexplored by western shipping.[5]

    Elizabeth I awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581 which he received on the Golden Hind in Deptford. As a Vice Admiral, he was second-in-command of the English fleet in the battle against the Spanish Armada in 1588. He died of dysentery in January 1596,[6] after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. Drake's exploits made him a hero to the English, but his privateering led the Spanish to brand him a pirate, known to them as El Draque.[7] King Philip II allegedly offered a reward for his capture or death of 20,000 ducats,[8] about £6 million (US$8 million) in modern currency.[9]

    1. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
    2. ^ Woolsey, Matt (September 19, 2008). "Top-Earning Pirates". Forbes.com. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
    3. ^ Paris Profiles. Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris. pp. Portfolio 17.
    4. ^ Helen Wallis (1984). "The Catography of Drake's Voyage". In Norman J. W. Thrower. Sir Francis Drake and the Famous Voyage, 1577-1580: Essays Commemorating the Quadricentennial of Drake's Circumnavigation of the Earth. University of California Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-520-04876-8.
    5. ^ Soto Rodríguez, José Antonio (2006). "La defensa hispana del Reino de Chile" (PDF). Tiempo y Espacio (in Spanish). 16. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
    6. ^ According to the English calendar then in use, Drake's date of death was 28 January 1595, as the new year began on 25 March.
    7. ^ His name in Latinised form was Franciscus Draco ("Francis the Dragon"). See Theodor de Bry.
    8. ^ John Cummins (1997). Francis Drake: The Lives of a Hero. St. Martin's Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-312-16365-5.
    9. ^ Mark G. Hanna (22 October 2015). Pirate Nests and the Rise of the British Empire, 1570-1740. UNC Press Books. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-4696-1795-4.
     
  24. Admin2

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    27 September 1959Typhoon Vera kills nearly 5,000 people in Japan.

    Typhoon Vera

    Typhoon Vera, also known as the Isewan Typhoon (伊勢湾台風, Ise-wan Taifū), was an exceptionally intense tropical cyclone that struck Japan in September 1959, becoming the strongest and deadliest typhoon on record to make landfall on the country. The storm's intensity resulted in damage of unparalleled severity and extent, and was a major setback to the Japanese economy, which was still recovering from World War II. In the aftermath of Vera, Japan's disaster management and relief systems were significantly reformed, and the typhoon's effects would set a benchmark for future storms striking the country.

    Vera developed on September 20 between Guam and Chuuk State, and initially tracked westward before taking a more northerly course, reaching tropical storm strength the following day. By this point Vera had assumed a more westerly direction of movement and had begun to rapidly intensify, and reached its peak intensity on September 23 with maximum sustained winds equivalent to that of a modern-day Category 5 hurricane. With little change in strength, Vera curved and accelerated northward, resulting in a landfall on September 26 near Shionomisaki on Honshu. Atmospheric wind patterns caused the typhoon to briefly emerge into the Sea of Japan before recurving eastward and moving ashore Honshu for a second time. Movement over land greatly weakened Vera, and after reentering the North Pacific Ocean later that day, Vera transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on September 27; these remnants continued to persist for an additional two days.

    Though Vera was accurately forecast and its track into Japan was well anticipated, limited coverage of telecommunications, combined with lack of urgency from Japanese media and the storm's intensity, greatly inhibited potential evacuation and disaster mitigation processes. Rainfall from the storm's outer rainbands began to cause flooding in river basins well in advance of the storm's landfall. Upon moving ashore Honshu, the typhoon brought a strong storm surge that destroyed numerous flood defense systems, inundating coastal regions and sinking ships. Damage totals from Vera reached US$600 million (equivalent to US$5.04 billion in 2017). The number of fatalities caused by Vera remain discrepant, though current estimates indicate that the typhoon caused at least 4,000 deaths, making it the deadliest typhoon in Japanese history.

    Relief efforts were initiated by Japanese and American governments immediately following Typhoon Vera. Due to the inundation caused by the typhoon, localized epidemics were reported, including those of dysentery and tetanus. The spread of disease and blocking debris slowed the ongoing relief efforts. Due to the unprecedented damage and loss of life following Vera, the National Diet passed legislation in order to more efficiently assist affected regions and mitigate future disasters. This included the passage of the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act in 1961, which set standards for Japanese disaster relief, including the establishment of the Central Disaster Prevention Council.

     
  25. Admin2

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    28 September 1919Race riots begin in Omaha, Nebraska.

    Omaha race riot of 1919

    The Omaha race riot occurred in Omaha, Nebraska, September 28–29, 1919. The race riot resulted in the brutal lynching of Will Brown, a black worker; the death of two white rioters; the attempted hanging of Mayor Edward Parsons Smith; the injuries of many Omaha Police Department officers as well as white and black civilians; and a public rampage by thousands of white rioters who set fire to the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha. It followed more than 20 race riots that occurred in major industrial cities of the United States during the Red Summer of 1919.

     
  26. Admin2

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    29 September 1911 – Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire.

    Italo-Turkish War

    The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Turkish: Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912. As a result of this conflict, Italy captured the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet (province), of which the main sub-provinces (sanjaks) were Fezzan, Cyrenaica, and Tripoli itself. These territories together formed what became known as Italian Libya.

    During the conflict, Italian forces also occupied the Dodecanese islands in the Aegean Sea. Italy had agreed to return the Dodecanese to the Ottoman Empire in the Treaty of Ouchy[8] in 1912 (also known as the Treaty of Lausanne (1912)). However, the vagueness of the text allowed a provisional Italian administration of the islands, and Turkey eventually renounced all claims on these islands in Article 15 of the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.[9]

    Although minor, the war was a significant precursor of the First World War as it sparked nationalism in the Balkan states. Seeing how easily the Italians had defeated the weakened Ottomans, the members of the Balkan League attacked the Ottoman Empire starting the First Balkan War before the war with Italy had ended.

    The Italo-Turkish War saw numerous technological changes, notably the airplane. On October 23, 1911, an Italian pilot, Captain Carlo Piazza, flew over Turkish lines on the world's first aerial reconnaissance mission,[10] and on November 1, the first ever aerial bomb was dropped by Sottotenente Giulio Gavotti, on Turkish troops in Libya, from an early model of Etrich Taube aircraft.[11] The Turks, lacking anti-aircraft weapons, were the first to shoot down an aeroplane by rifle fire.[12]

    1. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (25 March 2018). "The Encyclopedia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information". The Encyclopedia Britannica Co. Retrieved 25 March 2018 – via Google Books.
    2. ^ Italy. Esercito. Corpo di stato maggiore (1914). The Italo-Turkish War (1911–12). Franklin Hudson Publishing Company. p. 13.
    3. ^ a b c The History of the Italian-Turkish War, William Henry Beehler, p.13-36
    4. ^ a b World War I: A Student Encyclopedia, Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, page 946
    5. ^ a b Emigrant nation: the making of Italy abroad, Mark I. Choate, Harvard University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-674-02784-1, page 176.
    6. ^ James C. Bradford: International Encyclopedia of Military History, Routledge 2006, page 674
    7. ^ Spencer Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts: World War I: A Student Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 2005, ISBN 1-85109-879-8, page 946.
    8. ^ "Treaty of Lausanne, October, 1912". www.mtholyoke.edu. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
    9. ^ "Treaty of Lausanne - World War I Document Archive". wwi.lib.byu.edu. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
    10. ^ Maksel, Rebecca. "The World's First Warplane". airspacemag.com. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
    11. ^ U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission: Aviation at the Start of the First World War Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine.
    12. ^ James D. Crabtree: On air defense, ISBN 0275947920, Greenwood Publishing Group, page 9
     
  27. Admin2

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    30 September 1399Henry IV is proclaimed king of England.

    Henry IV of England

    Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke (/ˈbɒlɪŋbrʊk/), was King of England from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.

    Henry was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire. His father, John of Gaunt, was the fourth son–third to survive to adulthood–of Edward III and enjoyed a position of considerable influence during much of the reign of Henry's cousin Richard II, whom Henry eventually deposed.

    Henry's mother was Blanche, heiress to the considerable Lancaster estates, and thus he became the first King of England from the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenets and the first King of England since the Norman Conquest whose mother tongue was English rather than French.[3]

    1. ^ Mortimer, I. (2006-12-06). "Henry IV's date of birth and the royal Maundy". Historical Research. 80 (210): 567–576. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2006.00403.x. ISSN 0950-3471.
    2. ^ Brown & Summerson 2008.
    3. ^ Janvrin, Isabelle; Rawlinson, Catherine (2016-06-06). The French in London: From William the Conqueror to Charles de Gaulle. Translated by Emily Read. Wilmington Square Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-908524-65-2.
     
  28. Admin2

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    1 October 1553 – Coronation of Queen Mary I of England.

    Mary I of England

    Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. She is best known for her aggressive attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII. The executions that marked her pursuit of the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England and Ireland led to her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents.

    Mary was the only child of Henry VIII by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, to survive to adulthood. Her younger half-brother Edward VI (son of Henry and Jane Seymour) succeeded their father in 1547 at the age of nine. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because he supposed (correctly) that she would reverse the Protestant reforms that had begun during his reign. On his death, leading politicians tried to proclaim Lady Jane Grey as queen. Mary assembled a force in East Anglia and deposed Jane, who was ultimately beheaded. Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda—the first queen regnant of England. In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556, but she never visited Spain.

    During her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions. After Mary's death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, at the beginning of the 45-year Elizabethan Era.

    1. ^ Her half-brother died on 6 July; she was proclaimed his successor in London on 19 July; her regnal years were dated from 24 July (Weir, p. 160).
     
  29. Admin2

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    2 October 1967Thurgood Marshall is sworn in as the first African-American justice of the United States Supreme Court.

    Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. Prior to his judicial service, he successfully argued several cases before the Supreme Court.

    Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Marshall graduated from the Howard University School of Law in 1933. He established a private legal practice in Baltimore before founding the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, where he served as executive director. In that position, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Smith v. Allwright, Shelley v. Kraemer, and Brown v. Board of Education, which held that racial segregation in public education is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause.

    In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Four years later, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Marshall as the United States Solicitor General. In 1967, Johnson successfully nominated Marshall to succeed retiring Associate Justice Tom C. Clark. Marshall retired during the administration of President George H. W. Bush, and was succeeded by Clarence Thomas.

    1. ^ "Members of the Supreme Court of the United States". Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
     
  30. Admin2

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    3 October 1932Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.

    Iraq

    Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44

    Iraq (/ɪˈræk/, /ɪˈrɑːk/ (About this sound listen) or /ˈræk/; Arabic: العراقal-'Irāq; Kurdish: عێراقEraq), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جُمُهورية العِراق; Kurdish: کۆماری عێراقKomari Eraq), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya.[5] Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

    Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km (36 miles) on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert.[6] Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land.

    The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, write, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian empires. It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Mongol, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires.[7]

    The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century. It was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, and Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq. The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The US presence in Iraq ended in 2011,[8] but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a highly destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west. It has since been largely defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq.[9]

    The sovereign state of Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of 19 governorates (provinces) and one autonomous region (Iraqi Kurdistan). The country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a very rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets. Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets.The Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF.

    1. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
    2. ^ a b c d "Iraq". International Monetary Fund.
    3. ^ "World Bank GINI index". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
    4. ^ "2018 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. p. 9. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
    5. ^ Article 125 of the Iraqi Constitution.http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/454f50804.pdf
    6. ^ "Declaration of Principles for a Long-Term Relationship of Cooperation and Friendship Between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America". 2007-11-26.
    7. ^ "Top 10 Battles for the Control of Iraq". Livescience.com. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
    8. ^ Basu, Moni (2011-12-18). "Deadly Iraq war ends with exit of last U.S. troops". CNN.com. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
    9. ^ https://www.iraqinews.com/iraq-war/iraq-announces-end-war-liberation-borders-syria-abadi/
     
  31. Admin2

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    4 October 1302 – The Byzantine–Venetian War comes to an end.

    Byzantine–Venetian War (1296–1302)

    The Byzantine–Venetian War of 1296–1302 was an offshoot of the first Venetian–Genoese War of 1294–1299.

    In 1296 the local Genoese residents of Constantinople destroyed the Venetian quarter and killed many Venetian civilians. Despite the Byzantine–Venetian truce of 1285, the Byzantine emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos immediately showed support for his Genoese allies by arresting the Venetian survivors of the massacre, including the Venetian bailo Marco Bembo.

    Venice threatened war with the Byzantine Empire, demanding reparations for the affront they suffered. In July 1296, the Venetian fleet, under command of Ruggiero Morosini Malabranca, stormed the Bosphorus. During the course of the campaign, various Genoese possessions in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea were captured, including the city of Phocaea. The Genoese colony of Galata, across the Golden Horn from the Byzantine capital, was also burned down. The Byzantine basileus, however, preferred at that point to avoid war.

    Open war between Venice and the Byzantines did not begin until after the Battle of Curzola and the end of the war with Genoa in the 1299 Treaty of Milan, which left Venice free to pursue her war against the Greeks. The Venetian fleet, reinforced by privateers, began to capture various Byzantine islands in the Aegean Sea, many of which had only been conquered by the Byzantines from Latin lords about twenty years before.

    From April 1301, Byzantine ambassadors were sent to Venice to negotiate a peace, but without success. In July 1302, a Venetian fleet with twenty-eight galleys arrived before Constantinople itself, and staged a demonstration of force: before the eyes of the Byzantine capital's inhabitants, the admiral Belletto Giustinian flogged the population of the island of Prinkipos, including refugees from Asia Minor who had fled the Turkish advance there, which the Venetians had taken prisoner.

    This induced the Byzantine government to propose a peace treaty, signed on 4 October 1302. According to its terms, the Venetians returned most of their conquests, but kept the islands of Kea, Santorini, Serifos and Amorgos, which were retained by the privateers who had captured them. The Byzantines also agreed to repay the Venetians for their losses sustained during the massacre of Venetian residents in 1296.

     
  32. Admin2

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    5 October 1938 – In Nazi Germany, Jews' passports are invalidated.

    Nuremberg Laws

    Title page of the German government gazette Reichsgesetzblatt issue proclaiming the laws, published on 16 September 1935 (RGB I No. 100)

    The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany. They were enacted by the Reichstag on 15 September 1935, at a special meeting convened during the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). The two laws were the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, which forbade marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews and Germans and the employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens; the remainder were classed as state subjects, without citizenship rights. A supplementary decree outlining the definition of who was Jewish was passed on 14 November, and the Reich Citizenship Law officially came into force on that date. The laws were expanded on 26 November 1935 to include Romani people – known at the time as "Gypsies" – and Black people. This supplementary decree defined Romanis as "enemies of the race-based state", the same category as Jews.

    Out of foreign policy concerns, prosecutions under the two laws did not commence until after the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in Berlin. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, they began to implement their policies, which included the formation of a Volksgemeinschaft (people's community) based on race. Chancellor and Führer (leader) Adolf Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses on 1 April 1933, and the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April, excluded non-Aryans from the legal profession and civil service. Books considered un-German, including those by Jewish authors, were destroyed in a nationwide book burning on 10 May. Jewish citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks. They were actively suppressed, stripped of their citizenship and civil rights, and eventually completely removed from German society.

    The Nuremberg Laws had a crippling economic and social impact on the Jewish community. Persons convicted of violating the marriage laws were imprisoned, and (subsequent to 8 March 1938) upon completing their sentences were re-arrested by the Gestapo and sent to Nazi concentration camps. Non-Jews gradually stopped socialising with Jews or shopping in Jewish-owned stores, many of which closed due to lack of customers. As Jews were no longer permitted to work in the civil service or government-regulated professions such as medicine and education, many middle class business owners and professionals were forced to take menial employment. Emigration was problematic, as Jews were required to remit up to 90 per cent of their wealth as a tax upon leaving the country. By 1938 it was almost impossible for potential Jewish emigrants to find a country willing to take them. Mass deportation schemes such as the Madagascar Plan proved to be impossible for the Nazis to carry out, and starting in mid-1941, the German government started mass exterminations of the Jews of Europe.

     
  33. Admin2

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    6 October 1903 – The High Court of Australia sits for the first time.

    High Court of Australia

    The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.[1] It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Parliament of Australia and the parliaments of the states, and the ability to interpret the Constitution of Australia and thereby shape the development of federalism in Australia.

    The High Court is mandated by section 71 of the Constitution, which vests in it the judicial power of the Commonwealth of Australia. The Court was constituted by, and its first members were appointed under, the Judiciary Act 1903. It now operates under sections 71 to 75 of the Constitution, the Judiciary Act,[2] and the High Court of Australia Act 1979.[3] It is composed of seven Justices: the Chief Justice of Australia, currently Susan Kiefel, and six other Justices. They are appointed by the Governor-General of Australia on the advice of the federal government, and under the constitution must retire at age 70.

    The High Court has had a permanent home in Canberra since 1979. The majority of its sittings are held in the High Court building, which is situated in the Parliamentary Triangle overlooking Lake Burley Griffin. With an increasing utilisation of video links, sittings are also often held in the state capitals.

    1. ^ "Courts". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2013. The High Court of Australia is the highest court of appeal
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Judiciary Act was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference High Court of Australia Act was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  34. Admin2

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    7 October 1996Fox News Channel begins broadcasting.

    Fox News

    Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is a United States pay television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox. The channel broadcasts primarily from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide,[1] with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks.

    The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch, who hired former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO.[2] It launched on October 7, 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers.[3] Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the US.[4] As of February 2015, approximately 94,700,000 US households (81.4% of television subscribers) receive Fox News.[5] Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO.[6][7]

    Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations, and conservative causes.[8][9][10][11] Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall.[12][13] Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, and have denied bias in news reporting.[14]

    1. ^ "Where in the World is FOX?". Fox News. March 1, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
    2. ^ Mifflin, Lawrie (October 7, 1996). "At the new Fox News Channel, the buzzword is fairness, separating news from bias". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference King was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Gillette, Felix (October 1, 2008). "Viewers Continuing to Flock to Cable News Networks". The New York Observer.
    5. ^ Seidman, Robert (February 22, 2015). "List of how many homes each cable network is in as of February 2015". TV by the Numbers. Zap2it. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
    6. ^ Steinberg, Brian (May 17, 2018). "Suzanne Scott Named CEO of Fox News". Variety. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
    7. ^ "Roger Ailes Resigns From Fox News Amid Sexual Harassment Accusations". Time. July 21, 2016.
      "Roger Ailes leaves Fox News in wake of sexual harassment claims". The Guardian. July 21, 2016.
    8. ^ Skocpol, Theda; Williamson, Vanessa (September 1, 2016). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 5, 8, 86, 123, 125, 130–140. ISBN 9780190633660. the challenge of spreading and germinating the Tea Party idea was surmounted with impressive ease because a major sector of the U.S. media today is openly partisan—including Fox News Channel, the right-wing "blogosphere," and a nationwide network of right- wing talk radio programs. This aptly named conservative media "echo chamber" reaches into the homes of many Americans ... Towering above all others is the Fox News empire, the loudest voice in conservative media. Despite its claim to be "fair and balanced," multiple studies have documented Fox's conservative stance ... Fox News's conservative slant encourages a particular worldview.
    9. ^ Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Cappella, Joseph N. (February 4, 2010). Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195398601. We do this to illustrate the ways Fox News, Limbaugh, and the print and web editorial pages of the Wall Street Journal play both offense and defense in service of conservative objectives. As these case studies will suggest, the big three reinforce each other's conservative messages in ways that distinguish them from the other major broadcast media, CBS, NBC, ABC, CNN, MSNBC, and major print outlets such as the Washington Post and New York Times.
    10. ^ Grossman, Matt; Hopkins, David A. (October 13, 2016). Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 175. ISBN 9780190626600.
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference :34 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Anthony Collings (2010). Capturing the News: Three Decades of Reporting Crisis and Conflict. University of Missouri Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-8262-7211-9.
    13. ^ Jonathan McCollum; David G. Hebert (2014). Theory and Method in Historical Ethnomusicology. Lexington Books. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-4985-0705-9.
    14. ^ Memmott, Mark (September 2, 2004). "Fox newspeople say allegations of bias unfounded". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2009. "White House Escalates War of Words With Fox News". Fox News. October 12, 2009. Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
     
  35. Admin2

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    8 October 1813 – The Treaty of Ried is signed between Bavaria and Austria.

    Treaty of Ried

    The Treaty of Ried of 8 October 1813 was a treaty that was signed between Bavaria and Austria. By this treaty, Bavaria left the Confederation of the Rhine and agreed to join the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon in exchange for a guarantee of her continued sovereign and independent status. On 14 October, Bavaria made a formal declaration of war against Napoleonic France. The treaty was passionately backed by the Crown Prince Louis and by Marshal von Wrede.[1]

    1. ^ Der große Schritt nach vorne (in German) Bayerischer Rundfunk, published: 27 April 2015, accessed: 20 October 2015
     
  36. Admin2

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    9 October 1804Hobart, capital of Tasmania, is founded

    Hobart

    Hobart (/ˈhbɑːrt/ (About this sound listen))[5] is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. With a population of approximately 225,000 (over 40% of Tasmania's population), it is the least populated Australian state capital city.[1] Founded in 1804 as a British penal colony,[6] Hobart, formerly known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney, New South Wales. Prior to British settlement, the Hobart area had been occupied for possibly as long as 35,000 years,[7] by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe.[8] The descendants of these Aboriginal Tasmanians often refer to themselves as 'Palawa'.

    Since its foundation as a colonial outpost, the city has expanded from the mouth of Sullivans Cove in a generally north-south direction along both banks of the Derwent River, from 22 km inland from the estuary at Storm Bay to the point where the river reverts to fresh water at Bridgewater.[9] Penal transportation ended in the 1850s, after which the city experienced periods of growth and decline. The early 20th century saw an economic boom on the back of mining, agriculture and other primary industries, and the loss of men who served in the world wars was counteracted by an influx of immigration.[10] Despite the rise in migration from Asia and other non-English speaking parts of the world, Hobart's population remains predominantly ethnically Anglo-Celtic, and has the highest percentage of Australian-born residents among the Australian capital cities.[11]

    In June 2016, the estimated greater area population was 224,462.[1] The city is located in the state's south-east on the estuary of the Derwent River, making it the most southern of Australia's capital cities. Its harbour forms the second-deepest natural port in the world.[12] Its skyline is dominated by the 1,271-metre (4,170 ft) kunanyi/Mount Wellington,[13] and much of the city's waterfront consists of reclaimed land.[14] It is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, serving as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations and acting as a major tourist hub, with over 1.192 million visitors in 2011/2012.[15] The metropolitan area is often referred to as Greater Hobart, to differentiate it from the City of Hobart, one of the five local government areas that cover the city.[16]

    1. ^ a b c "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics. June 2017. Archived from the original on 1 October 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Census2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Queen to Honour David Collins in Historic Unveiling". The Mercury. Hobart, Tasmania. 19 February 1954. p. 8, Royal Visit Souvenir supplement. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
    4. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference BoM was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library. 2003. p. 465. ISBN 1-876429-37-2.
    6. ^ Frank Bolt, The Founding of Hobart 1803–1804, ISBN 0-9757166-0-3
    7. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica – History of Tasmania". Retrieved 17 July 2008.
    8. ^ The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia. (ed.) David Horton. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1994 [2 vols] (see: Vol. 2, pp.1008–10 [with map]; individual tribal entries; and the 'Further Reading' section on pp.1245–72).
    9. ^ Fairfax Digital (June 2004). "Hobart Travel Guide". Fairfax Digital. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
    10. ^ "Tasmanian Yearbook". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
    11. ^ "Tasmanian Community Profile". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
    12. ^ "Antarctic Tasmania". Government of Tasmania. 14 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
    13. ^ "kunanyi / Mount Wellington". Hobart City Council. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
    14. ^ Mocatta, Charles Rawlings-Way, Meg Worby, Gabi (2008). Tasmania (5th ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet. ISBN 9781741046915.
    15. ^ "REGIONAL OVERVIEW". tra.gov.au. Tourism Research Australiua. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
    16. ^ "City of Hobart – Economic Profile". Retrieved 7 November 2014.
     
  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 October 1804Hobart, capital of Tasmania, is founded

    Hobart

    Hobart (/ˈhbɑːrt/ (About this sound listen))[5] is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. With a population of approximately 225,000 (over 40% of Tasmania's population), it is the least populated Australian state capital city.[1] Founded in 1804 as a British penal colony,[6] Hobart, formerly known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney, New South Wales. Prior to British settlement, the Hobart area had been occupied for possibly as long as 35,000 years,[7] by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe.[8] The descendants of these Aboriginal Tasmanians often refer to themselves as 'Palawa'.

    Since its foundation as a colonial outpost, the city has expanded from the mouth of Sullivans Cove in a generally north-south direction along both banks of the Derwent River, from 22 km inland from the estuary at Storm Bay to the point where the river reverts to fresh water at Bridgewater.[9] Penal transportation ended in the 1850s, after which the city experienced periods of growth and decline. The early 20th century saw an economic boom on the back of mining, agriculture and other primary industries, and the loss of men who served in the world wars was counteracted by an influx of immigration.[10] Despite the rise in migration from Asia and other non-English speaking parts of the world, Hobart's population remains predominantly ethnically Anglo-Celtic, and has the highest percentage of Australian-born residents among the Australian capital cities.[11]

    In June 2016, the estimated greater area population was 224,462.[1] The city is located in the state's south-east on the estuary of the Derwent River, making it the most southern of Australia's capital cities. Its harbour forms the second-deepest natural port in the world.[12] Its skyline is dominated by the 1,271-metre (4,170 ft) kunanyi/Mount Wellington,[13] and much of the city's waterfront consists of reclaimed land.[14] It is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, serving as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations and acting as a major tourist hub, with over 1.192 million visitors in 2011/2012.[15] The metropolitan area is often referred to as Greater Hobart, to differentiate it from the City of Hobart, one of the five local government areas that cover the city.[16]

    1. ^ a b c "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics. June 2017. Archived from the original on 1 October 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Census2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Queen to Honour David Collins in Historic Unveiling". The Mercury. Hobart, Tasmania. 19 February 1954. p. 8, Royal Visit Souvenir supplement. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
    4. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference BoM was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library. 2003. p. 465. ISBN 1-876429-37-2.
    6. ^ Frank Bolt, The Founding of Hobart 1803–1804, ISBN 0-9757166-0-3
    7. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica – History of Tasmania". Retrieved 17 July 2008.
    8. ^ The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia. (ed.) David Horton. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1994 [2 vols] (see: Vol. 2, pp.1008–10 [with map]; individual tribal entries; and the 'Further Reading' section on pp.1245–72).
    9. ^ Fairfax Digital (June 2004). "Hobart Travel Guide". Fairfax Digital. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
    10. ^ "Tasmanian Yearbook". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
    11. ^ "Tasmanian Community Profile". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
    12. ^ "Antarctic Tasmania". Government of Tasmania. 14 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
    13. ^ "kunanyi / Mount Wellington". Hobart City Council. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
    14. ^ Mocatta, Charles Rawlings-Way, Meg Worby, Gabi (2008). Tasmania (5th ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet. ISBN 9781741046915.
    15. ^ "REGIONAL OVERVIEW". tra.gov.au. Tourism Research Australiua. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
    16. ^ "City of Hobart – Economic Profile". Retrieved 7 November 2014.
     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 October 1963 – The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty comes into effect.

    Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground. It is also abbreviated as the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), though the latter may also refer to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which succeeded the PTBT for ratifying parties.

    Negotiations initially focused on a comprehensive ban, but this was abandoned due to technical questions surrounding the detection of underground tests and Soviet concerns over the intrusiveness of proposed verification methods. The impetus for the test ban was provided by rising public anxiety over the magnitude of nuclear tests, particularly tests of new thermonuclear weapons (hydrogen bombs), and the resulting nuclear fallout. A test ban was also seen as a means of slowing nuclear proliferation and the nuclear arms race. Though the PTBT did not halt proliferation or the arms race, its enactment did coincide with a substantial decline in the concentration of radioactive particles in the atmosphere.

    The PTBT was signed by the governments of the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States in Moscow on 5 August 1963 before being opened for signature by other countries. The treaty formally went into effect on 10 October 1963. Since then, 123 other states have become party to the treaty. Ten states have signed but not ratified the treaty.

     
  39. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 October 2001 – The Polaroid Corporation files for federal bankruptcy protection.

    Polaroid Corporation

    Polaroid is an American company that is a brand licensor and marketer of its portfolio of consumer electronics to companies that distribute consumer electronics and eyewear. It is best known for its Polaroid instant film and cameras. In 2017, its parent company was acquired by Polish investor Oskar Smołokowski.

    The company was founded in 1937 by Edwin H. Land, to exploit the use of its Polaroid polarizing polymer.[1]:3 Land ran the company until 1981. Its peak employment was 21,000 in 1978, and its peak revenue was $3 billion in 1991.[2]

    When the original Polaroid Corporation was declared bankrupt in 2001,[3][4] its brand and assets were sold off.[5] The "new" Polaroid formed as a result,[3][5] and itself declared bankruptcy in 2008, resulting in a further sale and in the present-day Polaroid Corporation. In May 2017, the brand and intellectual property of the Polaroid corporation were acquired by the largest shareholder of the Impossible Project, which had originally started out in 2008 by producing new instant films for Polaroid cameras.[6] The Impossible Project was renamed Polaroid Originals in September 2017.[7][8]

    1. ^ "History of Polaroid and Edwin Land". Boston.com. Boston: The New York Times Company. 2012-10-03. Retrieved 2015-01-31.
    2. ^ "Polaroid quits instant film". Sun Journal. Lewiston, Maine. Associated Press. February 9, 2008. pp. B8, B7.
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference pdcmain was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference pdcshare was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference pdcfaq was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Zhang, Michael (2017). Polaroid Acquired by The Impossible Project’s Largest Shareholder, PetaPixel.com, 10 May 2017
    7. ^ "The first Polaroid instant camera in a decade is adorable" Sean O'Kane, The Verge, 13 September 2017. Accessed 14 September 2017
    8. ^ "Polaroid Originals Launches with New OneStep 2 Camera and i-Type Film" Michael Zhang, Petapixel, 13 September 2017. Accessed 14 September 2017
     
  40. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 October 1773 – America's first insane asylum opens.

    Eastern State Hospital (Virginia)

    Coordinates: 37°17′17.8″N 76°44′5.3″W / 37.288278°N 76.734806°W / 37.288278; -76.734806

    The Hospital's rebuilt original 1773 building as it stands today in Williamsburg, Virginia

    Eastern State Hospital, built in 1773 in colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, was the first public facility in the present-day United States constructed solely for the care and treatment of the mentally ill. The hospital's patients were moved in the 20th century to a new facility outside Williamsburg. The original building had burned but was reconstructed in 1985. Today it operates as a museum about the treatment of mental illness.

     

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