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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 September 1642 – England's Parliament bans public stage-plays.

    London theatre closure 1642

    In September 1642 the Long Parliament ordered a closure of the London theatres. The order cited the current "times of humiliation" and their incompatibility with "public stage-plays", representative of "lascivious Mirth and Levity".[1] The ban, which was not completely effective, was reinforced by an Act of 11 February 1648. It provided for the treatment of actors as rogues, the demolition of theatre seating, and fines for spectators.[2]

    In 1660, after the English Restoration brought King Charles II to effective power in England, the theatrical ban was lifted. Under a new licensing system, two London theatres with royal patents were opened.[3]

    1. ^ Jane Milling; Peter Thomson (23 November 2004). The Cambridge History of British Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-521-65040-3. 
    2. ^ Jane Milling; Peter Thomson (23 November 2004). The Cambridge History of British Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-521-65040-3. 
    3. ^ Brian Corman (21 January 2013). The Broadview Anthology of Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Comedy. Broadview Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-1-77048-299-9. 
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 September 1945 – The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 is held.

    Berlin Victory Parade of 1945

    The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 was held by the Allies of World War II on 7 September 1945 in Berlin, the capital of the defeated Nazi Germany, shortly after the end of World War II. The four participating countries were the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom and France.

    The parade was proposed by the Soviet Union, following the June Moscow Victory Parade of 1945.[1][2] July in Berlin also saw a British parade (the 1945 British Berlin Victory Parade).[3][4] The September parade took place near the Reichstag building and the Brandenburg Gate.[2]

    Senior officers present at the parade were Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov from the USSR, General George S. Patton from the United States,[1] General Brian Robertson, from the United Kingdom, and General Marie-Pierre Kœnig from France.[5] General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery declined the invitations shortly before the parade, and sent Patton and Robertson as their representatives.[2][6][7] About 5,000 troops from the USSR, USA, UK and France took part in the parade (with 2,000 of the troops being Soviet).[2] The parade was opened by marching troops, followed by the armour.[2] Units present included the Soviet 248th Infantry Division, the French 2nd Infantry Division, the British 131st Infantry Brigade, and the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division; the forces present came primarily from the local garrisons.[7] The armoured contingent came from the British 7th Armoured Division, French 1st Armored Division, and U.S. 16th Mechanized Cavalry Group.[7] The Red Army used this occasion for the first public display of the IS-3 heavy tank, with 52 tanks from the 2nd Guards Tank Army participating.[8]

    Russian sources refer to this parade as a "forgotten parade", as it was mentioned in only a few Western sources.[2][9] The downplaying of the parade in the West can be seen as one of the early signs of the Cold War.[2] The forces of four Allies also participated in another Berlin parade a year later, on the Charlottenburger Chaussee, in front of the Brandenburg Gate, on the first anniversary of the German surrender on 8 May 1946, in the Berlin Victory Parade of 1946.[10][11] This parade was connected to the inauguration of the Soviet War Memorial at Tiergarten.[10][11] Soviet troops would not be present at the much more widely known in the West London Victory Celebrations of 1946.[12]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Roberts2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b c d e f g Cite error: The named reference rt was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference iwm was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference VE Day & Berlin Victory Parade Commemoration Page was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Soviet Forces - September 7, 1945 in Berlin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Forgotten Pages of Victory was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference ua was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Zaloga2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference SSEES Film and Video Database: Tape V-1889 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference ArenhövelBothe1991 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference SchulleriEschen2002 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference nla was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 September 1946 – The referendum abolishes the monarchy in Bulgaria.

    Bulgarian republic referendum, 1946

    A referendum on becoming a republic was held in Bulgaria on 8 September 1946.[1] The result was 95.6% in favour of the change, with voter turnout reported to be 91.7%.[2] Following the referendum, a republican constitution was introduced the following year.[3]

    1. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p368 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
    2. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p375
    3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p355
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 September 1924Hanapepe massacre occurs on Kauai, Hawaii.

    Hanapepe massacre

    The Hanapēpē Massacre (also called the Battle of Hanapēpē since both sides were armed) happened on September 9, 1924. Toward the end of a long-lasting strike of Filipino sugar workers on Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi, local police shot dead nine strikers and fatally wounded seven, strikers shot and stabbed three sheriffs to death and fatally wounded one; a total of 20 people died. The massacre brought an end to armed protests in Hawaii.

     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 September 1823Simón Bolívar is named President of Peru.

    Simón Bolívar

    Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco[1] (Spanish: [siˈmon boˈliβaɾ] (About this sound listen);[2] 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador,[3] was a Venezuelan military and political leader who liberated what are currently the republics of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of [Spanish Empire].

    Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Criollo family and, as was common for the heirs of upper-class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain when he was 16 and later moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment, which later motivated him to overthrow the reigning Spanish in colonial South America. Taking advantage of the disorder in Spain prompted by the Peninsular War, Bolívar began his campaign for independence in 1808.[4] The campaign for the independence of New Granada was consolidated with the victory at the Battle of Boyacá on 7 August 1819. Later he established an organized national congress within three years. Despite a number of hindrances, including the arrival of an unprecedentedly large Spanish expeditionary force, the revolutionaries eventually prevailed, culminating in the patriot victory at the Battle of Carabobo in 1821, which effectively made Venezuela an independent country.

    Following this triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Latin America, Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Through further military campaigns, he ousted Spanish rulers from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, the last of which was named after him. He was simultaneously president of Gran Colombia (present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador) and Peru, while his second-in-command, Antonio José de Sucre, was appointed president of Bolivia. Bolívar aimed at a strong and united Spanish America able to cope not only with the threats emanating from Spain and the European Holy Alliance but also with the emerging power of the United States. At the peak of his power, Bolívar ruled over a vast territory from the Argentine border to the Caribbean Sea.

    Bolívar is viewed as a national icon in much of modern South America, and is considered one of the great heroes of the Hispanic independence movements of the early 19th century, along with José de San Martín, Francisco de Miranda and others. At the end of his life, Bolívar despaired of the situation in his native region, with the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea".[5]:450 In an address to the Constituent Congress of the Republic of Colombia, Bolívar stated "Fellow citizens! I blush to say this: Independence is the only benefit we have acquired, to the detriment of all the rest."[6]

    1. ^ Arismendi Posada 1983, p. 9.
    2. ^ In isolation, Simón is pronounced [siˈmon], and that is the pronunciation in the recording.
    3. ^ El Libertador: Writings of Simón Bolívar, ed. David Bushnell. New York: Oxford University Press 2003.
    4. ^ ed, Thomas Riggs, (2013). The literature of propaganda. Detroit [u.a.]: St. James Press. pp. 153–55. ISBN 9781558628595. 
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Arana was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ quoted in Jeremy Adelman, "Independence in Latin America" in The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History, José C. Moya, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2011, p. 153.
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 September 1823Simón Bolívar is named President of Peru.

    Simón Bolívar

    Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco[1] (Spanish: [siˈmon boˈliβaɾ] (About this sound listen);[2] 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador,[3] was a Venezuelan military and political leader who liberated what are currently the republics of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of [Spanish Empire].

    Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Criollo family and, as was common for the heirs of upper-class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain when he was 16 and later moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment, which later motivated him to overthrow the reigning Spanish in colonial South America. Taking advantage of the disorder in Spain prompted by the Peninsular War, Bolívar began his campaign for independence in 1808.[4] The campaign for the independence of New Granada was consolidated with the victory at the Battle of Boyacá on 7 August 1819. Later he established an organized national congress within three years. Despite a number of hindrances, including the arrival of an unprecedentedly large Spanish expeditionary force, the revolutionaries eventually prevailed, culminating in the patriot victory at the Battle of Carabobo in 1821, which effectively made Venezuela an independent country.

    Following this triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Latin America, Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Through further military campaigns, he ousted Spanish rulers from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, the last of which was named after him. He was simultaneously president of Gran Colombia (present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador) and Peru, while his second-in-command, Antonio José de Sucre, was appointed president of Bolivia. Bolívar aimed at a strong and united Spanish America able to cope not only with the threats emanating from Spain and the European Holy Alliance but also with the emerging power of the United States. At the peak of his power, Bolívar ruled over a vast territory from the Argentine border to the Caribbean Sea.

    Bolívar is viewed as a national icon in much of modern South America, and is considered one of the great heroes of the Hispanic independence movements of the early 19th century, along with José de San Martín, Francisco de Miranda and others. At the end of his life, Bolívar despaired of the situation in his native region, with the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea".[5]:450 In an address to the Constituent Congress of the Republic of Colombia, Bolívar stated "Fellow citizens! I blush to say this: Independence is the only benefit we have acquired, to the detriment of all the rest."[6]

    1. ^ Arismendi Posada 1983, p. 9.
    2. ^ In isolation, Simón is pronounced [siˈmon], and that is the pronunciation in the recording.
    3. ^ El Libertador: Writings of Simón Bolívar, ed. David Bushnell. New York: Oxford University Press 2003.
    4. ^ ed, Thomas Riggs, (2013). The literature of propaganda. Detroit [u.a.]: St. James Press. pp. 153–55. ISBN 9781558628595. 
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Arana was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ quoted in Jeremy Adelman, "Independence in Latin America" in The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History, José C. Moya, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2011, p. 153.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 September 2008 – A major Channel Tunnel fire breaks out on a freight train, resulting in the closure of part of the tunnel for six months.

    2008 Channel Tunnel fire

    The 2008 Channel Tunnel fire occurred on 11 September 2008 in the Channel Tunnel. The incident involved a France-bound Eurotunnel Shuttle train carrying heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and their drivers.

    The fire lasted for sixteen hours and reached temperatures of up to 1000 °C.[1] Of the thirty-two people on board the train, fourteen people suffered minor injuries, including smoke inhalation and were taken to the hospital. When the fire was reported, the tunnel was immediately shut to all services except emergency traffic. The undamaged south tunnel was reopened 13 September with a freight train entering the tunnel at Folkestone at 00:08 BST and a limited service provided with trains travelling in turn in alternating directions in the one tunnel. By the end of September, two thirds of the north tunnel had reopened. Full service resumed in February 2009 after repairs costing €60 million.

    This fire was the third to close the tunnel since it opened in 1994,[2] the first being the 1996 Channel Tunnel fire and, in August 2006, the tunnel was closed for several hours after fire broke out on a truck loaded onto a HGV Shuttle.

    1. ^ Rayner, Gordon; Millward, David; Simpson, Aislinn (11 September 2008). "Channel Tunnel closed after freight train fire". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2008. 
    2. ^ "How the 2008 fire changed Channel Tunnel history". KentOnline. 5 May 2009. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009. 
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 September 1940Cave paintings are discovered in Lascaux, France.

    Cave painting

    Paleolithic cave painting of bisons from the Altamira cave, Cantabria, Spain (replica), painted c. 20,000 years ago (Solutrean).
    Cueva de las Manos located Perito Moreno, Argentina. The art in the cave dates between 13,000–9,000 BP.

    Cave paintings are a type of parietal art (which category also includes petroglyphs, or engravings), found on the wall or ceilings of caves. The term usually implies prehistoric origin, but cave paintings can also be of recent production: In the Gabarnmung cave of northern Australia, the oldest paintings certainly predate 28,000 years ago, while the most recent ones were made less than a century ago.[1]

    The oldest known cave paintings are close to 40,000 years old (art of the Upper Paleolithic), found in both the Franco-Cantabrian region in western Europe, and in the caves in the district of Maros (Sulawesi, Indonesia). The oldest type of cave paintings are hand stencils and simple geometric shapes; the oldest undisputed examples of figurative cave paintings are somewhat younger, close to 35,000 years old.[2]

    A 2018 study claimed an age of 64,000 years for the oldest examples of (non-figurative) cave art in Iberia, which would imply that production by Neanderthals rather than modern humans.[3]

    1. ^ Robert Gunn, Bruno David, Jean-Jacques Delannoy and Margaret Katherine, "The past 500 years of rock art at Nawarla Gabarnmang, central-western Arnhem Land" in: Bruno David, Paul S.C. Taçon, Jean-Jacques Delannoy, Jean-Michel Geneste (eds.), The Archaeology of Rock Art in Western Arnhem Land, Australia (2017), pp. 303–328.
    2. ^ M. Aubert et al., "Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia", Nature volume 514, pages 223–227 (09 October 2014). "using uranium-series dating of coralloid speleothems directly associated with 12 human hand stencils and two figurative animal depictions from seven cave sites in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, we show that rock art traditions on this Indonesian island are at least compatible in age with the oldest European art. The earliest dated image from Maros, with a minimum age of 39.9 kyr, is now the oldest known hand stencil in the world. In addition, a painting of a babirusa (‘pig-deer’) made at least 35.4 kyr ago is among the earliest dated figurative depictions worldwide, if not the earliest one. Among the implications, it can now be demonstrated that humans were producing rock art by ∼40 kyr ago at opposite ends of the Pleistocene Eurasian world."
    3. ^ Represented by three red non-figurative symbols found in the caves of Maltravieso, Ardales and La Pasiega, Spain, these predate the arrival of modern humans to Europe by at least 20,000 years and thus must have been made by Neanderthals. D. L. Hoffmann; C. D. Standish; M. García-Diez; P. B. Pettitt; J. A. Milton; J. Zilhão; J. J. Alcolea-González; P. Cantalejo-Duarte; H. Collado; R. de Balbín; M. Lorblanchet; J. Ramos-Muñoz; G.-Ch. Weniger; A. W. G. Pike (2018). "U-Th dating of carbonate crusts reveals Neandertal origin of Iberian cave art". Science. 359 (6378): 912–915. doi:10.1126/science.aap7778.  "we present dating results for three sites in Spain that show that cave art emerged in Iberia substantially earlier than previously thought. Uranium-thorium (U-Th) dates on carbonate crusts overlying paintings provide minimum ages for a red linear motif in La Pasiega (Cantabria), a hand stencil in Maltravieso (Extremadura), and red-painted speleothems in Ardales (Andalucía). Collectively, these results show that cave art in Iberia is older than 64.8 thousand years (ka). This cave art is the earliest dated so far and predates, by at least 20 ka, the arrival of modern humans in Europe, which implies Neandertal authorship."
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 September 1808Finnish War: Russians defeat the Swedes at the Battle of Oravais.

    Battle of Oravais

    The Battle of Oravais (Finnish: Oravaisten taistelu, Swedish: Slaget vid Oravais) was one of the decisive battles in the Finnish War, fought from 1808 to 1809 between Sweden and the Russian Empire as part of the wider Napoleonic Wars. Taking place in modern-day Vörå in western Finland, it is sometimes regarded as the turning point of the Finnish War: the last chance for Sweden to turn the war to her advantage. It was the bloodiest battle of the conflict, which some historians attribute to the exhaustion, resignation and desperation of the Swedish army: it was losing the war, and defeat led to its loss of Finland to Russia.

    1. ^ In commemoration of 200 years of the Battle of Oravais
    2. ^ Memoirs of Faddey Bulgarin, veteran of the Battle of Oravais. 1846—9 (in Russian): "С нашей стороны убит один офицер, ранено 25, без вести пропал один; нижних чинов убито 120, ранено 640, без вести пропало 108 человек."
    3. ^ In commemoration of 200 years of the Battle of Oravais
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 September 1947Typhoon Kathleen hit the Kanto Region in Japan killing 1,077.

    Category:1940–49 Pacific typhoon seasons

    The decade of the 1940s featured the 1941–44 Pacific typhoon seasons, Typhoon Cobra and others. The seasons had no official bounds, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

    The scope of this category is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the international date line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see the article 1940–1948 Pacific hurricane seasons. Tropical storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.

     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 September 1975Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia.

    Papua New Guinea

    Coordinates: 6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147

    Papua New Guinea (PNG; UK: /ˈpæp(j)uə ... ˈɡɪni, ˈpɑː-/, US: /ˈpæpjuə, pɑːˈpə/;[9] Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.

    At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975. This followed nearly 60 years of Australian administration, which started during World War I. It became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1975 with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right.

    Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. It is also one of the most rural, as only 18 per cent of its people live in urban centres.[10] There are 852 known languages in the country, of which 12 now have no known living speakers.[11] Most of the population of more than 8 million people lives in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages.[12] The country is one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically. It is known to have numerous groups of uncontacted peoples, and researchers believe there are many undiscovered species of plants and animals in the interior.[13]

    Papua New Guinea is classified as a developing economy by the International Monetary Fund.[14] Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector led to the country becoming the sixth-fastest-growing economy in the world in 2011.[15] Growth was expected to slow once major resource projects came on line in 2015.[16] Mining remains a major economic factor, however. Local and national governments are discussing the potential of resuming mining operations at the Panguna mine in Bougainville Province, which has been closed since the civil war in the 1980s–1990s.[17] Nearly 40 per cent of the population lives a self-sustainable natural lifestyle with no access to global capital.[18]

    Most of the people still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming. Their social lives combine traditional religion with modern practices, including primary education.[12] These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged by the Papua New Guinea Constitution, which expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society"[19] and protects their continuing importance to local and national community life.

    1. ^ Somare, Michael (6 December 2004). "Stable Government, Investment Initiatives, and Economic Growth". Keynote address to the 8th Papua New Guinea Mining and Petroleum Conference. Archived from the original on 2006-06-28. Retrieved 9 August 2007. 
    2. ^ "Never more to rise". The National (February 6, 2006). Archived from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2005. 
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Sign language becomes an official language in PNG". Radio New Zealand. 21 May 2015. 
    5. ^ "Papua New Guinea Population (2016)". worldbank.org. Retrieved 19 October 2017. 
    6. ^ a b c d "Papua New Guinea". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
    7. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
    8. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
    9. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8 
    10. ^ "World Bank data on urbanisation". World Development Indicators. World Bank. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 15 July 2005. 
    11. ^ Papua New Guinea, Ethnologue
    12. ^ a b James, Paul; Nadarajah, Yaso; Haive, Karen; Stead, Victoria (2012). Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Development: Other Paths for Papua New Guinea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
    13. ^ Gelineau, Kristen (26 March 2009). "Spiders and frogs identified among 50 new species". The Independent. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
    14. ^ World Economic Outlook Database, October 2015, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 6 October 2015. Accessed on 6 October 2015.
    15. ^ "Raising the profile of PNG in Australia". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
    16. ^ Asian Development Outlook 2015: Financing Asia’s Future Growth. Asian Development Bank (March 2015)
    17. ^ "Bougainville Copper Limited". Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
    18. ^ World Bank. 2010. World Development Indicators. Washington DC.
    19. ^ "Constitution of Independent State of Papua New Guinea (consol. to amendment #22)". Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 16 July 2005. 
     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 September 1787 – The United States Constitution is signed in Philadelphia.

    United States Constitution

    The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.[1] The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress; the executive, consisting of the President; and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. Articles Four, Five and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it. It is regarded as the oldest written and codified national constitution in force of the world.[2]

    Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times, including an amendment to repeal a previous one,[3] in order to meet the changing needs of a nation that has profoundly changed since the eighteenth century.[4] In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government.[5][6] The majority of the seventeen later amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages[7] of the original U.S. Constitution are written on parchment.[8]

    According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, and of the federal and state governments."[4]

    The first permanent constitution of its kind,[a] adopted by the people's representatives for an expansive nation, it is interpreted, supplemented, and implemented by a large body of constitutional law, and has influenced the constitutions of other nations.

    1. ^ Maier 2010, p. 35
    2. ^ Goodlatte says U.S. has the oldest working national constitution, Politifact Virginia website, September 22, 2014.
    3. ^ United States Senate (1992). "Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America" (PDF). The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 25 n.2. ISBN 9780160632686. 
    4. ^ a b "Constitution Day". Senate.gov. United States Senate. Retrieved September 10, 2016. 
    5. ^ Ritchie, Donald. "Bill of Rights". Annenberg Classroom – Glossary. Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
    6. ^ Lloyd, Gordon. "Introduction to the Bill of Rights". TeachingAmericanHistory.org. The Ashbrook Center at Ashland University. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
    7. ^ "America's Founding Documents". October 30, 2015. 
    8. ^ "Differences between Parchment, Vellum and Paper". August 15, 2016. 
    9. ^ "Pasquale Paoli – Corsican statesman". 
    10. ^ Ruppert, Bob. "Paoli: Hero of the Sons of Liberty". Journal of the American Revolution. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 September 1809 – The Royal Opera House in London opens.

    Royal Opera House

    The Royal Opera House (ROH) is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is often referred to as simply "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732. It is the home of The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet, and the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. Originally called the Theatre Royal, it served primarily as a playhouse for the first hundred years of its history. In 1734, the first ballet was presented. A year later, Handel's first season of operas began. Many of his operas and oratorios were specifically written for Covent Garden and had their premieres there.

    The current building is the third theatre on the site following disastrous fires in 1808 and 1856. The façade, foyer, and auditorium date from 1858, but almost every other element of the present complex dates from an extensive reconstruction in the 1990s. The main auditorium seats 2,256 people, making it the third largest in London, and consists of four tiers of boxes and balconies and the amphitheatre gallery. The proscenium is 12.20 m wide and 14.80 m high. The main auditorium is a Grade I listed building.[2]

    1. ^ Historic England (9 January 1970). "The Royal Opera House (1066392)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
    2. ^ "Royal Opera House (London)" description on theatrestrust.org.uk Retrieved 10 May 2013
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 September 1997 – The Guelb El-Kebir massacre in Algeria kills 53 people.

    Guelb El-Kebir massacre

    Coordinates: 36°14′46.9″N 3°24′29.9″E / 36.246361°N 3.408306°E / 36.246361; 3.408306

    The Guelb El-Kebir massacre took place in the village of Guelb el-Kebir, near Beni Slimane, in the Algerian province of Medea, on 20 September 1997.[1] 53 people were killed by attackers that were not immediately identified, though the attack was similar to others carried out by Islamic groups opposed to the Algerian government.[2]

    1. ^ "53 die in Algerian massacre". Daily Dispatch. 22 September 1997. Archived from the original on 27 February 2005. Retrieved 11 May 2017. 
    2. ^ "53 Algerians Massacred as Killing Goes On". The New York Times. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017. 
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 September 1967RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 is launched Clydebank, Scotland.

    Queen Elizabeth 2

    The Queen Elizabeth 2, often referred to simply as QE2, is a floating hotel and retired ocean liner built for the Cunard Line which was operated by Cunard as both a transatlantic liner and a cruise ship from 1969 to 2008. Since 18 April 2018 she has been operating as a floating hotel in Dubai.[2]

    QE2 was designed for the transatlantic service from her home port of Southampton, UK, to New York, and was named after the earlier Cunard liner RMS Queen Elizabeth. She served as the flagship of the line from 1969 until succeeded by RMS Queen Mary 2 in 2004. Designed in Cunard's then headquarters and regional offices in Liverpool and Southampton respectively, and built in Clydebank, Scotland, QE2 was considered the last of the great transatlantic ocean liners until Queen Mary 2 entered service.

    The QE2 was also the last oil-fired passenger steamship to cross the Atlantic in scheduled liner service until she was refitted with a modern diesel powerplant in 1986/1987. During almost forty years of service, Queen Elizabeth 2 undertook regular world cruises and later operated predominantly as a cruise ship, sailing out of Southampton, England. QE2 had no running mate and never ran a year-round weekly transatlantic express service to New York. QE2 did, however, continue the Cunard tradition of regular scheduled transatlantic crossings every year of her service life. QE2 was never given a Royal Mail Ship designation, instead carrying the SS and later MV or MS prefixes in official documents.[3]

    QE2 was retired from active Cunard service on 27 November 2008. She had been acquired by the private equity arm of Dubai World, which planned to begin conversion of the vessel to a 500-room floating hotel moored at the Palm Jumeirah, Dubai.[4][5] The 2008 financial crisis, however, intervened and the ship was laid up at Dubai Drydocks and later Port Rashid.[6] Subsequent conversion plans were announced by Istithmar in 2012[7] and by the Oceanic Group in 2013[8] but these both stalled. In November, 2015 Cruise Arabia & Africa quoted DP World chairman Ahmed Sultan Bin Sulayem as saying that QE2 would not be scrapped[9] and in March, 2017, a Dubai-based construction company announced it had been contracted to refurbish the ship.[10] The restored QE2 opened to visitors on 18 April 2018,[11] with a soft opening, with discounted rates and only five of the planned 13 restaurants and bars completed.[12] The grand opening is set for October 2018.[13]

    1. ^ Maritime Information Exchange, search for Queen Elizabeth 2
    2. ^ https://chrisframe.com.au/post/172795288690/qe2-reopens-asa-hotel-in-dubai-on-april-18-after-9 QE2 reopens after 9 1/2 years
    3. ^ "QE2 not RMS". Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
    4. ^ Fitch, Asa (19 January 2013). "QE II Ocean Liner Heads to Asia to Become Floating Hotel". Zawya. 
    5. ^ "QE2 To Leave Cunard Fleet And Be Sold To Dubai World To Begin A New Life At The Palm". Cunard.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2007. 
    6. ^ Morris, Hugh (January 13, 2016). "'Forlorn' QE2 is not coming home from Dubai, campaigners concede". Teleegraph Media Group. Retrieved 18 January 2016. 
    7. ^ "Cruise liner Queen Elizabeth 2 to be converted into hotel". HT Media Limited. 3 July 2012. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015. 
    8. ^ "New home for Queen Elizabeth 2". CNN International. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2016. 
    9. ^ "There is a new plan for former Cunard liner QE2 – she will not be scrapped insists DP World Chairman". 2015-11-10. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
    10. ^ "Queen Elizabeth – 2 – Refurbishment Works – Shafa Al Nahda". www.shafaconstruction.com. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
    11. ^ https://www.hotelnewsresource.com/article99382.html
    12. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/travel_news/article-5621489/The-incredible-transformation-QE2-floating-five-star-hotel-Dubai.html
    13. ^ https://www.express.co.uk/travel/cruise/947336/qe2-queen-elizabeth-ii-ship-transformed-luxury-floating-hotel-dubai
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 September 1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit is published.

    The Hobbit

    The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien. It was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book remains popular and is recognized as a classic in children's literature.

    The Hobbit is set in a time "between the Dawn of Færie and the Dominion of Men",[1] and follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by Smaug the dragon. Bilbo's journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into more sinister territory.[2]

    The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien's geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity, competence, and wisdom by accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey, and adventurous sides of his nature and applying his wits and common sense.[3] The story reaches its climax in the Battle of the Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict.

    Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story, along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view Tolkien's own experiences during World War I as instrumental in shaping the story. The author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in mythology and fairy tales are often noted as influences.

    The publisher was encouraged by the book's critical and financial success and, therefore, requested a sequel. As Tolkien's work progressed on the successor The Lord of the Rings, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled.

    The work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, screen, radio, board games, and video games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits.

    1. ^ Eaton, Anne T. (13 March 1938). "A Delightfully Imaginative Journey". The New York Times. 
    2. ^ Langford, David (2001). "Lord of the Royalties". SFX magazine. Retrieved 29 September 2007. 
    3. ^ Matthews, Dorothy (1975). "The Psychological Journey of Bilbo Baggins". A Tolkien Compass. Open Court Publishing. pp. 27–40. ISBN 978-0-87548-303-0. 
     

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