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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 November 1959 – The Declaration of the Rights of the Child is adopted by the United Nations.

    Declaration of the Rights of the Child

    Children's day 1928 in Bulgaria. The text on the poster is the Geneva Declaration. In front are Prime Minister Andrey Lyapchev and Metropolitan Stefan of Sofia

    The Declaration of the Rights of the Child, sometimes known as the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child, is an international document promoting child rights, drafted by Eglantyne Jebb and adopted by the League of Nations in 1924, and adopted in an extended form by the United Nations in 1959.

     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 November 1979 – The United States Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, is attacked by a mob and set on fire, killing four.

    1979 U.S. embassy burning in Islamabad

    On 21 November 1979, Pakistani people, enraged by a radio report claiming that the United States had bombed the Masjid al-Haram, Islam's holy site at Mecca, stormed the U.S. embassy in Islamabad, and burned it to the ground.[1] The Grand Mosque had suffered a terrorist attack, but the U.S. was not involved. The U.S. diplomats survived by hiding in a reinforced area. Marine Security Guard Corporal Steven Crowley, 20, Army Warrant Officer Bryan Ellis, 30, and two Pakistan staff members were killed in the attack.

    1. ^ Barr 2004, p. A20
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 November 1995Toy Story is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.

    Toy Story

    Toy Story is a 1995 American computer-animated adventure comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The feature-film directorial debut of John Lasseter, it was the first feature-length film to be entirely computer-animated, as well as the first feature film from Pixar. The screenplay was written by Joss Whedon, Andrew Stanton, Joel Cohen, and Alec Sokolow from a story by Lasseter, Stanton, Pete Docter, and Joe Ranft. The film features music by Randy Newman, and was executive-produced by Steve Jobs and Edwin Catmull. The film features the voices of Tom Hanks, Tim Allen, Don Rickles, Wallace Shawn, John Ratzenberger, Jim Varney, Annie Potts, R. Lee Ermey, John Morris, Laurie Metcalf, and Erik von Detten. Taking place in a world where anthropomorphic toys come to life when humans are not present, its plot focuses on the relationship between an old-fashioned pull-string cowboy doll named Woody and an astronaut action figure, Buzz Lightyear, as they evolve, from rivals competing for the affections of their owner Andy Davis, to friends who work together to be reunited with him after being separated.

    Following the success of Pixar's 1988 short film Tin Toy, the company was approached by Disney to produce a computer-animated feature film, told from a small toy's perspective. Lasseter, Stanton, and Docter wrote early story treatments, which were rejected by Disney, who wanted the film's tone to be "edgier". After several disastrous story reels, production was halted and the script was rewritten to better reflect the tone and theme Pixar desired: "toys deeply want children to play with them, and [...] this desire drives their hopes, fears, and actions". The studio, then consisting of a relatively small number of employees, produced the film under only minor financial constraints.

    Toy Story was released in theaters on November 22, 1995, and was the highest-grossing film during its opening weekend,[4] eventually earning over $373 million at the worldwide box office. It was positively reviewed by critics and audiences, who praised the technical innovation of the 3D animation, the wit and thematic sophistication and originality of the screenplay and story, Newman's musical score, characters and the voice performances of Hanks and Allen; it is considered by many to be one of the best animated films ever made.[5] The film received three Academy Award nominations, including Best Original Screenplay, Best Original Score, and Best Original Song, for "You've Got a Friend in Me", as well as winning a Special Achievement Academy Award.[6] In 2005, its first year of eligibility, it was inducted into the National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[7]

    In addition to home media and theatrical re-releases, Toy Story-inspired material includes: toys, video games, theme park attractions, spin-offs, merchandise, and two sequels — Toy Story 2 (1999) and Toy Story 3 (2010) — both of which also garnered massive commercial success and critical acclaim, with a fourth film, Toy Story 4, scheduled for release in 2019.[8][9]

    1. ^ "Toy Story". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
    2. ^ "Toy Story (1995) – Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
    3. ^ "Toy Story (1995)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
    4. ^ "Toy Story". The Numbers. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference best-animation was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ King, Susan (September 30, 2015). "How 'Toy Story' changed the face of animation, taking off 'like an explosion'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
    7. ^ "Librarian of Congress Adds 25 Films to National Film Registry – News Releases (Library of Congress)". Loc.gov. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference THRCars3Incr2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Lang, Brent (October 26, 2016). "'Incredibles 2' Hitting Theaters a Year Early, 'Toy Story 4' Pushed Back to 2019". Variety. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 November 1978Cyclone kills about 1000 people in eastern Sri Lanka.

    1978 Sri Lanka cyclone

    The 1978 cyclone in Eastern province (JTWC designation: 04B) was the strongest tropical cyclone to strike Eastern province of Sri Lanka on November 23, 1978.[1] The cyclone was started at local time 6.30 pm and continued to next day morning and damaged the areas from Trincomalee to Arugam bay. In eastern province, Akkaraipattu, Ninthavur, Kalmunai, Kaluwanchikuddy, Pattiruppu, Chettipalayam, Thalankudah, Kattankudy, Batticaloa, Eravur and Kalkudah were most affected area due to cyclone’s vortex zone.[2]

    Due to the cyclone, approximately a thousand persons died, more than one million people affected, nearly 250,000 houses partially and completely damaged, 240 school buildings damaged, one fifth of Batticaloa's fishing fleet smashed up, 9 of the 11 paddy stores destroyed, 90 percent of the coconut plantation (28,000 odd acres of coconut plantation) in the Batticaloa district destroyed. Government had spent over LKR 600 million in order to response to the disaster. A post cyclone survey found that approximately 130 miles of electric cables were laid, so many religious building were destroyed or damaged. The cyclone resulted to people suffer without electricity, water and debris of fallen buildings, trees, etc.[3][4] TIROS-N was observation satellite during the disaster and it was able to inform and to capture images.

    Due to Sri Lanka being very unprotected, it is prone to US Millions of damage. [5]

    1. ^ "Disaster Profile - Sri Lanka". Retrieved 10 May 2014.
    2. ^ Neelavannan (1979). 12 மணி நேரம் (The 12 hours). Jaffna, Sri Lanka. p. 29.
    3. ^ "Disaster Information Management system in Sri Lanka". www.desinventar.lk.
    4. ^ "Batticaloa's blackest day". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
    5. ^ "UNPROTECTED RAILWAY GATES UNION RE-COMMENCES TRADE UNION ACTION".
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 November 1978Cyclone kills about 1000 people in eastern Sri Lanka.

    1978 Sri Lanka cyclone

    The 1978 cyclone in Eastern province (JTWC designation: 04B) was the strongest tropical cyclone to strike Eastern province of Sri Lanka on November 23, 1978.[1] The cyclone was started at local time 6.30 pm and continued to next day morning and damaged the areas from Trincomalee to Arugam bay. In eastern province, Akkaraipattu, Ninthavur, Kalmunai, Kaluwanchikuddy, Pattiruppu, Chettipalayam, Thalankudah, Kattankudy, Batticaloa, Eravur and Kalkudah were most affected area due to cyclone’s vortex zone.[2]

    Due to the cyclone, approximately a thousand persons died, more than one million people affected, nearly 250,000 houses partially and completely damaged, 240 school buildings damaged, one fifth of Batticaloa's fishing fleet smashed up, 9 of the 11 paddy stores destroyed, 90 percent of the coconut plantation (28,000 odd acres of coconut plantation) in the Batticaloa district destroyed. Government had spent over LKR 600 million in order to response to the disaster. A post cyclone survey found that approximately 130 miles of electric cables were laid, so many religious building were destroyed or damaged. The cyclone resulted to people suffer without electricity, water and debris of fallen buildings, trees, etc.[3][4] TIROS-N was observation satellite during the disaster and it was able to inform and to capture images.

    Due to Sri Lanka being very unprotected, it is prone to US Millions of damage. [5]

    1. ^ "Disaster Profile - Sri Lanka". Retrieved 10 May 2014.
    2. ^ Neelavannan (1979). 12 மணி நேரம் (The 12 hours). Jaffna, Sri Lanka. p. 29.
    3. ^ "Disaster Information Management system in Sri Lanka". www.desinventar.lk.
    4. ^ "Batticaloa's blackest day". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
    5. ^ "UNPROTECTED RAILWAY GATES UNION RE-COMMENCES TRADE UNION ACTION".
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 November 1978Cyclone kills about 1000 people in eastern Sri Lanka.

    1978 Sri Lanka cyclone

    The 1978 cyclone in Eastern province (JTWC designation: 04B) was the strongest tropical cyclone to strike Eastern province of Sri Lanka on November 23, 1978.[1] The cyclone was started at local time 6.30 pm and continued to next day morning and damaged the areas from Trincomalee to Arugam bay. In eastern province, Akkaraipattu, Ninthavur, Kalmunai, Kaluwanchikuddy, Pattiruppu, Chettipalayam, Thalankudah, Kattankudy, Batticaloa, Eravur and Kalkudah were most affected area due to cyclone’s vortex zone.[2]

    Due to the cyclone, approximately a thousand persons died, more than one million people affected, nearly 250,000 houses partially and completely damaged, 240 school buildings damaged, one fifth of Batticaloa's fishing fleet smashed up, 9 of the 11 paddy stores destroyed, 90 percent of the coconut plantation (28,000 odd acres of coconut plantation) in the Batticaloa district destroyed. Government had spent over LKR 600 million in order to response to the disaster. A post cyclone survey found that approximately 130 miles of electric cables were laid, so many religious building were destroyed or damaged. The cyclone resulted to people suffer without electricity, water and debris of fallen buildings, trees, etc.[3][4] TIROS-N was observation satellite during the disaster and it was able to inform and to capture images.

    Due to Sri Lanka being very unprotected, it is prone to US Millions of damage. [5]

    1. ^ "Disaster Profile - Sri Lanka". Retrieved 10 May 2014.
    2. ^ Neelavannan (1979). 12 மணி நேரம் (The 12 hours). Jaffna, Sri Lanka. p. 29.
    3. ^ "Disaster Information Management system in Sri Lanka". www.desinventar.lk.
    4. ^ "Batticaloa's blackest day". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
    5. ^ "UNPROTECTED RAILWAY GATES UNION RE-COMMENCES TRADE UNION ACTION".
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 November 1859Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species.

    On the Origin of Species

    On the Origin of Species (or, more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),[3] published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.[4] Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.[5]

    Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, while science was part of natural theology. Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to other animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream.

    The book was written for non-specialist readers and attracted widespread interest upon its publication. As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T. H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism. Within two decades there was widespread scientific agreement that evolution, with a branching pattern of common descent, had occurred, but scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate. During "the eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, and it has now become the unifying concept of the life sciences.

    1. ^ Darwin 1859, p. iii
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Freeman 1977 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. In the 1872 sixth edition "On" was omitted, so the full title is The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. This edition is usually known as The Origin of Species. The 6th is Darwin's final edition; there were minor modifications in the text of certain subsequent issues. See Freeman, R. B. "The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist." In Van Wyhe, John, ed. Darwin Online: On the Origin of Species, 2002.
    4. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 477.
    5. ^ "Darwin Manuscripts (Digitised notes on Origin)". Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 November 1999 – A 5-year-old Cuban boy, Elian Gonzalez, is rescued by fishermen while floating in an inner tube off the Florida coast.

    Elián González

    Elián González (born December 6, 1993) is a Cuban citizen who, as a young boy in 2000, became embroiled in a heated international custody and immigration controversy involving the governments of Cuba and the United States, his father, Juan Miguel González Quintana, his other relatives in Cuba and in Miami, Florida and Miami's Cuban American community.

    González's mother, Elizabeth Brotons Rodríguez, drowned in November 1999 while attempting to leave Cuba with González and her boyfriend to get to the United States.[2][3] The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) initially placed González with paternal relatives in Miami, who sought to keep him in the United States against his father's demands that González be returned to Cuba.

    A United States district court ruling from the Southern District of Florida that only González's father, and not his extended relatives, could petition for asylum on the boy's behalf was upheld by the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals. After the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear the case, by order of U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno, federal agents took González from the paternal relatives and returned him to his father in Cuba in June 2000.

    Many Cubans had left Cuba for the United States since the Cuban Revolution of 1959. This emigration was illegal under both Cuban and U.S. laws; e.g., any Cuban found at sea attempting to reach U.S. shores could be deported by the United States or be arrested by Cuban authorities. At the time, U.S. policy had evolved into a so-called "wet feet, dry feet" rule. If a Cuban was picked up at sea or walking toward shore, they were repatriated unless they could make a claim of asylum. If they made it to shore (or entered through Mexico) before encountering U.S. authorities, they were generally allowed to remain in the country.[4]

    1. ^ "Elián González". Biography. February 28, 2019.
    2. ^ "Elian's relatives at war". BBC News. April 18, 2000.
    3. ^ Haberman, Clyde (January 14, 2000). "NYC; A Tug of War As Complex As War". The New York Times.
    4. ^ "UN fears for Haiti refugee plight". BBC. 2004-02-28. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 November 1842 – The University of Notre Dame is founded.

    University of Notre Dame

    The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame /ˌntərˈdm/ NOH-tər-DAYM or ND) is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana.[7] The main campus covers 1,261 acres (510 ha) in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural (commonly known as Touchdown Jesus), the Notre Dame Stadium, and the Basilica. The school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, who was also its first president.

    Notre Dame is consistently recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education.[8][9][10][11] Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges, Arts and Letters, Science, Engineering, Business, Architecture and Global Affairs. The School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 50 foreign study abroad yearlong programs and over 15 summer programs.[12] Notre Dame's graduate program has more than 50 master, doctoral and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and an MD–PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.[13][14] It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues, artistic and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies, events, and intramural sports teams. The university counts approximately 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U.S. colleges.[15][16][17]

    The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century; the team an Independent with no conference affiliation, has accumulated eleven consensus national championships, seven Heisman Trophy winners, 62 members in the College Football Hall of Fame, and 13 members in the Pro Football Hall of Fame.[18] Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships.[19] The Notre Dame Victory March is often regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs.

    Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne. Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh's administration greatly increased the university's resources, academic programs, and reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Ever since, the university has seen steady growth, and under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame's growth has continued in the 21st century, and it currently possesses one of the largest endowments of any U.S. university, at $13.1 billion.[20]

    1. ^ The motto is derived from a line of the Salve Regina.
    2. ^ In reference to the Blessed Virgin Mary
    3. ^ "Endowment pool returns 12.2 percent for fiscal year". September 2018.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Faculty was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Student Profile was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "Colors // On Message // University of Notre Dame". Retrieved July 29, 2018.
    7. ^ "University of Notre Dame". carnegieclassifications.iu.edu. Archived from the original on January 3, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
    8. ^ "How Does Notre Dame Rank Among America's Best Colleges?". Profile, Rankings and Data. June 16, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
    9. ^ "College: University of Notre Dame". Forbes. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
    10. ^ "University of Notre Dame". The Princeton Review College Rankings & Reviews. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
    11. ^ "University of Notre Dame". Times Higher Education (THE). September 29, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
    12. ^ "Home – Study Abroad – University of Notre Dame". nd.edu. Retrieved October 27, 2018. |first= missing |last= (help)
    13. ^ "Carnegie Classifications: University of Notre Dame". The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Archived from the original on May 21, 2009. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
    14. ^ "The Graduate School: Quick facts". University of Notre Dame. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
    15. ^ "Who you know, not what you know". Retrieved October 27, 2018.
    16. ^ Schifrin, Matt. "2017 Grateful Grads Index: Top 200 Best-Loved Colleges". Forbes.
    17. ^ Dame, ENR, ZCR // Marketing Communications: Web // University of Notre. "Alumni Network // Undergraduate Admissions // University of Notre Dame". Undergraduate Admissions.
    18. ^ "Irish National Championships".
    19. ^ "CHAMPIONSHIPS SUMMARY" (PDF). fs.ncaa.org.
    20. ^ "Data". www.southbendtribune.com. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 November 1901 – The U.S. Army War College is established.

    United States Army War College

    The United States Army War College (USAWC) is a U.S. Army educational institution in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500-acre (2 km²) campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks.[2] It provides graduate-level instruction to senior military officers and civilians to prepare them for senior leadership assignments and responsibilities.[3] Each year, a number of Army colonels and lieutenant colonels are considered by a board for admission.[4][3] Approximately 800 students attend at any one time, half in a two-year-long distance learning program, and the other half in an on-campus, full-time resident program lasting ten months.[3] Upon completion, the college grants its graduates a master's degree in Strategic Studies.[3]

    Army applicants must have already completed the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, the required Professional Military Education for officers in the rank of major. While the Army handpicks most of the students who participate in the residential program, the student body always includes officers from the other military branches, civilians from agencies such as the Department of Defense, State Department, and National Security Agency, and officers from foreign countries who attend the program as International Fellows. For example, the residential Class of 2017 had 381 students: 218 active component officers and 61 reserve component officers from all five branches of the United States Armed Forces, 28 senior federal government civilians, and 74 International Fellows. Majors with the specialty of Function Area 59, Strategist, formerly Strategic Plans and Policy, also attend their qualification course, the Basic Strategic Arts Program (BSAP), at the college.

    The Army War College is a split-functional institution. While a great deal of emphasis is placed on research, students are also instructed in leadership, strategy, and joint-service/international operations. It is one of the senior service colleges including the Naval War College and the Air War College. Additionally, the U.S. Department of Defense operates the National War College.

    1. ^ "Commandant's Column: Envisioning USAWC 2020". Archived from the original on 27 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
    2. ^ "Historic Carlisle Barracks". Retrieved 3 November 2017.
    3. ^ a b c d "Military Education Level 1 Programs". Retrieved 3 November 2017.
    4. ^ US Army War College Archived 15 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Carlisle.army.mil. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 November 1821Panama Independence Day: Panama separates from Spain and joins Gran Colombia.

    Public holidays in Panama

    Panama's national public holidays are:

    The holidays in November (starting from Separation Day), are called the Fiestas Patrias ("National Holidays").[1]

    1. ^ Chatlani, Manoj (7 November 2014). "Fiestas Patrias: Panama celebrates its history all through November". POLS - Attorneys. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 November 1944 – World War II: Albania is liberated by the Partisans.

    Liberation Day (Albania)

    Map of Albania during WWII

    The Liberation Day (Albanian: Dita e Çlirimit) is commemorated as the day, November 29, 1944, in which Albania was liberated from Nazi Germany forces after the Albanian resistance during World War II.[1]

    1. ^ Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania as dictatorship and democracy: from isolation to the Kosovo War. IB Taurus. p. 221. ISBN 1-84511-105-2.
     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 November 1936 – In London, the Crystal Palace is destroyed by fire.

    The Crystal Palace

    The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. The exhibition took place from 1 May until 15 October 1851, and more than 14,000 exhibitors from around the world gathered in its 990,000 square feet (92,000 m2) exhibition space to display examples of technology developed in the Industrial Revolution. Designed by Joseph Paxton, the Great Exhibition building was 1,851 feet (564 m) long, with an interior height of 128 feet (39 m).[1] It was three times the size of St Paul's Cathedral.[2]

    The introduction of the sheet glass method into Britain by Chance Brothers in 1832 made possible the production of large sheets of cheap but strong glass, and its use in the Crystal Palace created a structure with the greatest area of glass ever seen in a building. It astonished visitors with its clear walls and ceilings that did not require interior lights.

    It has been suggested that the name of the building resulted from a piece penned by the playwright Douglas Jerrold, who in July 1850 wrote in the satirical magazine Punch about the forthcoming Great Exhibition, referring to a "palace of very crystal".[3]

    After the exhibition, the Palace was relocated to an area of South London known as Penge Common. It was rebuilt at the top of Penge Peak next to Sydenham Hill, an affluent suburb of large villas. It stood there from June 1854 until its destruction by fire in November 1936. The nearby residential area was renamed Crystal Palace after the landmark. This included the Crystal Palace Park that surrounds the site, home of the Crystal Palace National Sports Centre, which had previously been a football stadium that hosted the FA Cup Final between 1895 and 1914. Crystal Palace F.C. were founded at the site in 1905 and played at the Cup Final venue in their early years. The park still contains Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins's Crystal Palace Dinosaurs which date back to 1854.

    1. ^ "The Crystal Palace of Hyde Park". Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
    2. ^ James Harrison, ed. (1996). "Imperial Britain". Children's Encyclopedia of British History. London: Kingfisher Publications. p. 131. ISBN 0-7534-0299-8.
    3. ^ The Punch issue of 13 July 1850 carried a contribution by Douglas Jerrold, writing as Mrs Amelia Mouser, which referred to a palace of very crystal.Michael Slater (2002). Douglas Jerrold'). London: Duckworth. p. 243. ISBN 0-7156-2824-0.. In fact the term "Crystal Palace" itself is used seven times in the same issue of Punch (pages iii. iv, 154, 183 (twice), 214 (twice) and 224. It seems clear, however, that the term was already in use and did not need much explanation. Other sources refer to the 2 November 1850 Punch issue bestowing the "Crystal Palace" name on the design by Terry Strieter (1999). Nineteenth-Century European Art: A Topical Dictionary. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-313-29898-X. (And "Crystal Palace". BBC. Retrieved 21 November 2007. The term 'Crystal Palace' was first applied to Paxton's building by Punch in its issue of 2 November 1850.) Punch had originally sided with The Times against the exhibition committee's proposal of a fixed brick structure, but featured the Crystal Palace heavily throughout 1851 (for example in "Punch Issue 502". Archived from the original on 20 April 2006. included the article "Travels into the Interior of the Crystal Palace" of February 1851). Any earlier name has been lost, according to "Everything2 Crystal Palace Exhibition Building Design #251". 2003.. The use by Mrs Mouser was picked up by a reference in The Leader, no. 17, 20 July 1850 (p. 1): "In more than one country we notice active preparations for sending inanimate representatives of trade and industry to take up their abode in the crystal palace which Mr.Paxton is to build for the Exposition of 1851." Source: British Periodicals database or Nineteenth Century Serials Edition Archived 17 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 December 1822Peter I is crowned Emperor of Brazil.

    List of monarchs of Brazil

    Brazil was ruled by a series of monarchs in the period 1815–1889; first as a kingdom united with Portugal in the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822), subsequently as a sovereign and independent state, the Empire of Brazil (1822–1889). All four of the country's monarchs were members of the House of Braganza.

    Before 1815, Brazil was a colony of the Kingdom of Portugal. Thus, from the formal arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, when the land was claimed by the Portuguese Crown, until 1815 when the Kingdom of Brazil was created and the colonial bond was formally terminated and replaced by a political union with Portugal, the Kings of Portugal were monarchs over Brazil.

    During the colonial era, from 1645 onwards, the heir apparent of the Portuguese Crown was styled Prince of Brazil. In 1817, in the wake of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, the heir apparent's title was changed to Prince Royal.

    Brazil had two monarchs during the United Kingdom epoch: Queen Maria I (1815–1816) and King John VI (1816–1822). By the time of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, Queen Maria I was long incapacitated, and the Portuguese Empire was ruled by Prince John, the future King John VI, as Prince Regent.

    As an independent nation-state, Brazil had two monarchs: Emperors Pedro I (1822–1831) and Pedro II (1831–1889). In 1889, the monarchy was abolished in a military coup d'état that proclaimed Brazil a republic.

    During the imperial era, King John VI of Portugal briefly held the honorific style of Emperor of Brazil under the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, by which Portugal recognized the independence of Brazil. The style of emperor was a life title, and became extinct upon the holder's demise. John VI held the imperial title for a few months only, from the ratification of the Treaty in November 1825 until his death in March 1826. During those months, however, as John's imperial title was purely honorific, Emperor Pedro I remained the sole monarch of the empire.

     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 December 1908Puyi becomes Emperor of China at the age of two.

    Puyi

    Puyi or Pu Yi (/ˈp ˈj/[1]; simplified Chinese: 溥仪; traditional Chinese: 溥儀; pinyin: Pǔyí; 7 February 1906 – 17 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the 12th and last emperor of the Qing dynasty. When he was a child, he reigned as the Xuantong Emperor (/ˈʃwɑːnˈtʊŋ/;[2] Chinese: 宣統帝; Manchu: ᡤᡝᡥᡠᠩᡤᡝ
    ᠶᠣᠰᠣ
    ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡩᡳ
    ; Möllendorff: gehungge yoso hūwangdi) in China and Khevt Yos Khaan in Mongolia from 1908 until his forced abdication on 12 February 1912, after the Xinhai Revolution. From 1 July to 12 July in 1917, he was briefly restored to the throne as emperor by the warlord Zhang Xun.

    In 1932, after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the puppet state of Manchukuo was established by Japan, and he was chosen to become "Emperor" of the new state using the era-name of Datong (Ta-tung). In 1934, he was declared the Kangde Emperor (or Kang-te Emperor) of Manchukuo and ruled until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945. After the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, Puyi was imprisoned as a war criminal for 10 years, wrote his memoirs and became a titular member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and the National People's Congress.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  16. Admin2

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    3 December 1979 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini becomes the first Supreme Leader of Iran.

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (Persian: سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی[ruːhoɫˈɫɑːhe χomeiˈniː] (About this soundlisten); 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini,[11] was an Iranian politician and marja. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

    Khomeini was born in 1902 in Khomeyn, in what is now Iran's Markazi Province. His father was murdered in 1903 when Khomeini was five months old.[12] He began studying the Quran and the Persian language from a young age and was assisted in his religious studies by his relatives, including his mother's cousin and older brother.

    Khomeini was a marja ("source of emulation") in Twelver Shia Islam, a Mujtahid or faqih (an expert in Sharia) and author of more than 40 books, but he is primarily known for his political activities. He spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the last Shah. In his writings and preachings he expanded the theory of welayat-el faqih, the "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist (clerical authority)", to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists. This principle (though not known to the wider public before the revolution),[13][14] was appended to the new Iranian constitution[15] after being put to a referendum.[16] According to The New York Times, Khomeini called democracy the equivalent of prostitution.[17] Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be democratic is disputed.[18] He was Time magazine's Man of the Year in 1979 for his international influence,[19] and Khomeini has been described as the "virtual face of Shia Islam in Western popular culture".[20] In 1982, he survived one military coup attempt.[21] Khomeini was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iran hostage crisis,[22] his fatwa calling for the murder of British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie,[19][23] and for referring to the United States as the "Great Satan" and Soviet Union as the "Lesser Satan."[24] Khomeini has been criticized for these acts and for human rights violations of Iranians (including his ordering of execution of thousands of political prisoners, war criminals and prisoners of the Iran–Iraq War).[25][26][27][28][29]

    He has also been lauded as a "charismatic leader of immense popularity",[30] a "champion of Islamic revival" by Shia scholars,[20] who attempted to establish good relations between Sunnis and Shias,[31] and a major innovator in political theory and religious-oriented populist political strategy.[32][33] Khomeini held the title of Grand Ayatollah and is officially known as Imam Khomeini inside Iran[34] and by his supporters internationally.[10] He is generally referred to as Ayatollah Khomeini by others.[35] In Iran, his gold-domed tomb in Tehran's Behesht-e Zahrāʾ cemetery has become a shrine for his adherents,[36] and he is legally considered "inviolable", with Iranians regularly punished for insulting him.[37][38]

    1. ^ DeFronzo 2007, p. 287. "born 22 September 1901..."
    2. ^ "History Of Iran Ayatollah Khomeini – Iran Chamber Society". Iranchamber.com. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
    3. ^ "Khomeini Life of the Ayatollah By BAQER MOIN". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
    4. ^ "Imam Khomeini Official Website | پرتال امام خمینی". harammotahar.ir. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
    5. ^ Karsh 2007, p. 220. "Born on 22 September 1901
    6. ^ Bowering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Kadi, Wadad; Stewart, Devin J.; Zaman, Muhammad Qasim; Mirza, Mahan, eds. (28 November 2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 518. ISBN 9781400838554.
    7. ^ Malise Ruthven (8 April 2004). Fundamentalism: The Search For Meaning: The Search For Meaning (reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780191517389.
    8. ^ Jebnoun, Noureddine; Kia, Mehrdad; Kirk, Mimi, eds. (31 July 2013). Modern Middle East Authoritarianism: Roots, Ramifications, and Crisis. Routledge. p. 168. ISBN 9781135007317.
    9. ^ Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Chapter 1, Article 1, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran
    10. ^ a b c Moin, Khomeini, (2001), p.201
    11. ^ "Ayatollah Khomeini (1900–1989)". BBC – History. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
    12. ^ Reich, Bernard (1990). Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press. p. 310.
    13. ^ Abrahamian, Iran, (1982) p.478-9
    14. ^ Hamid Algar, 'Development of the Concept of velayat-i faqih since the Islamic Revolution in Iran,' paper presented at London Conference on vilayat al-faqih, in June 1988, quoted in "The Rule of the Religious Jurist in Iran" by Abdulaziz Sachedina, p.133 in Iran at the Crossroads, Edited by John Esposito and R.K. Ramazani
    15. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.218
    16. ^ "NYU Law: A Guide to the Legal System of the Islamic Republic of Iran". Nyulawglobal.org. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
    17. ^ Ibrahim, Youssef M. (31 July 1988). "The world: Khomeini vs. Hussein; Mideast's Contenders for Nasser's Mantle". The New York Times.
    18. ^ Political thought and legacy of Ruhollah Khomeini#Democracy
    19. ^ a b "TIME Person of the Year 1979: Ayatullah Khomeini". Time. 7 January 1980. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
    20. ^ a b Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.138
    21. ^ "IRAN SAYS AN ATTEMPTED COUP BY ARMY GROUP WAS FOILED". The New York Times. 28 June 1982.
    22. ^ "The Mystic Who Lit The Fires of Hatred. 7 January 1980". Time. 7 January 1980. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
    23. ^ Marzorati, Gerald, "Salman Rushdie: Fiction's Embattled Infidel". Named Man of the Year in 1979 by American newsmagazine TIME
    24. ^ Katz, Mark N. (2010). "Iran and Russia". In Wright, Robin B. (ed.). The Iran Primer: Power, Politics, and U.S. Policy. United States Institute of Peace. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-60127-084-9.
    25. ^ Lamb, Christina (4 February 2001). "Khomeini fatwa 'led to killing of 30,000 in Iran'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
    26. ^ Karsh, Efraim (25 April 2002). The Iran–Iraq War: 1980–1988. Osprey Publishing. pp. 1–8, 12–16, 19–82. ISBN 978-1841763712.
    27. ^ "A list of executed prisoners in 1988 (in Farsi)" (PDF).
    28. ^ "Iran Focus".
    29. ^ "Iran Human Rights Documentation Center – A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha'is of Iran". Iranhrdc.org. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
    30. ^ Arjomand, S.A. "Khumayni." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill, 2008.
    31. ^ Paul Vallely (19 February 2014). "The vicious schism between Sunni and Shia has been poisoning Islam for 1,400 years – and it's getting worse". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
    32. ^ Ervand Abrahamian, Iran Between Two Revolutions (1982), p. 479
    33. ^ Persian Mirrors: The Elusive Face of Iran, Elaine Sciolino|quote="Those intellectuals who say that the clergy should leave politics and go back to the mosque speak on behalf of Satan."
    34. ^ Gölz, "Khomeini's Face is in the Moon: Limitations of Sacredness and the Origins of Sovereignty.", In Sakralität und Heldentum. Edited by Felix Heinzer, Jörn Leonhard and von den Hoff, Ralf, 229–44. Helden – Heroisierungen – Heroismen 6. Würzburg: Ergon, 2017, p. 230.
    35. ^ "BBC: Historic Figures: Ayatollah Khomeini (1900–1989)". BBC. 4 June 1989. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
    36. ^ Cite error: The named reference britannica.com was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    37. ^ "Iran arrests 11 over SMS Khomeini insults". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016.
    38. ^ "Iran arrests 11 over SMS Khomeini insults: report". The Daily Star. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 December 1881 The first edition of the Los Angeles Times is published

    Los Angeles Times

    The Los Angeles Times (sometimes abbreviated as LA Times or L.A. Times) is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, and is the largest U.S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast.[2] The paper is known for its coverage of issues particularly salient to the U.S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters. It has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of these and other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, and the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine.[3]

    In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910. The paper's profile grew substantially in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, and other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, and in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.

    1. ^ "Total Circ for US Newspapers". Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
    2. ^ "The 10 Most Popular Daily Newspapers In The United States". Retrieved October 24, 2017.
    3. ^ Arango, Tim (June 18, 2018). "Norman Pearlstine Named Editor of The Los Angeles Times". The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 December 1847Jefferson Davis is elected to the U.S. Senate.

    Jefferson Davis

    Jefferson Finis Davis[a] (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865. As a member of the Democratic Party, he represented Mississippi in the United States Senate and the House of Representatives prior to switching allegiance to the Confederacy. He was appointed as the United States Secretary of War, serving from 1853 to 1857, under President Franklin Pierce.

    Davis was born in Fairview, Kentucky, to a moderately prosperous farmer, the youngest of ten children. He grew up in Wilkinson County, Mississippi, and also lived in Louisiana. His eldest brother Joseph Emory Davis secured the younger Davis's appointment to the United States Military Academy. After graduating, Jefferson Davis served six years as a lieutenant in the United States Army. He fought in the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), as the colonel of a volunteer regiment. Before the American Civil War, he operated a large cotton plantation in Mississippi, which his brother Joseph gave him, and owned as many as 113 slaves.[1] Although Davis argued against secession in 1858,[2] he believed that states had an unquestionable right to leave the Union.

    Davis married Sarah Knox Taylor in 1835, when he was 27 years old. They were both stricken with malaria soon thereafter, and Sarah died after three months of marriage. Davis recovered slowly and suffered from recurring bouts of the disease throughout his life.[3] At the age of 36, Davis married again, to 18-year-old Varina Howell, a native of Natchez, Mississippi, who had been educated in Philadelphia and had some family ties in the North. They had six children. Only two survived him, and only one married and had children.

    Many historians attribute some of the Confederacy's weaknesses to the poor leadership of Davis.[4] His preoccupation with detail, reluctance to delegate responsibility, lack of popular appeal, feuds with powerful state governors and generals, favoritism toward old friends, inability to get along with people who disagreed with him, neglect of civil matters in favor of military ones, and resistance to public opinion all worked against him.[5][6] Historians agree he was a much less effective war leader than his Union counterpart, President Abraham Lincoln. After Davis was captured in 1865, he was accused of treason and imprisoned at Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia. He was never tried and was released after two years. While not disgraced, Davis had been displaced in ex-Confederate affection after the war by his leading general, Robert E. Lee. Davis wrote a memoir entitled The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, which he completed in 1881. By the late 1880s, he began to encourage reconciliation, telling Southerners to be loyal to the Union. Ex-Confederates came to appreciate his role in the war, seeing him as a Southern patriot. He became a hero of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy in the post-Reconstruction South.[7]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Johnson, Paul (1997). A History of the American People. New York, New York: HarperCollins. p. 452. ISBN 0-06-016836-6.
    2. ^ "The Anti-Secessionist Jefferson Davis". National Park Service. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
    3. ^ Cooper 2000, pp. 70–71.
    4. ^ Cooper 2008, pp. 3–4.
    5. ^ Wiley, Bell I. (January 1967). "Jefferson Davis: An Appraisal". Civil War Times Illustrated. 6 (1): 4–17.
    6. ^ Escott 1978, pp. 197, 256–74.
    7. ^ Strawbridge, Wilm K. (December 2007). "A Monument Better Than Marble: Jefferson Davis and the New South". Journal of Mississippi History. 69 (4): 325–47.
     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 December 1847Jefferson Davis is elected to the U.S. Senate.

    Jefferson Davis

    Jefferson Finis Davis[a] (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865. As a member of the Democratic Party, he represented Mississippi in the United States Senate and the House of Representatives prior to switching allegiance to the Confederacy. He was appointed as the United States Secretary of War, serving from 1853 to 1857, under President Franklin Pierce.

    Davis was born in Fairview, Kentucky, to a moderately prosperous farmer, the youngest of ten children. He grew up in Wilkinson County, Mississippi, and also lived in Louisiana. His eldest brother Joseph Emory Davis secured the younger Davis's appointment to the United States Military Academy. After graduating, Jefferson Davis served six years as a lieutenant in the United States Army. He fought in the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), as the colonel of a volunteer regiment. Before the American Civil War, he operated a large cotton plantation in Mississippi, which his brother Joseph gave him, and owned as many as 113 slaves.[1] Although Davis argued against secession in 1858,[2] he believed that states had an unquestionable right to leave the Union.

    Davis married Sarah Knox Taylor in 1835, when he was 27 years old. They were both stricken with malaria soon thereafter, and Sarah died after three months of marriage. Davis recovered slowly and suffered from recurring bouts of the disease throughout his life.[3] At the age of 36, Davis married again, to 18-year-old Varina Howell, a native of Natchez, Mississippi, who had been educated in Philadelphia and had some family ties in the North. They had six children. Only two survived him, and only one married and had children.

    Many historians attribute some of the Confederacy's weaknesses to the poor leadership of Davis.[4] His preoccupation with detail, reluctance to delegate responsibility, lack of popular appeal, feuds with powerful state governors and generals, favoritism toward old friends, inability to get along with people who disagreed with him, neglect of civil matters in favor of military ones, and resistance to public opinion all worked against him.[5][6] Historians agree he was a much less effective war leader than his Union counterpart, President Abraham Lincoln. After Davis was captured in 1865, he was accused of treason and imprisoned at Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia. He was never tried and was released after two years. While not disgraced, Davis had been displaced in ex-Confederate affection after the war by his leading general, Robert E. Lee. Davis wrote a memoir entitled The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, which he completed in 1881. By the late 1880s, he began to encourage reconciliation, telling Southerners to be loyal to the Union. Ex-Confederates came to appreciate his role in the war, seeing him as a Southern patriot. He became a hero of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy in the post-Reconstruction South.[7]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Johnson, Paul (1997). A History of the American People. New York, New York: HarperCollins. p. 452. ISBN 0-06-016836-6.
    2. ^ "The Anti-Secessionist Jefferson Davis". National Park Service. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
    3. ^ Cooper 2000, pp. 70–71.
    4. ^ Cooper 2008, pp. 3–4.
    5. ^ Wiley, Bell I. (January 1967). "Jefferson Davis: An Appraisal". Civil War Times Illustrated. 6 (1): 4–17.
    6. ^ Escott 1978, pp. 197, 256–74.
    7. ^ Strawbridge, Wilm K. (December 2007). "A Monument Better Than Marble: Jefferson Davis and the New South". Journal of Mississippi History. 69 (4): 325–47.
     
  20. Admin2

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    6 December 1971 – Pakistan severs diplomatic relations with India, initiating the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.

    Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

    The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971. The war began with preemptive aerial strikes on 11 Indian air stations, which led to the commencement of hostilities with Pakistan and Indian entry into the war of independence in East Pakistan on the side of Bengali nationalist forces. Lasting just 13 days, it is one of the shortest wars in history.[24][25]

    During the war, Indian and Pakistani militaries simultaneously clashed on the eastern and western fronts; the war ended after the Eastern Command of the Pakistan military signed the Instrument of Surrender[26][27] on 16 December 1971 in Dhaka, marking the formation of East Pakistan as the new nation of Bangladesh. Officially, East Pakistan had earlier called for its secession from the unity of Pakistan on 26 March 1971. Approximately 90,000[28] to 93,000 Pakistani servicemen were taken prisoner by the Indian Army, which included 79,676 to 81,000 uniformed personnel of the Pakistan Armed Forces, including some Bengali soldiers who had remained loyal to Pakistan.[28][29][30] The remaining 10,324 to 12,500 prisoners were civilians, either family members of the military personnel or collaborators (razakars).[28][31][32][33] It is estimated that between 300,000 and 3,000,000 civilians were killed in Bangladesh.[34][35][36][37][38] As a result of the conflict, a further eight to ten million people fled the country to seek refuge in India.[39]

    During the 1971 Bangladesh war for independence, members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias called the Razakars raped between 200,000 and 400,000 Bangladeshi women and girls in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape.[40][41][42][43]

    1. ^ Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-57607-712-2. India's decisive victory over Pakistan in the 1971 war and emergence of independent Bangladesh dramatically transformed the power balance of South Asia
    2. ^ Kemp, Geoffrey (2010). The East Moves West India, China, and Asia's Growing Presence in the Middle East. Brookings Institution Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8157-0388-4. However, India's decisive victory over Pakistan in 1971 led the Shah to pursue closer relations with India
    3. ^ Byman, Daniel (2005). Deadly connections: States that Sponsor Terrorism. Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-521-83973-0. India's decisive victory in 1971 led to the signing of the Simla Agreement in 1972
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference glo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Nawaz, Shuja (2008). Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army, and the Wars Within. Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-19-547697-2.
    6. ^ Chitkara, M. G (1996). Benazir, a Profile – M. G. Chitkara. ISBN 9788170247524. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    7. ^ Schofield, Victoria (18 January 2003). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War – Victoria Schofield. ISBN 9781860648984. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    8. ^ a b c Leonard, Thomas M. (2006). Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Taylor & Francis. p. 806. ISBN 978-0-415-97664-0.
    9. ^ Vulnerable India: A Geographical Study of Disaster By Anu Kapur
    10. ^ "Chapter 10: Naval Operations In The Western Naval Command". Indian Navy. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012.
    11. ^ "Damage Assessment– 1971 Indo Pak Naval War". Orbat.com. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    12. ^ Air Chief Marshal P C Lal (1986). My Days with the IAF. Lancer. p. 286. ISBN 978-81-7062-008-2.
    13. ^ "The Battle of Longewala—The Truth". India Defence Update. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011.
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference globalsecurity.org was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ "Pakistan Air Force – Official website". Paf.gov.pk. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    16. ^ a b "IAF Combat Kills – 1971 Indo-Pak Air War" (PDF). orbat.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
    17. ^ Leonard, Thomas M. (2006). Encyclopedia of the developing world, Volume 1. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-97662-6.
    18. ^ The Encyclopedia of 20th Century Air Warfare, edited by Chris Bishop (Amber publishing 1997, republished 2004 pages 384–387 ISBN 1-904687-26-1)
    19. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference GlobalSecurity was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ "The Sinking of the Ghazi". Bharat Rakshak Monitor, 4(2). Archived from the original on 28 November 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
    21. ^ "How west was won...on the waterfront". The Tribune. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
    22. ^ "India – Pakistan War, 1971; Western Front, Part I". acig.com. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
    23. ^ "Aircraft Losses in Pakistan - 1971 War". Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
    24. ^ "India: Easy Victory, Uneasy Peace". Time. 27 December 1971.
    25. ^ "World's shortest war lasted for only 45 minutes". Pravda. 10 March 2007.
    26. ^ Azhar, M. u. R., Masood, S., & Malek, N. M. (2018). Conflict and Development: A case study of East Pakistan Crisis, 1971. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 2(9).
    27. ^ "1971 War: 'I will give you 30 minutes'". Sify.com. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
    28. ^ a b c Orton, Anna (2010). India's Borderland Disputes: China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Epitome Books. p. 117. ISBN 9789380297156. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
    29. ^ Burke, S. M (1974). Mainsprings of Indian and Pakistani Foreign Policies – S. M. Burke. ISBN 9780816607204. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    30. ^ Bose, Sarmila (November 2011). "The question of genocide and the quest for justice in the 1971 war" (PDF). Journal of Genocide Research. 13 (4): 398. doi:10.1080/14623528.2011.625750.
    31. ^ "Jamaat claims denied by evidence". THE DAILY STAR. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
    32. ^ Haqqani, Hussain (2005). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. United Book Press. ISBN 978-0-87003-214-1., Chapter 3, p. 87.
    33. ^ Burke, Samuel Martin (1974). Mainsprings of Indian and Pakistani Foreign Policies. University of Minnesota Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-8166-5714-8.
    34. ^ Alston, Margaret (2015). Women and Climate Change in Bangladesh. Routledge. p. 40. ISBN 9781317684862. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
    35. ^ Totten, Samuel (2012). Plight and Fate of Women During and Following Genocide. Transaction Publishers. p. 55. ISBN 9781412847599. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
    36. ^ Myers, David G. (2004). Exploring Social Psychology 4E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 269. ISBN 9780070700628. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
    37. ^ Consulate (Dacca) Cable, Sitrep: Army Terror Campaign Continues in Dacca; Evidence Military Faces Some Difficulties Elsewhere, 31 March 1971, Confidential, 3 pp.
    38. ^ Kennedy, Senator Edward, "Crisis in South Asia – A report to the Subcommittee investigating the Problem of Refugees and Their Settlement, Submitted to U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee", 1 November 1971, U.S. Govt. Press, page 66. Sen. Kennedy wrote, "Field reports to the U.S. Government, countless eye-witness journalistic accounts, reports of International agencies such as World Bank and additional information available to the subcommittee document the reign of terror which grips East Bengal (East Pakistan). Hardest hit have been members of the Hindu community who have been robbed of their lands and shops, systematically slaughtered, and in some places, painted with yellow patches marked 'H'. All of this has been officially sanctioned, ordered and implemented under martial law from Islamabad."
    39. ^ Rummel, Rudolph J., "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900", ISBN 3-8258-4010-7, Chapter 8, Table 8.2 Pakistan Genocide in Bangladesh Estimates, Sources, and Calculations: lowest estimate 2 million claimed by Pakistan (reported by Aziz, Qutubuddin. Blood and tears Karachi: United Press of Pakistan, 1974. pp. 74, 226), some other sources used by Rummel suggest a figure of between 8 and 10 million with one (Johnson, B. L. C. Bangladesh. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1975. pp. 73, 75) that "could have been" 12 million.
    40. ^ Sharlach, Lisa (2000). "Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda". New Political Science. 22 (1): (89–102), 92–93. doi:10.1080/713687893.
    41. ^ Sajjad 2012, p. 225.
    42. ^ Ghadbian 2002, p. 111.
    43. ^ Mookherjee 2012, p. 68.
     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 December 1971 – Pakistan severs diplomatic relations with India, initiating the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.

    Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

    The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971. The war began with preemptive aerial strikes on 11 Indian air stations, which led to the commencement of hostilities with Pakistan and Indian entry into the war of independence in East Pakistan on the side of Bengali nationalist forces. Lasting just 13 days, it is one of the shortest wars in history.[24][25]

    During the war, Indian and Pakistani militaries simultaneously clashed on the eastern and western fronts; the war ended after the Eastern Command of the Pakistan military signed the Instrument of Surrender[26][27] on 16 December 1971 in Dhaka, marking the formation of East Pakistan as the new nation of Bangladesh. Officially, East Pakistan had earlier called for its secession from the unity of Pakistan on 26 March 1971. Approximately 90,000[28] to 93,000 Pakistani servicemen were taken prisoner by the Indian Army, which included 79,676 to 81,000 uniformed personnel of the Pakistan Armed Forces, including some Bengali soldiers who had remained loyal to Pakistan.[28][29][30] The remaining 10,324 to 12,500 prisoners were civilians, either family members of the military personnel or collaborators (razakars).[28][31][32][33] It is estimated that between 300,000 and 3,000,000 civilians were killed in Bangladesh.[34][35][36][37][38] As a result of the conflict, a further eight to ten million people fled the country to seek refuge in India.[39]

    During the 1971 Bangladesh war for independence, members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias called the Razakars raped between 200,000 and 400,000 Bangladeshi women and girls in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape.[40][41][42][43]

    1. ^ Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-57607-712-2. India's decisive victory over Pakistan in the 1971 war and emergence of independent Bangladesh dramatically transformed the power balance of South Asia
    2. ^ Kemp, Geoffrey (2010). The East Moves West India, China, and Asia's Growing Presence in the Middle East. Brookings Institution Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8157-0388-4. However, India's decisive victory over Pakistan in 1971 led the Shah to pursue closer relations with India
    3. ^ Byman, Daniel (2005). Deadly connections: States that Sponsor Terrorism. Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-521-83973-0. India's decisive victory in 1971 led to the signing of the Simla Agreement in 1972
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference glo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Nawaz, Shuja (2008). Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army, and the Wars Within. Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-19-547697-2.
    6. ^ Chitkara, M. G (1996). Benazir, a Profile – M. G. Chitkara. ISBN 9788170247524. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    7. ^ Schofield, Victoria (18 January 2003). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War – Victoria Schofield. ISBN 9781860648984. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    8. ^ a b c Leonard, Thomas M. (2006). Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Taylor & Francis. p. 806. ISBN 978-0-415-97664-0.
    9. ^ Vulnerable India: A Geographical Study of Disaster By Anu Kapur
    10. ^ "Chapter 10: Naval Operations In The Western Naval Command". Indian Navy. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012.
    11. ^ "Damage Assessment– 1971 Indo Pak Naval War". Orbat.com. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    12. ^ Air Chief Marshal P C Lal (1986). My Days with the IAF. Lancer. p. 286. ISBN 978-81-7062-008-2.
    13. ^ "The Battle of Longewala—The Truth". India Defence Update. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011.
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference globalsecurity.org was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ "Pakistan Air Force – Official website". Paf.gov.pk. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    16. ^ a b "IAF Combat Kills – 1971 Indo-Pak Air War" (PDF). orbat.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
    17. ^ Leonard, Thomas M. (2006). Encyclopedia of the developing world, Volume 1. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-97662-6.
    18. ^ The Encyclopedia of 20th Century Air Warfare, edited by Chris Bishop (Amber publishing 1997, republished 2004 pages 384–387 ISBN 1-904687-26-1)
    19. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference GlobalSecurity was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ "The Sinking of the Ghazi". Bharat Rakshak Monitor, 4(2). Archived from the original on 28 November 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
    21. ^ "How west was won...on the waterfront". The Tribune. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
    22. ^ "India – Pakistan War, 1971; Western Front, Part I". acig.com. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
    23. ^ "Aircraft Losses in Pakistan - 1971 War". Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
    24. ^ "India: Easy Victory, Uneasy Peace". Time. 27 December 1971.
    25. ^ "World's shortest war lasted for only 45 minutes". Pravda. 10 March 2007.
    26. ^ Azhar, M. u. R., Masood, S., & Malek, N. M. (2018). Conflict and Development: A case study of East Pakistan Crisis, 1971. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 2(9).
    27. ^ "1971 War: 'I will give you 30 minutes'". Sify.com. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
    28. ^ a b c Orton, Anna (2010). India's Borderland Disputes: China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Epitome Books. p. 117. ISBN 9789380297156. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
    29. ^ Burke, S. M (1974). Mainsprings of Indian and Pakistani Foreign Policies – S. M. Burke. ISBN 9780816607204. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    30. ^ Bose, Sarmila (November 2011). "The question of genocide and the quest for justice in the 1971 war" (PDF). Journal of Genocide Research. 13 (4): 398. doi:10.1080/14623528.2011.625750.
    31. ^ "Jamaat claims denied by evidence". THE DAILY STAR. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
    32. ^ Haqqani, Hussain (2005). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. United Book Press. ISBN 978-0-87003-214-1., Chapter 3, p. 87.
    33. ^ Burke, Samuel Martin (1974). Mainsprings of Indian and Pakistani Foreign Policies. University of Minnesota Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-8166-5714-8.
    34. ^ Alston, Margaret (2015). Women and Climate Change in Bangladesh. Routledge. p. 40. ISBN 9781317684862. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
    35. ^ Totten, Samuel (2012). Plight and Fate of Women During and Following Genocide. Transaction Publishers. p. 55. ISBN 9781412847599. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
    36. ^ Myers, David G. (2004). Exploring Social Psychology 4E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 269. ISBN 9780070700628. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
    37. ^ Consulate (Dacca) Cable, Sitrep: Army Terror Campaign Continues in Dacca; Evidence Military Faces Some Difficulties Elsewhere, 31 March 1971, Confidential, 3 pp.
    38. ^ Kennedy, Senator Edward, "Crisis in South Asia – A report to the Subcommittee investigating the Problem of Refugees and Their Settlement, Submitted to U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee", 1 November 1971, U.S. Govt. Press, page 66. Sen. Kennedy wrote, "Field reports to the U.S. Government, countless eye-witness journalistic accounts, reports of International agencies such as World Bank and additional information available to the subcommittee document the reign of terror which grips East Bengal (East Pakistan). Hardest hit have been members of the Hindu community who have been robbed of their lands and shops, systematically slaughtered, and in some places, painted with yellow patches marked 'H'. All of this has been officially sanctioned, ordered and implemented under martial law from Islamabad."
    39. ^ Rummel, Rudolph J., "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900", ISBN 3-8258-4010-7, Chapter 8, Table 8.2 Pakistan Genocide in Bangladesh Estimates, Sources, and Calculations: lowest estimate 2 million claimed by Pakistan (reported by Aziz, Qutubuddin. Blood and tears Karachi: United Press of Pakistan, 1974. pp. 74, 226), some other sources used by Rummel suggest a figure of between 8 and 10 million with one (Johnson, B. L. C. Bangladesh. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1975. pp. 73, 75) that "could have been" 12 million.
    40. ^ Sharlach, Lisa (2000). "Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda". New Political Science. 22 (1): (89–102), 92–93. doi:10.1080/713687893.
    41. ^ Sajjad 2012, p. 225.
    42. ^ Ghadbian 2002, p. 111.
    43. ^ Mookherjee 2012, p. 68.
     
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    6 December 1955 – The Flag of Europe is adopted by Council of Europe.

    Flag of Europe

    The European Flag or Flag of Europe is an official symbol of two separate international organisations, the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU). It consists of a circle of twelve five-pointed yellow (or) stars on a blue (azure) field.

    The flag was designed in 1955, and officially launched later that year by the Council of Europe as a symbol for the whole of Europe.[3] The Council of Europe urged it to be adopted by other European organisations, and in 1985 the European Communities (EC) adopted it.

    The EU inherited the flag's use when it was formed in 1993, being the successor organisation to the EC starting from 1 December 2009 (date of entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty). It has been in wide official use by the EC since the 1990s, but it has never been given official status in any of the EU's treaties. Its adoption as an official symbol of the EU was planned as part of the proposed 2004 European Constitution, which failed to be ratified in 2005. Alternatively, it is sometimes called the Flag of the European Union when representing the EU.[4]

    Since its adoption by the European Union, it has become broadly associated with the supranational organisation, due to its high profile and heavy usage of the emblem. It has also been used by pro-EU protestors in the colour revolutions of the 2000s, e.g., in Belarus (2004)[5] or Moldova.[not in citation given][6]

    1. ^ Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (8 December 1955), Resolution (55) 32 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, CVCE, retrieved 25 June 2014
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference COE page was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ The European flag, Council of Europe. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
    4. ^ The name "flag of the European Union" is used in e.g. the Italian law no. 22 of 5 February 1998 (bandiera dell'Unione europea), and by the Centre virtuel de la connaissance sur l'Europe (Le drapeau de l'Union européenne, 2016).
    5. ^ Mite (20 October 2004), Belarus: Scores Arrested, Opposition Leader Hospitalized After Minsk Protests, rferl.org, retrieved 5 August 2007
    6. ^ "Romania slams Moldova's sanctions". News.bbc.co.uk. 9 April 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
     
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    9 December 1835Texas Revolution: The Texian Army captures San Antonio, Texas.

    Texas Revolution

    The Texas Revolution (October 2, 1835 – April 21, 1836) was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos (Texas Mexicans) in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation. The Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, and eventually being annexed by the United States.

    The revolution began in October 1835, after a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the increasingly large population of American settlers in Texas. The Mexican government had become increasingly centralized and the rights of its citizens had become increasingly curtailed, particularly regarding immigration from the United States. Colonists and Tejanos disagreed on whether the ultimate goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation (provisional government) debated the war's motives, Texians and a flood of volunteers from the United States defeated the small garrisons of Mexican soldiers by mid-December 1835. The Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texian Army. In March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas.

    Determined to avenge Mexico's honor, Santa Anna vowed to personally retake Texas. His Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians completely unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered. Santa Anna led a larger force to San Antonio de Béxar (or Béxar), where his troops defeated the Texian garrison in the Battle of the Alamo, killing almost all of the defenders.

    A newly created Texian army under the command of Sam Houston was constantly on the move, while terrified civilians fled with the army, in a melee known as the Runaway Scrape. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groce's Landing on the Brazos River, and for the next two weeks, the Texians received rigorous military training. Becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houston's army staged a surprise assault on Santa Anna and his vanguard force at the Battle of San Jacinto. The Mexican troops were quickly routed, and vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage; in exchange for his life, he ordered the Mexican army to retreat south of the Rio Grande. Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, and intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s. The annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, led directly to the Mexican–American War.

     
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    10 December 1884Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is published.

    Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (or, in more recent editions, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn) is a novel by Mark Twain, first published in the United Kingdom in December 1884 and in the United States in February 1885. Commonly named among the Great American Novels, the work is among the first in major American literature to be written throughout in vernacular English, characterized by local color regionalism. It is told in the first person by Huckleberry "Huck" Finn, the narrator of two other Twain novels (Tom Sawyer Abroad and Tom Sawyer, Detective) and a friend of Tom Sawyer. It is a direct sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

    The book is noted for its colorful description of people and places along the Mississippi River. Set in a Southern antebellum society that had ceased to exist about 20 years before the work was published, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is an often scathing satire on entrenched attitudes, particularly racism.

    Perennially popular with readers, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has also been the continued object of study by literary critics since its publication. The book was widely criticized upon release because of its extensive use of coarse language. Throughout the 20th century, and despite arguments that the protagonist and the tenor of the book are anti-racist,[2][3] criticism of the book continued due to both its perceived use of racial stereotypes and its frequent use of the racial slur "nigger".

    1. ^ Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer's comrade)…. 1885.
    2. ^ Twain, Mark (October 1885). Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer's comrade).... ... - Full View – HathiTrust Digital Library – HathiTrust Digital Library. HathiTrust.
    3. ^ Jacob O'Leary, "Critical Annotation of "Minstrel Shackles and Nineteenth Century 'Liberality' in Huckleberry Finn" (Fredrick Woodard and Donnarae MacCann)," Wiki Service, University of Iowa, last modified February 11, 2012, accessed April 12, 2012 Archived March 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
     
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    11 December 2008Bernard Madoff is arrested and charged with securities fraud in a $50 billion Ponzi scheme.

    Bernard Madoff

    Redirect to:

    • From a page move: This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name.
     
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    12 December 1911Delhi replaces Calcutta as the capital of India.

    Delhi

    Delhi (/ˈdɛli/, Hindi pronunciation: [dɪlliː] Dillī, Punjabi pronunciation: [dɪlliː] Dillī, Urdu pronunciation: [dɛhliː] Dehlī), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India.[17][18] It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million,[7] the second-highest in India after Mumbai,[19] while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million.[8] Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Sonipat, Ghaziabad and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region (CNCR) and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's third-largest urban area according to United Nations.[9] As of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.[13][12][20][14] Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai, with a nominal economy of $110 billion for the entire Union Territory,[21] and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.[22]

    Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE.[23] Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region.

    A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982, respectively, 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.

    Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region (NCR), which is a unique 'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.[24][25]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference 7thAmend56 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference ReorgAct56 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference NCTact was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Anil Baijal takes over as new Lt Governor of Delhi". Times of India. Delhi. 31 December 2016. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
    5. ^ "Senior IAS officer Vijay Kumar Dev to be next Delhi Chief Secretary". The Financial Express (India). 23 November 2018. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
    6. ^ "Amulya Kumar Patnaik Officially Takes Charge As Delhi Police Commissioner". Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
    7. ^ a b c Delhi Metropolitan/City Population section of "Delhi Population Sex Ratio in Delhi Literacy rate Delhi NCR". 2011 Census of India. Archived from the original on 26 January 2017.
    8. ^ a b "Delhi (India): Union Territory, Major Agglomerations & Towns – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". City Population. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
    9. ^ a b "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations. October 2016. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
    10. ^ a b "Official Language Act 2000" (PDF). Government of Delhi. 2 July 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
    11. ^ a b "Delhi Budget Analysis 2019–20" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
    12. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference pricewater was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Brookings was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference times Delhi-not-Mumbai was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
    16. ^ a b "Census 2011 (Final Data) – Demographic details, Literate Population (Total, Rural & Urban)" (PDF). planningcommission.gov.in. Planning Commission, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
    17. ^ "The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991". Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
    18. ^ Habib, Irfan (1999). The agrarian system of Mughal India, 1556–1707. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-562329-1. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. ... The current Survey of India spellings are followed for place names except where they vary rather noticeably from the spellings in our sources: thus I read "Dehli" not "Delhi ...
    19. ^ "This study settles the Delhi versus Mumbai debate: The Capital's economy is streets ahead". Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference McKinsey was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ "Delhi Budget Analysis 2019–20" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
    22. ^ "Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion, Delhi comes second: Report". The Indian Express. 27 February 2017. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
    23. ^ Asher, Catherine B (2000) [2000]. "Chapter 9:Delhi walled: Changing Boundaries". In James D. Tracy (ed.). City Walls. Cambridge University Press. pp. 247–281. ISBN 978-0-521-65221-6. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
    24. ^ "Rationale". ncrpb.nic.in. NCR Planning Board. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2017. The National Capital Region (NCR) in India was constituted under the NCRPB Act, 1985
    25. ^ "Census 2011" (PDF). National Capital Region Planning Board. National Informatics Centre. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
     
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    13 December 1959Archbishop Makarios III becomes the first President of Cyprus.

    List of archbishops of Cyprus

    This is a list of Archbishops of Cyprus since its foundation with known dates of enthronement. The Church of Cyprus was created by St. Barnabas in 45 AD. The see of Cyprus was declared autocephalous by the Council of Ephesus, on 30 July 431; its autocephaly was abolished in 1260, and was restored in 1571. As the head of the Church of Cyprus, the holder is styled Archbishop of Nova Justiniana and All Cyprus.

     
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    14 December 1836 – The Toledo War unofficially ends.

    Toledo War

    The Toledo War (1835–36), also known as the Michigan–Ohio War, was an almost bloodless boundary dispute between the U.S. state of Ohio and the adjoining territory of Michigan.

    Poor geographical understanding of the Great Lakes helped produce conflicting state and federal legislation between 1787 and 1805, and varying interpretations of the laws led the governments of Ohio and Michigan to both claim jurisdiction over a 468-square-mile (1,210 km2) region along the border, now known as the Toledo Strip. The situation came to a head when Michigan petitioned for statehood in 1835 and sought to include the disputed territory within its boundaries. Both sides passed legislation attempting to force the other side's capitulation, while Ohio's Governor Robert Lucas and Michigan's 24-year-old "Boy Governor" Stevens T. Mason helped institute criminal penalties for citizens submitting to the other's authority. Both states deployed militias on opposite sides of the Maumee River near Toledo, but besides mutual taunting, there was little interaction between the two forces. The single military confrontation of the "war" ended with a report of shots being fired into the air, incurring no casualties.

    During the summer of 1836, Congress proposed a compromise whereby Michigan gave up its claim to the strip in exchange for its statehood and about three-quarters of the Upper Peninsula. The compromise was considered a poor outcome for Michigan. Voters in a state convention in September soundly rejected the proposal. But in December, the Michigan government, facing a dire financial crisis and pressure from Congress and President Andrew Jackson, called another convention (called the "Frostbitten Convention") which accepted the compromise that resolved the Toledo War.

     
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    15 December 1960Richard Pavlick is arrested for plotting to assassinate U.S. President-Elect John F. Kennedy.

    Richard Paul Pavlick

    Richard Paul Pavlick (February 13, 1887 – November 11, 1975) was a retired postal worker[1] from New Hampshire who stalked U.S. president-elect John F. Kennedy, with the intent of assassinating him. On December 11, 1960, in Palm Beach, Florida, Pavlick positioned himself to carry out the assassination by blowing up Kennedy and himself with dynamite, but delayed the attempt because Kennedy was with his family.[2]

    He was arrested before he was able to stage another attempt.[3]

    1. ^ Oliver, Willard; Marion, Nancy E. (2010). Killing the President: Assassinations, Attempts, and Rumored Attempts on U.S. Commanders-in-Chief: Assassinations, Attempts, and Rumored Attempts on U.S. Commanders-in-Chief. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313364754.
    2. ^ Hunsicker, A. (2007). The Fine Art of Executive Protection: Handbook for the Executive Protection Officer. Universal-Publishers. ISBN 9781581129847.
    3. ^ Russo, Gus; Molton, Stephen (2010). Brothers in Arms: The Kennedys, the Castros, and the Politics of Murder. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 9781608192472.
     
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    16 December 1901Beatrix Potter privately publishes The Tale of Peter Rabbit. It goes on to sell over 45 million copies worldwide.

    The Tale of Peter Rabbit

    The Tale of Peter Rabbit is a British children's book written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter that follows mischievous and disobedient young Peter Rabbit as he is chased about the garden of Mr. McGregor. He escapes and returns home to his mother, who puts him to bed after dosing him with tea. The tale was written for five-year-old Noel Moore, son of Potter's former governess Annie Carter Moore, in 1893. It was revised and privately printed by Potter in 1901 after several publishers' rejections, but was printed in a trade edition by Frederick Warne & Co. in 1902. The book was a success, and multiple reprints were issued in the years immediately following its debut. It has been translated into 36 languages,[1] and with 45 million copies sold it is one of the best-selling books of all time.[2]

    Since its release the book has generated considerable merchandise for both children and adults, including toys, dishes, foods, clothing, and videos. Potter was one of the first to be responsible for such merchandise when she patented a Peter Rabbit doll in 1903 and followed it almost immediately with a Peter Rabbit board game.

    1. ^ Mackey 2002, p. 33
    2. ^ Worker's Press
     
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    17 December 1892 – First issue of Vogue is published.

    Vogue (magazine)

    Vogue is a fashion and lifestyle magazine covering many topics including fashion, beauty, culture, living, and runway. Vogue began as a weekly newspaper in 1892 in the United States, before becoming a monthly publication years later. It is a politically left-leaning magazine.

    The British Vogue was the first international edition launched in 1916, while the Italian version has been called the top fashion magazine in the world.[2] As of today, there are 23 international editions.

    1. ^ "Consumer Magazines". Alliance for Audited Media. Archived from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
    2. ^ Press, Debbie (2004). Your Modeling Career: You Don't Have to Be a Superstar to Succeed. New York: Allworth Press. ISBN 978-1-58115-359-0.
     
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    18 December 2006 – United Arab Emirates holds its first-ever elections.

    2006 Emirati parliamentary election

    The first elections ever to be held in the United Arab Emirates took place on 16 December, 18 December and 20 December 2006. Half of the Federal National Council, which has forty members, were elected.

    Abu Dhabi and Fujairah voted on 16 December; Dubai and Ras al-Khaimah on 18 December; Sharjah, Ajmān and Umm al-Quwain on 20 December.[1] Only 6,689[2] of the more than 300,000 citizens over 18 years were allowed to vote, 1,163 of them women;[3] all of these voters were chosen by the rulers of the seven emirates.[4] One of the four seats in Abu Dhabi went to a woman, Amal Al Qubaisi.[5]

    The government has expressed that future elections will be more participatory, including that the powers of the Federal National Council will be expanded and that the right to vote will be granted to all citizens.[3]

    1. ^ Poll opens for first UAE elections Al Jazeera, 16 December 2006
    2. ^ "FNC members ask for new elections". The National. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
    3. ^ a b Sole woman elected in UAE maiden polls Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine Middle East Online, 21 December 2006
    4. ^ "UAE polls 'step to more participation'". Gulf Times. 21 December 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
    5. ^ [1][dead link]
    6. ^ "Federal National Council Homepage". Almajles.gov.ae. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
     
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    19 December 1946 – Start of the First Indochina War.

    First Indochina War

    The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954. Fighting between French forces and their Việt Minh opponents in the south dated from September 1945. The conflict pitted a range of forces, including the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps, led by France and supported by Bảo Đại's Vietnamese National Army against the Việt Minh,[30] led by Ho Chi Minh[31] and the People's Army of Vietnam led by Võ Nguyên Giáp.[32] Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in northern Vietnam,[33] although the conflict engulfed the entire country and also extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia.

    At the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, the Combined Chiefs of Staff decided that Indochina south of latitude 16° north was to be included in the Southeast Asia Command under British Admiral Mountbatten. Japanese forces located south of that line surrendered to him and those to the north surrendered to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. In September 1945, Chinese forces entered Tonkin, and a small British task force landed at Saigon. The Chinese accepted the Vietnamese government under Ho Chi Minh, then in power in Hanoi. The British refused to do likewise in Saigon, and deferred to the French there from the outset, against the ostensible support of the Việt Minh authorities by American OSS representatives. On V-J Day, September 2, Ho Chi Minh had proclaimed in Hanoi the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV). The DRV ruled as the only civil government in all of Vietnam for a period of about 20 days, after the abdication of Emperor Bảo Đại, who had governed under Japanese rule. On 23 September 1945, with the knowledge of the British commander in Saigon, French forces overthrew the local DRV government, and declared French authority restored in Cochinchina. Guerrilla warfare began around Saigon immediately,[34] but the French gradually retook control of the South and North of Indochina. Hô Chi Minh agreed to negotiate the future status of Vietnam, but the talks, held in France, failed to produce a solution. After over one year of latent conflict, all-out war broke out in December 1946 between French and Việt Minh forces as Hô and his government went underground. The French tried to stabilize Indochina by reorganizing it as a Federation of Associated States. In 1949, they put former Emperor Bảo Đại back in power, as the ruler of a newly established State of Vietnam.

    The first few years of the war involved a low-level rural insurgency against the French. In 1949 the conflict turned into a conventional war between two armies equipped with modern weapons supplied by the United States, China and the Soviet Union.[35] French Union forces included colonial troops from the whole former empire (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Laotian, Cambodian, and Vietnamese ethnic minorities), French professional troops and units of the French Foreign Legion. The use of metropolitan recruits was forbidden by the government to prevent the war from becoming even more unpopular at home. It was called the "dirty war" (la sale guerre) by leftists in France.[36]

    The strategy of pushing the Việt Minh into attacking well-defended bases in remote parts of the country at the end of their logistical trails was validated at the Battle of Nà Sản. However, this base was relatively weak because of a lack of concrete and steel. French efforts were made more difficult due to the limited usefulness of armored tanks in a jungle environment, lack of strong air forces for air cover and carpet bombing, and use of foreign recruits from other French colonies (mainly from Algeria, Morocco and even Vietnam). Võ Nguyên Giáp, however, used efficient and novel tactics of direct fire artillery, convoy ambushes and massed anti-aircraft guns to impede land and air supply deliveries together with a strategy based on recruiting a sizable regular army facilitated by wide popular support, a guerrilla warfare doctrine and instruction developed in China, and the use of simple and reliable war material provided by the Soviet Union. This combination proved fatal for the bases' defenses, culminating in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.[37]

    At the International Geneva Conference on July 21, 1954, the new socialist French government and the Việt Minh made an agreement which effectively gave the Việt Minh control of North Vietnam above the 17th parallel. The south continued under Bảo Đại. The agreement was denounced by the State of Vietnam and by the United States. A year later, Bảo Đại would be deposed by his prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, creating the Republic of Vietnam. Soon an insurgency, backed by the north, developed against Diệm's government. The conflict gradually escalated into the Vietnam War (1955-1975).

    1. ^ Jacques Dalloz, La Guerre d'Indochine 1945–1954, Seuil, Paris, 1987, pp. 129–130, 206
    2. ^ Jacques Dalloz (1987). La Guerre d'Indochine 1945–1954. Paris: Seuil. pp. 129–130.
    3. ^ Kiernan, Ben. How Pol Pot Came to Power. London: Verso, 1985. p. 80
    4. ^ henrisalvador. "John Foster Dulles on the fall of Dien Bien Phu". Dailymotion. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
    5. ^ a b "Viện trợ của Trung Quốc đối với cuộc kháng chiến chống Pháp của Việt Nam". Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
    6. ^ http://geb.uni-giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2013/9311/pdf/DaoDucThuan_2013_02_05.pdf
    7. ^ "East Germany – The National People's Army and the Third World".
    8. ^ Radvanyi, Janos (1980). "Vietnam War Diplomacy: Reflections of a Former Iron Curtain Official" (PDF). Paramaters: Journal of the US Army War College. Carlise Barracks, Pennsylvania. 10 (3): 8–15.
    9. ^ "CNN.com – France honors CIA pilots – Feb 28, 2005". Retrieved August 19, 2015.
    10. ^ Lee Lanning, Michael (2008). Inside the VC and the NVA. : Texas A&M University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-60344-059-2.
    11. ^ Crozier, Brian (2005). Political Victory: The Elusive Prize Of Military Wars. Transaction. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7658-0290-3.
    12. ^ Fall, Street Without Joy, p. 63.
    13. ^ Logevall, Fredrik (2012). Embers of War: the fall of an empire and the making of America's Vietnam. Random House. pp. 596–9. ISBN 978-0-375-75647-4.
    14. ^ Windrow 1998, p. 23
    15. ^ Ford, Dan. "Japanese soldiers with the Việt Minh".
    16. ^ Windrow, Martin (1998). The French Indochina War 1946–1954 (Men-At-Arms, 322). London: Osprey Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-85532-789-4.
    17. ^ Fall, Bernard, The Two Vietnams (1963)
    18. ^ Eckhardt, William, in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987–88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard.
    19. ^ a b c Clodfelter, Michael, Vietnam in Military Statistics (1995)
    20. ^ Stanley Kutler: Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War (1996)
    21. ^ Chuyên đề 4 CÔNG TÁC TÌM KIẾM, QUY TẬP HÀI CỐT LIỆT SĨ TỪ NAY ĐẾN NĂM 2020 VÀ NHỮNG NĂM TIẾP THEO, datafile.chinhsachquandoi.gov.vn/Quản%20lý%20chỉ%20đạo/Chuyên%20đề%204.doc
    22. ^ Pierre Vermeren (2015). Le Choc des décolonisations: De la guerre d'Algérie aux printemps arabes. Éditions Odile Jacob. p. 16. ISBN 978-2-7381-6477-3.
    23. ^ Duthel, Heinz (February 26, 2015). La Legion et la bataille a Điên Biên Phú: LA LEGION EST LEUR PATRIE. ISBN 9783734765964.
    24. ^ Dommen, Arthur J. (2001), The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans, Indiana University Press, pg. 252
    25. ^ T. Lomperis, From People's War to People's Rule (1996)
    26. ^ S. Karnow, Vietnam : a History (1983)
    27. ^ Smedberg, M (2008), Vietnamkrigen: 1880–1980. Historiska Media, p. 88
    28. ^ Eckhardt, William, in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987–88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard.
    29. ^ Dommen, Arthur J. (2001), The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans, Indiana University Press, pg. 252.
    30. ^ Saigon under Bảo Đại's 1945–1954
    31. ^ Ho Chi Minh PRESIDENT OF NORTH VIETNAM
    32. ^ Vo Nguyen Giap VIETNAMESE GENERAL
    33. ^ Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    34. ^ s:Page:Pentagon-Papers-Part I.djvu/30
    35. ^ Fall, Street Without Joy, p. 17.
    36. ^ Edward Rice-Maximin, Accommodation and Resistance: The French Left, Indochina, and the Cold War, 1944–1954 (Greenwood, 1986).
    37. ^ Flitton, Dave. "Battlefield Vietnam – Dien Bien Phu, the legacy". Public Broadcasting System PBS. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
     
  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 December 1995 – American Airlines Flight 965, a Boeing 757, crashes into a mountain 50 km north of Cali, Colombia killing 159.

    American Airlines Flight 965

    American Airlines Flight 965 was a regularly scheduled flight from Miami International Airport in Miami, Florida, to Alfonso Bonilla Aragón International Airport in Cali, Colombia. On December 20, 1995, the Boeing 757-200 flying this route (registration N651AA[1]) crashed into a mountain in Buga, Colombia, killing 151 out of the 155 passengers and all eight crew members.[2] The crash was the first U.S.-owned 757 accident and is currently the deadliest aviation accident to occur in Colombia.[3][4] It was also the deadliest accident involving a Boeing 757 at that time,[5] but was surpassed by Birgenair Flight 301 which crashed seven weeks later with 189 fatalities.[6] Flight 965 was the deadliest air disaster involving a U.S. carrier since the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988.[7] Five passengers, all seated within two rows of each other, survived the initial impact, but one died two days later of his injuries.[8] In addition to the four human survivors, a dog, who had been in a carrier in the cargo hold at the time of the crash, survived the incident.

    The Colombian Special Administrative Unit of Civil Aeronautics investigated the accident and determined it was caused by navigational errors by the flight crew.[9]

    1. ^ "FAA Registry (N651AA)". Federal Aviation Administration.
    2. ^ "American Airlines jet crashes in the Andes." CNN. December 21, 1995. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.
    3. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 757-223 N651AA Buga". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
    4. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Aviation Safety Network > ASN Aviation Safety Database > Geographical regions > Colombia air safety profile". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
    5. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Aviation Safety Network > ASN Aviation Safety Database > Aircraft type index > Boeing 757". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
    6. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 757-225 TC-GEN Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
    7. ^ Acohido, Byron. "Did mistakes by crew doom flight to Cali?." The Seattle Times. January 18, 1997. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.
    8. ^ Sider, Don. "Miracle on the Mountain." People (magazine). January 8, 1996. Retrieved on June 22, 2009.
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference ac was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 December 1970 – First flight of F-14 multi-role combat aircraft.

    Grumman F-14 Tomcat

    The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is an American supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft. It was the first such U.S. jet fighter with twin tails. The Tomcat was developed for the United States Navy's Naval Fighter Experimental (VFX) program after the collapse of the F-111B project. The F-14 was the first of the American Teen Series fighters, which were designed incorporating air combat experience against MiG fighters during the Vietnam War.

    The F-14 first flew on 21 December 1970 and made its first deployment in 1974 with the U.S. Navy aboard USS Enterprise (CVN-65), replacing the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II. The F-14 served as the U.S. Navy's primary maritime air superiority fighter, fleet defense interceptor, and tactical aerial reconnaissance platform into the 2000s. The Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night (LANTIRN) pod system were added in the 1990s and the Tomcat began performing precision ground-attack missions.[2]

    In the 1980s, F-14s were used as land-based interceptors by the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War, where they saw combat against Iraqi warplanes. Iranian F-14s reportedly shot down at least 160 Iraqi aircraft during the war, while only 12 to 16 Tomcats were lost; at least half of these losses were due to accidents.[3][4]

    The Tomcat was retired from the U.S. Navy's active fleet on 22 September 2006, having been supplanted by the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.[5] The F-14 remains in service with Iran's air force, having been exported to Iran in 1976. In November 2015, reports emerged of Iranian F-14s reportedly flying escort for Russian Tu-95 bombers on air strikes in Syria.[6]

    1. ^ Harold Brown: Offsetting the Soviet Military Challenge, 1977–1981 (Secretaries of Defense Historical Series), Government Publishing Office, p. 223
    2. ^ "F-14 Tomcat fighter fact file". United States Navy. 5 July 2003. Archived from the original on 2 April 2006. Retrieved 20 January 2007.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Persian Cats was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cooper, Tom and Farzad Bishop. Iranian F-14 Tomcat Units in Combat, p. 84. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1 84176 787 5.
    5. ^ "Navy's 'Top Gun' Tomcat Fighter Jet Makes Ceremonial Final Flight." Archived 11 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Associated Press, 22 September 2006. Retrieved: 17 July 2008.
    6. ^ Cenciotti, David. "Watch this video of Iranian F-14 Tomcats escorting a Russian Tu-95 bomber during air strike in Syria". The Aviationist. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 December 401Pope Innocent I is elected.

    Pope Innocent I

    Pope Innocent I (Latin: Innocentius I; d. 12 March 417) served as the Pope of the Catholic Church from 401 to his death in 417. From the beginning of his papacy, he was seen as the general arbitrator of ecclesiastical disputes in both the East and the West. He confirmed the prerogatives of the Archbishop of Thessalonica, and issued a decretal on disciplinary matters referred to him by the Bishop of Rouen. He defended the exiled John Chrysostom and consulted with the bishops of Africa concerning the Pelagian controversy, confirming the decisions of the African synods. The Catholic priest-scholar Johann Peter Kirsch, 1500 years later, described Innocent as a very energetic and highly gifted individual "...who fulfilled admirably the duties of his office".[2]

    1. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/288617/Saint-Innocent-I
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference ce attribution was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  39. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 December 1972 – The 16 survivors of the Andes flight disaster are rescued after 73 days, having reportedly survived by cannibalism.

    Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571

    Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 is located in Argentina
    Crash site
    Crash site
    Santiago
    Santiago
    Montevideo
    Montevideo
    Mendoza
    Mendoza
    Location of the crash site in Argentina

    Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 was a chartered flight that crashed on a glacier at an elevation of 3,570 metres (11,710 ft) in the remote Andes. Among the 45 people on board, 28 survived the initial crash. Facing starvation and death, the survivors reluctantly resorted to cannibalism. After 72 days on the glacier, 16 people were rescued.

    The flight carrying 19 members of a rugby team, family, supporters, and friends originated in Montevideo, Uruguay and was headed for Santiago, Chile. While crossing the Andes, the inexperienced co-pilot who was in command mistakenly believed they had reached Curicó, Chile, despite instrument readings indicating otherwise. He turned north and began to descend towards what he thought was Pudahuel Airport. Instead, the aircraft struck the mountain, shearing off both wings and the rear of the fuselage. The forward part of the fuselage careered down a steep slope like a toboggan and came to rest on a glacier. Three crew members and more than a quarter of the passengers died in the crash, and several others quickly succumbed to cold and injuries.

    On the tenth day after the crash, the survivors learned from a transistor radio that the search had been called off. Faced with starvation and death, those still alive agreed that should they die, the others might consume their bodies in order to live. With no choice, the survivors ate the bodies of their dead friends. Seventeen days after the crash, 27 remained alive when an avalanche filled the rear of the broken fuselage they were using as shelter, killing eight more survivors. The survivors had little food and no source of heat in the harsh conditions. They decided that a few of the strongest people would hike out to seek rescue. Sixty days after the crash, passengers Nando Parrado and Roberto Canessa, lacking mountaineering gear of any kind, climbed from the glacier at 3,570 metres (11,710 ft) to the 4,670 metres (15,320 ft) peak blocking their way west. Over 10 days they trekked about 38 miles (61 km)[1][2] seeking help.[3] The first person they saw was Chilean arriero Sergio Catalán, who gave them food and then rode for ten hours to alert authorities. The story of the passengers' survival after 72 days drew international attention.[4] The remaining 16 survivors were rescued on 23 December 1972, more than two months after the crash.[5]

    The survivors were concerned about what the public and family members of the dead might think about their acts of eating the dead. There was an initial public backlash, but after they explained the pact the survivors made to sacrifice their flesh if they died to help the others survive, the outcry diminished and the families were more understanding. The incident was later known as the Andes flight disaster and, in the Hispanic world, as El Milagro de los Andes (The Miracle of the Andes).

    1. ^ "I Am Alive: The Crash of Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 - Page 2 — History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts". History.com. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
    2. ^ "Survivor of 1972 Andes plane crash trusts Dallas firm to tell his tale in film | Cheryl Hall Columns - Business News for Dallas, Texas - The Dallas Morning News". dallasnews.com. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference live was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Sitio Oficial del accidente de los Andes – Historia". Viven.com.uy. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
    5. ^ "Uruguayan Air Force flight 571 | Crash, Rescue, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
     
  40. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 December 1974Cyclone Tracy devastates Darwin, Australia.

    Cyclone Tracy

    Cyclone Tracy was a tropical cyclone that devastated the city of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia from 24–26 December 1974. The storm was the second-smallest tropical cyclone on record, behind only Tropical Storm Marco in 2008.

    The small, developing easterly storm had been observed passing clear of the city initially, but then turned towards it early on 24 December. After 10:00 p.m. ACST, damage became severe, and wind gusts reached 217 kilometres per hour (134.84 mph) before instruments failed. Residents of Darwin were celebrating Christmas, and did not immediately acknowledge the emergency, partly because they had been alerted to an earlier cyclone (Selma) that passed west of the city. Additionally, news outlets had only a skeleton crew on duty over the holiday.

    Tracy killed 71 people, caused A$837 million in damage (1974 dollars), or approximately A$6.41 billion (2014 dollars), or $4.94 billion 2014 USD. It destroyed more than 70 percent of Darwin's buildings, including 80 percent of houses.[1][2] It left more than 25,000 out of the 47,000 inhabitants of the city homeless prior to landfall and required the evacuation of over 30,000 people,[3] of whom many never returned. After the storm passed, the city was rebuilt using more stringent standards "to cyclone code".

    1. ^ "NT coroner hands down finding on Cyclone Tracy deaths". ABC News. 18 March 2005. Archived from the original on 5 April 2005. Retrieved 24 March 2006.
    2. ^ "Tropical cyclone extremes". Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
    3. ^ "Event – Cyclone Tracy". Attorney-General’s Department Disasters Database. Australian Emergency Management Institute. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
     

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