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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    25 July 2000Concorde Air France Flight 4590 crashes at Paris Charles de Gaulle airport, killing 113 people.

    Air France Flight 4590

    Air France Flight 4590 was an international charter flight, from Charles de Gaulle Airport, Paris to John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York, flown by an Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde. On the afternoon of Tuesday, 25 July 2000 at 14:44:31 (UTC, 16:44:31 time local in France), the aircraft serving the flight (registration F-BTSC) ran over debris on the runway during takeoff, blowing a tyre, and sending debris flying into the underside of the left wing, and into the landing gear bay.

    The fuel tank that was inside the left wing was unusually full, and the resulting lack of air space in the tank caused it to rupture and send fuel pouring outward with great force when debris from the tire struck the wing thus creating a shock wave that weakened the tank. Debris, which flew into the landing gear bay, severed power wiring for the landing gear, making it impossible to retract the gear as the aircraft climbed. Sparks produced by the broken wiring ignited fuel from the ruptured fuel tank and along with the fire came a reduction of thrust from Engine 1 and 2. Lack of thrust, the high drag caused by the inability to retract the gear, along with fire damage to the flight controls, made it impossible to control the aircraft with the result that it crashed into a hotel in nearby Gonesse two minutes after takeoff, killing all 109 people on board and four more people[2] in the hotel, with another person in the hotel critically injured.[3]

    The flight was chartered by German company Peter Deilmann Cruises, and the passengers were on their way to board the cruise ship MS Deutschland in New York City for a 16-day cruise to Manta, Ecuador.[4][5] It was the only fatal Concorde accident during its 27-year operational history.[6]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Planespotters N13067 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Barry, Ben (5 September 2019). "How Concorde Pushed the Limits – Then Pushed Them Too Far – Disaster and Aftermath". National Geographic. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
    3. ^ Accident on 25 July 2000 at La Patte d'Oie in Gonesse (95) to the Concorde registered F-BTSC operated by Air France (REPORT translation f-sc000725a) (PDF), Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile, 16 January 2002
    4. ^ "Concorde Crash". thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011.
    5. ^ "'Black boxes' recovered at Concorde crash site". CNN. Associated Press and Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 December 2004. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
    6. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Aérospatiale / BAC Concorde 101 F-BTSC Gonesse". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    26 July 1952 – King Farouk of Egypt abdicates in favor of his son Fuad.

    Farouk of Egypt

    Farouk I (/fəˈrk/; Arabic: فاروق الأولFārūq al-Awwal; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.[citation needed]

    His full title was "His Majesty Farouk I, by the grace of God, King of Egypt and the Sudan. He was overthrown in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and forced to abdicate in favour of his infant son, Ahmed Fuad, who succeeded him as Fuad II. Farouk died in exile in Italy in 1965.

    His sister, Princess Fawzia Fuad, was the first wife and consort of the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.[3]

    1. ^ Whiteman, Marjorie Millace; Hackworth, Green Haywood (1963). Digest of International Law (snippet view). Vol. 2. U.S. State Department. p. 64. OCLC 79506166. Retrieved 26 February 2010. The Egyptian Parliament amended the Constitution by Law 176 of 16 October 1951, to provide that the title of the King should be "King of Egypt and the Sudan" instead of "King of Egypt, Sovereign of Nubia, Sudan, Kordofan and Darfur".
    2. ^ Rizk, Yunan Labib (28 July – 3 August 2005). "Crowning moment". Al-Ahram Weekly (753). Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
    3. ^ "Princess Fawzia Fuad of Egypt". The Telegraph. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
     
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    28 July 1917 – The Silent Parade took place in New York City, in protest to murders, lynchings, and other violence directed towards African Americans.

    Silent Parade

    The Negro Silent Protest Parade[1], commonly known as the Silent Parade, was a silent march of about 10,000 African Americans along Fifth Avenue starting at 57th Street in New York City on July 28, 1917. The event was organized by the NAACP, church, and community leaders to protest violence directed towards African Americans, such as recent lynchings in Waco and Memphis. The parade was precipitated by the East St. Louis riots in May and July 1917 where at least 40 black people were killed by white mobs, in part touched off by a labor dispute where blacks were used for strike breaking.[2][3]

    1. ^ "The NEGRO SILENT PROTEST PARADE organized by the NAACP Fifth Ave., New York City July 28, 1917" (PDF). National Humanities Center, Research Triangle Park, NC. National Humanities Center. 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
    2. ^ Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance: K–Y. Routledge. 2004. p. 752. ISBN 157958389X.
    3. ^ "The East St. Louis Race Riot Left Dozens Dead, Devastating a Community on the Rise". Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Institution. June 30, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
     
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    29 July 2005 – Astronomers announce their discovery of the dwarf planet Eris.

    Eris (dwarf planet)

    Eris (minor planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive[20] and second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System. Eris was discovered in January 2005 by a Palomar Observatory-based team led by Mike Brown, and its discovery was verified later that year. In September 2006 it was named after the goddess of strife and discord. Eris is the ninth-most massive object directly orbiting the Sun, and the sixteenth-most massive overall in the Solar System (including moons). It is also the largest object that has not been visited by a spacecraft. Eris has been measured at 2,326 ± 12 kilometers (1,445.3 ± 7.5 mi) in diameter.[10] Its mass is 0.27 percent of the Earth's mass and 27 percent more than dwarf planet Pluto's,[12][21] though Pluto is slightly larger by volume.[22]

    Eris is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) and a member of a high-eccentricity population known as the scattered disk. It has one known moon, Dysnomia. In February 2016, its distance from the Sun was 96.3 astronomical units (1.441×1010 km; 8.95×109 mi),[17] roughly three times that of Pluto. With the exception of some long-period comets, until 2018 VG18 was discovered on December 17, 2018, Eris and Dysnomia were the most distant known natural objects in the Solar System.[17]

    Because Eris appeared to be larger than Pluto, NASA initially described it as the Solar System's tenth planet. This, along with the prospect of other objects of similar size being discovered in the future, motivated the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to define the term planet for the first time. Under the IAU definition approved on August 24, 2006, Eris is a "dwarf planet," along with objects such as Pluto, Ceres, Haumea and Makemake,[23] thereby reducing the number of known planets in the Solar System to eight, the same as before Pluto's discovery in 1930. Observations of a stellar occultation by Eris in 2010 showed that its diameter was 2,326 ± 12 kilometers (1,445.3 ± 7.5 mi), very slightly less than Pluto,[24][25] which was measured by New Horizons as 2,376.6 ± 3.6 kilometers (1,476.8 ± 2.2 mi) in July 2015.[26][27]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference discovery was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference New Planet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference jpldata was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference MPC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Buie2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Noah Webster (1884) A Practical Dictionary of the English Language
    7. ^ "Eris". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
      "Eris". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Morrison was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Ian Douglas (2013) Semper Human
    10. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference sicardy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Beatty2010-NewScientist was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Brown Schaller 2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Roe2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Duffard2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference Holler2018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snodgrass et al. 2010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference AstDys was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ "Conversion of Absolute Magnitude to Diameter". sfasu.edu. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010.
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown-2003-UB313 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Sengupta, Sujan (2015). Worlds Beyond Our Own: The Search for Habitable Planets. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 978-3-319-09893-7.
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference 070614_eris_mass was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Cite error: The named reference NASA Pluto larger 2015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference IAUPressRelease2006 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown2010-occult was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown2010-Plutosize was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ "How Big Is Pluto? New Horizons Settles Decades-Long Debate". NASA. 2015. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
    27. ^ Stern, S. A.; Grundy, W.; McKinnon, W. B.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A. (2017). "The Pluto System After New Horizons". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2018: 357–392. arXiv:1712.05669. Bibcode:2018ARA&A..56..357S. doi:10.1146/annurev-astro-081817-051935. S2CID 119072504.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  6. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    29 July 2005 – Astronomers announce their discovery of the dwarf planet Eris.

    Eris (dwarf planet)

    Eris (minor planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive[20] and second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System. Eris was discovered in January 2005 by a Palomar Observatory-based team led by Mike Brown, and its discovery was verified later that year. In September 2006 it was named after the goddess of strife and discord. Eris is the ninth-most massive object directly orbiting the Sun, and the sixteenth-most massive overall in the Solar System (including moons). It is also the largest object that has not been visited by a spacecraft. Eris has been measured at 2,326 ± 12 kilometers (1,445.3 ± 7.5 mi) in diameter.[10] Its mass is 0.27 percent of the Earth's mass and 27 percent more than dwarf planet Pluto's,[12][21] though Pluto is slightly larger by volume.[22]

    Eris is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) and a member of a high-eccentricity population known as the scattered disk. It has one known moon, Dysnomia. In February 2016, its distance from the Sun was 96.3 astronomical units (1.441×1010 km; 8.95×109 mi),[17] roughly three times that of Pluto. With the exception of some long-period comets, until 2018 VG18 was discovered on December 17, 2018, Eris and Dysnomia were the most distant known natural objects in the Solar System.[17]

    Because Eris appeared to be larger than Pluto, NASA initially described it as the Solar System's tenth planet. This, along with the prospect of other objects of similar size being discovered in the future, motivated the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to define the term planet for the first time. Under the IAU definition approved on August 24, 2006, Eris is a "dwarf planet," along with objects such as Pluto, Ceres, Haumea and Makemake,[23] thereby reducing the number of known planets in the Solar System to eight, the same as before Pluto's discovery in 1930. Observations of a stellar occultation by Eris in 2010 showed that its diameter was 2,326 ± 12 kilometers (1,445.3 ± 7.5 mi), very slightly less than Pluto,[24][25] which was measured by New Horizons as 2,376.6 ± 3.6 kilometers (1,476.8 ± 2.2 mi) in July 2015.[26][27]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference discovery was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference New Planet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference jpldata was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference MPC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Buie2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Noah Webster (1884) A Practical Dictionary of the English Language
    7. ^ "Eris". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
      "Eris". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Morrison was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Ian Douglas (2013) Semper Human
    10. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference sicardy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Beatty2010-NewScientist was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Brown Schaller 2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Roe2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Duffard2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference Holler2018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snodgrass et al. 2010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference AstDys was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ "Conversion of Absolute Magnitude to Diameter". sfasu.edu. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010.
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown-2003-UB313 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Sengupta, Sujan (2015). Worlds Beyond Our Own: The Search for Habitable Planets. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 978-3-319-09893-7.
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference 070614_eris_mass was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Cite error: The named reference NASA Pluto larger 2015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference IAUPressRelease2006 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown2010-occult was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown2010-Plutosize was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ "How Big Is Pluto? New Horizons Settles Decades-Long Debate". NASA. 2015. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
    27. ^ Stern, S. A.; Grundy, W.; McKinnon, W. B.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A. (2017). "The Pluto System After New Horizons". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2018: 357–392. arXiv:1712.05669. Bibcode:2018ARA&A..56..357S. doi:10.1146/annurev-astro-081817-051935. S2CID 119072504.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    30 July 2006 – The world's longest running music show Top of the Pops is broadcast for the last time on BBC Two. The show had aired for 42 years.

    Top of the Pops

    Top of the Pops (TOTP) is a British music chart television programme, made by the BBC and originally broadcast weekly between 1 January 1964 and 30 July 2006. The world's longest running weekly music show, TOTP was shown every Thursday evening on BBC One, except for a short period on Fridays in mid-1973, and again in autumn 1974, before once again being moved to Fridays at 7:30 pm from 1996 to 2005 and then to Sundays on BBC Two from 2005 till the last ever weekly show in 2006. Each weekly show consisted of performances from some of that week's best-selling popular music records, usually excluding any tracks moving down the chart, including a rundown of that week's singles chart. This was originally the Top 20, changing to the Top 30 from 1971 to 1983 and the Top 40 from 1984 to 1991.

    The Official Charts Company states "performing on the show was considered an honour, and it pulled in just about every major player."[3] The Rolling Stones were the first band to perform on TOTP with "I Wanna Be Your Man".[4] Snow Patrol were the last act to play live on the weekly show when they performed their single "Chasing Cars".[5] In addition to the weekly show there was a special edition of TOTP on Christmas Day (and usually, until 1984, a second edition a few days after Christmas), featuring some of the best-selling singles of the year and the Christmas Number 1. Although the weekly show was cancelled in 2006,[6] the Christmas special has continued. End-of-year round-up editions have also been broadcast on BBC1 on or around New Year's Eve, albeit largely featuring the same acts and tracks as the Christmas Day shows.[7][8][9] It also survives as Top of the Pops 2, which began in 1994 and features vintage performances from the Top of the Pops archives.

    The show has seen seminal performances over its history. The March 1971 TOTP appearance of T. Rex frontman Marc Bolan wearing glitter and satins as he performed "Hot Love" is often seen as the inception of glam rock.[10] In the 1990s, the show's format was sold to several foreign broadcasters in the form of a franchise package, and at one point various versions of the show were shown in more than 120 countries.[4] Editions of the programme from 1976 onwards started being repeated on BBC Four in 2011 and are aired on most Friday evenings - as at May 2020 the repeat run has reached 1989. Episodes featuring disgraced presenters and artists such as Jimmy Savile (who opened the show with its familiar slogan, 'It's Number One, it's Top of the Pops') and Gary Glitter are not repeated.[11]

    1. ^ "TOP OF THE POPS". lostshows.com. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
    2. ^ "BBC One London - 24 December 1964 - BBC Genome". BBC Genome. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
    3. ^ "Looking back at Top Of The Pops, which ended 10 years ago this week". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
    4. ^ a b "BBC says fond farewell to Top of the Pops". BBC. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    5. ^ "And the most-played song on UK radio is ... Chasing Cars by Snow Patrol". BBC News. 17 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
    6. ^ Show's over for Top of the Pops, The Guardian, 20 June 2006.
    7. ^ "Top of the Pops – FAQ's". BBC. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
    8. ^ "Programme Information Network TV Weeks 52/1". BBC Press Office. Archived from the original on 30 November 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
    9. ^ "Entertainment | Top of the Pops back at Christmas". BBC News. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
    10. ^ Mark Paytress, Bolan – The Rise And Fall Of A 20th Century Superstar (Omnibus Press 2002) ISBN 0-7119-9293-2, pp 180-181.
    11. ^ Revoir, Paul (27 November 2015). "Top of the Pops will continue on BBC4 – but without Jimmy Savile and Dave Lee Travis episodes". Radio Times. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
     
  8. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    30 July 2006 – The world's longest running music show Top of the Pops is broadcast for the last time on BBC Two. The show had aired for 42 years.

    Top of the Pops

    Top of the Pops (TOTP) is a British music chart television programme, made by the BBC and originally broadcast weekly between 1 January 1964 and 30 July 2006. The world's longest running weekly music show, TOTP was shown every Thursday evening on BBC One, except for a short period on Fridays in mid-1973, and again in autumn 1974, before once again being moved to Fridays at 7:30 pm from 1996 to 2005 and then to Sundays on BBC Two from 2005 till the last ever weekly show in 2006. Each weekly show consisted of performances from some of that week's best-selling popular music records, usually excluding any tracks moving down the chart, including a rundown of that week's singles chart. This was originally the Top 20, changing to the Top 30 from 1971 to 1983 and the Top 40 from 1984 to 1991.

    The Official Charts Company states "performing on the show was considered an honour, and it pulled in just about every major player."[3] The Rolling Stones were the first band to perform on TOTP with "I Wanna Be Your Man".[4] Snow Patrol were the last act to play live on the weekly show when they performed their single "Chasing Cars".[5] In addition to the weekly show there was a special edition of TOTP on Christmas Day (and usually, until 1984, a second edition a few days after Christmas), featuring some of the best-selling singles of the year and the Christmas Number 1. Although the weekly show was cancelled in 2006,[6] the Christmas special has continued. End-of-year round-up editions have also been broadcast on BBC1 on or around New Year's Eve, albeit largely featuring the same acts and tracks as the Christmas Day shows.[7][8][9] It also survives as Top of the Pops 2, which began in 1994 and features vintage performances from the Top of the Pops archives.

    The show has seen seminal performances over its history. The March 1971 TOTP appearance of T. Rex frontman Marc Bolan wearing glitter and satins as he performed "Hot Love" is often seen as the inception of glam rock.[10] In the 1990s, the show's format was sold to several foreign broadcasters in the form of a franchise package, and at one point various versions of the show were shown in more than 120 countries.[4] Editions of the programme from 1976 onwards started being repeated on BBC Four in 2011 and are aired on most Friday evenings - as at May 2020 the repeat run has reached 1989. Episodes featuring disgraced presenters and artists such as Jimmy Savile (who opened the show with its familiar slogan, 'It's Number One, it's Top of the Pops') and Gary Glitter are not repeated.[11]

    1. ^ "TOP OF THE POPS". lostshows.com. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
    2. ^ "BBC One London - 24 December 1964 - BBC Genome". BBC Genome. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
    3. ^ "Looking back at Top Of The Pops, which ended 10 years ago this week". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
    4. ^ a b "BBC says fond farewell to Top of the Pops". BBC. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    5. ^ "And the most-played song on UK radio is ... Chasing Cars by Snow Patrol". BBC News. 17 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
    6. ^ Show's over for Top of the Pops, The Guardian, 20 June 2006.
    7. ^ "Top of the Pops – FAQ's". BBC. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
    8. ^ "Programme Information Network TV Weeks 52/1". BBC Press Office. Archived from the original on 30 November 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
    9. ^ "Entertainment | Top of the Pops back at Christmas". BBC News. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
    10. ^ Mark Paytress, Bolan – The Rise And Fall Of A 20th Century Superstar (Omnibus Press 2002) ISBN 0-7119-9293-2, pp 180-181.
    11. ^ Revoir, Paul (27 November 2015). "Top of the Pops will continue on BBC4 – but without Jimmy Savile and Dave Lee Travis episodes". Radio Times. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
     
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    Articles:
    1
    31 July 1970Black Tot Day: The last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy.

    Black Tot Day

    Measuring out the tot (diorama aboard HMS Belfast)
    The grog tub of HMS Cavalier

    Black Tot Day (31 July 1970) was the last day on which the Royal Navy issued sailors with a daily rum ration (the daily tot).

    In the 17th century, the daily drink ration for English sailors was a gallon of beer (about four litres), although frequently small beer was used with an alcohol content below 1%.[1] Due to the difficulty in storing the large quantities of liquid that this required, in 1655 a half pint (284 mL) of rum was made equivalent and became preferred to beer. Over time, drunkenness on board naval vessels increasingly became a problem and the ration was formalised in naval regulations by Admiral Edward Vernon in 1740 and ordered to be mixed with water in a 4:1 water to rum ratio and split into two servings per day.[2]

    In the 19th century, there was a change in the attitude towards alcohol due to continued discipline problems in the navy. In 1824 the size of the tot was halved to one-quarter of an imperial pint (142 ml) in an effort to improve the situation. In 1850, the Admiralty's Grog Committee, convened to look into the issues surrounding the rum ration, recommended that it be eliminated completely. However, rather than ending it the navy further halved it to one-eighth of an imperial pint (71 ml) per day, eliminating the evening serving of the ration.[3] This led to the ending of the ration for officers in 1881 and warrant officers in 1918.[citation needed]

    On 17 December 1969 the Admiralty Board issued a written answer to a question from the MP for Woolwich East, Christopher Mayhew, saying "The Admiralty Board concludes that the rum issue is no longer compatible with the high standards of efficiency required now that the individual's tasks in ships are concerned with complex, and often delicate, machinery and systems on the correct functioning of which people's lives may depend". This led to a debate in the House of Commons on the evening of 28 January 1970, now referred to as the 'Great Rum Debate', started by James Wellbeloved, MP for Erith and Crayford, who believed that the ration should not be removed. The debate lasted an hour and 15 minutes and closed at 10:29 p.m. with a decision that the rum ration was no longer appropriate.[4]

    31 July 1970 was the final day of the rum ration[5] and it was poured as usual at 6 bells in the forenoon watch (11am) after the pipe of 'up spirits'. Some sailors wore black armbands, tots were 'buried at sea' and in one navy training camp, HMS Collingwood, the Royal Naval Electrical College at Fareham in Hampshire, there was a mock funeral procession complete with black coffin and accompanying drummers and piper.[6] The move was not popular with the ratings despite an extra can of beer being added to the daily rations in compensation.[7]

    A special stamp was issued, available from Portsmouth General Post Office, with the slogan "Last Issue of Rum to the Royal Navy 31 July 1970".[8]

    Black Tot Day was subsequently followed in two other Commonwealth navies (the Royal Australian Navy having already discontinued the rum ration, in 1921):

    1. ^ Blakely, Julia (2 August 2017). "Beer on Board in the Age of Sail". Smithsonian Libraries. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
    2. ^ Pack, James (1982). Nelson's Blood: The Story of Naval Rum. Naval Institute Press.
    3. ^ "Royal Navy - Index to Miscellaneous Notes - 19th and early 20th Century". www.pbenyon.plus.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
    4. ^ "ROYAL NAVY (RUM RATION) (Hansard, 28 January 1970)". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
    5. ^ Porges, Seth (29 November 2012). "7 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Rum - Forbes". Forbes. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
    6. ^ "What did they do with the drunken sailor?". BBC. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
    7. ^ "Day of Mourning". Royal Navy Memories. 13 August 2009. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
    8. ^ Woods Rum, Black Tot Day Archived 2 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
    9. ^ "RNZN and the Rum Issue". Torpedo Bay Navy Museum. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
     
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    1 August 2004 – A supermarket fire kills 396 people and injures 500 others in Asunción, Paraguay.

    Ycuá Bolaños supermarket fire

    The Ycuá Bolaños supermarket fire was a disastrous fire that occurred on August 1, 2004 in Asunción, Paraguay. After the fire broke out, exits were locked to prevent people from stealing merchandise. The building also lacked adequate fire protection systems. Nearly 400 people were killed and more than 500 were injured. The president of the supermarket company, as well as various employees, were later sentenced to prison terms for their actions during the fire.

     
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    2 August 1989 – A massacre is carried out by an Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka killing 64 ethnic Tamil civilians.

    1989 Valvettiturai massacre

    The 1989 Valvettiturai massacre occurred on 2 and 3 August 1989 in the small coastal town of Valvettiturai, on the Jaffna Peninsula in Sri Lanka. Sixty-four Sri Lankan Tamil civilians were killed by soldiers of the Indian Peace Keeping Force. The massacre followed an attack on the soldiers by rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam cadres. The rebel attack had left six Indian soldiers, including an officer, dead, and another 10 injured. Indian authorities claimed that the civilians were caught in crossfire. Journalists such as Rita Sebastian of the Indian Express,[1] David Husego of the Financial Times and local human rights groups such as the University Teachers for Human Rights have reported quoting eyewitness accounts that it was a massacre of civilians.[2] George Fernandes, who later served as defense minister of India (1998–2004), called the massacre India’s My Lai.[3]

    1. ^ a b c Sebastian, Rita (24 August 1989). "Massacre at Point Pedro" (PDF). Indian Express. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
    2. ^ Hoole, Rajan. "Vadamaratchi: April/August 1989". University Teachers for Human Rights. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
    3. ^ Sharma, Sitaram (1998). Contemporary political leadership in India: George Fernandes- The defense minister. APH Publications. ISBN 978-81-7024-999-3. p.211–212
     
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    3 August 2019 – Twenty-three people are killed and 23 injured in a shooting in El Paso, Texas.

    2019 El Paso shooting

    On August 3, 2019, a mass shooting occurred at a Walmart store in El Paso, Texas, United States. A gunman shot and killed 23 people[n 1] and injured 23 others.[10] The Federal Bureau of Investigation is investigating the shooting as an act of domestic terrorism and a possible hate crime.[11][12] The shooting has been described as the deadliest attack on Latinos in modern American history.[13][14]

    Patrick Crusius, a 21-year-old from Allen, Texas, was arrested shortly after the shooting and charged with capital murder. Police believe a manifesto with white nationalist and anti-immigrant themes, posted on the online message board 8chan shortly before the attack, was written by Crusius; it cites the year's earlier Christchurch mosque shootings and the right-wing conspiracy theory known as the Great Replacement as inspiration for the attack.

    1. ^
      • "Terror from the Right". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
      • Wilbur, Del Quentin (August 11, 2019). "FBI struggles to confront right-wing terrorism". Los Angeles Times. Indeed, the gunman who killed 22 people at a Walmart store in El Paso on Aug. 3 pushed the total number of victims slain in domestic right-wing terrorism since 2002 to 109.
      • Friedman, Uri (August 4, 2019). "How Many Attacks Will It Take Until the White-Supremacist Threat Is Taken Seriously?". The Atlantic. But in another sense, if U.S. authorities confirm that the document was written by the 21-year-old white male suspected of committing the atrocity, then there was plenty of time—numerous years in which violence by far-right, white-supremacist extremists has emerged as arguably the premier domestic-terrorist threat in the United States.
    2. ^ a b Eligon, John (August 7, 2019). "The El Paso Screed, and the Racist Doctrine Behind It". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. The threat of the 'great replacement,' or the idea that white people will be replaced by people of color, was cited directly in the four-page screed written by the man arrested in the killing of 22 people in El Paso over the weekend.
    3. ^ a b Maxouris, Christina; et al. (August 5, 2019). "El Paso vigils bring together a city in mourning after mass shooting". CNN.
    4. ^ "After shootings, El Paso and Latino groups amp up action against gun violence, white supremacy". NBC News. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Achenbach was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Law was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Death toll in El Paso shooting rises to 22 as investigators put together timeline of accused shooter's movements". CBS News. August 5, 2019.
    8. ^ Aguilar, Julián (August 5, 2019). "Death toll in El Paso shooting climbs to 22". The Texas Tribune.
    9. ^ "El Paso Shooting Victim Dies Months Later, Death Toll Now 23". The New York Times. April 26, 2020. Retrieved April 26, 2020.
    10. ^ Lin, Nina (August 5, 2019). "22 Dead, 24 Injured in El Paso Shooting: Texas Officials". WRC-TV/NBC News. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
    11. ^ "Texas Walmart shooting: El Paso attack 'domestic terrorism'". BBC News. August 5, 2019. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
    12. ^ Romero, Simon; Fernandez, Manny; Padilla, Mariel (August 3, 2019). "Day at a Shopping Center in Texas Turns Deadly". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Murphy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Levin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=n> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=n}} template (see the help page).

     
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    3 August 2019 – Twenty-three people are killed and 23 injured in a shooting in El Paso, Texas.

    2019 El Paso shooting

    On August 3, 2019, a mass shooting occurred at a Walmart store in El Paso, Texas, United States. A gunman shot and killed 23 people[n 1] and injured 23 others.[10] The Federal Bureau of Investigation is investigating the shooting as an act of domestic terrorism and a possible hate crime.[11][12] The shooting has been described as the deadliest attack on Latinos in modern American history.[13][14]

    Patrick Crusius, a 21-year-old from Allen, Texas, was arrested shortly after the shooting and charged with capital murder. Police believe a manifesto with white nationalist and anti-immigrant themes, posted on the online message board 8chan shortly before the attack, was written by Crusius; it cites the year's earlier Christchurch mosque shootings and the right-wing conspiracy theory known as the Great Replacement as inspiration for the attack.

    1. ^
      • "Terror from the Right". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
      • Wilbur, Del Quentin (August 11, 2019). "FBI struggles to confront right-wing terrorism". Los Angeles Times. Indeed, the gunman who killed 22 people at a Walmart store in El Paso on Aug. 3 pushed the total number of victims slain in domestic right-wing terrorism since 2002 to 109.
      • Friedman, Uri (August 4, 2019). "How Many Attacks Will It Take Until the White-Supremacist Threat Is Taken Seriously?". The Atlantic. But in another sense, if U.S. authorities confirm that the document was written by the 21-year-old white male suspected of committing the atrocity, then there was plenty of time—numerous years in which violence by far-right, white-supremacist extremists has emerged as arguably the premier domestic-terrorist threat in the United States.
    2. ^ a b Eligon, John (August 7, 2019). "The El Paso Screed, and the Racist Doctrine Behind It". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. The threat of the 'great replacement,' or the idea that white people will be replaced by people of color, was cited directly in the four-page screed written by the man arrested in the killing of 22 people in El Paso over the weekend.
    3. ^ a b Maxouris, Christina; et al. (August 5, 2019). "El Paso vigils bring together a city in mourning after mass shooting". CNN.
    4. ^ "After shootings, El Paso and Latino groups amp up action against gun violence, white supremacy". NBC News. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Achenbach was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Law was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Death toll in El Paso shooting rises to 22 as investigators put together timeline of accused shooter's movements". CBS News. August 5, 2019.
    8. ^ Aguilar, Julián (August 5, 2019). "Death toll in El Paso shooting climbs to 22". The Texas Tribune.
    9. ^ "El Paso Shooting Victim Dies Months Later, Death Toll Now 23". The New York Times. April 26, 2020. Retrieved April 26, 2020.
    10. ^ Lin, Nina (August 5, 2019). "22 Dead, 24 Injured in El Paso Shooting: Texas Officials". WRC-TV/NBC News. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
    11. ^ "Texas Walmart shooting: El Paso attack 'domestic terrorism'". BBC News. August 5, 2019. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
    12. ^ Romero, Simon; Fernandez, Manny; Padilla, Mariel (August 3, 2019). "Day at a Shopping Center in Texas Turns Deadly". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Murphy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Levin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=n> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=n}} template (see the help page).

     
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    4 August 2007NASA's Phoenix spacecraft is launched.

    Phoenix (spacecraft)

    Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft that landed on Mars on May 25, 2008 and operated until November 2.[2] Its instruments were used to assess the local habitability and to research the history of water on Mars. The mission was part of the Mars Scout Program; its total cost was about US$386 million, including launch costs.[3][4][5] or $420 million[1]

    The multi-agency program was led by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, with project management by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Academic and industrial partners included universities in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the Finnish Meteorological Institute, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, MacDonald Dettwiler & Associates (MDA) and other aerospace companies.[6] It was the first NASA mission to Mars led by a public university.[7]

    Phoenix was NASA's sixth successful landing on Mars, from seven attempts, and the first in Mars' polar region. The lander completed its mission in August 2008, and made a last brief communication with Earth on November 2 as available solar power dropped with the Martian winter. The mission was declared concluded on November 10, 2008, after engineers were unable to re-contact the craft.[8] After unsuccessful attempts to contact the lander by the Mars Odyssey orbiter up to and past the Martian summer solstice on May 12, 2010, JPL declared the lander to be dead. The program was considered a success because it completed all planned science experiments and observations.[9]

    1. ^ a b "Phoenix Launch Mission to the Martian Polar North" (PDF). NASA. August 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
    2. ^ a b Nelson, Jon. "Phoenix". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    3. ^ Webster, Guy; Beasley, Dolores; Stiles, Lori (June 2, 2005). "NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission Gets Thumbs Up for 2007 Launch". NASA official website. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
    4. ^ Vic Stathopoulos (April 1, 2014). "Mars Phoenix Lander". AeroSpaceGuide.net. Archived from the original on August 9, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
    5. ^ Cowing, Keith (June 3, 2005). "NASA Has a Problem Calculating – and Admitting – What Space Missions Really Cost". SpaceRef – Space news and reference. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
    6. ^ "NASA's Phoenix Spacecraft Reports Good Health After Mars Landing". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. May 25, 2008. Archived from the original on May 28, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2008.
    7. ^ Forbes Archived December 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
    8. ^ Amos, Jonathan (November 10, 2008). "NASA Mars Mission declared dead". BBC. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
    9. ^ "Dear Phoenix lander, will you raise from the dead?". Discovery. Archived from the original on May 20, 2010.
     
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    5 August 2003 – A car bomb explodes in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta outside the Marriott Hotel killing 12 and injuring 150.

    2003 Marriott Hotel bombing

    The 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing occurred on 5 August 2003 in Mega Kuningan, South Jakarta, Indonesia. A suicide bomber detonated a car bomb outside the lobby of the JW Marriott Hotel, killing twelve people and injuring 150. Those killed were mostly Indonesian, with the exception of one Dutch man. The hotel was viewed as a Western symbol, and had been used by the United States embassy for various events.[1] The hotel was closed for five weeks and reopened to the public on 8 September.

    1. ^ "Indonesia considers measures after attack" Taipei Times/Reuters 14 August 2003
     

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