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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    13 February 1955Israel obtains four of the seven Dead Sea Scrolls.

    Dead Sea Scrolls

    The Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves in the Judaean Desert, near Ein Feshkha on the northern shore of the Dead Sea in the West Bank. Scholarly consensus dates these scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE.[1][2] The texts have great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Almost all of the Dead Sea Scrolls are held by the State of Israel in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum, but ownership of the scrolls is disputed by Jordan and the Palestinian Authority.

    Many thousands of written fragments have been discovered in the Dead Sea area. They represent the remnants of larger manuscripts damaged by natural causes or through human interference, with the vast majority holding only small scraps of text. However, a small number of well-preserved, almost intact manuscripts have survived – fewer than a dozen among those from the Qumran Caves.[1] Researchers have assembled a collection of 981 different manuscripts – discovered in 1946/47 and in 1956 – from 11 caves.[3] The 11 Qumran Caves lie in the immediate vicinity of the Hellenistic-period Jewish settlement at Khirbet Qumran in the eastern Judaean Desert, in the West Bank.[4] The caves are located about one mile (1.6 kilometres) west of the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, whence they derive their name. Scholarly consensus dates the Qumran Caves Scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE.[1] Bronze coins found at the same sites form a series beginning with John Hyrcanus (in office 135–104 BCE) and continuing until the period of the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), supporting the radiocarbon and paleographic dating of the scrolls.[5]

    In the larger sense, the Dead Sea Scrolls include manuscripts from additional Judaean Desert sites, dated as early as the 8th century BCE and as late as the 11th century CE.[6]

    Biblical texts older than the Dead Sea Scrolls have been discovered only in two silver scroll-shaped amulets containing portions of the Priestly Blessing from the Book of Numbers, excavated in Jerusalem at Ketef Hinnom and dated c. 600 BCE; some scholars also include the controversial Shapira Scroll. The third-oldest surviving known piece of the Torah, the En-Gedi Scroll, consists of a portion of Leviticus found in the Ein Gedi synagogue, burnt in the 6th century CE and analyzed in 2015. Research has dated it palaeographically to the 1st or 2nd century CE, and using the C14 method to sometime between the 2nd and 4th centuries CE.[7]

    Most of the texts use Hebrew, with some written in Aramaic (for example the Son of God text; in different regional dialects, including Nabataean), and a few in Greek.[8] Discoveries from the Judaean Desert add Latin (from Masada) and Arabic (from Khirbet al-Mird) texts.[9] Most of the texts are written on parchment, some on papyrus, and one on copper.[10]

    Archaeologists have long associated the scrolls with the ancient Jewish sect called the Essenes, although some recent interpretations have challenged this connection and argue that priests in Jerusalem, or Zadokites, or other unknown Jewish groups wrote the scrolls.[11][12]

    Owing to the poor condition of some of the scrolls, scholars have not identified all of their texts. The identified texts fall into three general groups:

    1. About 40% are copies of texts from the Hebrew Scriptures.
    2. Approximately another 30% are texts from the Second Temple Period which ultimately were not canonized in the Hebrew Bible, like the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Sirach, Psalms 152–155, etc.
    3. The remainder (roughly 30%) are sectarian manuscripts of previously unknown documents that shed light on the rules and beliefs of a particular group (sect) or groups within greater Judaism, like the Community Rule, the War Scroll, the Pesher on Habakkuk, and The Rule of the Blessing.[13][need quotation to verify]
    1. ^ a b c "The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls: Nature and Significance". Israel Museum Jerusalem. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    2. ^ "The Digital Library: Introduction". Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    3. ^ "Hebrew University Archaeologists Find 12th Dead Sea Scrolls Cave". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
    4. ^ Donahue, Michelle Z. (10 February 2017). "New Dead Sea Scroll Find May Help Detect Forgeries". nationalgeographic.com.
    5. ^ Leaney, A. R. C. From Judaean Caves: The Story of the Dead Sea Scrolls. p.27, Religious Education Press, 1961.
    6. ^ "The Digital Library: Introduction". Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    7. ^ Michael Segal, Emanuel Tov, William Brent Seales, Clifford Seth Parker, Pnina Shor, Yosef Porath; with an Appendix by Ada Yardeni (2016). "An Early Leviticus Scroll from En-Gedi: Preliminary Publication" (PDF). Textus. 26: 1–29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    8. ^ Vermes, Geza (1977). The Dead Sea Scrolls. Qumran in Perspective. London: Collins. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-00-216142-8.
    9. ^ "Languages and Scripts". Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    10. ^ McCarthy, Rory (27 August 2008). "From papyrus to cyberspace". The Guardian.
    11. ^ Ofri, Ilani (13 March 2009). "Scholar: The Essenes, Dead Sea Scroll 'authors,' never existed". Ha'aretz. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
    12. ^ Golb, Norman (5 June 2009). "On the Jerusalem Origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls" (PDF). University of Chicago Oriental Institute.
    13. ^ Abegg, Jr., Martin, Peter Flint, and Eugene Ulrich, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English, San Francisco: Harper, 2002.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    1
    14 February 1966 – Australian currency is decimalized.

    Decimalisation

    Decimalisation (American English: Decimalization) is the conversion of a system of currency or of weights and measures to units related by powers of 10.

    Most countries have decimalised their currencies, converting them from non-decimal sub-units to a decimal system, with one basic currency unit and sub-units that are to a power of 10, most commonly 100 and exceptionally 1000; and sometimes at the same time changing the name of the currency or the conversion rate to the new currency. Today, only two countries have non-decimal currencies: Mauritania, where 1 ouguiya = 5 khoums, and Madagascar, where 1 ariary = 5 iraimbilanja.[1] However, these are only theoretically non-decimal, as in both cases the value of the main unit is so low that the sub-units are too small to be of any practical use and coins of the sub-units are no longer used.

    For weights and measures this is also called metrication, replacing traditional units that are related in other ways, such as those formed by successive doubling or halving, or by more arbitrary conversion factors. Units of physical measurement, such as length and mass, were decimalised with the introduction of the metric system, which has been adopted by almost all countries with the prominent exception of the United States and, to a lesser extent, the United Kingdom. Thus a kilometre is 1000 metres, while a mile is 1,760 yards. Electrical units are decimalised worldwide. Common units of time remain undecimalised; although an attempt was made during the French revolution, this proved to be unsuccessful and was quickly abandoned.

    1. ^ "Malagasy Ariary". famouswonders.com. Retrieved 2016-12-13.
     
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    1
    15 February 2001 – The first draft of the complete human genome is published in Nature.

    Human genome

    The human genome is a complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria. These are usually treated separately as the nuclear genome, and the mitochondrial genome.[1] Human genomes include both protein-coding DNA genes and noncoding DNA. Haploid human genomes, which are contained in germ cells (the egg and sperm gamete cells created in the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction before fertilization creates a zygote) consist of three billion DNA base pairs, while diploid genomes (found in somatic cells) have twice the DNA content. While there are significant differences among the genomes of human individuals (on the order of 0.1% due to single-nucleotide variants[2] and 0.6% when considering indels),[3] these are considerably smaller than the differences between humans and their closest living relatives, the bonobos and chimpanzees (~1.1% fixed single-nucleotide variants [4] and 4% when including indels).[5]

    The first human genome sequences were published in nearly complete draft form in February 2001 by the Human Genome Project[6] and Celera Corporation.[7] Completion of the Human Genome Project's sequencing effort was announced in 2004 with the publication of a draft genome sequence, leaving just 341 gaps in the sequence, representing highly-repetitive and other DNA that could not be sequenced with the technology available at the time.[8] The human genome was the first of all vertebrates to be sequenced to such near-completion, and as of 2018, the diploid genomes of over a million individual humans had been determined using next-generation sequencing.[9] These data are used worldwide in biomedical science, anthropology, forensics and other branches of science. Such genomic studies have led to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, and to new insights in many fields of biology, including human evolution.

    Although the sequence of the human genome has been (almost) completely determined by DNA sequencing, it is not yet fully understood. Most (though probably not all) genes have been identified by a combination of high throughput experimental and bioinformatics approaches, yet much work still needs to be done to further elucidate the biological functions of their protein and RNA products. Recent results suggest that most of the vast quantities of noncoding DNA within the genome have associated biochemical activities, including regulation of gene expression, organization of chromosome architecture, and signals controlling epigenetic inheritance.

    Prior to the acquisition of the full genome sequence, estimates of the number of human genes ranged from 50,000 to 140,000 (with occasional vagueness about whether these estimates included non-protein coding genes).[10] As genome sequence quality and the methods for identifying protein-coding genes improved,[8] the count of recognized protein-coding genes dropped to 19,000-20,000.[11] However, a fuller understanding of the role played by genes expressing regulatory RNAs that do not encode proteins has raised the total number of genes to at least 46,831,[12] plus another 2300 micro-RNA genes.[13] By 2012, functional DNA elements that encode neither RNA nor proteins have been noted.[14] and another 10% equivalent of human genome was found in a recent (2018) population survey.[15] Protein-coding sequences account for only a very small fraction of the genome (approximately 1.5%), and the rest is associated with non-coding RNA genes, regulatory DNA sequences, LINEs, SINEs, introns, and sequences for which as yet no function has been determined.[16]

    In June 2016, scientists formally announced HGP-Write, a plan to synthesize the human genome.[17][18]

    1. ^ Brown TA (2002). "The Human Genome". Wiley-Liss.
    2. ^ Abecasis GR, Auton A, Brooks LD, DePristo MA, Durbin RM, Handsaker RE, Kang HM, Marth GT, McVean GA (November 2012). "An integrated map of genetic variation from 1,092 human genomes". Nature. 491 (7422): 56–65. Bibcode:2012Natur.491...56T. doi:10.1038/nature11632. PMC 3498066. PMID 23128226.
    3. ^ Auton A, Brooks LD, Durbin RM, Garrison EP, Kang HM, Korbel JO, et al. (October 2015). "A global reference for human genetic variation". Nature. 526 (7571): 68–74. Bibcode:2015Natur.526...68T. doi:10.1038/nature15393. PMC 4750478. PMID 26432245.
    4. ^ Chimpanzee Sequencing; Analysis Consortium (2005). "Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome" (PDF). Nature. 437 (7055): 69–87. Bibcode:2005Natur.437...69.. doi:10.1038/nature04072. PMID 16136131.
    5. ^ Varki A, Altheide TK (December 2005). "Comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes: searching for needles in a haystack". Genome Research. 15 (12): 1746–58. doi:10.1101/gr.3737405. PMID 16339373.
    6. ^ International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium Publishes Sequence and Analysis of the Human Genome
    7. ^ Pennisi E (February 2001). "The human genome". Science. 291 (5507): 1177–80. doi:10.1126/science.291.5507.1177. PMID 11233420.
    8. ^ a b International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (October 2004). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome". Nature. 431 (7011): 931–45. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..931H. doi:10.1038/nature03001. PMID 15496913.
    9. ^ Molteni M (19 November 2018). "Now You Can Sequence Your Whole Genome For Just $200". Wired.
    10. ^ Wade N (23 September 1999). "Number of Human Genes Is Put at 140,000, a Significant Gain". The New York Times.
    11. ^ Ezkurdia I, Juan D, Rodriguez JM, Frankish A, Diekhans M, Harrow J, Vazquez J, Valencia A, Tress ML (November 2014). "Multiple evidence strands suggest that there may be as few as 19,000 human protein-coding genes". Human Molecular Genetics. 23 (22): 5866–78. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddu309. PMC 4204768. PMID 24939910.
    12. ^ Saey TH (17 September 2018). "A recount of human genes ups the number to at least 46,831". Science News.
    13. ^ Alles J, Fehlmann T, Fischer U, Backes C, Galata V, Minet M, et al. (April 2019). "An estimate of the total number of true human miRNAs". Nucleic Acids Research. 47 (7): 3353–3364. doi:10.1093/nar/gkz097. PMC 6468295. PMID 30820533.
    14. ^ Pennisi E (September 2012). "Genomics. ENCODE project writes eulogy for junk DNA". Science. 337 (6099): 1159–1161. doi:10.1126/science.337.6099.1159. PMID 22955811.
    15. ^ Zhang S (28 November 2018). "300 Million Letters of DNA Are Missing From the Human Genome". The Atlantic.
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference IHSGC2001 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Pollack A (2 June 2016). "Scientists Announce HGP-Write, Project to Synthesize the Human Genome". New York Times. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
    18. ^ Boeke JD, Church G, Hessel A, Kelley NJ, Arkin A, Cai Y, et al. (July 2016). "The Genome Project-Write". Science. 353 (6295): 126–7. Bibcode:2016Sci...353..126B. doi:10.1126/science.aaf6850. PMID 27256881.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    1
    16 February 1985Hezbollah is founded.

    Hezbollah

    Hezbollah (/ˌhɛzbəˈlɑː/;[38] Arabic: حزب اللهḤizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.[39]—is a Shia Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon.[40][41] Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council,[42] and its political wing is the Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. Since the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. The group, along with its military wing, is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, Israel, Canada, the Arab League,[43] the Gulf Cooperation Council,[44][45] Argentina,[27] Paraguay,[28] the United Kingdom,[46][47] the Netherlands, Australia, Venezuela (Guaidó government),[33] Honduras and Colombia.[48] Germany and the European Union outlawed only Hezbollah's military wing and work with Hezbollah's political wing and allow it to raise funds in Europe.[49]

    Hezbollah was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shia groups into a unified organization. Hezbollah acts as a proxy for Iran in the ongoing Iran–Israel proxy conflict.[50] Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran primarily to harass Israel.[5] Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government,[51] which was in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Christian Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians" and permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government".[52]

    Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon, and as a result Israel withdrew from Lebanon on 24 May 2000, and the South Lebanon Army (SLA) collapsed and surrendered. Hezbollah organised volunteers who fought on the Bosnian side during the Bosnian War.[53] Hezbollah's military strength has grown so significantly since 2006[54][55] that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army.[56][57] Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state"[58] and has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders.[59][60][61] Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population,[62] while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda.[63][64] Hezbollah also finds support from within some Christian areas of Lebanon that are Hezbollah strongholds.[65] Hezbollah receives military training, weapons, and financial support from Iran and political support from Syria.[66] Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War.

    After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests[67] and clashes,[68] a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah and its opposition allies' obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, enough to give them veto power.[41] In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement that recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands" (such as the Shebaa Farms).[69] Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel.[70][71] It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).[72][73] The group's legitimacy is considered to have been severely damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled.[59][74][75]

    1. ^ Ekaterina Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects Archived 10 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press 2008, p. 113
    2. ^ Elie Alagha, Joseph (2011). Hizbullah's Documents: From the 1985 Open Letter to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 15, 20. ISBN 978-90-8555-037-2.
      Shehata, Samer (2012). Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-415-78361-3.
      Husseinia, Rola El (2010). "Hezbollah and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran and Syria". Third World Quarterly. 31 (5): 803–815. doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.502695.
    3. ^ a b Philip Smyth (February 2015). The Shiite Jihad in Syria and Its Regional Effects (PDF) (Report). The Washington Institute for Near East Studies. pp. 7–8. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
    4. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 356. ISBN 9781849043335. Hezbollah's anti-Western militancy began with attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, then expanded to attacks abroad intended to exact revenge for actions threatening its or Iran's interests, or to press foreign governments to release captured operatives.
      Hanhimäki, Jussi M.; Blumenau, Bernhard (2013). An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences. p. 267. ISBN 9780415635400. Based upon these beliefs, Hezbollah became vehemently anti-West and anti-Israel.
      Siegel, Larry J. (3 February 2012). Criminology: Theories, Patterns & Typology. p. 396. ISBN 978-1133049647. Hezbollah is anti-West and anti-Israel and has engaged in a series of terrorist actions including kidnappings, car bombings, and airline hijackings.
    5. ^ a b "Who Are Hezbollah". BBC News. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
    6. ^ Julius, Anthony. Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England. Via Google Books. 1 May 2015.
      Michael, Robert and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of Antisemitism from the Earliest Times to the Present. Via Google Books. 1 May 2015.
      Perry, Mark. Talking to Terrorists: Why America Must Engage with Its Enemies. Via Google Books. 1 May 2015
      "Analysis: Hezbollah's lethal anti-Semitism". The Jerusalem Post.
    7. ^ "Interior Ministry releases numbers of votes for new MPs". The Daily Star. 9 May 2018.
    8. ^ a b "Hezbollah fighters train Iraqi Shiite militants near Mosul - FDD's Long War Journal". www.longwarjournal.org. 5 November 2016.
    9. ^ "New Experience of Hezbollah with Russian Military". 2 February 2016.
    10. ^ Rosenfeld, Jesse (11 January 2016). "Russia is Arming Hezbollah, Say Two of the Group's Field Commanders". The Daily Beast.
    11. ^ "Hezbollah Fights Alongside LAF Demonstrating its Continuing Control over Lebanon". The Tower. 21 August 2017.
    12. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    13. ^ McElroy, Damien (29 July 2014). "North Korea denies reports of missile deal with Hamas". Daily Telegraph.
    14. ^ "Venezuela denies U.S. drug report, Hezbollah charges". Reuters. 21 July 2009.
    15. ^ "Yemeni FM slams Hezbollah's Houthi support: report". THE DAILY STAR.
    16. ^ "Lebanon's Hezbollah denies sending weapons to Yemen". Reuters. 20 November 2017.
    17. ^ "Hezbollah provides Iraq with its combat experience to liberate Tal Afar" (in Arabic). Arabic.sputniknews.com.
    18. ^ "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". United States Department of State. 11 October 2005. Retrieved 16 July 2006. "Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations ... 14. Hizballah (Party of God)".
    19. ^ "Hezbollah – International terrorist organization". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 22 July 2013.
    20. ^ "Bahrain's parliament declares Hezbollah a terrorist group". Jerusalem Post. 26 March 2013.
    21. ^ Morocco cuts ties with Iran over Sahara weapons dispute, AP 1 May 2018
    22. ^ "Listed Terrorist Entities – Currently Listed Entities". Government of Canada. Public Safety Canada. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
    23. ^ "Listed terrorist organisations – Hizballah's External Security Organisation (ESO)". Australian National Security. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
    24. ^ "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
    25. ^ Proscribed terrorist organisations (Report). Home Office. 27 March 2015. p. 10. Retrieved 6 July 2015. Hizballah's External Security Organisation was proscribed March 2001 and in 2008 the proscription was extended to Hizballah's Military apparatus including the Jihad Council.
    26. ^ "Jewish Leaders Applaud Hezbollah Terror Designation by France". Algemeiner Journal. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
    27. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference JPostAR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference JPostPAR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    29. ^ Norman, Lawrence; Fairclough, Gordon (7 September 2012). "Pressure Mounts for EU to Put Hezbollah on Terror List". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    30. ^ Ravid, Barak (21 February 2012). "Azerbaijan: Iranian, Hezbollah Operatives Arrested for Plotting Attack Against Foreign Targets". Haaretz.
    31. ^ ヒズボラ - 国際テロリズム要覧(Web版) - 公安調査庁 (in Japanese). Ministry of Justice of Japan.
    32. ^ "Taiwanese Official Admits Meeting with Hezbollah Leader". 8 August 2006.
    33. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference AsambleaVE was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    34. ^ Could Iran and Hezbollah really strike in Latin America?
    35. ^ Cite error: The named reference ColombiaHonduras was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    36. ^ "Israel's UN Ambassador Warns: Hezbollah Has 120,000 Hidden Missiles — More Than All European NATO Allies".
    37. ^ "Iran perpetrates terrorist acts in Europe using proxy organization Hezbollah". Gisreportsonline.com. Archived from the original on 31 December 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
    38. ^ "Hezbollah". The Collins English Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
      "Hezbollah". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Cleveland: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
    39. ^ Other transliterations include Hizbollah, Hezbolla, Hezballah, Hisbollah, Hizbu'llah and Hizb Allah.
    40. ^ Jamail, Dahr (20 July 2006). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
    41. ^ a b "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. 13 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
    42. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 15. ISBN 9781849043335. ... the Jihad Council coordinates 'resistance activity'.
      Ghattas Saab, Antoine (15 May 2014). "Hezbollah cutting costs as Iranian aid dries up". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 June 2014. ... Hezbollah's military wing ... Known as the 'Jihad Council'
    43. ^ "Arab League labels Hezbollah a terrorist organization". Reuters. 11 March 2016.
    44. ^ "GCC: Hezbollah terror group". Arab News. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    45. ^ "Hezbollah labelled a terrorist organization by Gulf Arab states". CBC. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
    46. ^ "Britain bans Hezbollah - Middle East". The Jerusalem Post.
    47. ^ "UK to ban Hezbollah as terrorist organisation". BBC News. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
    48. ^ "Colombia and Honduras designate Hezbollah a terrorist organization"
    49. ^ GERMAN YOUTH: CLASSIFY HEZBOLLAH AS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION
    50. ^ Matthew Levitt. "A Proxy for Iran". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
    51. ^ Adam Shatz (29 April 2004). "In Search of Hezbollah". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
    52. ^ Itamar Rabinovich (2008). Israel in the Middle East. UPNE. ISBN 9780874519624. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
    53. ^ Fisk, Robert (7 September 2014). "After the atrocities committed against Muslims in Bosnia, it is no wonder today's jihadis have set out on the path to war in Syria". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
    54. ^ "UN: Hezbollah has increased military strength since 2006 war". Haaretz. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
    55. ^ Frykberg, Mel (29 August 2008). "Mideast Powers, Proxies and Paymasters Bluster and Rearm". Middle East Times. Retrieved 31 May 2011. And if there is one thing that ideologically and diametrically opposed Hezbollah and Israel agree on, it is Hezbollah's growing military strength.
    56. ^ Barnard, Anne (20 May 2013). "Hezbollah's Role in Syria War Shakes the Lebanese". New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Hezbollah, stronger than the Lebanese Army, has the power to drag the country into war without a government decision, as in 2006, when it set off the war by capturing two Israeli soldiers
    57. ^ Morris, Loveday (12 June 2013). "For Lebanon's Sunnis, growing rage at Hezbollah over role in Syria". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. ... Hezbollah, which has a fighting force generally considered more powerful than the Lebanese army.
    58. ^ "Iran-Syria vs. Israel, Round 1: Assessments & Lessons Learned". Defense Industry Daily. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
    59. ^ a b Hubbard, Ben (20 March 2014). "Syrian Fighting Gives Hezbollah New but Diffuse Purpose". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the fighting has also diluted the resources that used to go exclusively to facing Israel, exacerbated sectarian divisions in the region, and alienated large segments of the majority Sunni population who once embraced Hezbollah as a liberation force... Never before have Hezbollah guerrillas fought alongside a formal army, waged war outside Lebanon or initiated broad offensives aimed at seizing territory.
    60. ^ Deeb, Lara (31 July 2006). "Hizballah: A Primer". Middle East Report. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
    61. ^ Goldman, Adam (28 May 2014). "Hezbollah operative wanted by FBI dies in fighting in Syria". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... Hasan Nasrallah has called the deployment of his fighters to Syria a 'new phase' for the movement, and it marks the first time the group has sent significant numbers of men outside Lebanon's borders.
    62. ^ "Huge Beirut protest backs Syria". BBC News. 8 March 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
    63. ^ "Hariri: Sunnis 'refuse' to join Hezbollah-Al Qaida war". AFP, 25 January 2014.
    64. ^ The Christian Science Monitor (23 June 2013). "Why Hezbollah has openly joined the Syrian fight". The Christian Science Monitor.
    65. ^ Zirulnick, Ariel (21 December 2012). "In Hezbollah stronghold, Lebanese Christians find respect, stability". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
    66. ^ Filkins, Dexter (30 September 2013). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 October 2013. From 2000 to 2006, Iran contributed a hundred million dollars a year to Hezbollah. Its fighters are attractive proxies: unlike the Iranians, they speak Arabic, making them better equipped to operate in Syria and elsewhere in the Arab world.
    67. ^ Ghattas, Kim (1 December 2006). "Political ferment in Lebanon". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
    68. ^ Stern, Yoav; Issacharoff, Avi (10 May 2008). "Hezbollah fighters retreat from Beirut after 37 die in clashes". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
    69. ^ Nafez Qawas (6 August 2008). "Berri summons Parliament to vote on policy statement". The Daily Star. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
    70. ^ Barnard, Anne (3 January 2014). "Mystery in Hezbollah Operatives Life and Death". The New York Times.
    71. ^ Barnard, Anne (9 July 2013). "Car Bombing Injures Dozens in Hezbollah Section of Beirut". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Hezbollah has portrayed the Syrian uprising as an Israeli-backed plot to destroy its alliance with Mr. Assad against Israel.
    72. ^ Liz Sly and Suzan Haidamous 'Lebanon’s Hezbollah acknowledges battling the Islamic State in Iraq,' Washington Post 16 February 2015.
    73. ^ Ali Hashem, arrives in Iraq Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Al Monitor 25 November 2014
    74. ^ "Hezbollah's Syrian Quagmires" (PDF). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 17 September 2014. By siding with the Assad regime, the regime's Alawite supporters, and Iran, and taking up arms against Sunni rebels, Hezbollah has placed itself at the epicenter of a sectarian conflict that has nothing to do with the group's purported raison d'être: 'resistance' to Israeli occupation.
    75. ^ Kershner, Isabel (10 March 2014). "Israel Watches Warily as Hezbollah Gains Battle Skills in Syria". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the Lebanese group's image at home and in the broader Arab world has been severely damaged because it is fighting Sunni rebels in Syria while its legitimacy rested on its role in fighting Israel.
     
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    16 February 1985Hezbollah is founded.

    Hezbollah

    Hezbollah (/ˌhɛzbəˈlɑː/;[38] Arabic: حزب اللهḤizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.[39]—is a Shia Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon.[40][41] Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council,[42] and its political wing is the Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. Since the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. The group, along with its military wing, is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, Israel, Canada, the Arab League,[43] the Gulf Cooperation Council,[44][45] Argentina,[27] Paraguay,[28] the United Kingdom,[46][47] the Netherlands, Australia, Venezuela (Guaidó government),[33] Honduras and Colombia.[48] Germany and the European Union outlawed only Hezbollah's military wing and work with Hezbollah's political wing and allow it to raise funds in Europe.[49]

    Hezbollah was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shia groups into a unified organization. Hezbollah acts as a proxy for Iran in the ongoing Iran–Israel proxy conflict.[50] Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran primarily to harass Israel.[5] Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government,[51] which was in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Christian Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians" and permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government".[52]

    Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon, and as a result Israel withdrew from Lebanon on 24 May 2000, and the South Lebanon Army (SLA) collapsed and surrendered. Hezbollah organised volunteers who fought on the Bosnian side during the Bosnian War.[53] Hezbollah's military strength has grown so significantly since 2006[54][55] that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army.[56][57] Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state"[58] and has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders.[59][60][61] Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population,[62] while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda.[63][64] Hezbollah also finds support from within some Christian areas of Lebanon that are Hezbollah strongholds.[65] Hezbollah receives military training, weapons, and financial support from Iran and political support from Syria.[66] Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War.

    After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests[67] and clashes,[68] a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah and its opposition allies' obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, enough to give them veto power.[41] In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement that recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands" (such as the Shebaa Farms).[69] Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel.[70][71] It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).[72][73] The group's legitimacy is considered to have been severely damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled.[59][74][75]

    1. ^ Ekaterina Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects Archived 10 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press 2008, p. 113
    2. ^ Elie Alagha, Joseph (2011). Hizbullah's Documents: From the 1985 Open Letter to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 15, 20. ISBN 978-90-8555-037-2.
      Shehata, Samer (2012). Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-415-78361-3.
      Husseinia, Rola El (2010). "Hezbollah and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran and Syria". Third World Quarterly. 31 (5): 803–815. doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.502695.
    3. ^ a b Philip Smyth (February 2015). The Shiite Jihad in Syria and Its Regional Effects (PDF) (Report). The Washington Institute for Near East Studies. pp. 7–8. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
    4. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 356. ISBN 9781849043335. Hezbollah's anti-Western militancy began with attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, then expanded to attacks abroad intended to exact revenge for actions threatening its or Iran's interests, or to press foreign governments to release captured operatives.
      Hanhimäki, Jussi M.; Blumenau, Bernhard (2013). An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences. p. 267. ISBN 9780415635400. Based upon these beliefs, Hezbollah became vehemently anti-West and anti-Israel.
      Siegel, Larry J. (3 February 2012). Criminology: Theories, Patterns & Typology. p. 396. ISBN 978-1133049647. Hezbollah is anti-West and anti-Israel and has engaged in a series of terrorist actions including kidnappings, car bombings, and airline hijackings.
    5. ^ a b "Who Are Hezbollah". BBC News. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
    6. ^ Julius, Anthony. Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England. Via Google Books. 1 May 2015.
      Michael, Robert and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of Antisemitism from the Earliest Times to the Present. Via Google Books. 1 May 2015.
      Perry, Mark. Talking to Terrorists: Why America Must Engage with Its Enemies. Via Google Books. 1 May 2015
      "Analysis: Hezbollah's lethal anti-Semitism". The Jerusalem Post.
    7. ^ "Interior Ministry releases numbers of votes for new MPs". The Daily Star. 9 May 2018.
    8. ^ a b "Hezbollah fighters train Iraqi Shiite militants near Mosul - FDD's Long War Journal". www.longwarjournal.org. 5 November 2016.
    9. ^ "New Experience of Hezbollah with Russian Military". 2 February 2016.
    10. ^ Rosenfeld, Jesse (11 January 2016). "Russia is Arming Hezbollah, Say Two of the Group's Field Commanders". The Daily Beast.
    11. ^ "Hezbollah Fights Alongside LAF Demonstrating its Continuing Control over Lebanon". The Tower. 21 August 2017.
    12. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    13. ^ McElroy, Damien (29 July 2014). "North Korea denies reports of missile deal with Hamas". Daily Telegraph.
    14. ^ "Venezuela denies U.S. drug report, Hezbollah charges". Reuters. 21 July 2009.
    15. ^ "Yemeni FM slams Hezbollah's Houthi support: report". THE DAILY STAR.
    16. ^ "Lebanon's Hezbollah denies sending weapons to Yemen". Reuters. 20 November 2017.
    17. ^ "Hezbollah provides Iraq with its combat experience to liberate Tal Afar" (in Arabic). Arabic.sputniknews.com.
    18. ^ "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". United States Department of State. 11 October 2005. Retrieved 16 July 2006. "Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations ... 14. Hizballah (Party of God)".
    19. ^ "Hezbollah – International terrorist organization". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 22 July 2013.
    20. ^ "Bahrain's parliament declares Hezbollah a terrorist group". Jerusalem Post. 26 March 2013.
    21. ^ Morocco cuts ties with Iran over Sahara weapons dispute, AP 1 May 2018
    22. ^ "Listed Terrorist Entities – Currently Listed Entities". Government of Canada. Public Safety Canada. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
    23. ^ "Listed terrorist organisations – Hizballah's External Security Organisation (ESO)". Australian National Security. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
    24. ^ "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
    25. ^ Proscribed terrorist organisations (Report). Home Office. 27 March 2015. p. 10. Retrieved 6 July 2015. Hizballah's External Security Organisation was proscribed March 2001 and in 2008 the proscription was extended to Hizballah's Military apparatus including the Jihad Council.
    26. ^ "Jewish Leaders Applaud Hezbollah Terror Designation by France". Algemeiner Journal. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
    27. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference JPostAR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference JPostPAR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    29. ^ Norman, Lawrence; Fairclough, Gordon (7 September 2012). "Pressure Mounts for EU to Put Hezbollah on Terror List". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    30. ^ Ravid, Barak (21 February 2012). "Azerbaijan: Iranian, Hezbollah Operatives Arrested for Plotting Attack Against Foreign Targets". Haaretz.
    31. ^ ヒズボラ - 国際テロリズム要覧(Web版) - 公安調査庁 (in Japanese). Ministry of Justice of Japan.
    32. ^ "Taiwanese Official Admits Meeting with Hezbollah Leader". 8 August 2006.
    33. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference AsambleaVE was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    34. ^ Could Iran and Hezbollah really strike in Latin America?
    35. ^ Cite error: The named reference ColombiaHonduras was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    36. ^ "Israel's UN Ambassador Warns: Hezbollah Has 120,000 Hidden Missiles — More Than All European NATO Allies".
    37. ^ "Iran perpetrates terrorist acts in Europe using proxy organization Hezbollah". Gisreportsonline.com. Archived from the original on 31 December 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
    38. ^ "Hezbollah". The Collins English Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
      "Hezbollah". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Cleveland: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
    39. ^ Other transliterations include Hizbollah, Hezbolla, Hezballah, Hisbollah, Hizbu'llah and Hizb Allah.
    40. ^ Jamail, Dahr (20 July 2006). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
    41. ^ a b "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. 13 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
    42. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 15. ISBN 9781849043335. ... the Jihad Council coordinates 'resistance activity'.
      Ghattas Saab, Antoine (15 May 2014). "Hezbollah cutting costs as Iranian aid dries up". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 June 2014. ... Hezbollah's military wing ... Known as the 'Jihad Council'
    43. ^ "Arab League labels Hezbollah a terrorist organization". Reuters. 11 March 2016.
    44. ^ "GCC: Hezbollah terror group". Arab News. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    45. ^ "Hezbollah labelled a terrorist organization by Gulf Arab states". CBC. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
    46. ^ "Britain bans Hezbollah - Middle East". The Jerusalem Post.
    47. ^ "UK to ban Hezbollah as terrorist organisation". BBC News. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
    48. ^ "Colombia and Honduras designate Hezbollah a terrorist organization"
    49. ^ GERMAN YOUTH: CLASSIFY HEZBOLLAH AS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION
    50. ^ Matthew Levitt. "A Proxy for Iran". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
    51. ^ Adam Shatz (29 April 2004). "In Search of Hezbollah". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
    52. ^ Itamar Rabinovich (2008). Israel in the Middle East. UPNE. ISBN 9780874519624. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
    53. ^ Fisk, Robert (7 September 2014). "After the atrocities committed against Muslims in Bosnia, it is no wonder today's jihadis have set out on the path to war in Syria". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
    54. ^ "UN: Hezbollah has increased military strength since 2006 war". Haaretz. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
    55. ^ Frykberg, Mel (29 August 2008). "Mideast Powers, Proxies and Paymasters Bluster and Rearm". Middle East Times. Retrieved 31 May 2011. And if there is one thing that ideologically and diametrically opposed Hezbollah and Israel agree on, it is Hezbollah's growing military strength.
    56. ^ Barnard, Anne (20 May 2013). "Hezbollah's Role in Syria War Shakes the Lebanese". New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Hezbollah, stronger than the Lebanese Army, has the power to drag the country into war without a government decision, as in 2006, when it set off the war by capturing two Israeli soldiers
    57. ^ Morris, Loveday (12 June 2013). "For Lebanon's Sunnis, growing rage at Hezbollah over role in Syria". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. ... Hezbollah, which has a fighting force generally considered more powerful than the Lebanese army.
    58. ^ "Iran-Syria vs. Israel, Round 1: Assessments & Lessons Learned". Defense Industry Daily. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
    59. ^ a b Hubbard, Ben (20 March 2014). "Syrian Fighting Gives Hezbollah New but Diffuse Purpose". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the fighting has also diluted the resources that used to go exclusively to facing Israel, exacerbated sectarian divisions in the region, and alienated large segments of the majority Sunni population who once embraced Hezbollah as a liberation force... Never before have Hezbollah guerrillas fought alongside a formal army, waged war outside Lebanon or initiated broad offensives aimed at seizing territory.
    60. ^ Deeb, Lara (31 July 2006). "Hizballah: A Primer". Middle East Report. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
    61. ^ Goldman, Adam (28 May 2014). "Hezbollah operative wanted by FBI dies in fighting in Syria". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... Hasan Nasrallah has called the deployment of his fighters to Syria a 'new phase' for the movement, and it marks the first time the group has sent significant numbers of men outside Lebanon's borders.
    62. ^ "Huge Beirut protest backs Syria". BBC News. 8 March 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
    63. ^ "Hariri: Sunnis 'refuse' to join Hezbollah-Al Qaida war". AFP, 25 January 2014.
    64. ^ The Christian Science Monitor (23 June 2013). "Why Hezbollah has openly joined the Syrian fight". The Christian Science Monitor.
    65. ^ Zirulnick, Ariel (21 December 2012). "In Hezbollah stronghold, Lebanese Christians find respect, stability". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
    66. ^ Filkins, Dexter (30 September 2013). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 October 2013. From 2000 to 2006, Iran contributed a hundred million dollars a year to Hezbollah. Its fighters are attractive proxies: unlike the Iranians, they speak Arabic, making them better equipped to operate in Syria and elsewhere in the Arab world.
    67. ^ Ghattas, Kim (1 December 2006). "Political ferment in Lebanon". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
    68. ^ Stern, Yoav; Issacharoff, Avi (10 May 2008). "Hezbollah fighters retreat from Beirut after 37 die in clashes". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
    69. ^ Nafez Qawas (6 August 2008). "Berri summons Parliament to vote on policy statement". The Daily Star. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
    70. ^ Barnard, Anne (3 January 2014). "Mystery in Hezbollah Operatives Life and Death". The New York Times.
    71. ^ Barnard, Anne (9 July 2013). "Car Bombing Injures Dozens in Hezbollah Section of Beirut". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Hezbollah has portrayed the Syrian uprising as an Israeli-backed plot to destroy its alliance with Mr. Assad against Israel.
    72. ^ Liz Sly and Suzan Haidamous 'Lebanon’s Hezbollah acknowledges battling the Islamic State in Iraq,' Washington Post 16 February 2015.
    73. ^ Ali Hashem, arrives in Iraq Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Al Monitor 25 November 2014
    74. ^ "Hezbollah's Syrian Quagmires" (PDF). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 17 September 2014. By siding with the Assad regime, the regime's Alawite supporters, and Iran, and taking up arms against Sunni rebels, Hezbollah has placed itself at the epicenter of a sectarian conflict that has nothing to do with the group's purported raison d'être: 'resistance' to Israeli occupation.
    75. ^ Kershner, Isabel (10 March 2014). "Israel Watches Warily as Hezbollah Gains Battle Skills in Syria". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the Lebanese group's image at home and in the broader Arab world has been severely damaged because it is fighting Sunni rebels in Syria while its legitimacy rested on its role in fighting Israel.
     
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    17 February 2015 – Eighteen people are killed and 78 injured in a stampede at a Mardi Gras parade in Haiti.

    2015 Haiti Carnival stampede

    On February 17, 2015, starting at around 2:48 AM,[1] a stampede occurred during the traditional Mardi Gras parade on Champ de Mars in the Haitian capital Port-au-Prince. Initial reports stated that at least 16 people had died in the accident.[2] The number was revised to 18 dead (15 men and 3 women) according to the Haitian Minister of Communications, Rotchild François Junior.[3] Nadia Lochard, of the Department of Civil Protection, stated that 20 people were killed in the accident.[4] In addition, 78 people were injured, according to Haiti Prime Minister Evans Paul.[4]

    The stampede occurred after a man participating on top of a Carnival float during the Mardi Gras was shocked by high-voltage wires. Video footage of the incident shows visible sparks that triggered the stampede.[5] The man, known by his stage name Fantom, and part of the Haitian hip hop band Barikad Crew, survived the shock[4] and was in stable condition.[6]

    1. ^ Associated Press (17 February 2015). "Haiti cancels last day of Carnival after at least 16 die in power line tragedy". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
    2. ^ Associated Press (17 February 2015). "Float Accident at Haiti Carnival Parade Kills at Least 16". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
    3. ^ Baron, Amelie (18 February 2015). "Haiti to implement safety measures after Carnival tragedy". Reuters. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
    4. ^ a b c Associated Press (17 February 2015). "Float Accident at Haiti Carnival Parade Kills at Least 16". ABC News. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
    5. ^ ABC News. "Burned Singer Describes Deadly Haiti Carnival Accident". ABC News.
    6. ^ Bacon, John (17 February 2015). "At least 16 die in Haiti Carnival accident". USA Today. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
     
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    18 February 1954 – The first Church of Scientology is established in Los Angeles.

    Church of Scientology

    The Church of Scientology is a group of interconnected corporate entities and other organizations devoted to the practice, administration and dissemination of Scientology, which is variously defined as a cult, a business or a new religious movement.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The church and the movement have been the subject of a number of controversies, and the church has been described by government inquiries, international parliamentary bodies, law lords, and numerous superior court judgements as both a cult and a manipulative profit-making business.[12] The German government classifies Scientology as an anti-constitutional sect.[13][14] In France, it has been classified as a dangerous cult.[15][16] In some countries, it has managed to attain legal recognition as a religion.[17]

    The Church of Scientology International (CSI) is officially the Church of Scientology's parent organization, and is responsible for guiding local Scientology churches.[18][19][20] Its international headquarters are located at the Gold Base, in an unincorporated area of Riverside County, California.[21] Scientology Missions International is under CSI and oversees Scientology missions, which are local Scientology organizations smaller than churches.[22][23] The Church of Spiritual Technology (CST) is the organization which owns all the copyrights of the estate of L. Ron Hubbard.[6]

    All Scientology management organizations are controlled exclusively by members of the Sea Org, which is a legally nonexistent paramilitary organization for the "elite, innermost dedicated core of Scientologists".[6][22] David Miscavige is the highest-ranking Sea Org officer, holding the rank of captain.

    1. ^ a b Behar, Richard (May 6, 1991). "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power". TIME Magazine. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
    2. ^ Kent, Stephen (2001). "Brainwashing Programs in The Family/Children of God and Scientology". In Zablocki, Benjamin; Robbins, Thomas (eds.). Misunderstanding Cults: Searching for Objectivity in a Controversial Field. University of Toronto Press. pp. 349–358. ISBN 9780802081889.
    3. ^ a b Anderson, K.V. (1965). Report of the Board of Enquiry into Scientology (PDF) (Report). State of Victoria, Australia. p. 179. Retrieved June 30, 2019. In reality it is a dangerous medical cult
    4. ^ a b Edge, Peter W. (2006). Religion and law: an introduction. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-3048-7.
    5. ^ a b Hunt, John; de Puig, Luis; Espersen, Ole (February 5, 1992). European Council, Recommendation 1178: Sects and New Religious Movements (Report). Council of Europe. Retrieved June 30, 2019. It is a cool, cynical, manipulating business and nothing else.
    6. ^ a b c Urban, Hugh B. (2015). New Age, Neopagan, and New Religious Movements: Alternative Spirituality in Contemporary America. Univ of California Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0520281172.
    7. ^ "Scientology (Written answer)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. July 25, 1968. col. 189–191W.
    8. ^ Cottrell, Richard (1999). Recommendation 1412: Concernant les activités illégales des sectes (Report). Conseil d'Europe.
    9. ^ "Church of Scientology". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Lords. December 17, 1996. col. 1392–1394.
    10. ^ Hubbard and another v. Vosper and another, 1 All ER 1023 (Court of Appeal 19 November 1971).
    11. ^ RE B & G (Minors: Custody), F.L.R. 493 (Court of Appeal 19 September 1984).
    12. ^ [1][4][3][7][5][8][9][10][11]
    13. ^ "Hubbard's Church 'Unconstitutional': Germany Prepares to Ban Scientology - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel Online. spiegel.de. December 7, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
    14. ^ "National Assembly of France report No. 2468". assemblee-nationale.fr. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
    15. ^ A 1995 parliamentary report lists Scientology groups as cults, and in its 2006 report MIVILUDES similarly classified Scientology organizations as a dangerous cult
    16. ^ Le point sur l'Eglise de Scientologie, Le Nouvel Observateur
    17. ^ Weird, Sure. A Cult, No. Washington Post By Mark Oppenheimer, August 5, 2007
    18. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (September 2000). The Church of Scientology. Studies in Contemporary Religions, 1. Signature Books in cooperation with CESNUR. Since 1981, all of the churches and organizations of the church have been brought together under the Church of Scientology International. The first Scientology church was incorporated in December 1953 in Camden, New Jersey by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard.
    19. ^ Atack, Jon (1990). A Piece of Blue Sky. New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8184-0499-3.
    20. ^ Hubbard, L. Ron. "Pulpateer". Church of Scientology International. Archived from the original on July 30, 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2006.
    21. ^ Janet Reitman Inside Scientology: The Story of America's Most Secretive Religion, p. 318, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011 ISBN 0547549237, 9780547549231
    22. ^ a b Davis, Derek; Hankins, Barry (2003). New Religious Movements and Religious Liberty in America. Baylor University Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0918954924.
    23. ^ Flinn, Frank K. (2003). "Scientology". In Karen Christensen, and David Levinson (ed.). Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 1209–11.
     
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    21 February 1848Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto.

    The Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 political document by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London just as the Revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.

    The Communist Manifesto summarises Marx and Engels' theories concerning the nature of society and politics, namely that in their own words "[t]he history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism. In the last paragraph of the Manifesto, the authors call for a "forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions", which served as a call for communist revolutions around the world.[1][2]

    In 2013, The Communist Manifesto was registered to UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme along with Marx's Capital, Volume I.[3]

    1. ^ "Marx's philosophy and the *necessity* of violent politics – Stephen Hicks, Ph.D." Retrieved 24 September 2019.
    2. ^ Kuromiya, Hiroaki (2017), "Communism, Violence and Terror", in Pons, Silvio; Smith, Stephen (eds.), The Cambridge History of Communism, Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–303, doi:10.1017/9781316137024.014, ISBN 9781316137024, retrieved 24 September 2019
    3. ^ "Schriften von Karl Marx: "Das Minifest der Kommunistischen Partei" (1948) und "Das Kapital", ernster Band (1867)". UNESCO.
     
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    21 February 1848Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto.

    The Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 political document by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London just as the Revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.

    The Communist Manifesto summarises Marx and Engels' theories concerning the nature of society and politics, namely that in their own words "[t]he history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism. In the last paragraph of the Manifesto, the authors call for a "forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions", which served as a call for communist revolutions around the world.[1][2]

    In 2013, The Communist Manifesto was registered to UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme along with Marx's Capital, Volume I.[3]

    1. ^ "Marx's philosophy and the *necessity* of violent politics – Stephen Hicks, Ph.D." Retrieved 24 September 2019.
    2. ^ Kuromiya, Hiroaki (2017), "Communism, Violence and Terror", in Pons, Silvio; Smith, Stephen (eds.), The Cambridge History of Communism, Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–303, doi:10.1017/9781316137024.014, ISBN 9781316137024, retrieved 24 September 2019
    3. ^ "Schriften von Karl Marx: "Das Minifest der Kommunistischen Partei" (1948) und "Das Kapital", ernster Band (1867)". UNESCO.
     
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    22 February 1959Lee Petty wins the first Daytona 500.

    Daytona 500

    The Daytona 500 is a 500-mile-long (805 km) NASCAR Cup Series motor race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is the first of two Cup races held every year at Daytona, the second being the Coke Zero 400, and one of three held in Florida, with the annual spring showdown Dixie Vodka 400 being held at Homestead south of Miami. From 1988-2019, it was one of the four restrictor plate races on the Cup schedule. The inaugural Daytona 500 was held in 1959 coinciding with the opening of the speedway and since 1982, it has been the season-opening race of the Cup series.[1]

    The Daytona 500 is regarded as the most important and prestigious race on the NASCAR calendar, carrying by far the largest purse.[2] Championship points awarded are equal to that of any other NASCAR Cup Series race. It is also the series' first race of the year; this phenomenon is virtually unique in sports, which tend to have championships or other major events at the end of the season rather than the start. Since 1995, U.S. television ratings for the Daytona 500 have been the highest for any auto race of the year, surpassing the traditional leader, the Indianapolis 500 which in turn greatly surpasses the Daytona 500 in in-track attendance and international viewing. The 2006 Daytona 500 attracted the sixth largest average live global TV audience of any sporting event that year with 20 million viewers.[3]

    The race serves as the final event of Speedweeks and is sometimes known as "The Great American Race" or the "Super Bowl of Stock Car Racing".[4][5][6] Since its inception, the race has been held in mid-to-late February. From 1971 to 2011, and again since 2018, the event has been as associated with Presidents Day weekend, taking place on the Sunday before the third Monday in February. On eight occasions, the race has been run on Valentine's Day .

    The winner of the Daytona 500 since 1997 is presented with the Harley J. Earl Trophy in Victory Lane, and the winning car is displayed in race-winning condition for one year at Daytona 500 Experience, a museum and gallery adjacent to Daytona International Speedway.

    Denny Hamlin is the defending winner of the Daytona 500, having won it in 2020.

    1. ^ Chad Culver (2014). Dover International Speedway: The Monster Mile. 53: Arcadia Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 1467121371.CS1 maint: location (link)
    2. ^ "Culture, Class, Distinction"Bennett, Tony. Culture, Class, Distinction. Routledge (2009) Disaggregating cultural capital. English translation ISBN 0-415-42242-6 (hardcover).
    3. ^ "World's most watched TV sports events: 2006 Rank & Trends report". Initiative. 2007-01-19. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
    4. ^ "A History of the Daytona 500". TicketCity. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    5. ^ Crossman, Matt (February 22, 2015). "Daytona 500 Magic Hour: Best 60 minutes in sports". NASCAR. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    6. ^ Briggs, Josh. "How Daytona Qualifying Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
     
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    22 February 1959Lee Petty wins the first Daytona 500.

    Daytona 500

    The Daytona 500 is a 500-mile-long (805 km) NASCAR Cup Series motor race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is the first of two Cup races held every year at Daytona, the second being the Coke Zero 400, and one of three held in Florida, with the annual spring showdown Dixie Vodka 400 being held at Homestead south of Miami. From 1988-2019, it was one of the four restrictor plate races on the Cup schedule. The inaugural Daytona 500 was held in 1959 coinciding with the opening of the speedway and since 1982, it has been the season-opening race of the Cup series.[1]

    The Daytona 500 is regarded as the most important and prestigious race on the NASCAR calendar, carrying by far the largest purse.[2] Championship points awarded are equal to that of any other NASCAR Cup Series race. It is also the series' first race of the year; this phenomenon is virtually unique in sports, which tend to have championships or other major events at the end of the season rather than the start. Since 1995, U.S. television ratings for the Daytona 500 have been the highest for any auto race of the year, surpassing the traditional leader, the Indianapolis 500 which in turn greatly surpasses the Daytona 500 in in-track attendance and international viewing. The 2006 Daytona 500 attracted the sixth largest average live global TV audience of any sporting event that year with 20 million viewers.[3]

    The race serves as the final event of Speedweeks and is sometimes known as "The Great American Race" or the "Super Bowl of Stock Car Racing".[4][5][6] Since its inception, the race has been held in mid-to-late February. From 1971 to 2011, and again since 2018, the event has been as associated with Presidents Day weekend, taking place on the Sunday before the third Monday in February. On eight occasions, the race has been run on Valentine's Day .

    The winner of the Daytona 500 since 1997 is presented with the Harley J. Earl Trophy in Victory Lane, and the winning car is displayed in race-winning condition for one year at Daytona 500 Experience, a museum and gallery adjacent to Daytona International Speedway.

    Denny Hamlin is the defending winner of the Daytona 500, having won it in 2020.

    1. ^ Chad Culver (2014). Dover International Speedway: The Monster Mile. 53: Arcadia Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 1467121371.CS1 maint: location (link)
    2. ^ "Culture, Class, Distinction"Bennett, Tony. Culture, Class, Distinction. Routledge (2009) Disaggregating cultural capital. English translation ISBN 0-415-42242-6 (hardcover).
    3. ^ "World's most watched TV sports events: 2006 Rank & Trends report". Initiative. 2007-01-19. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
    4. ^ "A History of the Daytona 500". TicketCity. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    5. ^ Crossman, Matt (February 22, 2015). "Daytona 500 Magic Hour: Best 60 minutes in sports". NASCAR. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    6. ^ Briggs, Josh. "How Daytona Qualifying Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
     
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    23 February 1934Leopold III becomes King of Belgium.

    Leopold III of Belgium

    The face of Leopold III on a bas-relief by Pierre De Soete.

    Leopold III (3 November 1901 – 25 September 1983) was King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951.

    On the outbreak of World War II, Leopold tried to maintain Belgian neutrality, but after the German invasion of May 1940, he surrendered his country, earning him much hostility, both at home and abroad. His act was declared unconstitutional by Prime Minister Hubert Pierlot and his cabinet, who presently moved to London to form a government-in-exile, while Leopold and his family were placed under house arrest. In 1944, they were moved to Germany and then Austria, before being liberated by the Americans, but banned for some years from returning to Belgium, where his brother Prince Charles had been declared Regent. Leopold’s eventual return to his homeland in 1950 nearly caused a civil war, and under pressure from the government, he abdicated in favour of his son, Prince Baudouin in July 1951.

    Leopold’s first wife, Queen Astrid, was killed in a road accident while on a driving holiday in Switzerland in 1935, being much mourned by the public. His second marriage, to Lilian Baels in captivity in 1941, was not valid under Belgian law, and she was never permitted the title of Queen.

     
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    24 February 1976 – The current constitution of Cuba is formally proclaimed.

    Constitution of Cuba

    Even before attaining its independence from Spain, Cuba had several constitutions either proposed or adopted by insurgents as governing documents for territory they controlled during their war against Spain. Cuba has had several constitutions since winning its independence. The first constitution since the Cuban Revolution was drafted in 1976 and has since been amended. In 2018, Cuba became engaged in a major revision of its Constitution, which was widely discussed by the people and by academics.[1] The current constitution was then enacted in 2019.[2][3][4][5]

    1. ^ "With significant constitutional changes, Cuba's leaders aim for their system's survival". NBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
    2. ^ https://www.local10.com/news/cuba/cuba-enacts-new-constitution
    3. ^ http://en.escambray.cu/2019/raul-castro-new-constitution-guarantees-continuity-of-revolution/
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference latinaproclaim was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ https://www.france24.com/en/20190410-defiant-cuba-enacts-new-constitution-amid-us-pressure
     
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    25 February 1991 – Cold War: The Warsaw Pact is abolished.

    Warsaw Pact

    The Warsaw Treaty Organization[1] (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance,[2] commonly known as the Warsaw Pact, was a collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven other Eastern Bloc socialist republics of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO[3][4][5][6] in 1955 per the London and Paris Conferences of 1954,[7][8][9][10][11] but it is also considered to have been motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe.[12]

    The Warsaw Pact was established as a balance of power[13] or counterweight[14] to NATO; there was no direct military confrontation between them. Instead, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis and in proxy wars. Both NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of military forces and their integration into the respective blocs.[14] Its largest military engagement was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 (with the participation of all Pact nations except Albania, Romania, and East Germany),[13] which, in part, resulted in Albania withdrawing from the pact less than a month later. The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the Revolutions of 1989 through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland[15] and its electoral success in June 1989.

    East Germany withdrew from the Pact following the reunification of Germany in 1990. On 25 February 1991, at a meeting in Hungary, the Pact was declared at an end by the defense and foreign ministers of the six remaining member states. The USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization shortly thereafter. Throughout the following 20 years, the seven Warsaw Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO (East Germany through its reunification with West Germany; and the Czech Republic and Slovakia as separate countries), as did the Baltic states which had been part of the Soviet Union.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/warsaw-treaty
    2. ^ "Text of Warsaw Pact" (PDF). United Nations Treaty Collection. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference NATO Transformed: The Alliance's New Roles in International Security was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference History Channel 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference History Channel 2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "In reaction to West Germany's NATO accession, the Soviet Union and its Eastern European client states formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955." Citation from: NATO website. "A short history of NATO". nato.int. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference The Future of European Alliance Systems was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference christopher was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference enclopedia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, p. 21–22, 11.02.2015
    11. ^ The Oder-Neisse Line: The United States, Poland, and Germany in the Cold War Debra J. Allen page 158 "Treaties approving Bonn's participation in NATO were ratified in May 1955...shortly thereafter Soviet Union...created the Warsaw Pact to counter the perceived threat of NATO"
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Warsaw Pact: Wartime Status-Instruments of Soviet Control was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ a b Amos Yoder (1993). Communism in Transition: The End of the Soviet Empires. Taylor & Francis. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8448-1738-5. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
    14. ^ a b Bob Reinalda (11 September 2009). Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day. Routledge. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-134-02405-6. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
    15. ^ [1] Archived 23 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine Cover Story: The Holy Alliance By Carl Bernstein Sunday, June 24, 2001
     
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    26 February 2013 – A hot air balloon crashes near Luxor, Egypt, killing 19 people.

    2013 Luxor hot air balloon crash

    On 26 February 2013, a hot air balloon crashed near Luxor, Egypt, killing 19 out of the 21 people on board. A fire developed in the basket due to a leak in the balloon's gas fuel system, causing the balloon to deflate mid-air and crash to the ground.[1][2]

    It was the deadliest ballooning accident in history and the deadliest aerostat disaster since the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, which killed 36 people.[3][4]

    1. ^ "At least 19 tourists dead in Egypt hot air balloon crash". RT. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Guardian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cline, Seth. "7 of the Worst Hot Air Balloons Accidents in Recent Memory". US News. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
    4. ^ Bell, Matthew (3 March 2013). "'The tip of the iceberg': Egyptian hot air balloon crash was 'inevitable,' says British pilot". The Independent. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
     
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    27 February 1881First Boer War: The Battle of Majuba Hill takes place.

    Battle of Majuba Hill

    The Battle of Majuba Hill (near Volksrust, South Africa) on 27 February 1881 was the final and decisive battle of the First Boer War. It was a resounding victory for the Boers and the battle is considered to have been one of the most humiliating defeats of British arms in history.[1] Maj. Gen. Sir George Pomeroy Colley occupied the summit of the hill on the night of 26–27 February 1881. Colley's motive for occupying Majuba Hill may have been anxiety that the Boers would soon occupy it themselves, Colley having witnessed their trenches being dug in the direction of the hill.[2] The Boers believed that he might have been attempting to outflank their positions at Laing's Nek. The hill was not considered to be scalable by the Boers, for military purposes, and hence it may have been Colley's attempt to emphasise British power and strike fear into the Boer camp.[3]

    1. ^ "It can hardly be denied that the Dutch raid on the Medway vies with the Battle of Majuba in 1881 and the Fall of Singapore in 1942 for the unenviable distinctor of being the most humiliating defeat suffered by British arms." – Charles Ralph Boxer: The Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th Century, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London (1974), p.39
    2. ^ "The rapid strides that had been made by the Boers in throwing up entrenchments on the right flank of their position, and the continuance of these works in the same direction upon the lower slopes on the Majuba hill during the days subsequent to his return, induced him to believe that if the hill was to be seized before it was occupied and probably fortified by the Boers that this must be done at once." - The National Archives, WO 32/7827, "From Lt. Col. H. Stewart, A.A.G., to the General Officer Commanding, Natal and Transvaal, Newcastle, Natal, 4th April 1881. Report of the action on Majuba Hill, 27th February."
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Little Wars was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    28 February 1991 – The first Gulf War ends.

    Gulf War

    The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War, First Iraq War or Iraq War,[24][25][26][a] before the term "Iraq War" became identified instead with the post-2003 Iraq War. The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm.[27][28]

    On 2 August 1990 the Iraqi Army invaded and occupied Kuwait, which was met with international condemnation and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. Together with the UK prime minister Margaret Thatcher,[29] American President George H. W. Bush deployed US forces into Saudi Arabia, and urged other countries to send their own forces to the scene. An array of nations joined the coalition, forming the largest military alliance since World War II. The great majority of the coalition's military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and Egypt as leading contributors, in that order. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost.[30]

    The war marked the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN.[31][32][33]

    The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991, continuing for five weeks. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition ceased its advance and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the ground campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on Saudi Arabia's border. Iraq launched Scud missiles against coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt-syria-double was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Den 1. Golfkrig". Forsvaret.dk. 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    3. ^ Persian Gulf War, the Sandhurst-trained Prince
      Khaled bin Sultan al-Saud was co-commander with General Norman Schwarzkopf
      www.casi.org.uk/discuss
    4. ^ General Khaled was Co-Commander, with US General Norman Schwarzkopf, of the allied coalition that liberated Kuwait www.thefreelibrary.com
    5. ^ Gulf War coalition forces (latest available) by country "www.nationmaster.com". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
    6. ^ Hersh, Seymour (2005). Chain of Command. Penguin Books. p. 181.
    7. ^ a b "Persian Gulf War". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.
    8. ^ 18 M1 Abrams, 11 M60, 2 AMX-30
    9. ^ CheckPoint, Ludovic Monnerat -. "Guerre du Golfe : le dernier combat de la division Tawakalna".
    10. ^ Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 279.
    11. ^ Halberstadt 1991. p. 35
    12. ^ Atkinson, Rick. Crusade, The untold story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. pp. 332–3
    13. ^ Captain Todd A. Buchs, B. Co. Commander, Knights In the Desert. Publisher/Editor Unknown. p. 111.
    14. ^ Malory, Marcia. "Tanks During the First Gulf War – Tank History". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    15. ^ M60 vs T-62 Cold War Combatants 1956–92 by Lon Nordeen & David Isby
    16. ^ "TAB H – Friendly-fire Incidents". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    17. ^ NSIAD-92-94, "Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams". US General Accounting Office, 10 January 1992. Quote: "According to information provided by the Army's Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 20 Bradleys were destroyed during the Gulf war. Another 12 Bradleys were damaged, but four of these were quickly repaired. Friendly fire accounted for 17 of the destroyed Bradleys and three of the damaged ones
    18. ^ a b c d Pike, John. "Operation Desert Storm". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    19. ^ Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990 (Air War) Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Acig.org. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
    20. ^ a b c d e Bourque P.455
    21. ^ "The Use of Terror during Iraq's invasion of Kuwait". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 24 January 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
    22. ^ "Kuwait: missing people: a step in the right direction". Red Cross.
    23. ^ "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict". Project on Defense Alternatives. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
    24. ^ "Frontline Chronology" (PDF). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
    25. ^ "Tenth anniversary of the Gulf War: A look back". CNN. 17 January 2001. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    26. ^ Kenneth Estes. "ISN: The Second Gulf War (1990–1991) – Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
    27. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, os Estados Unidos e as Relações Internacionais accessed on 29 March 2011.
    28. ^ Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história, access on 27 November 2011.
    29. ^ "George Bush (Sr) Library – Margaret Thatcher Foundation". www.margaretthatcher.org.
    30. ^ Peters, John E; Deshong, Howard (1995). Out of Area or Out of Reach? European Military Support for Operations in Southwest Asia (PDF). RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-2329-2.
    31. ^ "Memória Globo". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), access on 29 March 2011.
    32. ^ "Livraria da Folha – Livro conta como Guerra do Golfo colocou a CNN no foco internacional – 08/09/2010". .folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
    33. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, accessed on 29 March 2011


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    29 February 2000 – Second Chechen War: Eighty-four Russian paratroopers are killed in a rebel attack on a guard post near Ulus Kert.

    Second Chechen War

    The Second Chechen War (Russian: Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Russian: Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния) or officially (from the Russian point of view) Counter-terrorist operations on territories of North Caucasian region (Russian: Контртеррористические операции на территории Северо-Кавказского региона[26]) or the Second Russian invasion of Chechnya from Chechen point of view (Russian: Второе российское вторжение в Чечню), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.

    On 9 August 1999, Islamist fighters from Chechnya infiltrated Russia's Dagestan region, declaring it an independent state and calling for a jihad until "all unbelievers had been driven out".[27] On 1 October, Russian troops entered Chechnya.[28][29] The campaign ended the de facto independence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and restored Russian federal control over the territory.

    During the initial campaign, Russian military and pro-Russian Chechen paramilitary forces faced Chechen separatists in open combat, and seized the Chechen capital Grozny after a winter siege that lasted from late 1999 until February 2000. Russia established direct rule of Chechnya in May 2000 and after the full-scale offensive, Chechen militant resistance throughout the North Caucasus region continued to inflict heavy Russian casualties and challenge Russian political control over Chechnya for several more years. Some Chechen separatists also carried out attacks against civilians in Russia. These attacks, as well as widespread human rights violations by Russian and separatist forces, drew international condemnation.

    In mid-2000, the Russian government transferred certain military operations to pro-Russian Chechen forces. The military phase of operations was terminated in April 2002, and the coordination of the field operations were given first to the Federal Security Service and then to the MVD in the summer of 2003.

    By 2009, Russia had severely disabled the Chechen separatist movement and large-scale fighting ceased. Russian army and interior ministry troops no longer occupied the streets. Grozny underwent reconstruction efforts and much of the city and surrounding areas were rebuilt quickly. Sporadic violence continues throughout the North Caucasus; occasional bombings and ambushes targeting federal troops and forces of the regional governments in the area still occur.[30][31]

    On 15 April 2009, the government operation in Chechnya was officially over.[5] As the main bulk of the army was withdrawn, the burden of dealing with the low-level insurgency mainly fell on the shoulders of the local police force. Three months later the exiled leader of the separatist government, Akhmed Zakayev, called for a halt to armed resistance against the Chechen police force starting on 1 August and said he hoped that "starting with this day Chechens will never shoot at each other".[32]

    The exact death toll from this conflict is unknown. Russian casualties are around 7,500 (official Russian casualty figures)[33] or about 14,000 according to the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers.[25] Unofficial sources estimate a range from 25,000 to 50,000 dead or missing, mostly civilians in Chechnya.[34]

    1. ^ "Turkish Volunteers in Chechnya". The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
    2. ^ The Chechens: A Handbook, p. 237, at Google Books
    3. ^ Politics of Conflict: A Survey, p. 68, at Google Books
    4. ^ Energy and Security in the Caucasus, p. 66, at Google Books
    5. ^ a b "Russia 'ends Chechnya operation'". BBC News. 16 April 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2009.
    6. ^ Федеральным силам в Чечне противостоят 22 тыс. боевиков Russian Ministry of Defense Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
    7. ^ War Veterans in Postwar Situations: Chechnya, Serbia, Turkey, Peru, and Côte D'Ivoire, p. 237, at Google Books Nathalie Duclos, 2012, ISBN 9781137109743, page 237
    8. ^ Independent Newspapers Online. "Thousands of Russians killed in Chechnya". Independent Online. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
    9. ^ "Defense and Security / PressPATROL / Media Monitoring Agency WPS". wps.ru. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
    10. ^ Second Chechen campaign takes its toll Archived 5 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
    11. ^ "S. Russia police foiled 30 terrorist acts since Jan. -prosecutor | Russia | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 21 June 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    12. ^ Sean. "Interior Ministry Releases Casualties in Chechnya". Seansrussiablog.org. Retrieved 17 October 2011.[failed verification]
    13. ^ "More than 1,000 Chechen police died in anti-terrorist operations – Chechen Interior Ministry". Groups.yahoo.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    14. ^ WPS observer. "On losses in Russian army". Wps.ru. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    15. ^ "The Second Chechen War". historyguy.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
    16. ^ "Russia: December 25, 2002". Strategypage.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    17. ^ "Russia put 750 militants out of action in 2009 – Interior Ministry | Russia | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    18. ^ What justice for Chechnya's disappeared? . AI Index: EUR 46/015/2007, 23 May 2007
    19. ^ Sarah Reinke: Schleichender Völkermord in Tschetschenien. Verschwindenlassen – ethnische Verfolgung in Russland – Scheitern der internationalen Politik. Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker, 2005, page 8 (PDF Archived 12 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine)
    20. ^ Mark Kramer: "Guerrilla Warfare, Counterinsurgency and Terrorism in the North Caucasus: The Military Dimension of the Russian-Chechen Conflict", Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 57, No. 2 (March 2005), p.210 (JSTOR 30043870)
    21. ^ "Yahoo! Groups". Retrieved 12 March 2017.
    22. ^ Chechen leader says spy 'died a hero' Archived 25 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Life Style Extra, 27 November 2006
    23. ^ "Over 200,000 Killed in Chechnya Since 1994 — Pro-Moscow Official - NE…". 20 November 2004. Archived from the original on 20 November 2004. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
    24. ^ Civil and military casualties of the wars in Chechnya Russian-Chechen Friendship Society, 2003
    25. ^ a b "Russia acknowledges 3,400 soldiers killed in Chechnya since 1999". Spacewar.com. 30 March 2005. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    26. ^ Федеральный закон № 5-ФЗ от 12 января 1995 (в редакции от 27 ноября 2002) "О ветеранах" (in Russian)
    27. ^ "Dagestan moves to state of holy war". The Independent. 11 August 1999. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
    28. ^ Sakwa, Richard (2005). "Introduction: Why Chechnya?". In Richard Sakwa (ed.). Chechnya: From Past to Future (1st ed.). London: Anthem Press. pp. 1–42. ISBN 978-1-84331-164-5.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference mdb_chechnya was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Russia". Cia.gov. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    31. ^ It's over, and Putin won Archived 21 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian Retrieved on 23 February 2009
    32. ^ Chechen self-proclaimed government-in-exile lays down weapons Archived 2 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine Russia Today Retrieved on 29 July 2009
    33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2010-04-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) 4,572 servicemen of all security agencies killed by December 2002, 680 Russian Armed Forces soldiers killed in 2003–2007 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2008-11-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    34. ^ Chechnya War Archived 20 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 11 April 2007
     
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    29 February 2000 – Second Chechen War: Eighty-four Russian paratroopers are killed in a rebel attack on a guard post near Ulus Kert.

    Second Chechen War

    The Second Chechen War (Russian: Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Russian: Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния) or officially (from the Russian point of view) Counter-terrorist operations on territories of North Caucasian region (Russian: Контртеррористические операции на территории Северо-Кавказского региона[26]) or the Second Russian invasion of Chechnya from Chechen point of view (Russian: Второе российское вторжение в Чечню), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.

    On 9 August 1999, Islamist fighters from Chechnya infiltrated Russia's Dagestan region, declaring it an independent state and calling for a jihad until "all unbelievers had been driven out".[27] On 1 October, Russian troops entered Chechnya.[28][29] The campaign ended the de facto independence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and restored Russian federal control over the territory.

    During the initial campaign, Russian military and pro-Russian Chechen paramilitary forces faced Chechen separatists in open combat, and seized the Chechen capital Grozny after a winter siege that lasted from late 1999 until February 2000. Russia established direct rule of Chechnya in May 2000 and after the full-scale offensive, Chechen militant resistance throughout the North Caucasus region continued to inflict heavy Russian casualties and challenge Russian political control over Chechnya for several more years. Some Chechen separatists also carried out attacks against civilians in Russia. These attacks, as well as widespread human rights violations by Russian and separatist forces, drew international condemnation.

    In mid-2000, the Russian government transferred certain military operations to pro-Russian Chechen forces. The military phase of operations was terminated in April 2002, and the coordination of the field operations were given first to the Federal Security Service and then to the MVD in the summer of 2003.

    By 2009, Russia had severely disabled the Chechen separatist movement and large-scale fighting ceased. Russian army and interior ministry troops no longer occupied the streets. Grozny underwent reconstruction efforts and much of the city and surrounding areas were rebuilt quickly. Sporadic violence continues throughout the North Caucasus; occasional bombings and ambushes targeting federal troops and forces of the regional governments in the area still occur.[30][31]

    On 15 April 2009, the government operation in Chechnya was officially over.[5] As the main bulk of the army was withdrawn, the burden of dealing with the low-level insurgency mainly fell on the shoulders of the local police force. Three months later the exiled leader of the separatist government, Akhmed Zakayev, called for a halt to armed resistance against the Chechen police force starting on 1 August and said he hoped that "starting with this day Chechens will never shoot at each other".[32]

    The exact death toll from this conflict is unknown. Russian casualties are around 7,500 (official Russian casualty figures)[33] or about 14,000 according to the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers.[25] Unofficial sources estimate a range from 25,000 to 50,000 dead or missing, mostly civilians in Chechnya.[34]

    1. ^ "Turkish Volunteers in Chechnya". The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
    2. ^ The Chechens: A Handbook, p. 237, at Google Books
    3. ^ Politics of Conflict: A Survey, p. 68, at Google Books
    4. ^ Energy and Security in the Caucasus, p. 66, at Google Books
    5. ^ a b "Russia 'ends Chechnya operation'". BBC News. 16 April 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2009.
    6. ^ Федеральным силам в Чечне противостоят 22 тыс. боевиков Russian Ministry of Defense Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
    7. ^ War Veterans in Postwar Situations: Chechnya, Serbia, Turkey, Peru, and Côte D'Ivoire, p. 237, at Google Books Nathalie Duclos, 2012, ISBN 9781137109743, page 237
    8. ^ Independent Newspapers Online. "Thousands of Russians killed in Chechnya". Independent Online. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
    9. ^ "Defense and Security / PressPATROL / Media Monitoring Agency WPS". wps.ru. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
    10. ^ Second Chechen campaign takes its toll Archived 5 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
    11. ^ "S. Russia police foiled 30 terrorist acts since Jan. -prosecutor | Russia | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 21 June 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    12. ^ Sean. "Interior Ministry Releases Casualties in Chechnya". Seansrussiablog.org. Retrieved 17 October 2011.[failed verification]
    13. ^ "More than 1,000 Chechen police died in anti-terrorist operations – Chechen Interior Ministry". Groups.yahoo.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    14. ^ WPS observer. "On losses in Russian army". Wps.ru. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    15. ^ "The Second Chechen War". historyguy.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
    16. ^ "Russia: December 25, 2002". Strategypage.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    17. ^ "Russia put 750 militants out of action in 2009 – Interior Ministry | Russia | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    18. ^ What justice for Chechnya's disappeared? . AI Index: EUR 46/015/2007, 23 May 2007
    19. ^ Sarah Reinke: Schleichender Völkermord in Tschetschenien. Verschwindenlassen – ethnische Verfolgung in Russland – Scheitern der internationalen Politik. Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker, 2005, page 8 (PDF Archived 12 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine)
    20. ^ Mark Kramer: "Guerrilla Warfare, Counterinsurgency and Terrorism in the North Caucasus: The Military Dimension of the Russian-Chechen Conflict", Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 57, No. 2 (March 2005), p.210 (JSTOR 30043870)
    21. ^ "Yahoo! Groups". Retrieved 12 March 2017.
    22. ^ Chechen leader says spy 'died a hero' Archived 25 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Life Style Extra, 27 November 2006
    23. ^ "Over 200,000 Killed in Chechnya Since 1994 — Pro-Moscow Official - NE…". 20 November 2004. Archived from the original on 20 November 2004. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
    24. ^ Civil and military casualties of the wars in Chechnya Russian-Chechen Friendship Society, 2003
    25. ^ a b "Russia acknowledges 3,400 soldiers killed in Chechnya since 1999". Spacewar.com. 30 March 2005. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    26. ^ Федеральный закон № 5-ФЗ от 12 января 1995 (в редакции от 27 ноября 2002) "О ветеранах" (in Russian)
    27. ^ "Dagestan moves to state of holy war". The Independent. 11 August 1999. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
    28. ^ Sakwa, Richard (2005). "Introduction: Why Chechnya?". In Richard Sakwa (ed.). Chechnya: From Past to Future (1st ed.). London: Anthem Press. pp. 1–42. ISBN 978-1-84331-164-5.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference mdb_chechnya was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Russia". Cia.gov. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
    31. ^ It's over, and Putin won Archived 21 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian Retrieved on 23 February 2009
    32. ^ Chechen self-proclaimed government-in-exile lays down weapons Archived 2 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine Russia Today Retrieved on 29 July 2009
    33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2010-04-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) 4,572 servicemen of all security agencies killed by December 2002, 680 Russian Armed Forces soldiers killed in 2003–2007 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2008-11-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    34. ^ Chechnya War Archived 20 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 11 April 2007
     
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    2 March 1946Ho Chi Minh is elected the President of North Vietnam.

    Ho Chi Minh

    Hồ Chí Minh (/h mɪn/;[2] Vietnamese: [hò cǐ mīŋ̟] (About this soundlisten), Saigon: [hò cǐ mɨ̄n]; Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung,[3][a][5] also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành, Nguyễn Ái Quốc, Bác Hồ ("Uncle Ho") or simply Bác ("Uncle", pronounced [ʔɓaːk̚˦˥]), was a North Vietnamese revolutionary and politician. He served as Prime Minister of North Vietnam from 1945 to 1955 and President from 1945 to 1969. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist, he served as Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.

    Hồ Chí Minh led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, ending the First Indochina War. He was a key figure in the People's Army of Vietnam and the Việt Cộng during the Vietnam War, which lasted from 1955 to 1975. North Vietnam was victorious and was reunified with the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) in 1976. Saigon, the former capital of South Vietnam, was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in his honor. Ho officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems and died in 1969.

    Hồ Chí Minh's life before he came to power in Vietnam is ambiguous. He is known to have used between 50[6]:582 to 200 pseudonyms.[7] His birth is subject to academic debate. At least four existing official biographies vary on names, dates, places and other hard facts while unofficial biographies vary even more widely.[8]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brocheux2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Ho Chi Minh". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    3. ^ Trần Quốc Vượng. "Lời truyền miệng dân gian về Hồ Chí Minh". BBC Vietnamese. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
    4. ^ Vũ Ngự Chiêu (23 October 2011). "Vài vấn nạn lịch sử thế kỷ XX: Hồ Chí Minh—Nhà ngoại giao, 1945–1946". Hợp Lưu Magazine (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 10 December 2013. Note: See the document in French, from Centre des archives d'Outre-mer [CAOM] (Aix)/Gouvernement General de l'Indochine [GGI]/Fonds Residence Superieure d'Annam [RSA]/carton R1, and the note in English at the end of the cited article
    5. ^ Nguyễn Vĩnh Châu. "Phỏng vấn sử gia Vũ Ngự Chiêu về những nghiên cứu lịch sử liên quan đến Hồ Chí Minh". Hợp Lưu Magazine. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Duiker was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Duncanson, Dennis J. "Ho Chi Minh in Hong Kong 1931–1932". 57 (Jan–Mar 1957). The China Quarterly: 85. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    8. ^ Pike, Douglas (3 August 1976). "Ho Chi Minh: A Post-War Re-evaluation". Mexico City: 30th Annual Congress of Orientalists. Retrieved 21 December 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    3 March 1991 – An amateur video captures the beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers.

    Rodney King

    Rodney Glen King (April 2, 1965 – June 17, 2012) was an American construction worker turned writer and activist after surviving an act of police brutality by the Los Angeles Police Department. On March 3, 1991, King was violently beaten by LAPD officers during his arrest for fleeing and resisting arrest on California State Route 210. A civilian, George Holliday, filmed the incident from his nearby balcony and sent the footage to local news station KTLA. The footage clearly showed King being beaten repeatedly, and the incident was covered by news media around the world.

    The four officers were tried on charges of use of police brutality; three were acquitted, and the jury failed to reach a verdict on one charge for the fourth. Within hours of the acquittals, the 1992 Los Angeles riots started, sparked by outrage among African Americans over the trial's verdict and related, longstanding social issues. The rioting lasted six days and killed 63 people with 2,383 more injured; it ended only after the California Army National Guard, the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps provided reinforcements to re-establish control.

    The federal government prosecuted a separate civil rights case, obtaining grand jury indictments of the four officers for violations of King's civil rights. Their trial in a federal district court ended on April 16, 1993, with two of the officers being found guilty and sentenced to serve prison terms. The other two were acquitted of the charges. In a separate suit, the city of Los Angeles awarded King $3.8 million in damages. He attempted to start a business, but was not successful.

    In 2012, he was found dead in his swimming pool two months after publishing his memoir; the coroner found evidence of alcohol and drugs in his system and ruled these and his history of heart problems had likely resulted in an accidental drowning.

    1. ^ "Rodney King to marry juror from LA police beating case". BBC News. September 9, 2010.
     
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    4 March 1970 – French submarine Eurydice explodes underwater, resulting in the loss of the entire 57-man crew.

    French submarine Eurydice (S644)

    Eurydice was a French submarine, one of nine of the Daphné class.

    On 4 March 1970, while diving in calm seas off Cape Camarat in the Mediterranean, 35 miles (56 km) east of Toulon, a geophysical laboratory picked up the shock waves of an underwater explosion. French and Italian search teams found an oil slick and a few bits of debris, including a part that bore the name Eurydice.

    The cause of the explosion was never determined. All 57 crew were lost.

    The USNS Mizar took part in a search for the missing Eurydice and on 22 April 1970 they discovered several large pieces of wreckage in depths from 600 to 1100 metres off Cape Camarat near Saint-Tropez.

     
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    5 March 1836Samuel Colt patents the first production-model revolver, the .34-caliber.

    Samuel Colt

    Samuel Colt (/klt/; July 19, 1814 – January 10, 1862) was an American inventor, industrialist and businessman who established Colt's Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company (now Colt's Manufacturing Company) and made the mass production of revolvers commercially viable.

    Colt's first two business ventures were producing firearms in Paterson, New Jersey and making underwater mines; both ended in disappointment. But his business affairs improved rapidly after 1847, when the Texas Rangers ordered 1,000 revolvers during the American war with Mexico. Later, his firearms were used widely during the settling of the western frontier. Colt died in 1862 as one of the wealthiest men in America.

    Colt's manufacturing methods were sophisticated. His use of interchangeable parts helped him become one of the first to use the assembly line efficiently. Moreover, his innovative use of art, celebrity endorsements, and corporate gifts to promote his wares made him a pioneer of advertising, product placement and mass marketing.

     
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    6 March 1899Bayer registers "Aspirin" as a trademark.

    Aspirin

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to reduce pain, fever, or inflammation.[5] Specific inflammatory conditions which aspirin is used to treat include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever.[5] Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death.[5] Aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent further heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, and blood clots in people at high risk.[5] It may also decrease the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer.[6] For pain or fever, effects typically begin within 30 minutes.[5] Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and works similarly to other NSAIDs but also suppresses the normal functioning of platelets.[5]

    One common adverse effect is an upset stomach.[5] More significant side effects include stomach ulcers, stomach bleeding, and worsening asthma.[5] Bleeding risk is greater among those who are older, drink alcohol, take other NSAIDs, or are on other blood thinners.[5] Aspirin is not recommended in the last part of pregnancy.[5] It is not generally recommended in children with infections because of the risk of Reye syndrome.[5] High doses may result in ringing in the ears.[5]

    A precursor to aspirin found in leaves from the willow tree has been used for its health effects for at least 2,400 years.[7][8] In 1853, chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt treated the medicine sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride to produce acetylsalicylic acid for the first time.[9] For the next fifty years, other chemists established the chemical structure and came up with more efficient production methods.[9]:69–75 In 1897, scientists at the Bayer company began studying acetylsalicylic acid as a less-irritating replacement medication for common salicylate medicines.[9]:69–75[10] By 1899, Bayer had named it "Aspirin" and sold it around the world.[11] Aspirin's popularity grew over the first half of the twentieth century leading to competition between many brands and formulations.[12] The word Aspirin was Bayer's brand name; however, their rights to the trademark were lost or sold in many countries.[12]

    Aspirin is one of the most widely used medications globally, with an estimated 40,000 tonnes (44,000 tons) (50 to 120 billion pills) consumed each year.[7][13] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[14] As of 2014, the wholesale cost in the developing world is US$0.002 to US$0.025 per dose.[15] As of 2015, the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is less than US$25.00.[16] It is available as a generic medication.[5] In 2016, it was the 38th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 19 million prescriptions.[17]

    1. ^ a b "Aspirin Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
    2. ^ a b c Brayfield, A, ed. (14 January 2014). "Aspirin". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
    3. ^ a b "Zorprin, Bayer Buffered Aspirin (aspirin) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". Medscape Reference. WebMD. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference b92 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Aspirin". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
    6. ^ Patrignani P, Patrono C (August 2016). "Aspirin and Cancer". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 68 (9): 967–76. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.05.083. PMID 27561771.
    7. ^ a b Jones A (2015). Chemistry: An Introduction for Medical and Health Sciences. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-0-470-09290-3.
    8. ^ Ravina E (2011). The Evolution of Drug Discovery: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Drugs. John Wiley & Sons. p. 24. ISBN 978-3-527-32669-3.
    9. ^ a b c Jeffreys D (2008). Aspirin the remarkable story of a wonder drug. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 978-1-59691-816-0. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.:46–48
    10. ^ Dick B (2018). "Hard Work and Happenstance". Distillations. Vol. 4 no. 1. Science History Institute. pp. 44–45. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
    11. ^ Mann CC, Plummer ML (1991). The aspirin wars : money, medicine, and 100 years of rampant competition (1st ed.). New York: Knopf. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-394-57894-1.
    12. ^ a b "Aspirin". Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved 13 August 2007.
    13. ^ Warner TD, Mitchell JA (October 2002). "Cyclooxygenase-3 (COX-3): filling in the gaps toward a COX continuum?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (21): 13371–3. Bibcode:2002PNAS...9913371W. doi:10.1073/pnas.222543099. PMC 129677. PMID 12374850.
    14. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
    15. ^ "Acetylsalicylic Acid". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
    16. ^ Hamilton R (2015). Tarascon pocket pharmacopoeia (2015 deluxe lab-coat ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-284-05756-0.
    17. ^ "The Top 300 of 2019". clincalc.com. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
     
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    7 March 1950Cold War: The Soviet Union issues a statement denying that Klaus Fuchs served as a Soviet spy.

    Klaus Fuchs

    Emil Julius Klaus Fuchs (29 December 1911 – 28 January 1988) was a German theoretical physicist and atomic spy who supplied information from the American, British, and Canadian Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union during and shortly after World War II. While at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Fuchs was responsible for many significant theoretical calculations relating to the first nuclear weapons and, later, early models of the hydrogen bomb. After his conviction in 1950, he served nine years in prison in the United Kingdom and then moved to East Germany where he resumed his career as a physicist and scientific leader.

    The son of a Lutheran pastor, Fuchs attended the University of Leipzig, where his father was a professor of theology, and became involved in student politics, joining the student branch of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), and the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold, the SPD's paramilitary organisation. He was expelled from the SPD in 1932, and joined the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). He went into hiding after the 1933 Reichstag fire, and fled to the United Kingdom, where he received his PhD from the University of Bristol under the supervision of Nevill Mott, and his DSc from the University of Edinburgh, where he worked as an assistant to Max Born.

    After the Second World War broke out in Europe, he was interned in the Isle of Man, and later in Canada. After he returned to Britain in 1941, he became an assistant to Rudolf Peierls, working on "Tube Alloys"—the British atomic bomb project. He began passing information on the project to the Soviet Union through Ruth Kuczynski, codenamed "Sonia", a German communist and a major in Soviet Military Intelligence who had worked with Richard Sorge's spy ring in the Far East. In 1943, Fuchs and Peierls went to Columbia University, in New York City, to work on the Manhattan Project. In August 1944, Fuchs joined the Theoretical Physics Division at the Los Alamos Laboratory, working under Hans Bethe. His chief area of expertise was the problem of implosion, necessary for the development of the plutonium bomb. After the war, he returned to the UK and worked at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell as head of the Theoretical Physics Division.

    In January 1950, Fuchs confessed that he was a spy. A British court sentenced him to fourteen years' imprisonment and stripped him of his British citizenship. He was released in 1959, after serving nine years, and emigrated to the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), where he was elected to the Academy of Sciences and became a member of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) central committee. He was later appointed deputy director of the Institute for Nuclear Research in Rossendorf, where he served until he retired in 1979.

     
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    8 March 1974Charles de Gaulle Airport opens in Paris, France.

    Charles de Gaulle Airport

    Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport (French: Aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle, IATA: CDG, ICAO: LFPG), also known as Roissy Airport, is the largest international airport in France and second-busiest airport in Europe. Opened in 1974, it is located in Roissy-en-France, 23 km (14 mi) northeast of Paris. It is named after Charles de Gaulle (1890–1970).

    Charles de Gaulle Airport is located within portions of several communes in Val-d'Oise, Seine-Saint-Denis and Seine-et-Marne.[1] It serves as the principal hub for Air France and a destination for other legacy carriers (from Star Alliance, Oneworld and SkyTeam), as well as a focus city for low-cost carriers easyJet, Vueling, and Norwegian Air Shuttle. The Airport is operated by Groupe ADP under the brand Paris Aéroport.

    In 2019, the airport handled 76,150,007 passengers and 498,175 aircraft movements,[4] thus making it the world's tenth-busiest airport, and Europe's second-busiest airport (after London Heathrow) in terms of passenger numbers. In terms of cargo traffic, the airport is the twelfth-busiest in the world and the second-busiest in Europe (after Frankfurt Airport), handling 2,150,950 metric tonnes of cargo in 2012.[4]

    As of 2017, the airport offers direct flights to the most countries and hosts the most airlines in the world.[5] Marc Houalla has been the director of the airport since 12 February 2018.

    1. ^ a b LFPG – PARIS CHARLES DE GAULLE. AIP from French Service d'information aéronautique, effective 26 March 2020.
    2. ^ "Trafic de Paris Aéroport en hausse de 1,8 % en 2016, à 97,2 millions de passagers" (PDF) (in French). Aéroports de Paris SA. 12 January 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
    3. ^ "Preliminary world airport traffic rankings released". aci.aero. 13 March 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
    4. ^ a b "Statistiques annuelles". Union des aéroports Français. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
    5. ^ "Frankfurt and Paris CDG lead global analysis of airports in S17". anna.aero. 15 February 2017.
     
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    9 March 1977 – The Hanafi Siege: In a thirty-nine-hour standoff, armed Hanafi Muslims seize three Washington, D.C., buildings

    1977 Washington, D.C. attack and hostage taking

    The 1977 Hanafi Siege occurred on March 9–11, 1977 when three buildings in Washington, D.C. were seized by 12 "Hanafi Movement"[1] gunmen. The gunmen were led by Hamaas Abdul Khaalis, who wanted to bring attention to the murder of his family in 1973.[2] They took 149 hostages and killed radio journalist Maurice Williams. After a 39-hour standoff, the gunmen surrendered and all remaining hostages were released from the District Building (the city hall; now called the John A. Wilson Building), B'nai B'rith headquarters, and the Islamic Center of Washington.

    The gunmen killed 24-year-old Maurice Williams, a radio reporter from WHUR-FM, who stepped off a fifth-floor elevator into the crisis (the fifth floor is where the mayor and Council Chairmen have their offices). The gunmen also shot D.C. Protective Service Division police officer Mack Cantrell, who died in the hospital a few days later of a heart attack. Then-Councilman and future 4-term Washington, D.C. Mayor Marion Barry walked into the hallway after hearing a commotion and was hit by a ricocheted shotgun pellet, which lodged just above his heart. He was taken out through a window and rushed to a hospital.

    The gunmen had several demands. They wanted the government to hand over a group of men who had been convicted of killing seven relatives – mostly children – of takeover leader Hamaas Khaalis. They wanted those that were convicted of killing Malcolm X.[3] They also demanded the cancellation of a premiere[3] of the movie Mohammad, Messenger of God because they considered it sacrilegious.[4]

    Time magazine noted:

    That the toll was not higher was in part a tribute to the primary tactic U.S. law enforcement officials are now using to thwart terrorists—patience. But most of all, perhaps, it was due to the courageous intervention of three Muslim ambassadors, Egypt's Ashraf Ghorbal, Pakistan's Sahabzada Yaqub-Khan and Iran's Ardeshir Zahedi.[5]

    1. ^ Smith, J.Y. (June 10, 1977). "Prosecution Opens Trial Of Hanafis". Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
    2. ^ Kiernan, Laura (October 19, 1977). "Amina Khaalis Relives Horror of Slayings, Court Is Told". Washington Post. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
    3. ^ a b Simon, Jeffrey David (2001). The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism. Indiana University Press. pp. 124–125. ISBN 0-253-33983-9. Retrieved March 10, 2017. 1973 hanafi murder -1977.
    4. ^ Theresa Vargas (March 12, 2007). "'Some Things You Never Forget': Thirty years ago, gunmen stormed three D.C. buildings, taking 150 hostages and one life". The Washington Post. p. B01. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
    5. ^ "The 38 Hours: Trial by Terror". Time magazine. March 21, 1977. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
     
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    10 March 2006 – The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter arrives at Mars.

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox spaceflight with unknown parameter "Name" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit. The US$720 million spacecraft was built by Lockheed Martin under the supervision of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The mission is managed by the California Institute of Technology, at the JPL, in Pasadena, California, for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. It was launched August 12, 2005, and attained Martian orbit on March 10, 2006. In November 2006, after five months of aerobraking, it entered its final science orbit and began its primary science phase.

    MRO contains a host of scientific instruments such as cameras, spectrometers, and radar, which are used to analyze the landforms, stratigraphy, minerals, and ice of Mars. It paves the way for future spacecraft by monitoring Mars' daily weather and surface conditions, studying potential landing sites, and hosting a new telecommunications system. MRO's telecommunications system will transfer more data back to Earth than all previous interplanetary missions combined, and MRO will serve as a highly capable relay satellite for future missions.[2] It has enough propellant to keep functioning into the 2030s.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Lyons was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference ant was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    11 March 1983Bob Hawke is appointed Prime Minister of Australia.

    Bob Hawke

    Robert James Lee Hawke, AC, GCL (9 December 1929 – 16 May 2019) was an Australian politician who served as Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Labor Party from 1983 to 1991. He was also Member of Parliament (MP) for Wills from 1980 to 1992.

    Hawke was born in Bordertown, South Australia. He attended the University of Western Australia and went on to study at University College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar. In 1956, Hawke joined the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) as a research officer. Having risen to become responsible for wage arbitration, he was elected ACTU President in 1969, where he achieved a high public profile.

    After a decade serving in that role, Hawke announced his intention to enter politics, and was subsequently elected to the House of Representatives as the Labor MP for Wills in Victoria. Three years later, he led Labor to a landslide victory at the 1983 election and was sworn in as Australia's 23rd Prime Minister. He went on to lead Labor to victory three more times, in 1984, 1987 and 1990, making him the most electorally successful Labor Leader in history.

    The Hawke Government created Medicare and Landcare, brokered the Prices and Incomes Accord, established APEC, floated the Australian dollar, deregulated the financial sector, introduced the Family Assistance Scheme, announced "Advance Australia Fair" as the official national anthem, initiated superannuation pension schemes for all workers and oversaw passage of the Australia Act that removed all remaining jurisdiction by the United Kingdom from Australia.[1] During his time as Prime Minister, Hawke recorded the highest popularity rating ever measured by an Australian opinion poll, reaching 75% approval in 1984.[2]

    In June 1991, Treasurer Paul Keating unsuccessfully challenged for the leadership, believing that Hawke had reneged on the Kirribilli Agreement. Keating mounted a second challenge six months later, this time narrowly succeeding. Hawke subsequently retired from Parliament, pursuing both a business career and a number of charitable causes, until his death in 2019, aged 89. Hawke remains Labor's longest-serving and Australia's third-longest-serving Prime Minister; he is also the only Prime Minister to be born in South Australia and the only one raised in Western Australia.

    1. ^ "Australia Act (Commencement) Order 1986" (PDF). Retrieved 23 January 2016.
    2. ^ https://www.smh.com.au/articles/2008/05/19/1211182705614.html
     
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    12 March 2003 – The World Health Organization officially release a global warning of outbreaks of Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin that surfaced in the early 2000s caused by the first-identified strain of the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1). In late 2017, Chinese scientists traced the virus through the intermediary of civets to cave-dwelling horseshoe bats in Yunnan province.[1] No cases of the first SARS-CoV have been reported worldwide since 2004.[2]

    In 2019, a related virus strain, SARS-CoV-2, was discovered. This new strain causes COVID-19, a disease which brought about the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.[3]

    1. ^ McKie, Robin (10 December 2017). "Scientists trace 2002 Sars virus to colony of cave-dwelling bats in China". The Guardian. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
    2. ^ "SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)". NHS Choices. UK National Health Service. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2016. Since 2004, there haven't been any known cases of SARS reported anywhere in the world.
    3. ^ "Myth busters". WHO.int. World Health Organization. 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
     
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    12 March 2003 – The World Health Organization officially release a global warning of outbreaks of Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin that surfaced in the early 2000s caused by the first-identified strain of the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1). In late 2017, Chinese scientists traced the virus through the intermediary of civets to cave-dwelling horseshoe bats in Yunnan province.[1] No cases of the first SARS-CoV have been reported worldwide since 2004.[2]

    In 2019, a related virus strain, SARS-CoV-2, was discovered. This new strain causes COVID-19, a disease which brought about the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.[3]

    1. ^ McKie, Robin (10 December 2017). "Scientists trace 2002 Sars virus to colony of cave-dwelling bats in China". The Guardian. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
    2. ^ "SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)". NHS Choices. UK National Health Service. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2016. Since 2004, there haven't been any known cases of SARS reported anywhere in the world.
    3. ^ "Myth busters". WHO.int. World Health Organization. 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
     
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    13 March 1567 – The Battle of Oosterweel, traditionally regarded as the start of the Eighty Years' War

    Battle of Oosterweel

    The Battle of Oosterweel took place on 13 March 1567 near the village of Oosterweel, in modern Belgium, and is traditionally seen as the beginning of the Eighty Years' War.[a] A Spanish mercenary army surprised a band of rebels and killed or captured almost all of them.

    1. ^ Spohnholz, p. 26.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    14 March 1943World War II: The Kraków Ghetto is "liquidated".

    Kraków Ghetto

    The Kraków Ghetto was one of five major metropolitan Jewish Ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the new General Government territory during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. It was established for the purpose of exploitation, terror, and persecution of local Polish Jews, as well as the staging area for separating the "able workers" from those who would later be deemed unworthy of life.[1] The Ghetto was liquidated between June 1942 and March 1943, with most of its inhabitants sent to their deaths at Bełżec extermination camp as well as Płaszów slave-labor camp,[2] and Auschwitz concentration camp, 60 kilometres (37 mi) rail distance.[3]

    1. ^ Dr S D Stein (29 January 2007). ""Life Unworthy of Life" and other Medical Killing Programmes". The 'Euthanasia' and `Aktion Reinhard' Trial Cases. UWE Faculty of Humanities, Languages, and Social Science. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013 – via Internet Archive.
    2. ^ The statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" Archived 2016-02-08 at the Wayback Machine by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews  (in English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon,  (in Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at www.deathcamps.org/occupation/ghettolist.htm  (in English). Accessed 21 June 2011.
    3. ^ "Getto krakowskie." About Kraków Ghetto, with valuable historical photos and the Ghetto map. DWS. ISSN 2082-7431 (in Polish)
     
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    15 March 1939Germany occupies Czechoslovakia

    German occupation of Czechoslovakia

    Adolf Hitler at Prague Castle

    The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Sudetenland as outlined by the Munich Agreement. Adolf Hitler justified the invasion by the purported suffering of the ethnic Germans living in these regions. The Sudetenland annexation by Nazi Germany was detrimental to the future defense of crippled Czechslovakia as the extensive Czechoslovak border fortifications were also located in the same area.

    Following the Anschluss of Austria to Nazi Germany in March 1938, the conquest and breakup of Czechoslovakia became Hitler's next ambition. The incorporation of the Sudetenland into Germany that began on 1 October 1938 left the rest of Czechoslovakia weak, and it became powerless to resist subsequent occupation. Moreover, a small northeastern part of the borderland region known as Zaolzie was occupied and annexed to Poland ostensibly to "protect" the local ethnic Polish community and as a result of previous territorial claims (Czech-Polish disputes in the years of 1918–20).

    On 15 March 1939, one day after the proclamation of the Slovak State the German Wehrmacht moved into the remainder of Czechoslovakia and from the Prague Castle, Hitler proclaimed the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia after the negotiations with Emil Hácha, who remained as technical head of state with the title of State President. However, he was rendered all but powerless; real power was vested in the Reichsprotektor, who served as Hitler's personal representative.[1] The occupation ended with the surrender of Germany following World War II.[2]

    1. ^ Volker Ullrich. Hitler: Volume I: Ascent 1889–1939. pp. 752–753.
    2. ^ Spencer Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). World War II: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-999-7.
     
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    16 March 1978 – Former Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro is kidnapped. (He is later murdered by his captors.)

    Aldo Moro

    Aldo Romeo Luigi Moro (Italian: [ˈaldo ˈmɔːro]; 23 September 1916 – 9 May 1978) was an Italian statesman and a prominent member of the Christian Democracy party. He served as 38th Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968, and then from 1974 to 1976. He was one of Italy's longest-serving post-war Prime Ministers, holding power for a combined total of more than six years. Due to his accommodation with the Communist leader Enrico Berlinguer, known as the Historic Compromise, Moro is widely considered one of the most prominent fathers of the Italian centre-left and one of the greatest and most popular leaders in the history of the Italian Republic. Moro was considered an intellectual and a patient mediator, especially in the internal life of his party. He was kidnapped on 16 March 1978 by the Red Brigades and killed after 55 days of captivity.

     
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    17 March 1969Golda Meir becomes the first female Prime Minister of Israel.

    Golda Meir

    Golda Meir[nb 1] (born Golda Mabovitch; May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel.

    Born in Kiev, she emigrated to the United States as a child with her family in 1906, and was educated there, becoming a teacher. After marrying her husband, the couple emigrated to then Palestine in 1921, settling on a kibbutz. Meir was elected prime minister of Israel on March 17, 1969, after serving as Minister of Labour and Foreign Minister.[5] The world's fourth and Israel's first and only woman to hold the office, she has been described as the "Iron Lady" of Israeli politics;[6] the term was later applied to British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Former Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion used to call Meir "the best man in the government"; she was often portrayed as the "strong-willed, straight-talking, grey-bunned grandmother of the Jewish people."[7]

    Meir resigned as prime minister in 1974, the year following the Yom Kippur War. She died in 1978 of lymphoma.[8]

    1. ^ "Meir". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
    2. ^ "Meir, Golda". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
    3. ^ "Meir". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
    4. ^ "Golda Meir: An Outline of a Unique Life: A Chronological Survey of Gola Meir's Life and Legacy". The Golda Meir Center for Political Leadership (Metropolitan State University of Denver). Retrieved February 20, 2014. Reference on name pronunciation (see "1956").
    5. ^ Golda Meir becomes Israeli Prime Minister, History Today
    6. ^ Golda Meir, a BBC News profile.
    7. ^ Mother of a nation, but not much of a mother[permanent dead link] Haaretz, July 7, 2008
    8. ^ Yitzhak Shargil and Gil Sedan. "State Funeral Will Be Held Tuesday for Golda Meir Who Died Friday at the Age of 80." Jewish Telegraphic Agency December 11, 1978.


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    17 March 1969Golda Meir becomes the first female Prime Minister of Israel.

    Golda Meir

    Golda Meir[nb 1] (born Golda Mabovitch; May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel.

    Born in Kiev, she emigrated to the United States as a child with her family in 1906, and was educated there, becoming a teacher. After marrying her husband, the couple emigrated to then Palestine in 1921, settling on a kibbutz. Meir was elected prime minister of Israel on March 17, 1969, after serving as Minister of Labour and Foreign Minister.[5] The world's fourth and Israel's first and only woman to hold the office, she has been described as the "Iron Lady" of Israeli politics;[6] the term was later applied to British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Former Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion used to call Meir "the best man in the government"; she was often portrayed as the "strong-willed, straight-talking, grey-bunned grandmother of the Jewish people."[7]

    Meir resigned as prime minister in 1974, the year following the Yom Kippur War. She died in 1978 of lymphoma.[8]

    1. ^ "Meir". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
    2. ^ "Meir, Golda". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
    3. ^ "Meir". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
    4. ^ "Golda Meir: An Outline of a Unique Life: A Chronological Survey of Gola Meir's Life and Legacy". The Golda Meir Center for Political Leadership (Metropolitan State University of Denver). Retrieved February 20, 2014. Reference on name pronunciation (see "1956").
    5. ^ Golda Meir becomes Israeli Prime Minister, History Today
    6. ^ Golda Meir, a BBC News profile.
    7. ^ Mother of a nation, but not much of a mother[permanent dead link] Haaretz, July 7, 2008
    8. ^ Yitzhak Shargil and Gil Sedan. "State Funeral Will Be Held Tuesday for Golda Meir Who Died Friday at the Age of 80." Jewish Telegraphic Agency December 11, 1978.


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    18 March 1996 – A nightclub fire in Quezon City, Philippines kills 162 people.

    Ozone Disco fire

    The Ozone Disco fire in Quezon City, Philippines broke out shortly before midnight at 11:35 pm Philippine Standard Time, March 18, 1996 (3:35 pm, March 18, 1996, UTC) leaving at least 162 people dead. It is officially acknowledged as the worst fire in Philippine history,[1][2] and among the 10 worst nightclub fires in the world.[3][4]

    1. ^ Associated Press (March 20, 1996). "Disco in Manila, for 35 People, Held 400". New York Times Online. New York Times. Retrieved January 29, 2008.
    2. ^ Esteban, P/Supt. Romulo; Col. Danilo Fabian (June 3–4, 2004). "The Philippine Diaster Management System". Philippine Center on Transnational Crime. Retrieved January 29, 2008.
    3. ^ Press, Associated. "A look at deadly nightclub fires." Washington Times. January 27, 2013
    4. ^ "What went before : Ozone disco is No.6 in deadliest nightclub fires." Philippine Daily Inquirer. January 29, 2013
     

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