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Cadence of 180 steps/min to treat and reduce risk of running injury

Discussion in 'Biomechanics, Sports and Foot orthoses' started by Craig Payne, Dec 10, 2011.

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    Articles:
    1
    Acute Changes in Foot Strike Pattern and Cadence Affect Running Parameters Associated with Tibial Stress Fractures
    Jennifer R. Yong et al
    Journal of Biomechanics; 18 May 2018
     
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    The Effect Of Stride Frequency Variations On Running
    Performance At The Velocity Of Vo2Max

    Boram Lim, Boe Burrus, Justus Ortega, Young Sub Kwon.
    Presented at ACSM Mtg, 2018
     
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    Increasing preferred step rate during running reduces plantar pressures.
    Gerrard JM, Bonanno DR.
    Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Jan;28(1):144-151. doi: 10.1111/sms.12886.
     
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    Articles:
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    ALTERING CADENCE OR VERTICAL OSCILLATION
    DURING RUNNING: EFFECTS ON RUNNING RELATED
    INJURY FACTORS

    Douglas Adams et al
    The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy | Volume 13, Number 4 | August 2018 | Page 643
     
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    Articles:
    1
    ALTERING CADENCE OR VERTICAL OSCILLATION DURING RUNNING: EFFECTS ON RUNNING RELATED INJURY FACTORS.
    Adams, Douglas; Pozzi, Federico; Willy, Richard W.; Carrol, Anthony; Zeni, Joseph
    International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy . Aug2018, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p633-642. 10p. 3
     
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    Articles:
    1
    Forefoot Striking Is More Effective in Reducing Loadrates than Increasing Cadence in Runners
    Erin Futrell, MSPT, OCS, Irene Davis, PhD, PT
    AOFAS Annual Meeting 2018 1
     
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    Articles:
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    Factors Associated With Self-Selected Step Rate in High School Cross Country Runners
    Luedke, Lace E. et al
    The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: October 17, 2018 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - p
     
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    Articles:
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    Tibiofemoral Joint Forces in Female Recreational Runners Vary with Step Frequency
    Thakkar, Bhushan; Willson, John D.; Harrison, Kathryn; Tickes, Robert; Williams, D. S. Blaise III
    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: February 4, 2019 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - p
     
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    Articles:
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    Foot strike pattern, step rate, and trunk posture combined gait modifications to reduce impact loading during running☆
    YangjianHuangaHaishengXiaaGangChenbSulinChengcdRoy T.H.CheungePeter B.Shulla
    Journal of Biomechanics; 12 February 2019
     
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    Articles:
    1
    Is Cadence Related to Leg Length and Load Rate?
    Adam S. Tenforde et al
    Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2019 Volume:0 Issue:0 Pages:1–4 DOI: 10.2519/jospt.2019.8420
     
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    Press Release:
    Step it up: Does running cadence matter? Not as much as previously thought
    March 27, 2019
    ANN ARBOR–Contrary to long-standing popular belief, running at a prescribed, one-size-fits-all “optimal” cadence doesn’t play as big a role in speed and efficiency as once thought.

    Since the 1980s, when running coach Jack Daniels noted that the step rate for runners in the 1984 Olympics was about 180 per minute, it’s been widely touted as a means to reduce injury or improve speed, said Geoff Burns, an elite marathoner and University of Michigan doctoral student in kinesiology.

    “It’s one of the few biomechanical measures we have that is a gross system-level output for running,” he said.

    To find out what determines cadence and how much cadence really matters, Burns had the top 20 elite male and female runners record their cadence during the 100K International Association of Ultrarunners World Championship in 2016.

    While the average number of steps per minute was 182, the number of steps per minute per mile varied enormously by individual.

    “Some ran at 160 steps per minutes and others ran at 210 steps per minute, and it wasn’t related at all to how good they were or how fast they were,” Burns said. “Height influenced it a little bit, but even people who were the same height had an enormous amount of variability.”

    Elite marathoner and PhD student in kinesiology Geoff Burns (center) running in the 100K International Association of Ultrarunners World Championship in 2016. Image courtesy: IAU
    Elite marathoner and PhD student in kinesiology Geoff Burns (center) running in the 100K International Association of Ultrarunners World Championship in 2016. Image courtesy: IAU

    The main takeaway for runners is that cadence is highly individual, and your body knows what’s optimal, said Burns, a third-year Ph.D. student in Professor Ronald Zernicke’s lab. This means runners shouldn’t necessarily try to manipulate cadence to reach the 180 steps, but rather, monitor cadence as their running progresses.

    “It’s a barometer and not a governor,” he said. “There’s no magical number that’s dogmatically right for everybody.”

    For years, many coaches and practitioners thought that cadence should remain constant as speed increases, which required longer steps. Burns says longer steps takes more energy, and his study found that cadence naturally increased four to five steps per minute per mile as runners ran faster.

    Other findings surprised Burns, as well. First, step cadence was preserved through the race, even during the torturous “ultra shuffle” near the end––when racers shuffle across the finish line, barely lifting their feet.

    Burns assumed that exhausted runners would take shorter, choppier steps. But surprisingly, when researchers controlled for speed, cadence stayed constant.

    Another unexpected finding is that by the end of a race, cadence varied much less per minute, as if the fatigued runner’s body had locked into an optimal steps-per-minute turnover. It’s unclear why, Burns said, but this deserves further study.

    An ultramarathon is anything longer than a traditional marathon of 26 miles. As a semi-pro ultramarathoner, Burns spends about two hours a day running and another two hours a day on conditioning––in addition to his doctoral work.

    “It’s a really unique symbiotic relationship,” he said. “My running informs my research and helps me not just ask novel questions and gain insight and perspective into the craft, but also helps me refine how I prepare for races.”

    Burns’ research appears in the February issue of Applied Physiology.

     
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    Articles:
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    Step frequency patterns of elite ultramarathon runners during a 100-km road race
    Geoffrey T. Burns, Jessica M. Zendler, and Ronald F. Zernicke
    J App Physiol 20 FEB 2019
     
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    Energetically optimal stride frequency is maintained with fatigue in trained ultramarathon runners
    Gianluca Vernillo et al
    JSAMS; Articles in Press
     
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    Articles:
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    Cadence Impact on Cardiopulmonary, Metabolic and Biomechanical Loading During Downhill Running
    Heather K.VincentChristopherMassengillAndrewHarrisCongChenJoseph G.WasserMichelleBrunerKevin R.Vincent
    Gait & Posture; 2 May 2019
     
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    Articles:
    1
    Does Step Rate Affect Running Injury Incidence? An
    Observational Study with 12-Month Follow-Up

    ELIZA SZYMANEK, Erin Miller, Amy Weart, Donald Goss
    ACSM ANNUAL MEETING
    May 28 – June 1, 2019 – Orlando, Florida

     
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    Increased Stride‐rate in Runners Following an Independent Retraining Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Jesson Baumgartner Rebecca Gusmer John Hollman Jonathan T. Finnoff
    01 July 2019
     
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    Articles:
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    Step Frequency Training Improves Running Economy in Well-Trained Female Runners
    Quinn, Timothy J et al
    The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: July 11, 2019 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - p
     
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