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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 march 1928 – In California, the St. Francis Dam fails; the resulting floods kill 431 people.

    St. Francis Dam

    The St. Francis Dam was a curved concrete gravity dam, built to create a large regulating and storage reservoir for the city of Los Angeles, California. The reservoir was an integral part of the city's Los Angeles Aqueduct water supply infrastructure. It was located in San Francisquito Canyon of the Sierra Pelona Mountains, about 40 miles (64 km) northwest of downtown Los Angeles, and approximately 10 miles (16 km) north of the present day city of Santa Clarita.

    The dam was designed and built between 1924 and 1926 by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, then named the Bureau of Water Works and Supply. The department was under the direction of its general manager and chief engineer, William Mulholland.

    At 11:57 p.m. on March 12, 1928, the dam catastrophically failed, and the resulting flood took the lives of what is estimated to be at least 431 people.[2][3] The collapse of the St. Francis Dam is considered to be one of the worst American civil engineering disasters of the 20th century and remains the second-greatest loss of life in California's history, after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. The disaster marked the end of Mulholland's career.[4]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CHL was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Stansell, Ann (August 2014). Memorialization and Memory of Southern California's St. Francis Dam Disaster of 1928. California State University, Northridge (Thesis).
    3. ^ Stansell, Ann C. (February 2014). "Roster of St. Francis Dam Disaster Victims". Santa Clarita Valley History In Pictures.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference William Mulholland was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 March 1781William Herschel discovers Uranus.

    Uranus

    Uranus (from the Latin name Ūranus for the Greek god Οὐρανός) is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have bulk chemical compositions which differ from that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. For this reason, scientists often classify Uranus and Neptune as "ice giants" to distinguish them from the gas giants. Uranus' atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons.[14] It is the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of 49 K (−224 °C; −371 °F), and has a complex, layered cloud structure with water thought to make up the lowest clouds and methane the uppermost layer of clouds.[14] The interior of Uranus is mainly composed of ices and rock.[13]

    Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a ring system, a magnetosphere, and numerous moons. The Uranian system has a unique configuration because its axis of rotation is tilted sideways, nearly into the plane of its solar orbit. Its north and south poles, therefore, lie where most other planets have their equators.[19] In 1986, images from Voyager 2 showed Uranus as an almost featureless planet in visible light, without the cloud bands or storms associated with the other giant planets.[19] Observations from Earth have shown seasonal change and increased weather activity as Uranus approached its equinox in 2007. Wind speeds can reach 250 metres per second (900 km/h; 560 mph).[20]

    Uranus is the only planet whose name is derived directly from a figure from Greek mythology, from the Latinised version of the Greek god of the sky Ouranos.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference OED was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBCOUP was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference nasafact was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference CSeligman was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cite error: The named reference fact was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference meanplane was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference VSOP87 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ a b c d e f g Cite error: The named reference Seidelmann Archinal A'hearn et al. 2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference Jacobson Campbell et al. 1992 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ de Pater, Imke; Lissauer, Jack J. (2015). Planetary Sciences (2nd updated ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-0521853712.
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pearl_et_al_Uranus was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mallama_et_al was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Podolak Weizman et al. 1995 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference Lunine 1993 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Mallama_and_Hilton was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Irwin, Patrick G. J.; et al. (23 April 2018). "Detection of hydrogen sulfide above the clouds in Uranus's atmosphere". Nature Astronomy. 2 (5): 420–427. Bibcode:2018NatAs...2..420I. doi:10.1038/s41550-018-0432-1. hdl:2381/42547.
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lindal Lyons et al. 1987 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Conrath Gautier et al. 1987 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Smith Soderblom et al. 1986 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sromovsky & Fry 2005 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 March 1931Alam Ara, India's first talking film, is released.

    Alam Ara

    Alam Ara (translation: The Ornament of the World) was a 1931 Indian[2][3] film directed by Ardeshir Irani. It was the first Indian sound film.[4][5]

    Irani recognised the importance that sound would have on the cinema, and raced to complete Alam Ara before several contemporary sound films. Alam Ara debuted at the Majestic Cinema in Mumbai (then Bombay) on 14 March 1931.[6] The first Indian talkie was so popular that "police aid had to be summoned to control the crowds."[7] The film was houseful for the next 8 weeks of its release. It was advertised with the tagline "All living. Breathing. 100 per cent talking".[8]

    The film has long been lost and was not available as far back as 1967 according to the National Film Archive of India, Pune.[9]

    1. ^ Alison, Arnold (1992). "Aspects of Production and Consumption in the Popular Hindi Film Song Industry". Asian Music. 24 (1): 122–136. doi:10.2307/834454. Following the commercial success of India's first talkie feature film Alam Ara ("Light of the World", 1931, in Hindi-Urdu)
    2. ^ Naficy, Hamid (16 September 2011). A Social History of Iranian Cinema, Volume 1: The Artisanal Era, 1897–1941. Duke University Press. ISBN 082234775X.
    3. ^ Malik, Iftikhar Haider (2006). Culture and Customs of Pakistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313331268.
    4. ^ Goddard, John. "Missouri Masala Fear not, St. Louisans: You don't need to go to Bombay to get your Bollywood fix" Riverfront Times, St. Louis, Missouri, 30 July 2003, Music section.
    5. ^ Gokulsing, K.; Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian popular cinema: a narrative of cultural change. Trentham Books. p. 24. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.
    6. ^ "Alam Ara: A milestone in Indian cinema". Rediff.com. 14 March 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
    7. ^ Quoted in Chatterji (1999), "The History of Sound."
    8. ^ "India's first Talkie, 'Alam Ara' missing From National Archives". MensXP.com. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
    9. ^ Alam Ara long lost, was never with NFAI: founder-director Indian Express, 17 March 2011, Retrieved:2013-04-26
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 March 1906Rolls-Royce Limited is incorporated.

    Rolls-Royce Limited

    Rolls-Royce's The Spirit of Ecstasy bonnet ornament

    Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and later an aero-engine manufacturing business established in 1904 by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce. Building on Royce's reputation established with his cranes they quickly developed a reputation for superior engineering by manufacturing the "best car in the world". The First World War brought them into manufacturing aero-engines. Joint development of jet engines began in 1940 and they entered production.

    Rolls-Royce has built an enduring reputation for development and manufacture of engines for defence and civil aircraft.

    In the late 1960s, Rolls-Royce became hopelessly crippled by its mismanagement of development of its advanced RB211 jet engine and the consequent cost over-runs, though it ultimately proved a great success. In 1971, the owners were obliged to liquidate their business. The useful portions were bought by a new government-owned company named Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited which continued the core business but sold the holdings in British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) almost immediately and transferred ownership of the profitable but now financially insignificant car division to Rolls-Royce Motors Holdings Limited. This it sold to Vickers in 1980. Rolls-Royce obtained consent to drop 1971 from its name in 1977.

    The Rolls-Royce business remained nationalised until 1987 when, renaming the owner Rolls-Royce plc, the government sold it to the public. Rolls-Royce plc still owns and operates Rolls-Royce's principal business though since 2003 it is technically a subsidiary of listed holding company Rolls-Royce Holdings plc.

    A marketing survey in 1987 showed that only Coca-Cola was a more widely known brand than Rolls-Royce.[1]

    1. ^ "Rolls-Royce shares will fly". The Times, Wednesday, April 29, 1987; p. 25; Issue 62755
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 March 1976 – British Prime Minister Harold Wilson resigns, citing personal reasons.

    Harold Wilson

    James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, PC, FRS, FSS (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976.

    Entering Parliament in 1945, Wilson was appointed a parliamentary secretary in the Attlee ministry and rose quickly through the ministerial ranks; he became Secretary for Overseas Trade in 1947 and was elevated to Cabinet shortly thereafter as President of the Board of Trade. In opposition to the next Conservative government, he served as Shadow Chancellor (1955–1961) and Shadow Foreign Secretary (1961–1963). Hugh Gaitskell, then Labour leader, died suddenly in 1963 and Wilson was elected leader. Narrowly winning the 1964 general election, Wilson won an increased majority in a snap 1966 election.

    Wilson's first period as Prime Minister coincided with a period of low unemployment and relative economic prosperity, though hindered by significant problems with Britain's external balance of payments. In 1969 he sent British troops to Northern Ireland. After losing the 1970 election to Edward Heath, he spent four years as Leader of the Opposition before the February 1974 election resulted in a hung parliament. After Heath's talks with the Liberals broke down, Wilson returned to power as leader of a minority government until another general election in October, resulting in a narrow Labour victory. A period of economic crisis had begun to hit most Western countries, and in 1976 Wilson suddenly announced his resignation as Prime Minister.

    Wilson's approach to socialism was moderate compared to others in his party at the time, emphasising programmes aimed at increasing opportunity in society, rather than on the controversial socialist goal of promoting wider public ownership of industry; he took little action to pursue the Labour constitution's stated dedication to nationalisation, though he did not formally disown it. Himself a member of the party's "soft left", Wilson joked about leading a cabinet made up mostly of social democrats, comparing himself to a Bolshevik revolutionary presiding over a Tsarist cabinet, but there was arguably little to divide him ideologically from the cabinet majority.[1][2]

    Overall, Wilson is seen to have managed a number of difficult political issues with considerable tactical skill, including such potentially divisive issues for his party such as the role of public ownership, membership of the European Community, and the Vietnam War; he refused to allow British troops to take part, while continuing to maintain a costly military presence east of Suez.[3] His stated ambition of substantially improving Britain's long-term economic performance was left largely unfulfilled. He lost his energy and drive in his second premiership, and accomplished little as the leadership split over Europe and trade union issues began tearing Labour apart.[4]

    1. ^ The Labour government, 1974–79: political aims and economic reality by Martin Holmes.
    2. ^ The Labour Party since 1945 by Eric Shaw.
    3. ^ Goodman, Geoffrey (1 July 2005). "Harold Wilson | Politics". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
    4. ^ Ben Pimlott, Harold Wilson (1992), pp. 604–5, 648, 656, 670–77, 689.
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 March 1958 – The United States launches the Vanguard 1 satellite.

    Vanguard 1

    Universal newsreel about the launch of Vanguard 1

    Vanguard 1 (ID: 1958-Beta 2

    [3]) is an American satellite that was the fourth artificial Earth orbital satellite to be successfully launched (following Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, and Explorer 1). Vanguard 1 was the first satellite to have solar electric power.[4] Although communication with the satellite was lost in 1964, it remains the oldest man-made object still in orbit, together with the upper stage of its launch vehicle. It was designed to test the launch capabilities of a three-stage launch vehicle as a part of Project Vanguard, and the effects of the space environment on a satellite and its systems in Earth orbit. It also was used to obtain geodetic measurements through orbit analysis. Vanguard 1 was described by the Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev, as "the grapefruit satellite".[5]

    1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Vanguard 1 Satellite details 1958-002B NORAD 00005". N2YO. 23 August 2018. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
    2. ^ "Vanguard 1, Oldest Manmade Satellite, Turns 60 This Weekend". AmericaSpace. Ben Evans. March 18, 2018. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
    3. ^ "U.S. Space Objects Registry". Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
    4. ^ Vanguard I the World's Oldest Satellite Still in Orbit Archived 2015-03-21 at the Wayback Machine, accessed September 24, 2007
    5. ^ "Vanguard I - the World's Oldest Satellite Still in Orbit". Spacecraft Engineering Department, U.S. Navy. Archived from the original on 2008-09-19.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 March 1850American Express is founded by Henry Wells and William Fargo.

    American Express

    The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center in New York City. The company was founded in 1850 and is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.[4] The company is best known for its charge card, credit card, and traveler's cheque businesses.

    In 2016, credit cards using the American Express network accounted for 22.9% of the total dollar volume of credit card transactions in the US.[5] As of December 31, 2017, the company had 112.8 million cards in force, including 50 million cards in force in the United States, each with an average annual spending of $18,519.[3]

    In 2017, Forbes named American Express as the 23rd most valuable brand in the world (and the highest within financial services), estimating the brand to be worth US$24.5 billion.[6] In 2018, Fortune ranked American Express as the 14th most admired company worldwide,[7] and the 23rd best company to work for.[8]

    The company's logo, adopted in 1958, is a gladiator or centurion[9] whose image appears on the company's traveler's cheques, charge cards and credit cards.

    1. ^ Peter Z. Grossman. American Express: The Unofficial History of the People Who Built the Great Financial Empire. New York: Crown Publishers, 1987. (reprint: Beard Books 2006; ISBN 1-58798-283-8; Chapter 2.)
    2. ^ Noel M. Loomis, Wells Fargo. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1968
    3. ^ a b "US SEC: Form 10-K American Express Company". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
    4. ^ "Dow Jones Industrial Average". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
    5. ^ Comoreanu, Alina (March 7, 2017). "Market Share by Credit Card Network". Wallet Hub.
    6. ^ "Forbes 2017 Rankings - The World's Most Valuable Brands". Archived from the original on March 8, 2018.
    7. ^ Fortune Most Admired Companies : American Express
    8. ^ Fortune Best Companies to Work For : American Express
    9. ^ "American Express Logo Review". Company Logos. 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2011. The initial trademark of 1958 described the gladiator in the American Express logo as a gladiator on a shield whereas the current American Express website lists the logo character as a Gladiator Head Design. However, there are many who believe that the gladiator is a centurion ...
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 March 1861 – The First Taranaki War ends in New Zealand.

    First Taranaki War

    The First Taranaki War was an armed conflict over land ownership and sovereignty that took place between Māori and the New Zealand Government in the Taranaki district of New Zealand's North Island from March 1860 to March 1861.

    The war was sparked by a dispute between the government and Māori landowners over the sale of a property at Waitara, but spread throughout the region. It was fought by more than 3,500 imperial troops brought in from Australia, as well as volunteer soldiers and militia, against Māori forces that fluctuated between a few hundred and about 1,500.[1] Total losses among the imperial, volunteer and militia troops are estimated to have been 238, while Māori casualties totalled about 200, although the proportion of Māori casualties was higher.

    The war ended in a ceasefire, with neither side explicitly accepting the peace terms of the other. Although there were claims by the British that they had won the war, there were widely held views at the time they had suffered an unfavourable and humiliating result. Historians have also been divided on the result.[2] Historian James Belich has claimed that the Māori succeeded in thwarting the British bid to impose sovereignty over them, and had therefore been victorious. But he said the Māori victory was a hollow one, leading to the invasion of the Waikato.

    In its 1996 report to the Government on Taranaki land claims, the Waitangi Tribunal observed that the war was begun by the Government, which had been the aggressor and unlawful in its actions in launching an attack by its armed forces. An opinion sought by the tribunal from a senior constitutional lawyer stated that the Governor, Thomas Gore Browne, and certain officers were liable for criminal and civil charges for their actions.[3] The term "First Taranaki War" is opposed by some historians, who refer only to the Taranaki Wars, rejecting suggestions that post-1861 conflict was a second war.[4] The 1927 Royal Commission on Confiscated Land also referred to the hostilities between 1864 and 1866 as a continuation of the initial Taranaki war.[5]

    1. ^ Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1.
    2. ^ Belich, James (1986). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict (1st ed.). Auckland: Penguin. pp. 115–116. ISBN 0-14-011162-X.
    3. ^ "The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa Tuatahi by the Waitangi Tribunal, chapter 3" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
    4. ^ James Belich, in "The New Zealand Wars" (1986) dismisses as "inappropriate" the description of later conflict as a second Taranaki war (pp. 120).
    5. ^ "The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa Tuatahi by the Waitangi Tribunal, chapter 4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 March 1987 – The Food and Drug Administration approves the anti-AIDS drug, AZT.

    Zidovudine

    Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.[2] It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals.[2] It may be used to prevent mother-to-child spread during birth or after a needlestick injury or other potential exposure.[2] It is sold both by itself and together as lamivudine/zidovudine and abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine.[2] It can be used by mouth or by slow injection into a vein.[2]

    Common side effects include headaches, fever, and nausea.[2] Serious side effects include liver problems, muscle damage, and high blood lactate levels.[2] It is commonly used in pregnancy and appears to be safe for the baby.[2] ZDV is of the nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) class.[2] It works by inhibiting the enzyme reverse transcriptase that HIV uses to make DNA and therefore decreases replication of the virus.[2]

    Zidovudine was first described in 1964.[3] It was approved in the United States in 1987 and was the first treatment for HIV.[2][4] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[5] It is available as a generic medication.[2] The wholesale cost in the developing world is US$5.10 to $25.60 per month.[6] As of 2015, the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States was more than $200.[7]

    1. ^ "Zidovudine". PubChem Public Chemical Database. NCBI. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Zidovudine". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
    3. ^ Fischer, Janos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 505. ISBN 9783527607495. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017.
    4. ^ Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Derdeyn, Cynthia A. (2007). Entry Inhibitors in HIV Therapy. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 179. ISBN 9783764377830.
    5. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 13, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
    6. ^ "Zidovudine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
    7. ^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 67. ISBN 9781284057560.
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 March 1925 – The Butler Act prohibits the teaching of human evolution in Tennessee.

    Butler Act

    The Butler Act was a 1925 Tennessee law introduced by Tennessee House of Representatives member John Washington Butler prohibiting public school teachers from denying the Biblical account of mankind's origin. It was enacted as Tennessee Code Annotated Title 49 (Education) Section 1922, having been signed into law by Tennessee governor Austin Peay. The law also prevented the teaching of the evolution of man from what it referred to as lower orders of animals in place of the Biblical account.

    The law was challenged later that year in a famous trial in Dayton, Tennessee called the Scopes Trial which included a raucous confrontation between prosecution attorney and fundamentalist religious leader, William Jennings Bryan, and noted defense attorney and religious agnostic, Clarence Darrow.

    It was repealed in 1967.

     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 March 1972 – In Eisenstadt v. Baird, the United States Supreme Court decides that unmarried persons have the right to possess contraceptives.

    Eisenstadt v. Baird

    Eisenstadt v. Baird, 405 U.S. 438 (1972), is a United States Supreme Court case that established the right of unmarried people to possess contraception on the same basis as married couples.

    The Court struck down a Massachusetts law prohibiting the distribution of contraceptives to unmarried people for the purpose of preventing pregnancy, ruling that it violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution.

     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 March 1994 – Aeroflot Flight 593 crashed into the Kuznetsk Alatau mountain, Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, killing 75.

    Aeroflot Flight 593

    Aeroflot Flight 593 was a regular passenger flight from Sheremetyevo International Airport, Moscow, to Kai Tak Airport in Hong Kong. On 23 March 1994, the aircraft operating the route, an Airbus A310-304 flown by Aeroflot – Russian International Airlines, crashed into a mountain range in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, killing all 63 passengers and 12 crew members on board.

    No evidence of a technical malfunction was found.[1] Cockpit voice and flight data recorders revealed the presence of the relief pilot's 12-year-old daughter and 16-year-old son on the flight deck.[2][3][4] While seated at the controls, the pilot's son had unknowingly disengaged the A310's autopilot control of the aircraft's ailerons. The autopilot then disengaged completely causing the aircraft to roll into a steep bank and a near-vertical dive. Despite managing to level the aircraft, the first officer over-corrected when pulling up, causing the plane to stall and enter into a corkscrew dive; the pilots managed to level the aircraft off once more, but by then the plane had lost too much altitude to recover and crashed into the Kuznetsk Alatau mountain range.[5]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference FI1994-8 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Transcript reveals cockpit anarchy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Tape Confirms The Pilot's Son Caused Crash Of Russian Jet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference A310 crash: Conflict over child at controls' report was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference FDR backs A310 crash allegations was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 March 1993 – Discovery of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9.

    Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9

    Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects.[4] This generated a large amount of coverage in the popular media, and the comet was closely observed by astronomers worldwide. The collision provided new information about Jupiter and highlighted its possible role in reducing space debris in the inner Solar System.

    The comet was discovered by astronomers Carolyn and Eugene M. Shoemaker and David Levy in 1993.[5] Shoemaker–Levy 9 had been captured by Jupiter and was orbiting the planet at the time. It was located on the night of March 24 in a photograph taken with the 46 cm (18 in) Schmidt telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California. It was the first comet observed to be orbiting a planet, and had probably been captured by Jupiter around 20–30 years earlier.

    Calculations showed that its unusual fragmented form was due to a previous closer approach to Jupiter in July 1992. At that time, the orbit of Shoemaker–Levy 9 passed within Jupiter's Roche limit, and Jupiter's tidal forces had acted to pull apart the comet. The comet was later observed as a series of fragments ranging up to 2 km (1.2 mi) in diameter. These fragments collided with Jupiter's southern hemisphere between July 16 and 22, 1994 at a speed of approximately 60 km/s (37 mi/s) (Jupiter's escape velocity) or 216,000 km/h (134,000 mph). The prominent scars from the impacts were more easily visible than the Great Red Spot and persisted for many months.

    1. ^ Howell, E. (February 19, 2013). "Shoemaker–Levy 9: Comet's Impact Left Its Mark on Jupiter". Space.com.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Solem1995 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Solem1994 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 Collision with Jupiter". National Space Science Data Center. February 2005. Archived from the original on February 19, 2013. Retrieved August 26, 2008.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference IAU 5725 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 March 1995WikiWikiWeb, the world's first wiki, and part of the Portland Pattern Repository, is made public by Ward Cunningham.

    WikiWikiWeb

    The WikiWikiWeb is the first-ever wiki, or user-editable website. It was launched on 25 March 1995 by its inventor, programmer Ward Cunningham, to accompany the Portland Pattern Repository website discussing software design patterns. The name WikiWikiWeb originally also applied to the wiki software that operated the website, written in the Perl programming language and later renamed to "WikiBase". The site is frequently referred to by its users as simply "Wiki", and a convention established among users of the early network of wiki sites that followed was that using the word with a capitalized W referred exclusively to the original site.

     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 March 1975 – The Biological Weapons Convention comes into force.

    Biological Weapons Convention

    The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the Biological Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BWC, or Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BTWC) was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.[1]

    The Convention was the result of prolonged efforts by the international community to establish a new instrument that would supplement the 1925 Geneva Protocol. The Geneva Protocol prohibits use but not possession or development of chemical and biological weapons.

    A draft of the BWC, submitted by the British[2] was opened for signature on 10 April 1972 and entered into force 26 March 1975 when twenty-two governments had deposited their instruments of ratification.[3] It commits the 182 states which are party to it as of September 2018 to prohibit the development, production, and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons. However, the absence of any formal verification regime to monitor compliance has limited the effectiveness of the Convention. An additional five states have signed the BWC but have yet to ratify the treaty.

    The scope of the BWC's prohibition is defined in Article 1 (the so-called general purpose criterion). This includes all microbial and other biological agents or toxins and their means of delivery (with exceptions for medical and defensive purposes in small quantities). Subsequent Review Conferences have reaffirmed that the general purpose criterion encompasses all future scientific and technological developments relevant to the Convention. It is not the objects themselves (biological agents or toxins), but rather certain purposes for which they may be employed which are prohibited; similar to Art.II, 1 in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Permitted purposes under the BWC are defined as prophylactic, protective and other peaceful purposes. The objects may not be retained in quantities that have no justification or which are inconsistent with the permitted purposes.

    As stated in Article 1 of the BWC:

    "Each State Party to this Convention undertakes never in any circumstances to develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain:

    • (1) Microbial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes;
    • (2) Weapons, equipment or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict."

    The United States Congress passed the Bioweapons Anti-Terrorism Act in 1989 to implement the Convention. The law applies the Convention's convent to countries and private citizens, and criminalizes violations of the Convention.[4]

    1. ^ The text of the Convention, as well as the key documents from recent meetings can be found on the BWC Implementation Support Unit website.
    2. ^ "History – World Wars: Silent Weapon: Smallpox and Biological Warfare". BBC. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
    3. ^ Trakimavicius, Lukas (24 May 2018). "Is Russia Violating the Biological Weapons Convention?". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
    4. ^ Coen, Bob (2009). Dead Silence: Fear and Terrorism on the Anthrax Trail. Berkeley, California: CounterPoint. p. 205. ISBN 978-1-58243-509-1.
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 March 1915Typhoid Mary, the first healthy carrier of disease ever identified in the United States, is put in quarantine, where she would remain for the rest of her life.

    Mary Mallon

    Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 – November 11, 1938), also known as Typhoid Mary, was an Irish-American cook. She was the first person in the United States identified as an asymptomatic carrier of the pathogen associated with typhoid fever. She was presumed to have infected 51 people, three of whom died, over the course of her career as a cook.[1] She was twice forcibly isolated by public health authorities and died after a total of nearly three decades in isolation.[2][3]

    1. ^ "'Typhoid Mary' Dies Of A Stroke At 68. Carrier of Disease, Blamed for 51 Cases and 3 Deaths, but Immune". The New York Times. November 12, 1938. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2010. Mary Mallon, the first carrier of typhoid bacilli identified in America and consequently known as Typhoid Mary, died yesterday in Riverside Hospital on North Brother Island.
    2. ^ The Gospel of Germs: Men, Women, and the Microbe in American Life, ISBN 0674357086
    3. ^ Typhoid Mary: An Urban Historical, ISBN 160819518X
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 March 1979 – A coolant leak at the Three Mile Island's Unit 2 nuclear reactor outside Harrisburg, Pennsylvania leads to the core overheating and a partial meltdown.

    Three Mile Island accident

    The Three Mile Island accident was a partial meltdown of reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg and subsequent radiation leak that occurred on March 28, 1979. It was the most significant accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history.[2] On the seven-point International Nuclear Event Scale, the incident was rated a five as an "accident with wider consequences".[3][4]

    The accident began with failures in the non-nuclear secondary system, followed by a stuck-open pilot-operated relief valve in the primary system, which allowed large amounts of nuclear reactor coolant to escape. The mechanical failures were compounded by the initial failure of plant operators to recognize the situation as a loss-of-coolant accident due to inadequate training and human factors, such as human-computer interaction design oversights relating to ambiguous control room indicators in the power plant's user interface. In particular, a hidden indicator light led to an operator manually overriding the automatic emergency cooling system of the reactor because the operator mistakenly believed that there was too much coolant water present in the reactor and causing the steam pressure release.[5]

    The accident crystallized anti-nuclear safety concerns among activists and the general public, and resulted in new regulations for the nuclear industry. It has been cited as a contributor to the decline of a new reactor construction program, a slowdown that was already underway in the 1970s.[6] The partial meltdown resulted in the release of radioactive gases and radioactive iodine into the environment.

    Anti-nuclear movement activists expressed worries about regional health effects from the accident.[7] However, epidemiological studies analyzing the rate of cancer in and around the area since the accident, determined there was a small statistically non-significant increase in the rate and thus no causal connection linking the accident with these cancers has been substantiated.[8][9][10][11][12][13] Cleanup started in August 1979, and officially ended in December 1993, with a total cleanup cost of about $1 billion.[14]

    1. ^ "PHMC Historical Markers Search". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
    2. ^ "Backgrounder on the Three Mile Island Accident". Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
    3. ^ Spiegelberg-Planer, Rejane. "A Matter of Degree: A revised International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) extends its reac". International Atomic Energy Agency. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
    4. ^ King, Laura; Hall, Kenji; Magnier, Mark (March 18, 2011). "In Japan, workers struggling to hook up power to Fukushima reactor". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
    5. ^ "Minutes to Meltdown: Three Mile Island". National Geographic. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011.[archive verification needed]
    6. ^ The Economist (March 31, 2011). "Michael Levi on Nuclear Policy". YouTube. Retrieved April 6, 2011.[time needed]
    7. ^ Gofman, John W.; Tamplin, Arthur R. (December 1, 1979). Poisoned Power: The Case Against Nuclear Power Plants Before and After Three Mile Island (Updated ed.). Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press. p. xvii. Retrieved October 1, 2013. (In 1979 Foreword:) "...we arrive at 333 fatal cancers or leukemias."
    8. ^ Hatch, Maureen C.; et al. (1990). "Cancer near the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant: Radiation Emissions". American Journal of Epidemiology. 132 (3): 397–412. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115673. PMID 2389745.
    9. ^ Levin, R. J. (2008). "Incidence of thyroid cancer in residents surrounding the Three-Mile Island nuclear facility". Laryngoscope. 118 (4): 618–628. doi:10.1097/MLG.0b013e3181613ad2. PMID 18300710. Thyroid cancer incidence has not increased in Dauphin County, the county in which TMI is located. York County demonstrated a trend toward increasing thyroid cancer incidence beginning in 1995, approximately 15 years after the TMI accident. Lancaster County showed a significant increase in thyroid cancer incidence beginning in 1990. These findings, however, do not provide a causal link to the TMI accident.
    10. ^ Levin, R. J.; De Simone, N. F.; Slotkin, J. F.; Henson, B. L. (August 2013). "Incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding Three Mile Island nuclear facility: the 30-year follow-up". Laryngoscope. 123 (8): 2064–2071. doi:10.1002/lary.23953. PMID 23371046.
    11. ^ Han, Y Y.; Youk, A. O.; Sasser, H.; Talbott, E. O. (November 2011). "Cancer incidence among residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1982–1995". Environ Res. 111 (8): 1230–1235. Bibcode:2011ER....111.1230H. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2011.08.005. PMID 21855866.
    12. ^ Hatch, M.C.; Wallenstein, S.; Beyea, J.; Nieves, J. W.; Susser, M. (June 1991). "Cancer rates after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and proximity of residence to the plant". American Journal of Public Health. 81 (6): 719–724. doi:10.2105/AJPH.81.6.719. PMC 1405170. PMID 2029040.
    13. ^ "Backgrounder on the Three Mile Island Accident: Health Effects". Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved January 13, 2018. The NRC conducted detailed studies of the accident's radiological consequences, as did the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (now Health and Human Services), the Department of Energy, and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Several independent groups also conducted studies. The approximately 2 million people around TMI-2 during the accident are estimated to have received an average radiation dose of only about 1 millirem above the usual background dose. To put this into context, exposure from a chest X-ray is about 6 millirem and the area's natural radioactive background dose is about 100-125 millirem per year for the area. The accident's maximum dose to a person at the site boundary would have been less than 100 millirem above background. In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various government agencies monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. Comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well respected organizations, such as Columbia University and the University of Pittsburgh, have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment.
    14. ^ "14-Year Cleanup at Three Mile Island Concludes". The New York Times. August 15, 1993. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
     
  18. Admin2

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    29 March 1974Terracotta Army was discovered in Shaanxi province, China.

    Terracotta Army

    The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE with the purpose of protecting the emperor in his afterlife.

    The figures, dating from approximately the late third century BCE,[1] were discovered in 1974 by local farmers in Lintong County, outside Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. The figures vary in height according to their roles, with the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots and horses. Estimates from 2007 were that the three pits containing the Terracotta Army held more than 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses, and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which remained buried in the pits near Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum.[2] Other terracotta non-military figures were found in other pits, including officials, acrobats, strongmen, and musicians.

    1. ^ Lu Yanchou; Zhang Jingzhao; Xie Jun; Wang Xueli (1988). "TL dating of pottery sherds and baked soil from the Xian Terracotta Army Site, Shaanxi Province, China". International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part D. Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements. 14 (1–2): 283–286. doi:10.1016/1359-0189(88)90077-5.
    2. ^ Portal 2007, p. 167.
     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 March 1863 – Danish prince Wilhelm Georg is chosen as King George of Greece.

    George I of Greece

    George I (Greek: Γεώργιος Α΄, Geórgios I; 24 December 1845 – 18 March 1913) was King of Greece from 1863 until his assassination in 1913.

    Originally a Danish prince, George was born in Copenhagen, and seemed destined for a career in the Royal Danish Navy. He was only 17 years old when he was elected king by the Greek National Assembly, which had deposed the unpopular former king Otto. His nomination was both suggested and supported by the Great Powers: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire and the Russian Empire. He married the Russian grand duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia, and became the first monarch of a new Greek dynasty. Two of his sisters, Alexandra and Dagmar, married into the British and Russian royal families. King Edward VII and Tsar Alexander III were his brothers-in-law and King George V and Tsar Nicholas II were his nephews.

    George's reign of almost 50 years (the longest in modern Greek history) was characterized by territorial gains as Greece established its place in pre-World War I Europe. Britain ceded the Ionian Islands peacefully, while Thessaly was annexed from the Ottoman Empire after the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). Greece was not always successful in its territorial ambitions; it was defeated in the Greco-Turkish War (1897). During the First Balkan War, after Greek troops had captured much of Greek Macedonia, George was assassinated in Thessaloniki. Compared with his own long tenure, the reigns of his successors Constantine, Alexander, and George II proved short and insecure.

    1. ^ a b Throughout George's lifetime, Greece used the Old Style Julian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, all dates in this article are in the New Style Gregorian calendar.
    2. ^ At the time of the King's assassination, Thessaloniki was in occupied Ottoman territory. The city was recognized as part of the Kingdom of Greece by the Treaty of Bucharest (1913) five months afterwards.
     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 March 1921 – The Royal Australian Air Force is formed.

    Royal Australian Air Force

    The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed in March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force (ADF). It operates the majority of the ADF's fixed wing aircraft, although both the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy also operate aircraft in various roles.[1][2] It directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps (AFC), formed on 22 October 1912.[3] The RAAF provides support across a spectrum of operations such as air superiority, precision strikes, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, air mobility, space surveillance, and humanitarian support.

    The RAAF took part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts. During the early years of the Second World War a number of RAAF bomber, fighter, reconnaissance and other squadrons served in Britain, and with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. From 1942, a large number of RAAF units were formed in Australia, and fought in South West Pacific Area. Thousands of Australians also served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe, including during the bomber offensive against Germany.[4] By the time the war ended, a total of 216,900 men and women served in the RAAF, of whom 10,562 were killed in action.[5]

    Later the RAAF served in the Berlin Airlift, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia–Malaysia Confrontation and Vietnam War. More recently, the RAAF has participated in operations in East Timor, the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan, and the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).

    The RAAF has 259 aircraft, of which 110 are combat aircraft.

    1. ^ "Current aircraft". Royal Australian Navy. Archived from the original on 27 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
    2. ^ "Aviation projects". Australian Army. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
    3. ^ "Australian Military Aviation and World War One". Royal Australian Air Force. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Barnes3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Eather 1995, p. 18.
     
  21. Admin2

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    1 April 1867Singapore becomes a British crown colony.

    Crown colony

    Crown colony, dependent territory or royal colony were dependent territories under the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that were controlled by the British Government. As such they are examples of dependencies that are under colonial rule. Crown colonies were renamed "British Dependent Territories" in 1981, and since 2002, Crown colonies have been known officially as British Overseas Territories.[1]

    In such territories, residents do not elect members of the British parliament. A Crown colony is usually administered by a governor who directly controls the executive and is appointed by "the Crown" — a term that in practice usually means the UK government, acting on behalf of the monarch. However, the term "Crown colony" has sometimes been used of entities that have elected governments and partial autonomy; these are also known as self-governing colonies.

    1. ^ "British Overseas Territories Act 2002". Gov.Uk.
     
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 April 1982Falklands War: Argentina invades the Falkland Islands.

    1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands

    On 2 April 1982, Argentine forces launched the invasion of the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), beginning the Falklands War. The Argentines mounted amphibious landings, and the invasion ended with the surrender of Government House.

    1. ^ Insight team Sunday Time (1982), Chapter I: Surrender (I) and Chapter VIII: An ungentlemanly act. There is a mention of volunteers, such as Jim Fairfield, a former marine, Bill Curtis, a Canadian national and air controller and the skipper Jack Sollis, captain of the Forrest. Rex Hunt himself was armed with a Browning 9 mm pistol.
    2. ^ Mayorga, Part I, Chapters VI and VII. He accounts 84 elite troops, another 16 tactical divers marking the landing zone, 21 amtracs (20 of them with 25 marines each, the other was a command vehicle), and 25 Army riflemen landed by helicopter on Stanley airport.
    3. ^ The highest figure includes the British civilian servants at Government House.
    4. ^ a b Mayorga, pp. 195–196: MV Forrest, MV Monsunen and the small tug Lively.
    5. ^ Barker, p. 219: James Caird, left behind by HMS Endurance.
    6. ^ Andrada, p. 59: 1 Britten-Norman Islander, 2 Cessna 172s.
    7. ^ Un caso singular. CNIM VGM (R) Hugo Jorge Santillán
    8. ^ El vehículo recuperador del Batallón de Vehículos Anfibios cruzó navegando la bahía, se nos acercó rápidamente y me reparó los daños de dos de mis VAOs: a uno se le había salido una oruga y a otro le taparon los 97 agujeros de bala… con Poxipol.2 de abril de 1982 MALVINAS: Vehículos Anfibios
     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 April 1968Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech. He was assassinated the next day.

    I've Been to the Mountaintop

    "I've Been to the Mountaintop" is the popular name of the last speech delivered by Martin Luther King Jr.[1][2][3]

    King spoke on April 3, 1968, at the Mason Temple (Church of God in Christ Headquarters) in Memphis, Tennessee. On the following day, King was assassinated.

    The speech primarily concerns the Memphis Sanitation Strike. King calls for unity, economic actions, boycotts, and nonviolent protest, while challenging the United States to live up to its ideals. At the end of the speech, he discusses the possibility of an untimely death.

    1. ^ Martin Luther King Jr. (April 3, 1968). "I've Been to the Mountaintop" (Transcript). American Rhetoric.
    2. ^ "I've Been to the Mountaintop." Memphis, Tennessee - April 3, 1968. Speech by Martin Luther King Jr. Info and transcript. Say It Plain. A Century of Great African American Speeches. By American RadioWorks.
    3. ^ Martin Luther King Jr.: "I've Been to the Mountaintop", delivered 3 April 1968, Memphis, Tennessee at Stanford University, including transcript of audience responses.
     
  24. Admin2

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    4 April 1968 – Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 6.

    Apollo 6

    Apollo 6 (also known as AS-502), launched on April 4, 1968, was the second A-type mission of the United States Apollo program, an uncrewed test of the Saturn V launch vehicle. It was also the final uncrewed Apollo test mission.

    The objectives of the flight test were to demonstrate trans-lunar injection capability of the Saturn V with a simulated payload equal to about 80% of a full Apollo spacecraft, and to repeat demonstration of the command module's (CM) heat shield capability to withstand a lunar re-entry. The flight plan called for following trans-lunar injection with a direct return abort using the command and service module's (CSM) main engine, with a total flight time of about 10 hours.

    A phenomenon known as pogo oscillation damaged some of the Rocketdyne J-2 engines in the second and third stages by rupturing internal fuel lines, causing two second-stage engines to shut down early. The vehicle's onboard guidance system was able to compensate by burning the second and third stages longer, though the resulting parking orbit was more elliptical than planned. The damaged third-stage engine also failed to restart for trans-lunar injection. Flight controllers elected to repeat the flight profile of the previous Apollo 4 test, achieving a high orbit and high-speed return using the service module (SM) engine. Despite the engine failures, the flight provided NASA with enough confidence to use the Saturn V for crewed launches. Since Apollo 4 had already demonstrated S-IVB restart and tested the heat shield at full lunar re-entry velocity, a potential third uncrewed flight was cancelled.

    1. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "SATCAT". Jonathan's Space Pages. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
     
  25. Admin2

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    5 April 1879Chile declares war on Bolivia and Peru, starting the War of the Pacific.

    War of the Pacific

    The War of the Pacific (Spanish: Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Saltpeter War (Spanish: Guerra del salitre) and by multiple other names was a war between Chile and a Bolivian–Peruvian alliance. It lasted from 1879 to 1884, and was fought over Chilean claims on coastal Bolivian territory in the Atacama Desert. The war ended with victory for Chile, which gained a significant amount of resource-rich territory from Peru and Bolivia. Chile's army took Bolivia's nitrate rich coastal region and Peru was defeated by Chile's navy.[10][11]

    Battles were fought in the Pacific Ocean, the Atacama Desert, Peru's deserts, and mountainous regions in the Andes. For the first five months the war played out in a naval campaign, as Chile struggled to establish a sea-based resupply corridor for its forces in the world's driest desert.

    In February 1878, Bolivia imposed a new tax on a Chilean mining company ("Compañía de Salitres y Ferrocarril de Antofagasta", CSFA) despite Bolivian express warranty in the 1874 Boundary Treaty that it would not increase taxes on Chilean persons or industries for 25 years. Chile protested and solicited to submit it to mediation, but Bolivia refused and considered it a subject of Bolivia's courts. Chile insisted and informed the Bolivian government that Chile would no longer consider itself bound by the 1874 Boundary Treaty if Bolivia did not suspend enforcing the law. On February 14, 1879 when Bolivian authorities attempted to auction the confiscated property of CSFA, Chilean armed forces occupied the port city of Antofagasta.

    Peru, bound to Bolivia by their secret treaty of alliance from 1873, tried to mediate, but on 1 March 1879 Bolivia declared war on Chile and called on Peru to activate their alliance, while Chile demanded that Peru declare its neutrality. On April 5, after Peru refused this, Chile declared war on both nations. The following day, Peru responded by acknowledging the casus foederis.

    Ronald Bruce St. John in The Bolivia–Chile–Peru Dispute in the Atacama Desert states:

    Even though the 1873 treaty and the imposition of the 10 centavos tax proved to be the casus belli, there were deeper, more fundamental reasons for the outbreak of hostilities in 1879. On the one hand, there was the power, prestige, and relative stability of Chile compared to the economic deterioration and political discontinuity which characterised both Peru and Bolivia after independence. On the other, there was the ongoing competition for economic and political hegemony in the region, complicated by a deep antipathy between Peru and Chile. In this milieu, the vagueness of the boundaries between the three states, coupled with the discovery of valuable guano and nitrate deposits in the disputed territories, combined to produce a diplomatic conundrum of insurmountable proportions.[12]

    Afterwards, Chile's land campaign bested the Bolivian and Peruvian armies. Bolivia withdrew after the Battle of Tacna on May 26, 1880. Chilean forces occupied Lima in January 1881. Peruvian army remnants and irregulars waged a guerrilla war that did not change the war's outcome. Chile and Peru signed the Treaty of Ancón on October 20, 1883. Bolivia signed a truce with Chile in 1884.

    Chile acquired the Peruvian territory of Tarapacá, the disputed Bolivian department of Litoral (turning Bolivia into a landlocked country), as well as temporary control over the Peruvian provinces of Tacna and Arica. In 1904, Chile and Bolivia signed the "Treaty of Peace and Friendship" establishing definite boundaries. The 1929 Tacna–Arica compromise gave Arica to Chile and Tacna to Peru.

    1. ^ Sater 2007, p. 51 Table 2
    2. ^ Sater 2007, p. 45 Table 1
    3. ^ a b c d Sater 2007, pp. 113–4 Table 6
    4. ^ Sater 2007, p. 74
    5. ^ Sater 2007, p. 274
    6. ^ Sater 2007, p. 58 Table 3
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference sater2007_263 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ a b Sater 2007, p. 349 Table 23.
    9. ^ a b Sater 2007, p. 348 Table 22. The statistics on battlefield deaths are inaccurate because they do not provide follow up information on those who subsequently died of their wounds.
    10. ^ William F. Sater, “War of the Pacific” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 5, pp. 438-441. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons 1996.
    11. ^ Vincent Peloso, “History of Peru” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 4, p.367. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons 1996.
    12. ^ St. John, Ronald Bruce; Schofield, Clive (1994). The Bolivia–Chile–Peru Dispute in the Atacama Desert. University of Durham, International Boundaries Research Unit. pp. 12–13. ISBN 1897643144.
     
  26. Admin2

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    6 April 1973 – Launch of Pioneer 11 spacecraft.

    Pioneer 11

    Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a 259-kilogram (571 lb) robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays.[1] It was the first probe to encounter Saturn and the second to fly through the asteroid belt and by Jupiter. Thereafter, Pioneer 11 became the second of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System. Due to power constraints and the vast distance to the probe, the last routine contact with the spacecraft was on September 30, 1995, and the last good engineering data was received on November 24, 1995.[2][3]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference PionOdys was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/missions/archive/pioneer.html
    3. ^ "Pioneer 11: In Depth". Retrieved 10 December 2017.
     
  27. Admin2

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    7 April 1906Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples.

    Mount Vesuvius

    Mount Vesuvius ( /vɪˈsviəs/; Italian: Monte Vesuvio [ˈmonte veˈzuːvjo]; Neapolitan: Muntagna Vesuvio; Latin: Mons Vesuvius [mõːs wɛˈsʊwɪ.ʊs]; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources)[1] is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure.

    Mount Vesuvius is best known for its eruption in AD 79 that led to the burying and destruction of the Roman cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis and Stabiae, as well as several other settlements. The eruption ejected a cloud of stones, ashes and volcanic gases to a height of 33 km (21 mi), spewing molten rock and pulverized pumice at the rate of 6×105 cubic metres (7.8×105 cu yd) per second,[2] ultimately releasing a hundred thousand times the thermal energy released by the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombings.[3] More than 1,000 people died in the eruption, but exact numbers are unknown. The only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of two letters by Pliny the Younger to the historian Tacitus.[4]

    Vesuvius has erupted many times since and is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years. Today, it is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3,000,000 people living nearby, making it the most densely populated volcanic region in the world, as well as its tendency towards violent, explosive eruptions of the Plinian type.[5]

    1. ^ "Definition - Numen - The Latin Lexicon - An Online Latin Dictionary - A Dictionary of the Latin Language". The Latin Lexicon. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
    2. ^ Woods, Andrew W. (2013). "Sustained explosive activity: volcanic eruption columns and hawaiian fountains". In Fagents, Sarah A.; Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C. (eds.). Modeling Volcanic Processes: The Physics and Mathematics of Volcanism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0521895439.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference sciencepompeii was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference epistularum was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ McGuire, Bill (October 16, 2003). "In the shadow of the volcano". The Guardian. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
     
  28. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 April 1964 – The Gemini 1 test flight is conducted.

    Gemini 1

    Gemini 1 was the first mission in NASA's Gemini program.[2] An uncrewed test flight of the Gemini spacecraft, its main objectives were to test the structural integrity of the new spacecraft and modified Titan II launch vehicle. It was also the first test of the new tracking and communication systems for the Gemini program and provided training for the ground support crews for the first manned missions.[3]

    Originally scheduled for launch in December 1963, difficulties in the development of both the spacecraft and its booster caused four months of delay. Gemini 1 was launched from Launch Complex 19 at Cape Kennedy (now Canaveral), Florida on April 8, 1964. The spacecraft stayed attached to the second stage of the rocket. The mission lasted for three orbits while test data were taken, but the spacecraft stayed in space for almost 64 orbits until its orbit decayed due to atmospheric drag. The spacecraft was not intended to be recovered; in fact, holes were drilled through its heat shield to ensure it would not survive re-entry.

    1. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "SATCAT". Jonathan's Space Pages. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
    2. ^ "Gemini 1". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
    3. ^ "Gemini 1". Gunter's Space Page. December 11, 2017. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
     
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 April 1413Henry V is crowned King of England.

    Henry V of England

    Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422), also called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his early death in 1422. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.[3] Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England.

    In his youth, during the reign of his father Henry IV, Henry gained military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr and against the powerful aristocratic Percy family of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Henry acquired an increasing share in England's government due to the king's declining health, but disagreements between father and son led to political conflict between the two. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.

    In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt (1415) and saw him come close to conquering France. Taking advantage of political divisions within France, he conquered large portions of the kingdom and Normandy was occupied by the English for the first time since 1345–1360. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes (1420) recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois.

    Following this arrangement, everything seemed to point to the formation of a union between the kingdoms of France and England, in the person of King Henry. His sudden and unexpected death in France two years later condemned England to the long and difficult minority of his infant son and successor,[4] who reigned as Henry VI in England and Henry II in France.

    1. ^ Mortimer 2007, p. 371.
    2. ^ Allmand 2010.
    3. ^ Ross, C. (28 July 1999). "Henry V, king of England". Encyclopædia Britannica.
    4. ^ Ross 1999.
     
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 April 1872 – The first Arbor Day is celebrated in Nebraska.

    Arbor Day

    Arbor Day (or Arbour; from the Latin arbor, meaning tree) is a holiday in which individuals and groups are encouraged to plant trees.[1] Today, many countries observe such a holiday. Though usually observed in the spring, the date varies, depending on climate and suitable planting season.

    1. ^ Jones, David (2010). "'Plant trees': the foundations of Arbor Day in Australia". Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes. 30 (1): 77–93. doi:10.1080/14601170903010200.
     
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 April 1909 – The city of Tel Aviv is founded.

    Tel Aviv

    Tel Aviv (Hebrew: תֵּל אָבִיב, [tel aˈviv], Arabic: تَلّ أَبِيب‎, tall ʾabīb) is the second most populous city in Israel—after Jerusalem—and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area. Located on the country's Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 443,939, it is the economic and technological center of the country.

    Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Mayor Ron Huldai, and is home to many foreign embassies.[a] It is a global city and is ranked 25th in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tel Aviv has the third- or fourth-largest economy and the largest economy per capita in the Middle East.[6][7] The city has the 31st highest cost of living in the world.[8] Tel Aviv receives over 2.5 million international visitors annually.[9][10] A "party capital" in the Middle East, it has a lively nightlife and 24-hour culture.[11][12] Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, the largest university in the country with more than 30,000 students.

    The city was founded in 1909 by the Yishuv (Jewish residents) as a modern housing estate on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa, then part of the Jerusalem province of Ottoman Syria. It was at first called 'Ahuzat Bayit' (lit. "House Estate" or "Homestead"),[13][14] the name of the association which established the neighbourhood, a name changed the following year to 'Tel Aviv'. Its name means "Tell of Spring", symbolising both ancient legacy and renewal. Other Jewish suburbs of Jaffa established outside Jaffa's Old City even before Tel Aviv, eventually became part of Tel Aviv, the oldest among them being Neve Tzedek (est. 1886).[15]

    Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population at the time.[16] Tel Aviv and Jaffa were later merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, which was proclaimed in the city. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of International Style buildings, including Bauhaus and other related modernist architectural styles.[17][18]

    1. ^ "Localities File" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
    2. ^ Azaryahu, Maoz (2007). Tel Aviv: Mythography of a City. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. pp. 133–134. ISBN 9780815631293.
    3. ^ Mann, Barbara E. (2006). A Place in History: Modernism, Tel Aviv, and the Creation of Jewish Urban Space. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 148, 166. ISBN 9780804750196.
    4. ^ The Cities Book: A Journey Through the Best Cities in the World. Melbourne, Oakland and London: Lonely Planet. 2009. pp. 380–381. ISBN 9781741798876.
    5. ^ a b "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
    6. ^ "Global Financial Centres Index #23" (PDF). longfinance.net. 22 August 2018.
    7. ^ "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
    8. ^ Ami Sedghi (12 June 2012). "Which is the world's most expensive city? Cost of living survey 2012 | News | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
    9. ^ Goldman, Yoel (12 June 2012). "MasterCard ranks Tel Aviv as fifth most visited city in Middle East and Africa". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
    10. ^ Sapty, Tanya (19 July 2011). "Tourists rank Jerusalem and Tel Aviv among top cities to visit". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 12 November 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
    11. ^ "The world's top 10 party towns". Sydney Morning Herald. 19 November 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
    12. ^ "Lonely Planet's top 10 cities for 2011". Retrieved 31 October 2010.
    13. ^ "Today in history: Founding of Tel Aviv - Christian News - Jerusalem Post". www.jpost.com. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
    14. ^ "The promised landfill: 106 years of garbage in Tel Aviv". Ynetnews. 27 July 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
    15. ^ Elkayam, Mordechai (1990). Yafo – Neve-Tzedek, Rashita shel Tel-Aviv (in Hebrew). Ministry of Defence. p. 199.
    16. ^ 85% in 1922, 92% in 1931 (Census reports)
    17. ^ "The White City of Tel Aviv" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
    18. ^ Strimpel, Zoe (16 February 2008). "Hip and happening in Tel Aviv". The Times. London. Retrieved 16 February 2008.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  32. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 April 1909 – The city of Tel Aviv is founded.

    Tel Aviv

    Tel Aviv (Hebrew: תֵּל אָבִיב, [tel aˈviv], Arabic: تَلّ أَبِيب‎, tall ʾabīb) is the second most populous city in Israel—after Jerusalem—and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area. Located on the country's Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 443,939, it is the economic and technological center of the country.

    Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Mayor Ron Huldai, and is home to many foreign embassies.[a] It is a global city and is ranked 25th in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tel Aviv has the third- or fourth-largest economy and the largest economy per capita in the Middle East.[6][7] The city has the 31st highest cost of living in the world.[8] Tel Aviv receives over 2.5 million international visitors annually.[9][10] A "party capital" in the Middle East, it has a lively nightlife and 24-hour culture.[11][12] Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, the largest university in the country with more than 30,000 students.

    The city was founded in 1909 by the Yishuv (Jewish residents) as a modern housing estate on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa, then part of the Jerusalem province of Ottoman Syria. It was at first called 'Ahuzat Bayit' (lit. "House Estate" or "Homestead"),[13][14] the name of the association which established the neighbourhood, a name changed the following year to 'Tel Aviv'. Its name means "Tell of Spring", symbolising both ancient legacy and renewal. Other Jewish suburbs of Jaffa established outside Jaffa's Old City even before Tel Aviv, eventually became part of Tel Aviv, the oldest among them being Neve Tzedek (est. 1886).[15]

    Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population at the time.[16] Tel Aviv and Jaffa were later merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, which was proclaimed in the city. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of International Style buildings, including Bauhaus and other related modernist architectural styles.[17][18]

    1. ^ "Localities File" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
    2. ^ Azaryahu, Maoz (2007). Tel Aviv: Mythography of a City. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. pp. 133–134. ISBN 9780815631293.
    3. ^ Mann, Barbara E. (2006). A Place in History: Modernism, Tel Aviv, and the Creation of Jewish Urban Space. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 148, 166. ISBN 9780804750196.
    4. ^ The Cities Book: A Journey Through the Best Cities in the World. Melbourne, Oakland and London: Lonely Planet. 2009. pp. 380–381. ISBN 9781741798876.
    5. ^ a b "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
    6. ^ "Global Financial Centres Index #23" (PDF). longfinance.net. 22 August 2018.
    7. ^ "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
    8. ^ Ami Sedghi (12 June 2012). "Which is the world's most expensive city? Cost of living survey 2012 | News | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
    9. ^ Goldman, Yoel (12 June 2012). "MasterCard ranks Tel Aviv as fifth most visited city in Middle East and Africa". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
    10. ^ Sapty, Tanya (19 July 2011). "Tourists rank Jerusalem and Tel Aviv among top cities to visit". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 12 November 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
    11. ^ "The world's top 10 party towns". Sydney Morning Herald. 19 November 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
    12. ^ "Lonely Planet's top 10 cities for 2011". Retrieved 31 October 2010.
    13. ^ "Today in history: Founding of Tel Aviv - Christian News - Jerusalem Post". www.jpost.com. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
    14. ^ "The promised landfill: 106 years of garbage in Tel Aviv". Ynetnews. 27 July 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
    15. ^ Elkayam, Mordechai (1990). Yafo – Neve-Tzedek, Rashita shel Tel-Aviv (in Hebrew). Ministry of Defence. p. 199.
    16. ^ 85% in 1922, 92% in 1931 (Census reports)
    17. ^ "The White City of Tel Aviv" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
    18. ^ Strimpel, Zoe (16 February 2008). "Hip and happening in Tel Aviv". The Times. London. Retrieved 16 February 2008.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  33. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 April 1983Harold Washington is elected as the first black mayor of Chicago.

    Harold Washington

    Harold Lee Washington (April 15, 1922 – November 25, 1987) was an American lawyer and politician who was the 51st[1] Mayor of Chicago. Washington became the first African American to be elected as the city's mayor in February 1983. He served as mayor from April 29, 1983 until his death on November 25, 1987. Earlier, he was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1981 to 1983, representing Illinois's first district. Washington had previously served in the Illinois State Senate and the Illinois House of Representatives from 1965 until 1976.

    Washington was born in Chicago, and raised in the Bronzeville neighborhood. After graduating from Roosevelt University and Northwestern University School of Law, he became involved in local 3rd Ward politics under future Congressman Ralph Metcalfe.

    1. ^ "Chicago Mayors". Chicago Public Library. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
     
  34. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 April 1997Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win the Masters Tournament.

    Tiger Woods

    Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods (born December 30, 1975) is an American professional golfer. He ranks second in both major championships and PGA Tour wins and also holds numerous records in golf.[4] Woods is widely regarded as being one of the greatest golfers in the history of the sport.

    Following an outstanding junior, college, and amateur golf career, Woods turned professional in 1996 at the age of 20. By the end of April 1997, he had won three PGA Tour events in addition to his first major, the 1997 Masters, which he won by 12 strokes in a record-breaking performance. He first reached the number one position in the world rankings in June 1997, less than a year after turning pro. Throughout the first decade of the 21st century, Woods was the dominant force in golf; he was the top-ranked golfer in the world from August 1999 to September 2004 (264 weeks) and again from June 2005 to October 2010 (281 weeks). During this time, he won thirteen of golf's major championships.

    The next decade of Woods' career was marked by multiple comebacks from both personal problems and injuries. He took a self-imposed hiatus from professional golf from December 2009 to early April 2010 in an attempt to resolve marital issues with his estranged wife Elin. His many alleged extramarital indiscretions were revealed by several women through worldwide media sources, and the couple eventually divorced.[5] Woods fell to number 58 in the world rankings in November 2011, before ascending to once again reach the No.1 ranking between March 2013 and May 2014.[6][7] However, Woods' personal problems persisted outside of golf; injuries led him to undergo four back surgeries in 2014, 2015 and 2017.[8] He competed in only one tournament between August 2015 and January 2018; this led him to drop out of the rankings of the world's top 1,000 golfers.[9][10] On his return to regular competition, Woods made steady progress to the top of the game, winning his first tournament in five years at the Tour Championship in September 2018 and his first major in eleven years at the 2019 Masters.

    Woods has broken numerous golf records. He has been World Number One for the most consecutive weeks and for the greatest total number of weeks of any golfer. He has been awarded PGA Player of the Year a record eleven times[11] and has won the Byron Nelson Award for lowest adjusted scoring average a record eight times. Woods has the record of leading the money list in ten different seasons. He has won 15 professional major golf championships (trailing only Jack Nicklaus, who leads with 18) and 81 PGA Tour events (second all time behind Sam Snead, who won 82).[12] Woods leads all active golfers in career major wins and career PGA Tour wins. He is the youngest player to achieve the career Grand Slam, and is only the second golfer (after Nicklaus) to have achieved a career Grand Slam three times. Woods has won 18 World Golf Championships. In May 2019, Woods was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and is the fourth golfer to receive the honor.[13]

    1. ^ a b "Tiger Woods – Profile". PGA Tour. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
    2. ^ This is calculated by adding Woods' 81 PGA Tour victories, 8 regular European Tour titles, 2 Japan Tour wins, 1 Asian Tour crown, and the 16 other wins in his career.
    3. ^ 2009 European Tour Official Guide Section 4 Page 577 PDF 21. European Tour. Retrieved April 21, 2009. Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
    4. ^
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference legend was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "Westwood becomes world number one". BBC News. October 31, 2010.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference chevron was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "Complete list of Tiger Woods' injuries". PGA Tour.
    9. ^ "With game on point, Tiger Woods is in perfect place to win again at Firestone". USA Today. August 1, 2018.
    10. ^ Reid, Philip (August 14, 2018). "For the new Tiger Woods, second place is far from first loser". The Irish Times. Dublin.
    11. ^ Kelley, Brent (October 20, 2009). "Woods Clinches PGA Player of the Year Award". About.com: Golf. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
    12. ^ "Tracking Tiger". NBC Sports. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
    13. ^ Rogers, Katie (May 6, 2019). "'I've Battled,' Tiger Woods Says as He Accepts Presidential Medal of Freedom". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=notes> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=notes}} template (see the help page).

     
  35. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 April 1828Noah Webster copyrights the first edition of his dictionary.

    Webster's Dictionary

    An 1888 advertisement for Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

    Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name. "Webster's" has become a genericized trademark in the U.S. for dictionaries of the English language, and is widely used in English dictionary titles.[1] Merriam-Webster is the corporate heir to Noah Webster's original works, which are in the public domain.

    1. ^ "Merriam-Webster FAQ". Retrieved 2008-01-24.
     
  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 April 2007Virginia Tech shooting: Seung-Hui Cho guns down 32 people and injures 17 before committing suicide.

    Virginia Tech shooting

    Coordinates: 37°13′37″N 80°25′19″W / 37.227°N 80.422°W / 37.227; -80.422

    The Virginia Tech shooting was a school shooting that occurred on April 16, 2007, at West Ambler Johnston Hall and Norris Hall at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in Blacksburg, Virginia. Seung-Hui Cho, an undergraduate student at the university and a U.S. resident of South Korean origin, shot and killed 32 people and wounded 17 others with two semi-automatic pistols. Six others were injured jumping out of windows to escape Cho. As police stormed Norris Hall, Cho committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. It is the deadliest school shooting in the history of the United States.[6]:92[7][9]:78 At the time, it was the deadliest mass shooting committed by a lone gunman in U.S. history,[10] until it was surpassed by the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting.[11]

    The attacks received international media coverage and drew widespread criticism of U.S. gun culture.[12] It sparked intense debate about gun violence, gun laws, gaps in the U.S. system for treating mental health issues, the perpetrator's state of mind, the responsibility of college administrations,[13] privacy laws, journalism ethics, and other issues. Television news organizations that aired portions of the killer's multimedia manifesto were criticized by victims' families, Virginia law enforcement officials, and the American Psychiatric Association.[14][15]

    Cho had previously been diagnosed with a severe anxiety disorder. During much of his middle school and high school years, he received therapy and special education support. After graduating from high school, Cho enrolled at Virginia Tech. Because of federal privacy laws, Virginia Tech was unaware of Cho's previous diagnosis or the accommodations he had been granted at school. In 2005, Cho was accused of stalking two female students.[16] After an investigation, a Virginia special justice declared Cho mentally ill and ordered him to attend treatment; however, because he was not institutionalized, he was still allowed to purchase guns.[17] The shooting prompted the state of Virginia to close legal loopholes that had previously allowed individuals adjudicated as mentally unsound to purchase handguns without detection by the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). It also led to passage of the only major federal gun control measure in the U.S. since 1994. The law strengthening the NICS was signed by President George W. Bush on January 5, 2008.[18]

    The Virginia Tech Review Panel is a state-appointed body that was assigned to review the incident. The panel criticized Virginia Tech administrators for failing to take action that might have reduced the number of casualties. The panel's report also reviewed gun laws and pointed out gaps in mental health care as well as privacy laws that left Cho's deteriorating condition untreated when he was a student at Virginia Tech.[9]:78[19]:2

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference AJ was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Norris was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference MR.III was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Williams was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference MR.X was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference MR.VIII was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NSCC1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gibbons was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference MR.VII was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ "Fact File: Deadliest shootings in the U.S." MSNBC. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
    11. ^ Ellis, Ralph; Fantz, Ashley; Karimi, Faith; McLaughlin, Eliott C. (June 13, 2016). "49 killed in Florida nightclub terror attack". CNN. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Perry was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Spielman was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Maddox was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference APA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Stalking was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference Luo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Cochran was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference MR.Sum was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 April 2007Virginia Tech shooting: Seung-Hui Cho guns down 32 people and injures 17 before committing suicide.

    Virginia Tech shooting

    Coordinates: 37°13′37″N 80°25′19″W / 37.227°N 80.422°W / 37.227; -80.422

    The Virginia Tech shooting was a school shooting that occurred on April 16, 2007, at West Ambler Johnston Hall and Norris Hall at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in Blacksburg, Virginia. Seung-Hui Cho, an undergraduate student at the university and a U.S. resident of South Korean origin, shot and killed 32 people and wounded 17 others with two semi-automatic pistols. Six others were injured jumping out of windows to escape Cho. As police stormed Norris Hall, Cho committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. It is the deadliest school shooting in the history of the United States.[6]:92[7][9]:78 At the time, it was the deadliest mass shooting committed by a lone gunman in U.S. history,[10] until it was surpassed by the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting.[11]

    The attacks received international media coverage and drew widespread criticism of U.S. gun culture.[12] It sparked intense debate about gun violence, gun laws, gaps in the U.S. system for treating mental health issues, the perpetrator's state of mind, the responsibility of college administrations,[13] privacy laws, journalism ethics, and other issues. Television news organizations that aired portions of the killer's multimedia manifesto were criticized by victims' families, Virginia law enforcement officials, and the American Psychiatric Association.[14][15]

    Cho had previously been diagnosed with a severe anxiety disorder. During much of his middle school and high school years, he received therapy and special education support. After graduating from high school, Cho enrolled at Virginia Tech. Because of federal privacy laws, Virginia Tech was unaware of Cho's previous diagnosis or the accommodations he had been granted at school. In 2005, Cho was accused of stalking two female students.[16] After an investigation, a Virginia special justice declared Cho mentally ill and ordered him to attend treatment; however, because he was not institutionalized, he was still allowed to purchase guns.[17] The shooting prompted the state of Virginia to close legal loopholes that had previously allowed individuals adjudicated as mentally unsound to purchase handguns without detection by the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). It also led to passage of the only major federal gun control measure in the U.S. since 1994. The law strengthening the NICS was signed by President George W. Bush on January 5, 2008.[18]

    The Virginia Tech Review Panel is a state-appointed body that was assigned to review the incident. The panel criticized Virginia Tech administrators for failing to take action that might have reduced the number of casualties. The panel's report also reviewed gun laws and pointed out gaps in mental health care as well as privacy laws that left Cho's deteriorating condition untreated when he was a student at Virginia Tech.[9]:78[19]:2

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference AJ was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Norris was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference MR.III was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Williams was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference MR.X was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference MR.VIII was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NSCC1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gibbons was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference MR.VII was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ "Fact File: Deadliest shootings in the U.S." MSNBC. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
    11. ^ Ellis, Ralph; Fantz, Ashley; Karimi, Faith; McLaughlin, Eliott C. (June 13, 2016). "49 killed in Florida nightclub terror attack". CNN. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Perry was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Spielman was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Maddox was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference APA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Stalking was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference Luo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Cochran was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference MR.Sum was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  39. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 April 1946 – The last French troops are withdrawn from Syria.

    Mandatory Syrian Republic

    The Syrian Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية السوريةal-Jumhūrīyah as-Sūrīyah; French: République syrienne), known as Mandatory Syrian Republic, or simply Mandatory Syria was formed in 1930 as a component of the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon, succeeding the State of Syria. A treaty of independence was made in 1936 to grant independence to Syria and end official French rule, but the French parliament refused to accept the agreement. From 1940 to 1941, the Syrian Republic was under the control of Vichy France, and after the Allied invasion in 1941 gradually went on the path towards independence. The proclamation of independence took place in 1944, but only in October 1945 Syrian Republic was de jure recognized by the United Nations; it became a de facto sovereign state on 17 April 1946, with the withdrawal of French troops.

     
  40. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 April 1923Yankee Stadium: "The House that Ruth Built" opens.

    Yankee Stadium (1923)

    The original Yankee Stadium was a stadium located in the Bronx, a borough of New York City. It was the home ballpark of the New York Yankees, one of the city's Major League Baseball (MLB) franchises, from 1923 to 1973 and then from 1976 to 2008. The stadium hosted 6,581 Yankees regular season home games during its 85-year history. It was also the former home of the New York Giants football team from 1956 through the first part of the 1973–74 football season. The stadium's nickname, "The House That Ruth Built",[3] is derived from Babe Ruth, the baseball superstar whose prime years coincided with the stadium's opening and the beginning of the Yankees' winning history. It has also been known as "The Big Ballpark in The Bronx", "The Stadium", and "The Cathedral of Baseball".

    The stadium was built from 1922 to 1923 for $2.4 million ($33.9 million in 2016 dollars). The stadium's construction was paid for entirely by Yankees owner Jacob Ruppert, who was eager to have his own stadium after sharing the Polo Grounds with the New York Giants baseball team the previous 10 years. Yankee Stadium opened for the 1923 MLB season and at the time, it was hailed as a one-of-a-kind facility in the country for its size. Over the course of its history, it became one of the most famous venues in the United States, having hosted a variety of events and historic moments during its existence. While many of these moments were baseball-related—including World Series games, no-hitters, perfect games and historic home runs—the stadium also hosted boxing matches, the 1958 NFL Championship Game (called by many The Greatest Game Ever Played), concerts, Jehovah's Witnesses conventions (see record attendance) and three Papal Masses. The stadium went through many alterations and playing surface configurations over the years. The condition of the facility worsened in the 1960s and 1970s, prompting its closing for renovation from 1974 to 1975. The renovation significantly altered the appearance of the venue and reduced the distance of the outfield fences.[4]

    In 2006, the Yankees began building a new $2.3 billion stadium in public parkland adjacent to the stadium. The price included $1.2 billion in public subsidies.[5] The design includes a replica of the frieze along the roof that was in Yankee Stadium. Monument Park, a Hall of Fame for prominent former Yankees, was relocated to the new stadium. Yankee Stadium closed following the 2008 baseball season and the new stadium opened in 2009, adopting the "Yankee Stadium" moniker. The original Yankee Stadium was demolished in 2010, two years after it closed, and the 8-acre site was converted into a park called Heritage Field.[6]

    1. ^ http://www.northjersey.com/news/jehovah-s-witnesses-pack-metlife-stadium-1.1043189
    2. ^ a b Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
    3. ^ "Yankee Stadium History – New York Yankees". newyork.yankees.mlb.com. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
    4. ^ "Call it Yankee Stadium - but just isn't same". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). Associated Press. March 7, 1976. p. D8.
    5. ^ Neil deMause (January 15, 2009). "PRIVATE/PUBLIC COST BREAKDOWN FOR NEW YANKEES/METS STADIUMS, BY NEIL DEMAUSE, FIELDOFSCHEMES.COM, LAST UPDATE JANUARY 2009" (PDF). Retrieved September 17, 2015.
    6. ^ "The Yankee Stadium Redevelopment Project". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved May 16, 2010.
     

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