Welcome to the Podiatry Arena forums

You are currently viewing our podiatry forum as a guest which gives you limited access to view all podiatry discussions and access our other features. By joining our free global community of Podiatrists and other interested foot health care professionals you will have access to post podiatry topics (answer and ask questions), communicate privately with other members, upload content, view attachments, receive a weekly email update of new discussions, access other special features. Registered users do not get displayed the advertisements in posted messages. Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please, join our global Podiatry community today!

  1. Everything that you are ever going to want to know about running shoes: Running Shoes Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
  2. Have you considered the Critical Thinking and Skeptical Boot Camp, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
  3. Have you considered the Clinical Biomechanics Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
Dismiss Notice
Have you considered the Clinical Biomechanics Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
Dismiss Notice
Have you liked us on Facebook to get our updates? Please do. Click here for our Facebook page.
Dismiss Notice
Do you get the weekly newsletter that Podiatry Arena sends out to update everybody? If not, click here to organise this.

This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 July 1644English Civil War: Battle of Marston Moor.

    Battle of Marston Moor

    The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646.[a] The combined forces of the English Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax and the Earl of Manchester and the Scottish Covenanters under the Earl of Leven defeated the Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the Marquess of Newcastle.

    During the summer of 1644, the Covenanters and Parliamentarians had been besieging York, which was defended by the Marquess of Newcastle. Rupert had gathered an army which marched through the northwest of England, gathering reinforcements and fresh recruits on the way, and across the Pennines to relieve the city. The convergence of these forces made the ensuing battle the largest of the civil wars.

    On 1 July, Rupert outmanoeuvred the Covenanters and Parliamentarians to relieve the city. The next day, he sought battle with them even though he was outnumbered. He was dissuaded from attacking immediately and during the day both sides gathered their full strength on Marston Moor, an expanse of wild meadow west of York. Towards evening, the Covenanters and Parliamentarians themselves launched a surprise attack. After a confused fight lasting two hours, Parliamentarian cavalry under Oliver Cromwell routed the Royalist cavalry from the field and, with Leven's infantry, annihilated the remaining Royalist infantry.

    After their defeat the Royalists effectively abandoned Northern England, losing much of the manpower from the northern counties of England (which were strongly Royalist in sympathy) and also losing access to the European continent through the ports on the North Sea coast. Although they partially retrieved their fortunes with victories later in the year in Southern England, the loss of the north was to prove a fatal handicap the next year, when they tried unsuccessfully to link up with the Scottish Royalists under the Marquess of Montrose.

    1. ^ Carte 1739, p. 56.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 July 1844 – The last pair of great auks is killed.

    Great auk

    The great auk (Pinguinus impennis) is an extinct species of flightless alcid that became extinct in the mid-19th century. It was the only modern species in the genus Pinguinus. It is not closely related to the birds now known as penguins, which were discovered later and so named by sailors because of their physical resemblance to the great auk.

    It bred on rocky, isolated islands with easy access to the ocean and a plentiful food supply, a rarity in nature that provided only a few breeding sites for the great auks. When not breeding, they spent their time foraging in the waters of the North Atlantic, ranging as far south as northern Spain and along the coastlines of Canada, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway, Ireland, and Great Britain.

    The great auk was 75 to 85 cm (30 to 33 in) tall and weighed about 5 kg (11 lb), making it the largest alcid to survive into the modern era, and the second-largest member of the alcid family overall (the prehistoric Miomancalla was larger).[5] It had a black back and a white belly. The black beak was heavy and hooked, with grooves on its surface. During summer, great auk plumage showed a white patch over each eye. During winter, the great auk lost these patches, instead developing a white band stretching between the eyes. The wings were only 15 cm (5.9 in) long, rendering the bird flightless. Instead, the great auk was a powerful swimmer, a trait that it used in hunting. Its favourite prey were fish, including Atlantic menhaden and capelin, and crustaceans. Although agile in the water, it was clumsy on land. Great auk pairs mated for life. They nested in extremely dense and social colonies, laying one egg on bare rock. The egg was white with variable brown marbling. Both parents participated in the incubation of the egg for around 6 weeks before the young hatched. The young left the nest site after 2–3 weeks, although the parents continued to care for it.

    The great auk was an important part of many Native American cultures, both as a food source and as a symbolic item. Many Maritime Archaic people were buried with great auk bones. One burial discovered included someone covered by more than 200 great auk beaks, which are presumed to be the remnants of a cloak made of great auk skins. Early European explorers to the Americas used the great auk as a convenient food source or as fishing bait, reducing its numbers. The bird's down was in high demand in Europe, a factor that largely eliminated the European populations by the mid-16th century. Scientists soon began to realize that the great auk was disappearing and it became the beneficiary of many early environmental laws, but this proved ineffectual.

    Its growing rarity increased interest from European museums and private collectors in obtaining skins and eggs of the bird. On 3 June 1844, the last two confirmed specimens were killed on Eldey, off the coast of Iceland, ending the last known breeding attempt. Later reports of roaming individuals being seen or caught are unconfirmed. A record of one great auk in 1852 is considered by some to be the last sighting of a member of the species. The great auk is mentioned in several novels and the scientific journal of the American Ornithologists' Union is named The Auk in honour of this bird.

    1. ^ "PBDB". paleobiodb.org.
    2. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pinguinus impennis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
    3. ^ Grieve, Symington (1885). The Great Auk, or Garefowl: Its history, archaeology, and remains. Thomas C. Jack, London.
    4. ^ Parkin, Thomas (1894). The Great Auk, or Garefowl. J.E. Budd, Printer. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
    5. ^ Smith, N. 2015. Evolution of body mass in the Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): the effects of combining neontological and paleontological data. Paleobiology. doi: 10.1017/pab.2015.24
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 July 1881 – In Alabama, the Tuskegee Institute opens.

    Tuskegee University

    Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university (HBCU) located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. It was established by Lewis Adams and Booker T. Washington. The campus is designated as the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site by the National Park Service. The university was home to scientist George Washington Carver and to World War II's Tuskegee Airmen.

    Tuskegee University offers 40 bachelor's degree programs, 17 master's degree programs, a 5-year accredited professional degree program in architecture, 4 doctoral degree programs, and the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. The university is home to over 3,100 students from the U.S. and 30 foreign countries. Tuskegee University was ranked among 2018's best 379 colleges and universities by The Princeton Review and 6th among the 2018 U.S. News & World Report best HBCUs.

    The university's campus was designed by architect Robert Robinson Taylor, the first African American to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in conjunction with David Williston, the first professionally trained African-American landscape architect.[4]

    1. ^ NAICU – Member Directory Archived 2015-11-09 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-05-27. Retrieved 2018-05-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    3. ^ Visual identity and COmmunications Policies for Tuskegee University (PDF). 2012-08-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2016-09-07.
    4. ^ "First African-American landscape architect launched career at Cornell". Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 July 1934 – "Bloody Thursday": Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco.

    1934 West Coast waterfront strike

    The 1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike (also known as the 1934 West Coast Longshoremen's Strike, as well as a number of variations on these names) lasted eighty-three days, and began on May 9, 1934 when longshoremen in every US West Coast port walked out. The strike peaked with the death of two workers on "Bloody Thursday" and the San Francisco General Strike which stopped all work in the major port city for four days and led ultimately to the settlement of the West Coast Longshoremen's Strike.

    The result of the strike was the unionization of all of the West Coast ports of the United States. The San Francisco General Strike of 1934, along with the Toledo Auto-Lite Strike of 1934 led by the American Workers Party and the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934 led by the Communist League of America, were important catalysts for the rise of industrial unionism in the 1930s, much of which was organized through the Congress of Industrial Organizations.[3]

    1. ^ Preis, Art (1974). Labor's giant step: twenty years of the CIO. Pathfinder Press. pp. 31–33.
    2. ^ Kimeldorf, Howard (1988-11-04). Reds or Rackets?: The Making of Radical and Conservative Unions on the Waterfront. University of California Press. p. 101. ISBN 9780520912779.
    3. ^ Preis, Art (1974). Labor's giant step: twenty years of the CIO. Pathfinder Press. pp. 31–33.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 July 1560 – The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed by Scotland and England.

    Treaty of Edinburgh

    The Treaty of Edinburgh (also known as the Treaty of Leith) was a treaty drawn up on 5 July 1560 between the Commissioners of Queen Elizabeth I of England with the assent of the Scottish Lords of the Congregation, and the French representatives of King Francis II of France (husband of Mary Queen of Scots) to formally conclude the Siege of Leith and replace the Auld Alliance with France with a new Anglo-Scottish accord, while maintaining the peace between England and France agreed by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis.

     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 July 1980 – Institution of sharia law in Iran.

    Sharia

    Sharia (/ʃəˈrə/, Arabic: شريعة[ʃaˈriːʕa]), Islamic law or Sharia law is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.[1] It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations.[2][3][4] The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim fundamentalists and modernists.[5][1]

    Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: the Quran, sunnah (authentic hadith), qiyas (analogical reasoning),[note 1] and ijma (juridical consensus).[7] Different legal schools—of which the most prominent are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari—developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad.[2][3] Traditional jurisprudence (fiqh) distinguishes two principal branches of law, ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics.[2][4] Its rulings are concerned with ethical standards as much as with legal norms,[8][9] assigning actions to one of five categories: mandatory, recommended, neutral, abhorred, and prohibited.[2][3][4] Thus, some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God’s will.[3]

    Classical jurisprudence was elaborated by private religious scholars, largely through legal opinions (fatwas) issued by qualified jurists (muftis). It was historically applied in sharia courts by ruler-appointed judges, who dealt mainly with civil disputes and community affairs.[2][4] Sultanic courts, the police and market inspectors administered criminal justice, which was influenced by sharia but not bound by its rules.[10][4] Non-Muslim (dhimmi) communities had legal autonomy to adjudicate their internal affairs.[3] Over the centuries, Sunni muftis were gradually incorporated into state bureaucracies,[11] and fiqh was complemented by various economic, criminal and administrative laws issued by Muslim rulers.[12] The Ottoman civil code of 1869–1876 was the first partial attempt to codify sharia.[13]

    In the modern era, traditional laws in the Muslim world have been widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models.[3][14] Judicial procedures and legal education were likewise brought in line with European practice.[3] While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws.[3] Legislators who codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence.[3][13] The Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia, including hudud corporal punishments, such as stoning.[3][13] In some cases, this resulted in traditionalist legal reform, while other countries witnessed juridical reinterpretation of sharia advocated by progressive reformers.[3][13][15] Some Muslim-minority countries recognize the use of sharia-based family laws for their Muslim populations.[16][17] Sharia also continues to influence other aspects of private and public life.

    The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world.[3] Introduction of sharia-based laws sparked intercommunal violence in Nigeria[18][19] and may have contributed to the breakup of Sudan.[3] Some jurisdictions in North America have passed bans on use of sharia, framed as restrictions on religious or foreign laws.[20] There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with democracy, human rights, freedom of thought, women's rights, LGBT rights, and banking.[21][22][23]

    1. ^ a b "British & World English: sharia". Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
    2. ^ a b c d e John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Islamic Law". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Vikør 2014.
    4. ^ a b c d e Calder 2009.
    5. ^ Amanat 2009: "Muslim fundamentalists [...] claim that Shari’a and its sources [...] constitute a divine law that regulates all aspects of Muslim life, as well as Muslim societies and Muslim states [...]. Muslim modernists, [...] on the other hand, criticize the old approaches to Shari’a by traditional Muslim jurists as obsolete and instead advocate innovative approaches to Shari’a that accommodate more pluralist and relativist views within a democratic framework."
    6. ^ Schneider 2014.
    7. ^ John L. Esposito, Natana J. DeLong-Bas (2001), Women in Muslim family law, p. 2. Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085. Quote: "[...], by the ninth century, the classical theory of law fixed the sources of Islamic law at four: the Quran, the Sunnah of the Prophet, qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (consensus)."
    8. ^ Coulson & El Shamsy 2019.
    9. ^ Hallaq 2010, p. 145.
    10. ^ Ziadeh 2009c.
    11. ^ Dallal & Hendrickson 2009.
    12. ^ Stewart 2013, p. 500.
    13. ^ a b c d Mayer 2009.
    14. ^ Otto 2008, p. 19.
    15. ^ Rabb 2009d.
    16. ^ Otto 2008, pp. 18–20.
    17. ^ Stahnke, Tad and Robert C. Blitt (2005), "The Religion-State Relationship and the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Comparative Textual Analysis of the Constitutions of Predominantly Muslim Countries." Georgetown Journal of International Law, volume 36, issue 4; also see Sharia Law profile by Country, Emory University (2011)
    18. ^ Staff (3 January 2003). "Analysis: Nigeria's Sharia Split". BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2011. "Thousands of people have been killed in fighting between Christians and Muslims following the introduction of sharia punishments in northern Nigerian states over the past three years [...] human rights' groups have complained that these religious laws are archaic and unjust, and create an atmosphere of intimidation against Christians - even though they are not subject to the Sharia.".
    19. ^ Harnischfeger, Johannes (2008).
       • p. 16. "When the Governor of Kaduna announced the introduction of Sharia, although non-Muslims form almost half of the population, violence erupted, leaving more than 1,000 people dead."
       • p. 189. "When a violent confrontation loomed in February 200, because the strong Christian minority in Kaduna was unwilling to accept the proposed sharia law, the sultan and his delegation of 18 emirs went to see the governor and insisted on the passage of the bill."
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference thomas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ An-Na'im, Abdullahi A (1996). "Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights". In Witte, John; van der Vyver, Johan D. (eds.). Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives. pp. 337–59. ISBN 978-9041101792.
    22. ^ Hajjar, Lisa (2004). "Religion, State Power, and Domestic Violence in Muslim Societies: A Framework for Comparative Analysis". Law & Social Inquiry. 29 (1): 1–38. doi:10.1111/j.1747-4469.2004.tb00329.x. JSTOR 4092696.
    23. ^ Al-Suwaidi, J. (1995). Arab and western conceptions of democracy; in Democracy, war, and peace in the Middle East (Editors: David Garnham, Mark A. Tessler), Indiana University Press, see Chapters 5 and 6; ISBN 978-0253209399[page needed]


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 July 1889 – The first issue of The Wall Street Journal is published.

    The Wall Street Journal

    The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp. The newspaper is published in the broadsheet format and online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, and Charles Bergstresser.

    The Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.617 million copies (including nearly 1,818,000 digital subscriptions) as of August 2019,[1] compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, which was originally launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, which has been accessible only to subscribers since it began.[2]

    The newspaper is known for its award-winning news coverage, and has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes (as of 2019).[3][4] The editorial pages of the Journal are typically conservative in their position.[5][6][7] The Journal editorial board has promoted pseudoscientific views on the science of climate change, acid rain, and ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke, pesticides and asbestos.[8]

    1. ^ a b "Form 10-K August, 2019". SEC. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
    2. ^ Salwen, Michael B.; Garrison, Bruce; Driscoll, Paul D. (December 13, 2004). Online News and the Public. Routledge. ISBN 9781135616793.
    3. ^ "The Wall Street Journal". dowjones.com. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
    4. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes – What's New". pulitzer.org. Archived from the original on February 24, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
    5. ^ Ember, Sydney (March 22, 2017). "Wall Street Journal Editorial Harshly Rebukes Trump" – via NYTimes.com.
    6. ^ Bowden, John (January 11, 2019). "Wall Street Journal editorial: Conservatives 'could live to regret' Trump emergency declaration". TheHill.
    7. ^ Vernon, Pete (March 22, 2017). "Unpacking WSJ's 'watershed' Trump editorial". Columbia Journalism Review. ISSN 0010-194X. Archived from the original on June 21, 2017.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference handful was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 July 1816Argentina declares independence from Spain.

    Argentine Declaration of Independence

    What today is commonly referred as the Independence of Argentina was declared on July 9, 1816 by the Congress of Tucumán. In reality, the congressmen who were assembled in Tucumán declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America, which is still today one of the legal names of the Argentine Republic. The Federal League Provinces,[1] at war with the United Provinces, were not allowed into the Congress. At the same time, several provinces from the Upper Peru that would later become part of present-day Bolivia, were represented at the Congress.

    Allegory of the Declaration of Independence, by Luis de Servi.
    1. ^ The Argentine Littoral provinces Santa Fé, Entre Ríos and Corrientes, along with the Eastern Province (present-dayUruguay)
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 July 1943 – World War II: Operation Husky begins in Sicily

    Allied invasion of Sicily

    The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany). It began with a large amphibious and airborne operation, followed by a six-week land campaign, and initiated the Italian Campaign.

    Husky began on the night of 9–10 July 1943, and ended on 17 August. Strategically, Husky achieved the goals set out for it by Allied planners; the Allies drove Axis air, land and naval forces from the island and the Mediterranean sea lanes were opened for Allied merchant ships for the first time since 1941. The Italian leader, Benito Mussolini, was toppled from power in Italy and the way was opened for the Allied invasion of Italy. The German leader, Adolf Hitler, "canceled a major offensive at Kursk after only a week, in part to divert forces to Italy", resulting in a reduction of German strength on the Eastern Front.[12] The collapse of Italy necessitated German troops replacing the Italians in Italy and to a lesser extent the Balkans, resulting in one fifth of the entire German army being diverted from the east to southern Europe, a proportion that would remain until near the end of the war.[13]

    1. ^ Gaujac, p. 68
    2. ^ Royal Australian Navy – the corvettes/minesweepers HMAS Cairns, Cessnock, HMAS Gawler, HMAS Geraldton, HMAS Ipswich, HMAS Lismore, HMAS Maryborough, and HMAS Wollongong.
      Royal Australian Air ForceNo. 3 Squadron RAAF (fighters), No. 450 Squadron RAAF (fighters), No. 458 Squadron RAAF (maritime patrol), and No. 462 Squadron RAAF (heavy bombers).
      Sources: RAN, n.d., Sicily 1943 and Australian War Memorial, n.d., Sicily 1943 (23 September 2018).
    3. ^ Mitcham & von Stauffenberg (2007), p. 63
    4. ^ a b Mitcham & von Stauffenberg (2007), p. 307
    5. ^ Le Operazioni in Sicilia e in Calabria (Luglio-Settembre 1943), Alberto Santoni, p.400, Stato maggiore dell'Esercito, Ufficio storico, 1989
    6. ^ Including Navy and Air Force personnel.
    7. ^ Shaw, p.119
    8. ^ Dickson(2001) p. 201
    9. ^ a b Hart, Basil H. Liddel (1970). A History of the Second World War. London, Weidenfeld Nicolson. p. 627.
    10. ^ a b Ufficio storico dello Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito (USSME) (1993). Le operazioni in Sicilia e in Calabria. Rome. pp. 400–401.
    11. ^ "La guerra in Sicilia". SBARCHI ALLEATI IN ITALIA.
    12. ^ Atkinson 2007, p. 172
    13. ^ Charles T. O'Reilly. "Forgotten Battles: Italy's War of Liberation, 1943-1945." Lexington Books, 2001. Pages 37-38.
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 July 1848Waterloo railway station in London opens.

    London Waterloo station

    Waterloo station (/ˌwɔːtərˈl/), also known as London Waterloo, is a central London terminus on the National Rail network in the United Kingdom, located in the Waterloo area of the London Borough of Lambeth. It is connected to a London Underground station of the same name and is adjacent to Waterloo East station on the South Eastern main line. The station is the terminus of the South Western main line to Weymouth via Southampton, the West of England main line to Exeter via Salisbury, the Portsmouth Direct line to Portsmouth Harbour and the Isle of Wight, and several commuter services around West and South West London, Surrey, Hampshire and Berkshire. Many services stop at Clapham Junction and Woking.

    The station was first opened in 1848 by the London and South Western Railway, and replaced the earlier Nine Elms as it was closer to the West End. It was never designed to be a terminus, as the original intention was to continue the line towards the City of London, and consequently the station developed in a haphazard fashion leading to difficulty finding the correct platform. The station was rebuilt in the early 20th century, opening in 1922, and included the Victory Arch over the main entrance, which commemorated World War I. Waterloo was the last London terminus to provide steam-powered services, which ended in 1967. The station was the London terminus for Eurostar international trains from 1994 until 2007, when they were transferred to St. Pancras International.

    Waterloo is the busiest railway station in the UK, with nearly a hundred million entries & exits from the station every year. It is also the country's largest station in terms of floor space and has the greatest number of platforms. When combined with the Underground and Waterloo East stations, it is the busiest station complex in Europe.

    1. ^ "London and South East" (PDF). National Rail. September 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009.
    2. ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (XLS). Transport for London. May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012.
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Station usage estimates". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation. Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year.
    4. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 215.
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 July 1848Waterloo railway station in London opens.

    London Waterloo station

    Waterloo station (/ˌwɔːtərˈl/), also known as London Waterloo, is a central London terminus on the National Rail network in the United Kingdom, located in the Waterloo area of the London Borough of Lambeth. It is connected to a London Underground station of the same name and is adjacent to Waterloo East station on the South Eastern main line. The station is the terminus of the South Western main line to Weymouth via Southampton, the West of England main line to Exeter via Salisbury, the Portsmouth Direct line to Portsmouth Harbour and the Isle of Wight, and several commuter services around West and South West London, Surrey, Hampshire and Berkshire. Many services stop at Clapham Junction and Woking.

    The station was first opened in 1848 by the London and South Western Railway, and replaced the earlier Nine Elms as it was closer to the West End. It was never designed to be a terminus, as the original intention was to continue the line towards the City of London, and consequently the station developed in a haphazard fashion leading to difficulty finding the correct platform. The station was rebuilt in the early 20th century, opening in 1922, and included the Victory Arch over the main entrance, which commemorated World War I. Waterloo was the last London terminus to provide steam-powered services, which ended in 1967. The station was the London terminus for Eurostar international trains from 1994 until 2007, when they were transferred to St. Pancras International.

    Waterloo is the busiest railway station in the UK, with nearly a hundred million entries & exits from the station every year. It is also the country's largest station in terms of floor space and has the greatest number of platforms. When combined with the Underground and Waterloo East stations, it is the busiest station complex in Europe.

    1. ^ "London and South East" (PDF). National Rail. September 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009.
    2. ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (XLS). Transport for London. May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012.
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Station usage estimates". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation. Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year.
    4. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 215.
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 July 1776 – Captain James Cook begins his third voyage.

    Third voyage of James Cook

    The route of Cook's third voyage shown in red, blue shows route after his death.

    James Cook's third and final voyage (12 July 1776 – 4 October 1780) took the route from Plymouth via Cape Town and Tenerife to New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands, and along the North American coast to the Bering Strait.

    Its ostensible purpose was to return Omai, a young man from Raiatea, to his homeland, but the Admiralty used this as a cover for their plan to send Cook on a voyage to discover the Northwest Passage. HMS Resolution, to be commanded by Cook, and HMS Discovery, commanded by Charles Clerke, were prepared for the voyage which started from Plymouth in 1776.

    Omai was returned to his homeland and the ships sailed onwards, discovering the Hawaiian Archipelago, before reaching the Pacific coast of North America. The two charted the west coast of the continent and passed through the Bering Strait when they were stopped by ice from sailing either east or west. The vessels returned to the Pacific and called briefly at the Aleutians before retiring towards Hawaii for the winter.

    At Kealakekua Bay, a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians culminating in Cook's death in a violent exchange on 14 February 1779. The command of the expedition was assumed by Charles Clerke who tried in vain to find the passage before his own death. Under the command of John Gore the crews returned to a subdued welcome in London in October 1780.

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 July 1985 – The Live Aid benefit concert takes place in London and Philadelphia, as well as other venues such as Moscow and Sydney.

    Live Aid

    Live Aid was a dual-venue benefit concert held on Saturday 13 July 1985, and an ongoing music-based fundraising initiative. The original event was organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine. Billed as the "global jukebox", the event was held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London, England, United Kingdom (attended by 72,000 people) and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States (attended by about 100,000 people).[1]

    On the same day, concerts inspired by the initiative happened in other countries, such as the Soviet Union, Canada, Japan, Yugoslavia, Austria, Australia and West Germany. It was one of the largest-scale satellite link-ups and television broadcasts of all time; an estimated audience of 1.9 billion, across 150 nations, watched the live broadcast,[2] nearly 40% of the world population.[3]

    The impact of Live Aid on famine relief has been debated for years. One aid relief worker stated that following the publicity generated by the concert, "humanitarian concern is now at the centre of foreign policy" for western governments.[4] Geldof states, “We took an issue that was nowhere on the political agenda and, through the lingua franca of the planet – which is not English but rock 'n' roll – we were able to address the intellectual absurdity and the moral repulsion of people dying of want in a world of surplus.”[5] He adds, Live Aid "created something permanent and self-sustaining", but also asked why Africa is getting poorer.[4] The organisers of Live Aid tried, without much success, to run aid efforts directly, channelling millions of pounds to NGOs in Ethiopia. Much of this, however, went to the Ethiopian government of Mengistu Haile Mariam – a regime the UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher wanted to "destabilise"[6] – and was spent on guns.[4][7]

    1. ^ Live Aid on Bob Geldof's official site Archived 5 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference CNN was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
    4. ^ a b c "Cruel to be kind?". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
    5. ^ "Live Aid index: Bob Geldof". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
    6. ^ "Margaret Thatcher demanded UK find ways to 'destabilise' Ethiopian regime in power during 1984 famine". The Independent. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
    7. ^ "Live Aid: The Terrible Truth". Spin. 13 July 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 July 2016A terrorist vehicular attack in Nice, France kills 86 civilians and injures over 400 others.

    2016 Nice truck attack

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox civilian attack with unknown parameter "susperps" (this message is shown only in preview).

    On the evening of 14 July 2016, a 19-tonne cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people[2] and the injury of 458 others.[4] The driver was Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, a Tunisian resident of France.[5][6] The attack ended following an exchange of gunfire, during which Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was shot and killed by police.

    Islamic State claimed responsibility for the attack, saying Lahouaiej-Bouhlel answered its "calls to target citizens of coalition nations that fight the Islamic State". On 15 July, François Molins, the prosecutor for the Public Ministry, which is overseeing the investigation, said the attack bore the hallmarks of jihadist terrorism.[7]

    On 15 July, French President François Hollande called the attack an act of Islamic terrorism, announced an extension of the state of emergency (which had been declared following the November 2015 Paris attacks) for a further three months, and announced an intensification of French airstrikes on ISIL in Syria and Iraq.[8][9] France later extended the state of emergency until 26 January 2017.[10] The French government declared three days of national mourning starting on 16 July. Thousands of extra police and soldiers were deployed while the government called on citizens to join the reserve forces.

    On 21 July, prosecutor François Molins said that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel planned the attack for months and had help from accomplices.[11][12][13] By 1 August, six suspects had been taken into custody on charges of "criminal terrorist conspiracy", three of whom were also charged for complicity in murder in relation to a terrorist enterprise. On 16 December three further suspects, allegedly involved in the supply of illegal weapons to Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, were charged.[14][15][16] The attack has been classified as jihadist terrorism by Europol.[17]

    1. ^ Breeden, Aurelien (15 July 2016). "News of the Attack in Nice, France". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016. In the truck's cabin, officials said, the police discovered an automatic 7.65 mm pistol, a cartridge clip, several used and unused 7.65 mm cartridges, as well as a fake automatic pistol, two fake assault rifles — a replica AK-47 and a replica M-16 — a grenade, a mobile phone and documents.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
    2. ^ a b "Death toll from France truck attack rises to 85". BNO News. 4 August 2016.
    3. ^ "Nice truck attack claims 86th victim". Star Tribune. 19 August 2016. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
    4. ^ "Le bilan de l'attentat de Nice porté à 86 morts" [The results of the Nice attack increased to 86 dead] (in French). 19 August 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.[dead link]
    5. ^ "Attentat de Nice : ce que l'on sait du chauffeur, Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel". Nouvel Obs (in French). Retrieved 15 July 2016.
    6. ^ "Attentat à Nice : le suspect a été formellement identifié" (in French). Europe1. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
    7. ^ "France lorry attack: As it happened (all updates from start until 15 July, 21:54)". BBC. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference monde15Jul was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference nrc15Jul,address was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ "Temporary Reintroduction of Border Control". European Commission. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
    11. ^ "Nice attacker plotted for months with 'accomplices'". CNN. 21 July 2016.
    12. ^ "Nice attack: Prosecutor says suspect had accomplices". BBC. 21 July 2016. Archived from the original on 21 July 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
    13. ^ "Nice truck killer had support, accomplices for carefully planned attack". France24. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
    14. ^ "Truck attack in Nice: Three more people charged with helping killer". Sky News. 17 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
    15. ^ "Attentat de Nice: trois suspects présentés à la justice". Libération (in French). 16 December 2016. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
    16. ^ "Attentat de Nice: trois suspects mis en examen et écroués". La Dépêche du Midi (in French). 18 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
    17. ^ "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2017". EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat). Europol: 22–28. 2017. ISBN 978-92-95200-79-1.
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 July 1834 – The Spanish Inquisition is officially disbanded after nearly 356 years.

    Spanish Inquisition

    The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Spanish: Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition, which was under Papal control. It became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Catholic Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The "Spanish Inquisition" may be defined broadly, operating in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands, the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, and all Spanish possessions in North, Central, and South America. According to modern estimates, around 150,000 were prosecuted for various offenses during the three-century duration of the Spanish Inquisition, out of which between 3,000 and 5,000 were executed (3% of all cases).

    The Inquisition was originally intended primarily to identify heretics among those who converted from Judaism and Islam to Catholicism. The regulation of the faith of newly converted Catholics was intensified after the royal decrees issued in 1492 and 1502 ordering Jews and Muslims to convert to Catholicism or leave Castile.[1] The Inquisition was not definitively abolished until 1834, during the reign of Isabella II, after a period of declining influence in the preceding century.

    The Spanish Inquisition is often cited in popular literature and history as an example of religious intolerance and repression. Some historians have come to conclude that many of the charges levied against the Inquisition are exaggerated, and are a result of the Black Legend produced by political and religious enemies of Spain, especially England.[2]

    1. ^ Hans-Jürgen Prien (21 November 2012). Christianity in Latin America: Revised and Expanded Edition. BRILL. p. 11. ISBN 978-90-04-22262-5.
    2. ^ Kamen, Henry (1999). The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300078800.
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 July 1935 – The world's first parking meter is installed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

    Parking meter

    A digital CivicSmart brand parking meter which accepts coins or credit cards

    A parking meter is a device used to collect money in exchange for the right to park a vehicle in a particular place for a limited amount of time. Parking meters can be used by municipalities as a tool for enforcing their integrated on-street parking policy, usually related to their traffic and mobility management policies, but are also used for revenue.

     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 July 1955Disneyland is dedicated and opened by Walt Disney in Anaheim, California

    Disneyland

    Disneyland Park, originally Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks built at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California, opened on July 17, 1955. It is the only theme park designed and built to completion under the direct supervision of Walt Disney. It was originally the only attraction on the property; its official name was changed to Disneyland Park to distinguish it from the expanding complex in the 1990s. It is the oldest Disney Park in the world.

    Walt Disney came up with the concept of Disneyland after visiting various amusement parks with his daughters in the 1930s and 1940s. He initially envisioned building a tourist attraction adjacent to his studios in Burbank to entertain fans who wished to visit; however, he soon realized that the proposed site was too small. After hiring a consultant to help him determine an appropriate site for his project, Disney bought a 160-acre (65 ha) site near Anaheim in 1953. Construction began in 1954 and the park was unveiled during a special televised press event on the ABC Television Network on July 17, 1955.

    Since its opening, Disneyland has undergone expansions and major renovations, including the addition of New Orleans Square in 1966, Bear Country (now Critter Country) in 1972, Mickey's Toontown in 1993, and Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge in 2019.[2] Opened in 2001, Disney California Adventure Park was built on the site of Disneyland's original parking lot.

    Disneyland has a larger cumulative attendance than any other theme park in the world, with 726 million visits since it opened (as of December 2018). In 2018, the park had approximately 18.6 million visits, making it the second most visited amusement park in the world that year, behind only Magic Kingdom.[3] According to a March 2005 Disney report, 65,700 jobs are supported by the Disneyland Resort, including about 20,000 direct Disney employees and 3,800 third-party employees (independent contractors or their employees).[4] Disney announced "Project Stardust" in 2019, which included major structural renovations to the park to account for higher attendance numbers.[5]

    1. ^ Disneyland Celebrates 56 Years on July 17 « Disney Parks Blog Archived January 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Disneyparks. disney.go.com. Retrieved on September 6, 2013.
    2. ^ Savvas, George (February 7, 2017). "Star Wars-Themed Lands at Disney Parks Set to Open in 2019". Disney Parks Blog. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
    3. ^ "TEA/AECOM 2018 Global Attractions Attendance Report" (PDF). May 23, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
    4. ^ "News from the Disney Board — March 04, 2005". The Walt Disney Company. March 4, 2005. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014.
    5. ^ "Disneyland Resort Celebrates 60 Years of 'Sleeping Beauty'". Disney Parks Blog. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 July 1925Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf.

    Mein Kampf

    Mein Kampf (German: [maɪ̯n kampf], My Struggle or My Fight) is a 1925 autobiographical manifesto by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926.[1] The book was edited firstly by Emil Maurice, then by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess.[2][3]

    Hitler began Mein Kampf while imprisoned for what he considered to be "political crimes" following his failed Putsch in Munich in November 1923. Although Hitler received many visitors initially, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book. As he continued, Hitler realized that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume scheduled for release in early 1925. The governor of Landsberg noted at the time that "he [Hitler] hopes the book will run into many editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial."[4][5] After slow initial sales, the book was a bestseller in Germany after Hitler's rise to power in 1933.[6]

    After Hitler's death, copyright of Mein Kampf passed to the state government of Bavaria, which refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany. In 2016, following the expiration of the copyright held by the Bavarian state government, Mein Kampf was republished in Germany for the first time since 1945, which prompted public debate and divided reactions from Jewish groups.

    1. ^ Mein Kampf ("My Fight"), Adolf Hitler (originally 1925–1926), Reissue edition (15 September 1998), Publisher: Mariner Books, Language: English, paperback, 720 pages, ISBN 978-1495333347
    2. ^ Shirer 1960, p. 85.
    3. ^ Robert G.L. Waite, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler, Basic Books, 1977, pp.237–243
    4. ^ Heinz, Heinz (1934). Germany's Hitler. Hurst & Blackett. p. 191.
    5. ^ Payne, Robert (1973). The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler. Popular Library. p. 203.
    6. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 80–81.
     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 July 1903Maurice Garin wins the first Tour de France

    1903 Tour de France

    The 1903 Tour de France was the first cycling race set up and sponsored by the newspaper L'Auto, ancestor of the current daily, L'Équipe. It ran from 1 to 19 July in six stages over 2,428 km (1,509 mi), and was won by Maurice Garin.[1]

    The race was invented to boost the circulation of L'Auto, after its circulation started to plummet from competition with the long-standing Le Vélo. Originally scheduled to start in June, the race was postponed one month, and the prize money was increased, after a disappointing level of applications from competitors. The 1903 Tour de France was the first stage road race, and compared to modern Grand Tours, it had relatively few stages, but each was much longer than those raced today. The cyclists did not have to compete in all six stages, although this was necessary to qualify for the general classification.

    The pre-race favourite, Maurice Garin, won the first stage, and retained the lead throughout. He also won the last two stages, and had a margin of almost three hours over the next cyclist. The circulation of L'Auto increased more than sixfold during and after the race, so the race was considered successful enough to be rerun in 1904, by which time Le Vélo had been forced out of business.

    1. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 108.
     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 July 1969Apollo program: Apollo 11's crew successfully makes the first manned landing on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin become the first humans to walk on the Moon six and a half hours later.

    Apollo 11

    Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. Commander Neil Armstrong and lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin formed the American crew that landed the Apollo Lunar Module Eagle on July 20, 1969, at 20:17 UTC. Armstrong became the first person to step onto the lunar surface six hours and 39 minutes later on July 21 at 02:56 UTC; Aldrin joined him 19 minutes later. They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft, and they collected 47.5 pounds (21.5 kg) of lunar material to bring back to Earth. Command module pilot Michael Collins flew the command module Columbia alone in lunar orbit while they were on the Moon's surface. Armstrong and Aldrin spent 21 hours 31 minutes on the lunar surface at a site they named Tranquility Base before lifting off to rejoin Columbia in lunar orbit.

    Apollo 11 was launched by a Saturn V rocket from Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida, on July 16 at 13:32 UTC, and it was the fifth crewed mission of NASA's Apollo program. The Apollo spacecraft had three parts: a command module (CM) with a cabin for the three astronauts, the only part that returned to Earth; a service module (SM), which supported the command module with propulsion, electrical power, oxygen, and water; and a lunar module (LM) that had two stages – a descent stage for landing on the Moon and an ascent stage to place the astronauts back into lunar orbit.

    After being sent to the Moon by the Saturn V's third stage, the astronauts separated the spacecraft from it and traveled for three days until they entered lunar orbit. Armstrong and Aldrin then moved into Eagle and landed in the Sea of Tranquility on July 20. The astronauts used Eagle's ascent stage to lift off from the lunar surface and rejoin Collins in the command module. They jettisoned Eagle before they performed the maneuvers that propelled Columbia out of the last of its 30 lunar orbits onto a trajectory back to Earth.[4] They returned to Earth and splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on July 24 after more than eight days in space.

    Armstrong's first step onto the lunar surface was broadcast on live TV to a worldwide audience. He described the event as "one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind."[8][9] Apollo 11 effectively ended the Space Race and fulfilled a national goal proposed in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy: "before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."[10]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mission Overview was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b c d e "Apollo 11 Mission Summary". The Apollo Program. National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on August 29, 2013. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
    3. ^ a b Orloff 2000, p. 106.
    4. ^ a b c d Orloff 2000, p. 109.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference ALSJ 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Williams, David R. (December 11, 2003). "Apollo Landing Site Coordinates". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
    7. ^ Orloff 2000, p. 107.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference transcript was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference ALSJ 4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Stenger, Richard (May 25, 2001). "Man on the Moon: Kennedy speech ignited the dream". CNN. Archived from the original on June 6, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2018.
     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 July 1970 – After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt is completed.

    Aswan Dam

    The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970. Its significance largely eclipsed the previous Aswan Low Dam initially completed in 1902 downstream. Based on the success of the Low Dam, then at its maximum utilization, construction of the High Dam became a key objective of the government following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952; with its ability to better control flooding, provide increased water storage for irrigation and generate hydroelectricity the dam was seen as pivotal to Egypt's planned industrialization. Like the earlier implementation, the High Dam has had a significant effect on the economy and culture of Egypt.

    Before the High Dam was built, even with the old dam in place, the annual flooding of the Nile during late summer had continued to pass largely unimpeded down the valley from its East African drainage basin. These floods brought high water with natural nutrients and minerals that annually enriched the fertile soil along its floodplain and delta; this predictability had made the Nile valley ideal for farming since ancient times. However, this natural flooding varied, since high-water years could destroy the whole crop, while low-water years could create widespread drought and associated famine. Both these events had continued to occur periodically. As Egypt's population grew and technology increased, both a desire and the ability developed to completely control the flooding, and thus both protect and support farmland and its economically important cotton crop. With the greatly increased reservoir storage provided by the High Aswan Dam, the floods could be controlled and the water could be stored for later release over multiple years.

    The Aswan Dam was designed by the Moscow-based Hydroproject Institute.[2]

    1. ^ "Aswan High Dam". Carbon Monitoring for Action. Archived from the original on 2015-01-15. Retrieved 2015-01-15.
    2. ^ Smith, Jean Edward (2012). Eisenhower in War and Peace. Random House Publishing Group. p. 694. ISBN 9780679644293.
     
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 July 1977 – Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping is restored to power.

    Deng Xiaoping

    Deng Xiaoping (/ˈdʌŋ ˌʃˈpɪŋ/, also UK: /ˈdɛŋ, ˈsjpɪŋ/;[1][2][3] courtesy name Xixian;[4] 22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997)[5] was a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1992.[6][7] After Chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng led China through far-reaching market-economy reforms and has been called the "Architect of Modern China."[6][7][8][9]

    Born into a peasant background in Sichuan province, Deng studied and worked in France in the 1920s, where he became a follower of Marxism–Leninism.[10] He joined the Communist Party of China in 1923. Upon his return to China, he joined the party organization in Shanghai, then was a political commissar for the Red Army in rural regions and by the late 1930s was considered a "revolutionary veteran" because he participated in the Long March.[11] Following the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, Deng worked in Tibet and the southwest region to consolidate Communist control.

    As the party's Secretary General in the 1950s, Deng presided over Anti-Rightist Campaigns and became instrumental in China's economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward of 1957–1960.[12] However, his economic policies caused him to fall out of favor with Mao Zedong and was purged twice during the Cultural Revolution.[10][12]

    Following Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng outmaneuvered the late chairman's chosen successor Hua Guofeng in December 1978.[10][12] Inheriting a country beset with social conflict, disenchantment with the Communist Party and institutional disorder resulting from the chaotic policies of the Mao era, Deng became the paramount figure of the "second generation" of party leadership.

    While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary (leader of the Communist Party), some called him "the architect"[13] of a new brand of thinking that combined socialist ideology with free enterprise[14] whose slogan was "socialism with Chinese characteristics". Deng opened China to foreign investment and the global market, policies that are credited with developing China into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world for several generations and raising the standard of living of hundreds of millions.[15]

    Deng was the Time Person of the Year in 1978 and 1985, the third Chinese leader (after Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Soong Mei-ling) and the fourth communist leader (after Joseph Stalin, picked twice; and Nikita Khrushchev) to be selected.[16] He was criticized for ordering the crackdown on the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, but was praised for his reaffirmation of the reform program in his Southern Tour of 1992 as well as the reversion of Hong Kong to Chinese control in 1997.[17][18][19] Deng died in February 1997, aged 92.[20]

    1. ^ "Deng Xiaoping". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
    2. ^ "Deng Xiaoping" (US) and "Deng Xiaoping". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
    3. ^ "Teng Hsiao-p'ing". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
    4. ^ Xia, Zhengnong (2003). 大辭海. 哲學卷. Shanghai: Shanghai Dictionary Publishing House. p. 38. ISBN 9787532612369.
    5. ^ Hsü, Immanuel C.Y. (2000). The Rise of Modern China (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 974. ISBN 9780195125047.
    6. ^ a b Faison, Seth (20 February 1997). "Deng Xiaoping Is Dead at 92; Architect of Modern China". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    7. ^ a b "Analysis | 40 years ago, Deng Xiaoping changed China — and the world". Washington Post. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    8. ^ "Forty years after Deng opened China, reformists are cowed". The Economist. 8 December 2018. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    9. ^ Huang, Dan Kopf, Echo. "Happy birthday Deng Xiaoping: Here are 10 charts showing how he changed China". Quartz. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    10. ^ a b c "The Career of Deng Xiaoping". www.sjsu.edu. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    11. ^ Cheng Li (2001). China's leaders. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780847694976.
    12. ^ a b c "The Man Who Re-Invented China | Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective". origins.osu.edu. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    13. ^ "Deng Xiaoping Is Dead at 92; Architect of Modern China". The New York Times. 20 February 1997.
    14. ^ GREGOR BENTON. "Assessing Deng Xiaoping". jacobinmag.com.
    15. ^ Robert Dernberger (1993). China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping. Sharpe. ISBN 9781563242786. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
    16. ^ historian, Jennifer Rosenberg Jennifer Rosenberg is a; Fact-Checker, History; Topics, Freelance Writer Who Writes About 20th-Century History. "A Complete Look at TIME's Person of the Year List, from 1927-2017". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    17. ^ Fisher, Max (2 June 2014). "This 1989 speech is one of China's most important". Vox. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    18. ^ Zhao, Suisheng (1993). "Deng Xiaoping's Southern Tour: Elite Politics in Post-Tiananmen China". Asian Survey. 33 (8): 739–756. doi:10.2307/2645086. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2645086.
    19. ^ "'How my father's speeches saved Chinese economic reform': Deng Xiaoping's daughter pays tribute". South China Morning Post. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    20. ^ "CNN - Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping dies - Feb. 19, 1997". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 July 1995Comet Hale–Bopp is discovered; it becomes visible to the naked eye on Earth nearly a year later.

    Comet Hale–Bopp

    Comet Hale–Bopp (formally designated C/1995 O1) is a comet that was perhaps the most widely observed of the 20th century and one of the brightest seen for many decades.

    Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp discovered Comet Hale-Bopp separately on July 23, 1995 before it became visible to the naked eye. It is difficult to predict the maximum brightness of new comets with any degree of certainty, but Hale–Bopp met or exceeded most predictions when it passed perihelion on April 1, 1997. It was visible to the naked eye for a record 18 months, twice as long as the Great Comet of 1811, the previous record holder. Accordingly, Hale–Bopp was dubbed the Great Comet of 1997.

    1. ^ a b c d e "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: C/1995 O1 (Hale–Bopp)" (2007-10-22 last obs). Retrieved 2008-12-05.
    2. ^ Syuichi Nakano (2008-02-12). "OAA computing section circular NK 1553". OAA Computing and Minor Planet Sections. Retrieved 2009-12-17.
    3. ^ Horizons output. "Barycentric Osculating Orbital Elements for Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)". Retrieved 2011-01-31. (Solution using the Solar System Barycenter and barycentric coordinates. Select Ephemeris Type:Elements and Center:@0)
    4. ^ "Solex 10 estimate for Next Perihelion of C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)". Archived from the original on August 10, 2012. Retrieved 2009-12-18.
     
  24. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 July 1977 – End of a four-day-long Libyan–Egyptian War.

    Libyan–Egyptian War

    The Libyan–Egyptian War was a short border war between Libya and Egypt in July 1977.

    On the 21 July 1977, there were the first gun battles between troops on the border, followed by land and air strikes. On the 24 July the combatants agreed to a ceasefire under the mediation of the President of Algeria Houari Boumediène and the Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat.

    1. ^ "Countrystudies - Libya and Arab Unity". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
    2. ^ Cooper, Tom (13 November 2003). "Libyan Mirage-Order". Western & Northern Africa Database: Libya & Egypt, 1971-1979. Air Combat Information Group. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013.
    3. ^ Pollack 2004, p. 365.
    4. ^ Pollack 2004, p. 368.
     
  25. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 July 1814War of 1812: An American attack on Canada is repulsed.

    Battle of Lundy's Lane

    Coordinates: 43°05′21″N 79°05′44″W / 43.0891°N 79.0955°W / 43.0891; -79.0955

    The Battle of Lundy's Lane (also known as the Battle of Niagara Falls)[8] was a battle of the Anglo-American War of 1812, which took place on 25 July 1814, in present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario. It was one of the bloodiest battles of the war,[9] and one of the deadliest battles ever fought in Canada.[10]

    The battle was a tactical draw with both sides left on the battlefield but a British strategic victory because the Americans had suffered so many casualties that they were now outnumbered and forced to withdraw. There were over 1,500 casualties including 258 killed.

    1. ^ Graves (1997), pp. 261–262.
    2. ^ Graves (1997), pp. 257–258.
    3. ^ Graves (1993), p. 173.
    4. ^ Graves (1993), p. 174.
    5. ^ Wood, p. 164.
    6. ^ Graves (1993), p. 175.
    7. ^ Whitehorne, pp. 149–150.
    8. ^ The War of 1812 Archived 14 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine
    9. ^ Heidler (2004), p. 161.
    10. ^ Belanger (2009), p. 72.
     
  26. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 July 1814 – The Swedish–Norwegian War begins.

    Swedish–Norwegian War (1814)

    The Swedish–Norwegian War, also known as the Campaign against Norway (Swedish: Fälttåget mot Norge), War with Sweden 1814 (Norwegian: Krigen med Sverige 1814), or the Norwegian War of Independence, was a war fought between Sweden and Norway in the summer of 1814. The war was a Swedish victory and led to Norway being forced into the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, a union with Sweden under the Swedish king Charles XIV but with Norway having its own constitution and parliament.

     
  27. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 July 1996 – In Atlanta, United States, a pipe bomb explodes at Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics.

    Centennial Olympic Park bombing

    The Centennial Olympic Park bombing was a domestic terrorist pipe bombing attack on the Centennial Olympic Park in Atlanta, Georgia, on July 27 during the 1996 Summer Olympics. The blast directly killed 1 person and injured 111 others; another person later died of a heart attack. It was the first of four bombings committed by Eric Rudolph.[1] Security guard Richard Jewell discovered the bomb before detonation and cleared most of the spectators out of the park. Rudolph, a carpenter and handyman, had detonated three pipe bombs inside a U.S. military ALICE Pack.

    After the bombings, Jewell was temporarily investigated as a suspect by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the news media falsely focused on him aggressively as the presumed culprit. However, in October 1996, Jewell was exonerated when the FBI declared that he was no longer a person of interest. Following three more bombings in 1997, Rudolph was identified by the FBI as the suspect. In 2003, Rudolph was arrested and tried before being convicted two years later. Rudolph was sentenced to life imprisonment without parole for his crimes.

    1. ^ Gross, Doug (April 14, 2005). "Eric Rudolph Lays Out the Arguments that Fueled His Two-Year Bomb Attacks". San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press.
     
  28. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 July 1984 – The 1984 Summer Olympics officially known as the games of the XXIII were opened in Los Angeles.

    1984 Summer Olympics

    The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles, United States. This was the second time that Los Angeles had hosted the Games, the first being in 1932.

    California was the home state of the incumbent U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who officially opened the Games. The logo for the 1984 Games, branded "Stars in Motion", featured red, white and blue stars arranged horizontally and struck through with alternating streaks. The official mascot of the Games was Sam the Olympic Eagle. These were the first Summer Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch.

    The 1984 Games were boycotted by a total of fourteen Eastern Bloc countries, including the Soviet Union and East Germany, in response to the American-led boycott of the previous 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan; Romania was the only Eastern Bloc nation that opted to attend the Games. Iran and Libya also chose to boycott the Games for unrelated reasons. Despite the field being depleted in certain sports due to the boycott, 140 National Olympic Committees took part, which was a record at the time.[2][3]

    The 1984 Summer Olympics are widely considered to be the most financially successful modern Olympics[4] and served as an example of how to run the model Olympic Games commercially. As a result of low construction costs, coupled with a reliance on private corporate funding,[5] the 1984 Olympic Games generated a profit of more than $250 million.

    On July 18, 2009, a 25th anniversary celebration was held in the main Olympic Stadium. The celebration included a speech by the former president of the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee, Peter Ueberroth, and a re-creation of the lighting of the cauldron. Los Angeles will host the Summer Olympics for the third time in 2028.

    1. ^ a b "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. October 9, 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 14, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
    2. ^ "NO BOYCOTT BLUES". olympic.org. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
    3. ^ "Games of the XXIII Olympiad". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on August 30, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
    4. ^ Abrahamson, Alan (July 25, 2004). "LA the Best Site, Bid Group Insists; Olympics: Despite USOC rejection". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
    5. ^ Clarke, Norm (April 7, 1984). "It's official: Sponsors help pay for Olympics". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). Associated Press. p. 18.
     
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 July 1935 – First flight of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.

    Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

    The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing entry (prototype Model 299/XB-17) outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing lost the contract (to the Douglas B-18 Bolo) because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances,[6][7] becoming the third-most produced bomber of all time, behind the four-engined B-24 and the multirole, twin-engined Ju 88.

    The B-17 was primarily employed by the USAAF in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force, based at many airfields in central and southern England, and the Fifteenth Air Force, based in Italy, complemented the RAF Bomber Command's nighttime area bombing in the Combined Bomber Offensive to help secure air superiority over the cities, factories and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for the invasion of France in 1944.[8] The B-17 also participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II, where it conducted raids against Japanese shipping and airfields.[9]

    From its prewar inception, the USAAC (by June 1941, the USAAF) promoted the aircraft as a strategic weapon; it was a relatively fast, high-flying, long-range bomber with heavy defensive armament at the expense of bombload. It developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base. The B-17 dropped more bombs than any other U.S. aircraft in World War II. Of the 1.5 million tonnes of bombs dropped on Nazi Germany and its occupied territories by U.S. aircraft, 640,000 tonnes were dropped from B-17s.[10] In addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was also employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, and search-and-rescue aircraft.

    As of May 2015, 10 aircraft remain airworthy, though none of them were ever flown in combat. Dozens more are in storage or on static display. The oldest of these is a D-series flown in combat in the Pacific and the Caribbean.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference first flight was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Yenne.p8 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Angelucci and Matricardi 1988, p. 46.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bowers1976 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2019). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6 April 2019. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
    6. ^ Parker 2013, pp. 35, 40–48.
    7. ^ Herman 2012, pp. 292–299, 305, 333.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Carey Pointblank was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Parker 2013, p. 41.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Yenne.p46 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 July 1935 – First flight of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.

    Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

    The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing entry (prototype Model 299/XB-17) outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing lost the contract (to the Douglas B-18 Bolo) because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances,[6][7] becoming the third-most produced bomber of all time, behind the four-engined B-24 and the multirole, twin-engined Ju 88.

    The B-17 was primarily employed by the USAAF in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force, based at many airfields in central and southern England, and the Fifteenth Air Force, based in Italy, complemented the RAF Bomber Command's nighttime area bombing in the Combined Bomber Offensive to help secure air superiority over the cities, factories and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for the invasion of France in 1944.[8] The B-17 also participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II, where it conducted raids against Japanese shipping and airfields.[9]

    From its prewar inception, the USAAC (by June 1941, the USAAF) promoted the aircraft as a strategic weapon; it was a relatively fast, high-flying, long-range bomber with heavy defensive armament at the expense of bombload. It developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base. The B-17 dropped more bombs than any other U.S. aircraft in World War II. Of the 1.5 million tonnes of bombs dropped on Nazi Germany and its occupied territories by U.S. aircraft, 640,000 tonnes were dropped from B-17s.[10] In addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was also employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, and search-and-rescue aircraft.

    As of May 2015, 10 aircraft remain airworthy, though none of them were ever flown in combat. Dozens more are in storage or on static display. The oldest of these is a D-series flown in combat in the Pacific and the Caribbean.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference first flight was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Yenne.p8 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Angelucci and Matricardi 1988, p. 46.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bowers1976 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2019). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6 April 2019. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
    6. ^ Parker 2013, pp. 35, 40–48.
    7. ^ Herman 2012, pp. 292–299, 305, 333.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Carey Pointblank was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Parker 2013, p. 41.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Yenne.p46 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 July 1980 – Israel's Knesset passes the Jerusalem Law.

    Jerusalem Law

    The Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel.

    The Jerusalem Law (Hebrew: חוֹק יְסוֹד: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם בִּירַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Arabic: قانون القدس‎) is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Knesset on 30 July 1980 (17th Av, 5740).

    Although the law did not use the term, the Israeli Supreme Court interpreted the law as an effective Annexation of East Jerusalem.[1]

    1. ^ Eyal Benvenisti (23 February 2012). The International Law of Occupation. OUP Oxford. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-0-19-958889-3.
     
  32. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 July 1588 – The Spanish Armada is spotted off the coast of England.

    Spanish Armada

    The Spanish Armada (Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada, lit. 'Great and Most Fortunate Navy') was a Habsburg Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from Corunna in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England. Medina Sidonia was an aristocrat without naval command experience but was made commander by King Philip II. The aim was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I and her establishment of Protestantism in England, to stop English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and to stop the harm caused by English and Dutch privateering ships that interfered with Spanish interests in the Americas.

    English ships sailed from Plymouth to attack the Armada and were faster and more manoeuvrable than the larger Spanish Galleons, enabling them to fire on the Armada without loss as it sailed east off the south coast of England. The Armada could have anchored in the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the English mainland and occupied the Isle of Wight, but Medina Sidonia was under orders from King Philip II to meet up with the Duke of Parma's forces in the Netherlands so England could be invaded by Parma's soldiers and other soldiers carried in ships of the Armada. English guns damaged the Armada and a Spanish ship was captured by Sir Francis Drake in the English Channel.

    The Armada anchored off Calais.[25] While awaiting communications from Duke of Parma, the Armada was scattered by an English fireship night attack and abandoned its rendezvous with Parma's army, that was blockaded in harbour by Dutch flyboats. In the ensuing Battle of Gravelines, the Spanish fleet was further damaged and was in risk of running aground on the Dutch coast when the wind changed. The Armada, driven by southwest winds, withdrew north, with the English fleet harrying it up the east coast of England. On return to Spain round the north of Scotland and south around Ireland, the Armada was disrupted further by storms. A large number of ships were wrecked on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland and more than a third of the initial 130 ships failed to return.[26] As Martin and Parker explain, "Philip II attempted to invade England, but his plans miscarried. This was due to his own mismanagement, including appointing an aristocrat without naval experience as commander of the Armada, unfortunate weather, and the opposition of the English and their Dutch allies including the use of fire-ships sailed into the anchored Armada."[27]

    The expedition was the largest engagement of the undeclared Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). The following year, England organised a similar large-scale campaign against Spain, the English Armada, sometimes called the "counter-Armada of 1589" that was also unsuccessful.

    1. ^ Mattingly p. 401: "the defeat of the Spanish armada really was decisive"
    2. ^ Parker & Martin p. 5: "an unmitigated disaster"
    3. ^ Vego p. 148: "the decisive defeat of the Spanish armada"
    4. ^ Lucy Hughes-Hallett notes that the action off Gravelines "was the fight which would enter English history books as 'the defeat of the Spanish Armada', but to those who took part in it the engagement appeared inconclusive. By the end of it the Armada was battered but still battleworthy, while the English were almost entirely out of ammunition". Hughes-Hallett, Lucy: Heroes: A History of Hero Worship. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2010. ISBN 9780307485908, p. 327.
    5. ^ "The 1588 campaign was a major English propaganda victory, but in strategic terms it was essentially indecisive". Holmes, Richard; Marix Evans, Martin: Battlefield: Decisive Conflicts in History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780191501173, p. 108.
    6. ^ According to José Alcalá-Zamora Queipo de Llano, "the confused and partial news of the indecisive naval actions fought between both naval formations in the English Channel were transformed into adulatory, courtier and political victorious reports". Alcalá-Zamora, José N.: La empresa de Inglaterra: (la "Armada invencible": fabulación y realidad). Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia, 2004. ISBN 9788495983374, p. 20.
    7. ^ Parker & Martin p. 245
    8. ^ Alcalá-Zamora p 56
    9. ^ Richard Holmes 2001, Battlefield: Decisive Conflicts in History, p. 858: "The 1588 campaign was a major English propaganda victory, but in strategic terms it was essentially indecisive"
    10. ^ Mattingly 362
    11. ^ a b Colin Martin, Geoffrey Parker, The Spanish Armada, Penguin Books, 1999, ISBN 1-901341-14-3, p. 40.
    12. ^ Colin Martin, Geoffrey Parker,The Spanish Armada, Penguin Books, 1999, ISBN 1-901341-14-3, pp. 10, 13, 19, 26.
    13. ^ Kinard, Jeff. Artillery: An Illustrated History of Its Impact. p. 92.
    14. ^ Burke, Peter. The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 13, Companion Volume.
    15. ^ Kamen, Henry (2014). Spain, 1469-1714: A Society of Conflict. Routledge. p. 123.
    16. ^ Lewis, Michael.The Spanish Armada, New York: T.Y. Crowell Co., 1968, p. 184.
    17. ^ John Knox Laughton,State Papers Relating to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, Anno 1588, printed for the Navy Records Society, MDCCCXCV, Vol. II, pp. 8–9, Wynter to Walsyngham: indicates that the ships used as fire-ships were drawn from those at hand in the fleet and not hulks from Dover.
    18. ^ Lewis, p. 182.
    19. ^ Aubrey N. Newman, David T. Johnson, P.M. Jones (1985) The Eighteenth Century Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature 69 (1), 108 doi:10.1111/j.1467-8314.1985.tb00698.
    20. ^ Casado Soto, José L.: Atlantic shipping in sixteenth-century Spain and the 1588 Armada, in Rodríguez-Salgado, M. J. and Simon Adams (eds.): England, Spain and the Gran Armada, 1585–1604. Edinburgh: John Donald, 1991. ISBN 9780859763004, p. 122.
    21. ^ Garrett Mattingly rejects old estimations, makes a recount and concludes: "So, lost, at most, 31 ships (not 41), 10 pinnaces at most (not 20), two galleasses (not three), one galley. Total, not more than 44 (not 65), probably five or six and perhaps a doze less." Mattingly, Garrett: The Armada. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987. ISBN 9780395083666, p. 426.
    22. ^ Lewis p. 208
    23. ^ Lewis pp. 208–09
    24. ^ Hanson p. 563
    25. ^ "The Safeguard of the Sea, A Naval History of Britain, 660–1649", N. A. M. Rodgers, Penguin, 2004, pp. 263–269
    26. ^ John A. Wagner (2010). Voices of Shakespeare's England: Contemporary Accounts of Elizabethan Daily Life: Contemporary Accounts of Elizabethan Daily Life. ABC-CLIO. p. 91. ISBN 9780313357411.
    27. ^ Colin Martin; Geoffrey Parker (1999). The Spanish Armada (revised ed.). Manchester University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9781901341140.
     
  33. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 August 527Justinian I becomes the sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire.

    Justinian I

    Justinian I (/ʌˈstɪniən/; Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός, translit. Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church,[2][3] was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western-half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire".[4]

    Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been known as the "last Roman" in mid 20th century historiography.[5] This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the defunct Western Roman Empire.[6] His general, Belisarius, swiftly conquered the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa. Subsequently, Belisarius, Narses, and other generals conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom, restoring Dalmatia, Sicily, Italy, and Rome to the empire after more than half a century of rule by the Ostrogoths. The prefect Liberius reclaimed the south of the Iberian peninsula, establishing the province of Spania. These campaigns re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean, increasing the Empire's annual revenue by over a million solidi.[7] During his reign, Justinian also subdued the Tzani, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea that had never been under Roman rule before.[8] He engaged the Sasanian Empire in the east during Kavad I's reign, and later again during Khosrow I's; this second conflict was partially initiated due to his ambitions in the west.

    A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states.[9] His reign also marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, and his building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia.

    1. ^ History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene, Volume 2, J. B. Bury, Cosimo, Inc., 2008, ISBN 1605204056, p. 7.
    2. ^ Also known as Saint Justinian the Emperor and other various venerable epithets.
    3. ^ "St. Justinian the Emperor". Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
    4. ^ J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the seventh century (Cambridge, 2003), 17–19.
    5. ^ For instance by George Philip Baker (Justinian, New York 1938), or in the Outline of Great Books series (Justinian the Great).
    6. ^ On the western Roman Empire, see now H. Börm, Westrom (Stuttgart 2013).
    7. ^ "History 303: Finances under Justinian". Tulane.edu. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    8. ^ Evans, J. A. S., The Age of Justinian: the circumstances of imperial power. pp. 93–94
    9. ^ John Henry Merryman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America, 3rd ed. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 9–11.
     
  34. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 August 1980 – A bomb explodes at the railway station in Bologna, Italy, killing 85 people and wounding more than 200

    Bologna massacre

    The Bologna massacre (Italian: strage di Bologna) was a terrorist bombing of the Bologna Centrale railway station in Bologna, Italy, on the morning of 2 August 1980 which killed 85 people and wounded over 200. Several members of the neo-fascist terrorist organization Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (Armed Revolutionary Nuclei) were sentenced for the bombing,[1] although the group denied involvement.

    1. ^ Tassinari, 2008, p. 626
     
  35. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 August 1824 – The Battle of Kos is fought between Turkish and Greek forces.

    Battle of Kos

    Location of Kos in the Aegean Sea

    The Battle of Kos (Greek: Μάχη της Κω) was a brief battle between British, Italian and German forces for the control of the Greek island of Kos, in the then Italian-held Dodecanese islands in the Aegean Sea.

     
  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 August 1781 – The Battle of Dogger Bank takes place.

    Battle of Dogger Bank (1781)

    The Battle of the Dogger Bank was a naval battle that took place on 5 August 1781 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, contemporaneously related to the American Revolutionary War, in the North Sea. It was a bloody encounter between a British squadron under Vice Admiral Sir Hyde Parker and a Dutch squadron under Vice Admiral Johan Zoutman, both of which were escorting convoys.

    1. ^ Syrett p. 131
    2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference C508 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Allen pg .319
     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 August 2012NASA's Curiosity rover lands on the surface of Mars.

    Curiosity (rover)

    Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore the crater Gale on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).[3] Curiosity was launched from Cape Canaveral on November 26, 2011, at 15:02 UTC and landed on Aeolis Palus inside Gale on Mars on August 6, 2012, 05:17 UTC.[7][8][13] The Bradbury Landing site was less than 2.4 km (1.5 mi) from the center of the rover's touchdown target after a 560 million km (350 million mi) journey.[9][14] The rover's goals include an investigation of the Martian climate and geology; assessment of whether the selected field site inside Gale has ever offered environmental conditions favorable for microbial life, including investigation of the role of water; and planetary habitability studies in preparation for human exploration.[15][16]

    In December 2012, Curiosity's two-year mission was extended indefinitely,[17] and on August 5, 2017, NASA celebrated the fifth anniversary of the Curiosity rover landing.[18][19] The rover is still operational, and as of August 22, 2019, Curiosity has been on Mars for 2503 sols (2571 total days) since landing on August 6, 2012. (See current status.)

    Curiosity's design serves as the basis for the planned Mars 2020 rover, which will carry different scientific instruments.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Space-20120806 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference nasa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NASA-Curiosity was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference NASA-1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference NASA-2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference oig report was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Abilleira2013 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference bbc20120808 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NASA-20120822 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference MSNBC-20120806 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference S&T-20120807 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Mahaffy, Paul R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Cabane, Michel; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Carignan, Daniel; Cascia, Mark; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Everson, Paula; Franz, Heather; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.; Hawk, Douglas; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Jones, Andrea; et al. (2012). "Where is Curiosity?". Space Science Reviews. 170 (1–4): 401. doi:10.1007/s11214-012-9879-z. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference youtube1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference autogenerated1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference overview was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference goals was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference 3news.nz was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Webster, Guy; Cantillo, Laurie; Brown, Dwayne (August 2, 2017). "Five Years Ago and 154 Million Miles Away: Touchdown!". NASA. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
    19. ^ Wall, Mike (August 5, 2017). "After 5 Years on Mars, NASA's Curiosity Rover Is Still Making Big Discoveries". Space.com. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
     
  39. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 August 936 – Coronation of King Otto I of Germany.

    Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor

    Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (German: Otto der Große, Italian: Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.[b] He was the oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda.

    Otto inherited the Duchy of Saxony and the kingship of the Germans upon his father's death in 936. He continued his father's work of unifying all German tribes into a single kingdom and greatly expanded the king's powers at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, Otto installed members of his family in the kingdom's most important duchies. This reduced the various dukes, who had previously been co-equals with the king, to royal subjects under his authority. Otto transformed the Roman Catholic Church in Germany to strengthen royal authority and subjected its clergy to his personal control.

    After putting down a brief civil war among the rebellious duchies, Otto defeated the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, thus ending the Hungarian invasions of Western Europe.[3] The victory against the pagan Magyars earned Otto a reputation as a savior of Christendom and secured his hold over the kingdom. By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy. The patronage of Otto and his immediate successors facilitated a so-called "Ottonian Renaissance" of arts and architecture. Following the example of Charlemagne's coronation as "Emperor of the Romans" in 800, Otto was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962 by Pope John XII in Rome.

    Otto's later years were marked by conflicts with the papacy and struggles to stabilize his rule over Italy. Reigning from Rome, Otto sought to improve relations with the Byzantine Empire, which opposed his claim to emperorship and his realm's further expansion to the south. To resolve this conflict, the Byzantine princess Theophanu married his son Otto II in April 972. Otto finally returned to Germany in August 972 and died at Memleben in May 973. Otto II succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor.

    1. ^ Heather 2014, p. 281.
    2. ^ Freund, Stephan (2013). Wallhausen – Geburtsort Ottos des Großen, Aufenthaltsort deutscher Könige und Kaiser (in German). Schnell und Steiner. ISBN 978-3-7954-2680-4.
    3. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 254.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  40. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 August 1793 – The insurrection of Lyon occurs during the French Revolution.

    Revolt of Lyon against the National Convention

    The revolt of Lyon against the National Convention was a counter-revolutionary movement in the city of Lyon during the time of the French Revolution. It was a revolt of moderates against the more radical National Convention, the third government during the French Revolution. It broke out in June 1793 and was put down in December of the same year, after government forces had besieged the city.

     

Share This Page