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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    1
    25 July 2000Concorde Air France Flight 4590 crashes at Paris Charles de Gaulle airport, killing 113 people.

    Air France Flight 4590

    Air France Flight 4590 was an international charter flight, from Charles de Gaulle Airport, Paris to John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York, flown by an Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde. On the afternoon of Tuesday, 25 July 2000 at 16:44:31 local time (UTC 14:44:31) , the aircraft serving the flight (registration F-BTSC) ran over debris on the runway during takeoff, blowing a tyre, and sending debris flying into the underside of the left wing, and into the landing gear bay.

    The fuel tank that was inside the left wing was unusually full, and the resulting lack of air space in the tank caused it to rupture and send fuel pouring outward with great force when debris from the tire struck the wing thus creating a shock wave that weakened the tank. Debris, which flew into the landing gear bay, severed power wiring for the landing gear, making it impossible to retract the gear as the aircraft climbed. Sparks produced by the broken wiring ignited fuel from the ruptured fuel tank and along with the fire came a reduction of thrust from Engine 1 and 2. Lack of thrust, the high drag caused by the inability to retract the gear, along with fire damage to the flight controls, made it impossible to control the aircraft with the result that it crashed into a hotel in nearby Gonesse two minutes after takeoff, killing all 109 people on board and four more people[2] in the hotel, with six people in the hotel critically injured.[3]

    The flight was chartered by German company Peter Deilmann Cruises, and the passengers were on their way to board the cruise ship MS Deutschland in New York City for a 16-day cruise to Manta, Ecuador.[4][5] It was the only fatal Concorde accident during its 27-year operational history.[6]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Planespotters N13067 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Barry, Ben (5 September 2019). "How Concorde Pushed the Limits – Then Pushed Them Too Far – Disaster and Aftermath". National Geographic. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
    3. ^ Accident on 25 July 2000 at La Patte d'Oie in Gonesse (95) to the Concorde registered F-BTSC operated by Air France (REPORT translation f-sc000725a) (PDF), Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile, 16 January 2002
    4. ^ "Concorde Crash". thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011.
    5. ^ "'Black boxes' recovered at Concorde crash site". CNN. Associated Press and Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 December 2004. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
    6. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Aérospatiale / BAC Concorde 101 F-BTSC Gonesse". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    26 July 1952 – King Farouk of Egypt abdicates in favor of his son Fuad.

    Farouk of Egypt

    Farouk I (/fəˈrk/; Arabic: فاروق الأولFārūq al-Awwal; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.[citation needed]

    His full title was "His Majesty Farouk I, by the grace of God, King of Egypt and the Sudan". He was overthrown in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and forced to abdicate in favour of his infant son, Ahmed Fuad, who succeeded him as Fuad II. Farouk died in exile in Italy in 1965.

    His sister, Princess Fawzia Fuad, was the first wife and consort of the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.[3]

    1. ^ Whiteman, Marjorie Millace; Hackworth, Green Haywood (1963). Digest of International Law (snippet view). Vol. 2. U.S. State Department. p. 64. OCLC 79506166. Retrieved 26 February 2010. The Egyptian Parliament amended the Constitution by Law 176 of 16 October 1951, to provide that the title of the King should be "King of Egypt and the Sudan" instead of "King of Egypt, Sovereign of Nubia, Sudan, Kordofan and Darfur".
    2. ^ Rizk, Yunan Labib (28 July – 3 August 2005). "Crowning moment". Al-Ahram Weekly (753). Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
    3. ^ "Princess Fawzia Fuad of Egypt". The Telegraph. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
     
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    28 July 1917 – The Silent Parade took place in New York City, in protest to murders, lynchings, and other violence directed towards African Americans.

    Silent Parade

    The Negro Silent Protest Parade,[1] commonly known as the Silent Parade, was a silent march of about 10,000 African Americans along Fifth Avenue starting at 57th Street in New York City on July 28, 1917. The event was organized by the NAACP, church, and community leaders to protest violence directed towards African Americans, such as recent lynchings in Waco and Memphis. The parade was precipitated by the East St. Louis riots in May and July 1917 where at least 40 black people were killed by white mobs, in part touched off by a labor dispute where blacks were used for strike breaking.[2][3]

    1. ^ "The NEGRO SILENT PROTEST PARADE organized by the NAACP Fifth Ave., New York City July 28, 1917" (PDF). National Humanities Center, Research Triangle Park, NC. National Humanities Center. 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
    2. ^ Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance: K–Y. Routledge. 2004. p. 752. ISBN 157958389X.
    3. ^ "The East St. Louis Race Riot Left Dozens Dead, Devastating a Community on the Rise". Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Institution. June 30, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
     
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    29 July 2005 – Astronomers announce their discovery of the dwarf planet Eris.

    Eris (dwarf planet)

    Eris (minor planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive[20] and second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System. Eris was discovered in January 2005 by a Palomar Observatory-based team led by Mike Brown, and its discovery was verified later that year. In September 2006 it was named after the Greco-Roman goddess of strife and discord. Eris is the ninth-most massive object directly orbiting the Sun, and the sixteenth-most massive overall in the Solar System (including moons). It is also the largest object that has not been visited by a spacecraft. Eris has been measured at 2,326 ± 12 kilometers (1,445.3 ± 7.5 mi) in diameter.[10] Its mass is 0.27 percent of the Earth's mass and 27 percent more than dwarf planet Pluto's,[12][21] though Pluto is slightly larger by volume.[22]

    Eris is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) and a member of a high-eccentricity population known as the scattered disk. It has one large known moon, Dysnomia. In February 2016, its distance from the Sun was 96.3 astronomical units (1.441×1010 km; 8.95×109 mi),[17] roughly three times that of Pluto. With the exception of some long-period comets, until 2018 VG18 was discovered on December 17, 2018, Eris and Dysnomia were the most distant known natural objects in the Solar System.[17]

    Because Eris appeared to be larger than Pluto, NASA initially described it as the Solar System's tenth planet. This, along with the prospect of other objects of similar size being discovered in the future, motivated the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to define the term planet for the first time. Under the IAU definition approved on August 24, 2006, Eris is a "dwarf planet," along with objects such as Pluto, Ceres, Haumea and Makemake,[23] thereby reducing the number of known planets in the Solar System to eight, the same as before Pluto's discovery in 1930. Observations of a stellar occultation by Eris in 2010 showed that its diameter was 2,326 ± 12 kilometers (1,445.3 ± 7.5 mi), very slightly less than Pluto,[24][25] which was measured by New Horizons as 2,376.6 ± 3.6 kilometers (1,476.8 ± 2.2 mi) in July 2015.[26][27]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference discovery was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference New Planet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference jpldata was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference MPC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Buie2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "Eris". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
      "Eris". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
    7. ^ Noah Webster (1884) A Practical Dictionary of the English Language
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Morrison was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Ian Douglas (2013) Semper Human
    10. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference sicardy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Beatty2010-NewScientist was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Brown Schaller 2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Roe2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Duffard2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference Holler2018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snodgrass et al. 2010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference AstDys was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ "Conversion of Absolute Magnitude to Diameter". sfasu.edu. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010.
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown-2003-UB313 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Sengupta, Sujan (2015). Worlds Beyond Our Own: The Search for Habitable Planets. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 978-3-319-09893-7.
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference 070614_eris_mass was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Cite error: The named reference NASA Pluto larger 2015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference IAUPressRelease2006 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown2010-occult was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown2010-Plutosize was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ "How Big Is Pluto? New Horizons Settles Decades-Long Debate". NASA. 2015. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
    27. ^ Stern, S. A.; Grundy, W.; McKinnon, W. B.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A. (2017). "The Pluto System After New Horizons". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2018: 357–392. arXiv:1712.05669. Bibcode:2018ARA&A..56..357S. doi:10.1146/annurev-astro-081817-051935. S2CID 119072504.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  6. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    29 July 2005 – Astronomers announce their discovery of the dwarf planet Eris.

    Eris (dwarf planet)

    Eris (minor planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive[20] and second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System. Eris was discovered in January 2005 by a Palomar Observatory-based team led by Mike Brown, and its discovery was verified later that year. In September 2006 it was named after the Greco-Roman goddess of strife and discord. Eris is the ninth-most massive object directly orbiting the Sun, and the sixteenth-most massive overall in the Solar System (including moons). It is also the largest object that has not been visited by a spacecraft. Eris has been measured at 2,326 ± 12 kilometers (1,445.3 ± 7.5 mi) in diameter.[10] Its mass is 0.27 percent of the Earth's mass and 27 percent more than dwarf planet Pluto's,[12][21] though Pluto is slightly larger by volume.[22]

    Eris is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) and a member of a high-eccentricity population known as the scattered disk. It has one large known moon, Dysnomia. In February 2016, its distance from the Sun was 96.3 astronomical units (1.441×1010 km; 8.95×109 mi),[17] roughly three times that of Pluto. With the exception of some long-period comets, until 2018 VG18 was discovered on December 17, 2018, Eris and Dysnomia were the most distant known natural objects in the Solar System.[17]

    Because Eris appeared to be larger than Pluto, NASA initially described it as the Solar System's tenth planet. This, along with the prospect of other objects of similar size being discovered in the future, motivated the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to define the term planet for the first time. Under the IAU definition approved on August 24, 2006, Eris is a "dwarf planet," along with objects such as Pluto, Ceres, Haumea and Makemake,[23] thereby reducing the number of known planets in the Solar System to eight, the same as before Pluto's discovery in 1930. Observations of a stellar occultation by Eris in 2010 showed that its diameter was 2,326 ± 12 kilometers (1,445.3 ± 7.5 mi), very slightly less than Pluto,[24][25] which was measured by New Horizons as 2,376.6 ± 3.6 kilometers (1,476.8 ± 2.2 mi) in July 2015.[26][27]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference discovery was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference New Planet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference jpldata was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference MPC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Buie2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "Eris". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
      "Eris". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
    7. ^ Noah Webster (1884) A Practical Dictionary of the English Language
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Morrison was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Ian Douglas (2013) Semper Human
    10. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference sicardy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Beatty2010-NewScientist was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Brown Schaller 2007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Roe2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Duffard2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference Holler2018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snodgrass et al. 2010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference AstDys was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ "Conversion of Absolute Magnitude to Diameter". sfasu.edu. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010.
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown-2003-UB313 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Sengupta, Sujan (2015). Worlds Beyond Our Own: The Search for Habitable Planets. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 978-3-319-09893-7.
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference 070614_eris_mass was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Cite error: The named reference NASA Pluto larger 2015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference IAUPressRelease2006 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown2010-occult was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brown2010-Plutosize was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ "How Big Is Pluto? New Horizons Settles Decades-Long Debate". NASA. 2015. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
    27. ^ Stern, S. A.; Grundy, W.; McKinnon, W. B.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A. (2017). "The Pluto System After New Horizons". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2018: 357–392. arXiv:1712.05669. Bibcode:2018ARA&A..56..357S. doi:10.1146/annurev-astro-081817-051935. S2CID 119072504.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    30 July 2006 – The world's longest running music show Top of the Pops is broadcast for the last time on BBC Two. The show had aired for 42 years.

    Top of the Pops

    Top of the Pops (TOTP) is a British music chart television programme, made by the BBC and originally broadcast weekly between 1 January 1964 and 30 July 2006.

    Top of the Pops was the world's longest running weekly music show, for most of its history. Broadcast on Thursday evenings on BBC One. Each weekly show consisted of performances from some of that week's best-selling popular music records, usually excluding any tracks moving down the chart, including a rundown of that week's singles chart. This was originally the Top 20, though this varied throughout the show's history.

    The Official Charts Company states "performing on the show was considered an honour, and it pulled in just about every major player."[3]

    The Rolling Stones were the first band to perform on Top of the Pops with "I Wanna Be Your Man".[4] Snow Patrol were the last act to play live on the weekly show when they performed their single "Chasing Cars".[5] In addition to the weekly show there was a special edition of TOTP on Christmas Day (and usually, until 1984, a second edition a few days after Christmas), featuring some of the best-selling singles of the year and the Christmas Number 1. Although the weekly show was cancelled in 2006,[6] the Christmas special has continued. End-of-year round-up editions have also been broadcast on BBC1 on or around New Year's Eve, albeit largely featuring the same acts and tracks as the Christmas Day shows.[7][8][9] It also survives as Top of the Pops 2, which began in 1994 and features vintage performances from the Top of the Pops archives.

    The show has seen seminal performances over its history. The March 1971 TOTP appearance of T. Rex frontman Marc Bolan wearing glitter and satins as he performed "Hot Love" is often seen as the inception of glam rock.[10] In the 1990s, the show's format was sold to several foreign broadcasters in the form of a franchise package, and at one point various versions of the show were shown in more than 120 countries.[4] Editions of the programme from 1976 onwards started being repeated on BBC Four in 2011 and are aired on most Friday evenings - as at May 2020 the repeat run has reached 1989. Episodes featuring disgraced presenters and artists such as Jimmy Savile (who opened the show with its familiar slogan, 'It's Number One, it's Top of the Pops') and Gary Glitter are not repeated.[11]

    1. ^ "TOP OF THE POPS". lostshows.com. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
    2. ^ "BBC One London - 24 December 1964 - BBC Genome". BBC Genome. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
    3. ^ "Looking back at Top Of The Pops, which ended 10 years ago this week". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
    4. ^ a b "BBC says fond farewell to Top of the Pops". BBC. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    5. ^ "And the most-played song on UK radio is ... Chasing Cars by Snow Patrol". BBC News. 17 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
    6. ^ Show's over for Top of the Pops, The Guardian, 20 June 2006.
    7. ^ "Top of the Pops – FAQ's". BBC. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
    8. ^ "Programme Information Network TV Weeks 52/1". BBC Press Office. Archived from the original on 30 November 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
    9. ^ "Entertainment | Top of the Pops back at Christmas". BBC News. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
    10. ^ Mark Paytress, Bolan – The Rise And Fall Of A 20th Century Superstar (Omnibus Press 2002) ISBN 0-7119-9293-2, pp 180-181.
    11. ^ Revoir, Paul (27 November 2015). "Top of the Pops will continue on BBC4 – but without Jimmy Savile and Dave Lee Travis episodes". Radio Times. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
     
  8. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    30 July 2006 – The world's longest running music show Top of the Pops is broadcast for the last time on BBC Two. The show had aired for 42 years.

    Top of the Pops

    Top of the Pops (TOTP) is a British music chart television programme, made by the BBC and originally broadcast weekly between 1 January 1964 and 30 July 2006.

    Top of the Pops was the world's longest running weekly music show, for most of its history. Broadcast on Thursday evenings on BBC One. Each weekly show consisted of performances from some of that week's best-selling popular music records, usually excluding any tracks moving down the chart, including a rundown of that week's singles chart. This was originally the Top 20, though this varied throughout the show's history.

    The Official Charts Company states "performing on the show was considered an honour, and it pulled in just about every major player."[3]

    The Rolling Stones were the first band to perform on Top of the Pops with "I Wanna Be Your Man".[4] Snow Patrol were the last act to play live on the weekly show when they performed their single "Chasing Cars".[5] In addition to the weekly show there was a special edition of TOTP on Christmas Day (and usually, until 1984, a second edition a few days after Christmas), featuring some of the best-selling singles of the year and the Christmas Number 1. Although the weekly show was cancelled in 2006,[6] the Christmas special has continued. End-of-year round-up editions have also been broadcast on BBC1 on or around New Year's Eve, albeit largely featuring the same acts and tracks as the Christmas Day shows.[7][8][9] It also survives as Top of the Pops 2, which began in 1994 and features vintage performances from the Top of the Pops archives.

    The show has seen seminal performances over its history. The March 1971 TOTP appearance of T. Rex frontman Marc Bolan wearing glitter and satins as he performed "Hot Love" is often seen as the inception of glam rock.[10] In the 1990s, the show's format was sold to several foreign broadcasters in the form of a franchise package, and at one point various versions of the show were shown in more than 120 countries.[4] Editions of the programme from 1976 onwards started being repeated on BBC Four in 2011 and are aired on most Friday evenings - as at May 2020 the repeat run has reached 1989. Episodes featuring disgraced presenters and artists such as Jimmy Savile (who opened the show with its familiar slogan, 'It's Number One, it's Top of the Pops') and Gary Glitter are not repeated.[11]

    1. ^ "TOP OF THE POPS". lostshows.com. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
    2. ^ "BBC One London - 24 December 1964 - BBC Genome". BBC Genome. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
    3. ^ "Looking back at Top Of The Pops, which ended 10 years ago this week". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
    4. ^ a b "BBC says fond farewell to Top of the Pops". BBC. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    5. ^ "And the most-played song on UK radio is ... Chasing Cars by Snow Patrol". BBC News. 17 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
    6. ^ Show's over for Top of the Pops, The Guardian, 20 June 2006.
    7. ^ "Top of the Pops – FAQ's". BBC. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
    8. ^ "Programme Information Network TV Weeks 52/1". BBC Press Office. Archived from the original on 30 November 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
    9. ^ "Entertainment | Top of the Pops back at Christmas". BBC News. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
    10. ^ Mark Paytress, Bolan – The Rise And Fall Of A 20th Century Superstar (Omnibus Press 2002) ISBN 0-7119-9293-2, pp 180-181.
    11. ^ Revoir, Paul (27 November 2015). "Top of the Pops will continue on BBC4 – but without Jimmy Savile and Dave Lee Travis episodes". Radio Times. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    31 July 1970Black Tot Day: The last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy.

    Black Tot Day

    Measuring out the tot (diorama aboard HMS Belfast)
    The grog tub of HMS Cavalier

    Black Tot Day (31 July 1970) was the last day on which the Royal Navy issued sailors with a daily rum ration (the daily tot).

    In the 17th century, the daily drink ration for English sailors was a gallon of beer (about four litres), although frequently small beer was used with an alcohol content below 1%.[1] Due to the difficulty in storing the large quantities of liquid that this required, in 1655 a half pint (284 mL) of rum was made equivalent and became preferred to beer. Over time, drunkenness on board naval vessels increasingly became a problem and the ration was formalised in naval regulations by Admiral Edward Vernon in 1740 and ordered to be mixed with water in a 4:1 water to rum ratio and split into two servings per day.[2]

    In the 19th century, there was a change in the attitude towards alcohol due to continued discipline problems in the navy. In 1824 the size of the tot was halved to one-quarter of an imperial pint (142 ml) in an effort to improve the situation. In 1850, the Admiralty's Grog Committee, convened to look into the problems associated with the rum ration, recommended that it be eliminated completely. However, rather than ending it the navy further halved it to one-eighth of an imperial pint (71 ml) per day, eliminating the evening serving of the ration.[3] This led to the ending of the ration for officers in 1881 and warrant officers in 1918.[citation needed]

    On 17 December 1969 the Admiralty Board issued a written answer to a question from the MP for Woolwich East, Christopher Mayhew, saying "The Admiralty Board concludes that the rum issue is no longer compatible with the high standards of efficiency required now that the individual's tasks in ships are concerned with complex, and often delicate, machinery and systems on the correct functioning of which people's lives may depend". This led to a debate in the House of Commons on the evening of 28 January 1970, now referred to as the 'Great Rum Debate', started by James Wellbeloved, MP for Erith and Crayford, who believed that the ration should not be removed. The debate lasted an hour and 15 minutes and closed at 10:29 p.m. with a decision that the rum ration was no longer appropriate.[4]

    31 July 1970 was the final day of the rum ration[5] and it was poured as usual at 6 bells in the forenoon watch (11am) after the pipe of 'up spirits'. Some sailors wore black armbands, tots were 'buried at sea' and in one navy training camp, HMS Collingwood, the Royal Naval Electrical College at Fareham in Hampshire, there was a mock funeral procession complete with black coffin and accompanying drummers and piper.[6] The move was not popular with the ratings despite an extra can of beer being added to the daily rations in compensation.[7]

    A special stamp was issued, available from Portsmouth General Post Office, with the slogan "Last Issue of Rum to the Royal Navy 31 July 1970".[8]

    Black Tot Day was subsequently followed in two other Commonwealth navies (the Royal Australian Navy having already discontinued the rum ration, in 1921):

    1. ^ Blakely, Julia (2 August 2017). "Beer on Board in the Age of Sail". Smithsonian Libraries. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
    2. ^ Pack, James (1982). Nelson's Blood: The Story of Naval Rum. Naval Institute Press.
    3. ^ "Royal Navy - Index to Miscellaneous Notes - 19th and early 20th Century". www.pbenyon.plus.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
    4. ^ "ROYAL NAVY (RUM RATION) (Hansard, 28 January 1970)". hansard.parliament.uk. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
    5. ^ Porges, Seth (29 November 2012). "7 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Rum - Forbes". Forbes. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
    6. ^ "What did they do with the drunken sailor?". BBC. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
    7. ^ "Day of Mourning". Royal Navy Memories. 13 August 2009. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
    8. ^ Woods Rum, Black Tot Day Archived 2 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
    9. ^ "RNZN and the Rum Issue". Torpedo Bay Navy Museum. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
     
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    1 August 2004 – A supermarket fire kills 396 people and injures 500 others in Asunción, Paraguay.

    Ycuá Bolaños supermarket fire

    The Ycuá Bolaños supermarket fire was a disastrous fire that occurred on August 1, 2004 in Asunción, Paraguay. After the fire broke out, exits were locked to prevent people from stealing merchandise. The building also lacked adequate fire protection systems. Over 400 people were killed and more than 300 were injured. The president of the supermarket company, as well as various employees, were later sentenced to prison terms for their actions during the fire.

     
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    2 August 1989 – A massacre is carried out by an Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka killing 64 ethnic Tamil civilians.

    1989 Valvettiturai massacre

    The 1989 Valvettiturai massacre occurred on 2 and 3 August 1989 in the small coastal town of Valvettiturai, on the Jaffna Peninsula in Sri Lanka. Sixty-four Sri Lankan Tamil civilians were killed by soldiers of the Indian Peace Keeping Force. The massacre followed an attack on the soldiers by rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam cadres. The rebel attack had left six Indian soldiers, including an officer, dead, and another 10 injured. Indian authorities claimed that the civilians were caught in crossfire. Journalists such as Rita Sebastian of the Indian Express,[1] David Husego of the Financial Times and local human rights groups such as the University Teachers for Human Rights have reported quoting eyewitness accounts that it was a massacre of civilians.[2] George Fernandes, who later served as defense minister of India (1998–2004), called the massacre India’s My Lai.[3]

    1. ^ a b c Sebastian, Rita (24 August 1989). "Massacre at Point Pedro" (PDF). Indian Express. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
    2. ^ Hoole, Rajan. "Vadamaratchi: April/August 1989". University Teachers for Human Rights. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
    3. ^ Sharma, Sitaram (1998). Contemporary political leadership in India: George Fernandes- The defense minister. APH Publications. ISBN 978-81-7024-999-3. p.211–212
     
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    3 August 2019 – Twenty-three people are killed and 23 injured in a shooting in El Paso, Texas.

    2019 El Paso shooting

    On August 3, 2019, a mass shooting occurred at a Walmart store in El Paso, Texas, United States. A gunman shot and killed 23 people[n 1] and injured 23 others.[10] The Federal Bureau of Investigation is investigating the shooting as an act of domestic terrorism and a hate crime.[11][12] The shooting has been described as the deadliest attack on Latinos in modern American history.[13][14]

    Patrick Crusius, a 21-year-old from Allen, Texas, was arrested shortly after the shooting and charged with capital murder. Police believe a manifesto with white nationalist and anti-immigrant themes, posted on the online message board 8chan shortly before the attack, was written by Crusius; it cites the year's earlier Christchurch mosque shootings and the right-wing conspiracy theory known as the Great Replacement as inspiration for the attack.

    1. ^
      • "Terror from the Right". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
      • Wilbur, Del Quentin (August 11, 2019). "FBI struggles to confront right-wing terrorism". Los Angeles Times. Indeed, the gunman who killed 22 people at a Walmart store in El Paso on Aug. 3 pushed the total number of victims slain in domestic right-wing terrorism since 2002 to 109.
      • Friedman, Uri (August 4, 2019). "How Many Attacks Will It Take Until the White-Supremacist Threat Is Taken Seriously?". The Atlantic. But in another sense, if U.S. authorities confirm that the document was written by the 21-year-old white male suspected of committing the atrocity, then there was plenty of time—numerous years in which violence by far-right, white-supremacist extremists has emerged as arguably the premier domestic-terrorist threat in the United States.
    2. ^ a b Eligon, John (August 7, 2019). "The El Paso Screed, and the Racist Doctrine Behind It". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. The threat of the 'great replacement,' or the idea that white people will be replaced by people of color, was cited directly in the four-page screed written by the man arrested in the killing of 22 people in El Paso over the weekend.
    3. ^ a b Maxouris, Christina; et al. (August 5, 2019). "El Paso vigils bring together a city in mourning after mass shooting". CNN.
    4. ^ "After shootings, El Paso and Latino groups amp up action against gun violence, white supremacy". NBC News. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Achenbach was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Law was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Death toll in El Paso shooting rises to 22 as investigators put together timeline of accused shooter's movements". CBS News. August 5, 2019.
    8. ^ Aguilar, Julián (August 5, 2019). "Death toll in El Paso shooting climbs to 22". The Texas Tribune.
    9. ^ "El Paso Shooting Victim Dies Months Later, Death Toll Now 23". The New York Times. April 26, 2020. Retrieved April 26, 2020.
    10. ^ Lin, Nina (August 5, 2019). "22 Dead, 24 Injured in El Paso Shooting: Texas Officials". WRC-TV/NBC News. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
    11. ^ "Texas Walmart shooting: El Paso attack 'domestic terrorism'". BBC News. August 5, 2019. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
    12. ^ Romero, Simon; Fernandez, Manny; Padilla, Mariel (August 3, 2019). "Day at a Shopping Center in Texas Turns Deadly". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Murphy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Levin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


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    3 August 2019 – Twenty-three people are killed and 23 injured in a shooting in El Paso, Texas.

    2019 El Paso shooting

    On August 3, 2019, a mass shooting occurred at a Walmart store in El Paso, Texas, United States. A gunman shot and killed 23 people[n 1] and injured 23 others.[10] The Federal Bureau of Investigation is investigating the shooting as an act of domestic terrorism and a hate crime.[11][12] The shooting has been described as the deadliest attack on Latinos in modern American history.[13][14]

    Patrick Crusius, a 21-year-old from Allen, Texas, was arrested shortly after the shooting and charged with capital murder. Police believe a manifesto with white nationalist and anti-immigrant themes, posted on the online message board 8chan shortly before the attack, was written by Crusius; it cites the year's earlier Christchurch mosque shootings and the right-wing conspiracy theory known as the Great Replacement as inspiration for the attack.

    1. ^
      • "Terror from the Right". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
      • Wilbur, Del Quentin (August 11, 2019). "FBI struggles to confront right-wing terrorism". Los Angeles Times. Indeed, the gunman who killed 22 people at a Walmart store in El Paso on Aug. 3 pushed the total number of victims slain in domestic right-wing terrorism since 2002 to 109.
      • Friedman, Uri (August 4, 2019). "How Many Attacks Will It Take Until the White-Supremacist Threat Is Taken Seriously?". The Atlantic. But in another sense, if U.S. authorities confirm that the document was written by the 21-year-old white male suspected of committing the atrocity, then there was plenty of time—numerous years in which violence by far-right, white-supremacist extremists has emerged as arguably the premier domestic-terrorist threat in the United States.
    2. ^ a b Eligon, John (August 7, 2019). "The El Paso Screed, and the Racist Doctrine Behind It". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. The threat of the 'great replacement,' or the idea that white people will be replaced by people of color, was cited directly in the four-page screed written by the man arrested in the killing of 22 people in El Paso over the weekend.
    3. ^ a b Maxouris, Christina; et al. (August 5, 2019). "El Paso vigils bring together a city in mourning after mass shooting". CNN.
    4. ^ "After shootings, El Paso and Latino groups amp up action against gun violence, white supremacy". NBC News. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Achenbach was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Law was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Death toll in El Paso shooting rises to 22 as investigators put together timeline of accused shooter's movements". CBS News. August 5, 2019.
    8. ^ Aguilar, Julián (August 5, 2019). "Death toll in El Paso shooting climbs to 22". The Texas Tribune.
    9. ^ "El Paso Shooting Victim Dies Months Later, Death Toll Now 23". The New York Times. April 26, 2020. Retrieved April 26, 2020.
    10. ^ Lin, Nina (August 5, 2019). "22 Dead, 24 Injured in El Paso Shooting: Texas Officials". WRC-TV/NBC News. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
    11. ^ "Texas Walmart shooting: El Paso attack 'domestic terrorism'". BBC News. August 5, 2019. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
    12. ^ Romero, Simon; Fernandez, Manny; Padilla, Mariel (August 3, 2019). "Day at a Shopping Center in Texas Turns Deadly". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Murphy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Levin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=n> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=n}} template (see the help page).

     
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    4 August 2007NASA's Phoenix spacecraft is launched.

    Phoenix (spacecraft)

    Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft that landed on Mars on May 25, 2008 and operated until November 2.[2] Its instruments were used to assess the local habitability and to research the history of water on Mars. The mission was part of the Mars Scout Program; its total cost was about US$386 million, including launch costs.[3][4][5] or $420 million[1]

    The multi-agency program was led by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, with project management by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Academic and industrial partners included universities in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the Finnish Meteorological Institute, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, MacDonald Dettwiler & Associates (MDA) and other aerospace companies.[6] It was the first NASA mission to Mars led by a public university.[7]

    Phoenix was NASA's sixth successful landing on Mars, from seven attempts, and the first in Mars' polar region. The lander completed its mission in August 2008, and made a last brief communication with Earth on November 2 as available solar power dropped with the Martian winter. The mission was declared concluded on November 10, 2008, after engineers were unable to re-contact the craft.[8] After unsuccessful attempts to contact the lander by the Mars Odyssey orbiter up to and past the Martian summer solstice on May 12, 2010, JPL declared the lander to be dead. The program was considered a success because it completed all planned science experiments and observations.[9]

    1. ^ a b "Phoenix Launch Mission to the Martian Polar North" (PDF). NASA. August 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
    2. ^ a b Nelson, Jon. "Phoenix". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    3. ^ Webster, Guy; Beasley, Dolores; Stiles, Lori (June 2, 2005). "NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission Gets Thumbs Up for 2007 Launch". NASA official website. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
    4. ^ Vic Stathopoulos (April 1, 2014). "Mars Phoenix Lander". AeroSpaceGuide.net. Archived from the original on August 9, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
    5. ^ Cowing, Keith (June 3, 2005). "NASA Has a Problem Calculating – and Admitting – What Space Missions Really Cost". SpaceRef – Space news and reference. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
    6. ^ "NASA's Phoenix Spacecraft Reports Good Health After Mars Landing". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. May 25, 2008. Archived from the original on May 28, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2008.
    7. ^ Forbes Archived December 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
    8. ^ Amos, Jonathan (November 10, 2008). "NASA Mars Mission declared dead". BBC. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
    9. ^ "Dear Phoenix lander, will you raise from the dead?". Discovery. Archived from the original on May 20, 2010.
     
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    5 August 2003 – A car bomb explodes in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta outside the Marriott Hotel killing 12 and injuring 150.

    2003 Marriott Hotel bombing

    The 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing occurred on 5 August 2003 in Mega Kuningan, South Jakarta, Indonesia. A suicide bomber detonated a car bomb outside the lobby of the JW Marriott Hotel, killing twelve people and injuring 150. Those killed were mostly Indonesian, with the exception of one Dutch man. The hotel was viewed as a Western symbol, and had been used by the United States embassy for various events.[1] The hotel was closed for five weeks and reopened to the public on 8 September.

    1. ^ "Indonesia considers measures after attack" Taipei Times/Reuters 14 August 2003
     
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    6 August 2015 – A suicide bomb attack kills at least 15 people at a mosque in the Saudi city of Abha.

    2015 Abha mosque bombing

    The 2015 Abha mosque bombing occurred on 6 August 2015, when a suicide bomb attack killed 17 people at a mosque in the south-western Saudi Arabian city of Abha.[1][2][3][4][5]

    Responsibility for the attack, in a city near Saudi Arabia's southern border with Yemen, a country presently torn apart by the Yemeni Civil War, was claimed by a self-described affiliate of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria calling itself Hijaz Province of the Islamic State.[6][7]

    1. ^ a b "Suicide bomber kills 15 in Saudi security site mosque". Reuters UK. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
    2. ^ "Saudi says its citizen carried out mosque suicide blast". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
    3. ^ Kareem Shaheen. "Islamic State claims suicide bombing at Saudi Arabian mosque". the Guardian. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
    4. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/07/world/middleeast/suicide-bombing-saudi-arabia.html?_r=0
    5. ^ Saudi Gazette. "Terror strikes mosque in Abha". Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
    6. ^ al-Shihri, Abdullah (7 August 2015). "Saudi Arabia mosque bombing that killed 15 claimed by 'new' Islamic State group". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
    7. ^ "Islamic State group claims Saudi mosque suicide blast". BBC News. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
     
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    7 August 1858 – The first Australian rules football match is played between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College.

    Australian rules football

    Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football,[2] or simply called "Aussie rules", "football" or "footy", is a contact sport played between two teams of 18 players on an oval field, often a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval ball between the middle goal posts (worth six points) or between a goal and behind post (worth one point).

    During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball. The primary methods are kicking, handballing and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled, for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick (with specific conditions) are awarded possession.[3] Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when a free kick or mark is paid. Players can tackle using their hands or use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact (such as pushing an opponent in the back), interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement. The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring.

    The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes.[4][5]

    Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia,[6][7] while the Australian Football League (AFL), the sport's only fully professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body.[8] The AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is also played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations. Its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.

    1. ^ a b Collins, Ben (22 November 2016). "Women's football explosion results in record participation", AFL. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
    2. ^ "About the AFL: Australian Football (Official title of the code)". Australian Football League. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
    3. ^ 2012 Laws of the game Archived 22 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine Section 14, page 45
    4. ^ History Archived 13 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine Official Website of the Australian Football League
    5. ^ Wendy Lewis, Simon Balderstone and John Bowan (2006). Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
    6. ^ Kwek, Glenda (26 March 2013). "AFL leaves other codes in the dust", The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
    7. ^ "AFL is clearly Australia’s most watched Football Code, while V8 Supercars have the local edge over Formula 1" (14 March 2014), Roy Morgan. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
    8. ^ "The richest codes in world sport: Forget the medals, these sports are chasing the gold" (8 May 2014). Courier Mail. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
     
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    8 August 1969 – At a zebra crossing in London, photographer Iain Macmillan takes the iconic photo that becomes the cover image of the Beatles' album Abbey Road.

    Abbey Road

    Abbey Road is the eleventh studio album by the English rock band the Beatles, released on 26 September 1969 by Apple Records. Named after the location of EMI Studios in London, the cover features the group walking across the street's zebra crossing, an image that became one of the most famous and imitated in popular music. The album's initially mixed reviews were contrasted by its immediate commercial success, topping record charts in the UK and US. The lead single "Something" / "Come Together" was released in October and topped the US charts.

    The album incorporates genres such as blues, rock and pop, and makes prominent use of Moog synthesizer, sounds filtered through a Leslie speaker, and tom-tom drums. It is the Beatles' only album recorded exclusively through a solid-state transistor mixing desk, which afforded a clearer and brighter sound than the group's previous records. Side two contains a medley of shorter song fragments. The sessions also produced a non-album single, "The Ballad of John and Yoko" backed with "Old Brown Shoe".

    Producer George Martin returned on the condition that the Beatles adhere to the discipline of their earlier records. They found the album's recording more enjoyable than the preceding Get Back sessions, but personal issues still permeated the band. Production lasted from February to August 1969, and the closing track "The End" marked the final occasion that all four members recorded together. John Lennon privately left the group six days before the album's release; Paul McCartney publicly declared the band's break-up the following April.

    Upon release, detractors found Abbey Road to be inauthentic and bemoaned the production's artificial effects. Since then, many critics have hailed the album as the Beatles' finest; in particular, "Something" and "Here Comes the Sun" are considered among the best songs George Harrison wrote for the group. The album has also been ranked as one of the Beatles' best-selling, including a multi-platinum certification by the RIAA. Shortly after its release, the cover was scrutinised in connection with widespread rumours of McCartney's purported death. EMI Studios was also renamed Abbey Road Studios in honour of the album.

     
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    9 August 48 BCCaesar's Civil War: Battle of Pharsalus: Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey flees to Egypt.

    Battle of Pharsalus

    The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). Pompey had the backing of a majority of the senators, of whom many were optimates, and his army significantly outnumbered the veteran Caesarian legions.

    The two armies confronted each other over several months of uncertainty, Caesar being in a much weaker position than Pompey. The former found himself isolated in a hostile country with only 22,000 legionaries and short of provisions, while on the other side of the river he was faced by Pompey with an army about twice as large in number. Pompey wanted to delay, knowing the enemy would eventually surrender from hunger and exhaustion. Pressured by the senators present and by his officers, he reluctantly engaged in battle and suffered an overwhelming defeat, ultimately fleeing the camp and his men, disguised as an ordinary citizen. However, Pompey was later assassinated in Ptolemaic Egypt by orders of Ptolemy XIII.
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    9 August 48 BCCaesar's Civil War: Battle of Pharsalus: Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey flees to Egypt.

    Battle of Pharsalus

    The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). Pompey had the backing of a majority of the senators, of whom many were optimates, and his army significantly outnumbered the veteran Caesarian legions.

    The two armies confronted each other over several months of uncertainty, Caesar being in a much weaker position than Pompey. The former found himself isolated in a hostile country with only 22,000 legionaries and short of provisions, while on the other side of the river he was faced by Pompey with an army about twice as large in number. Pompey wanted to delay, knowing the enemy would eventually surrender from hunger and exhaustion. Pressured by the senators present and by his officers, he reluctantly engaged in battle and suffered an overwhelming defeat, ultimately fleeing the camp and his men, disguised as an ordinary citizen. However, Pompey was later assassinated in Ptolemaic Egypt by orders of Ptolemy XIII.
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    10 August 2001 – The 2001 Angola train attack occurred, causing 252 deaths.

    2001 Angola train attack

    The 2001 Angola train attack was an attack during the Angolan Civil War when on 10 August 2001 UNITA forces derailed a train travelling between towns of Zenza and Dondo with an anti-tank mine and then attacked the passengers with small arms fire.

    1. ^ "Train bombing signals new UNITA offensive in Angola". Wsws.org. 2009-01-13. Retrieved 2010-03-21.
     
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    11 August 1984 – "We begin bombing in five minutes": United States President Ronald Reagan, while running for re-election, jokes while preparing to make his weekly Saturday address on National Public Radio.

    We begin bombing in five minutes

    "We begin bombing in five minutes" is the last sentence of a controversial, off-the-record joke made by US President Ronald Reagan in 1984, during the "second Cold War".

    While preparing for a scheduled radio address from his vacation home in California, President Reagan joked with those present about outlawing and bombing Russia. This joke was not broadcast live, but was recorded and later leaked to the public. The Soviet Union denounced the president's joke, as did Reagan's then-opponent in the 1984 United States presidential election, Walter Mondale. Reagan's impromptu comments have had significant staying power, being referenced, cited, and used as literary inspiration as recently as 2017.

     
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    12 August 1964South Africa is banned from the Olympic Games due to the country's racist policies.

    Apartheid

    Apartheid (South African English/əˈpɑːrtd/; Afrikaans: [aˈpartɦɛit], segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s.[note 1] Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap (or white supremacy), which ensured that South Africa was dominated politically, socially, and economically by the nation's minority white population.[4] According to this system of social stratification, white citizens had the highest status, followed by Asians and Coloureds, then black Africans.[4] The economic legacy and social effects of apartheid continue to the present day.[5][6][7]

    Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race.[8] Prior to the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had already emerged in the form of minority rule by white South Africans and the socially enforced separation of black Africans from other races, which later extended to pass laws and land apportionment.[9][10] Apartheid was adopted as a formal policy by the South African government after the ascension of the National Party (NP) during the 1948 general elections.[11]

    A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised, ethnically diverse slave population.[12] With the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony, racial policies and laws which had previously been relatively relaxed became increasingly rigid, discriminating specifically against black Africans, in the last decade of the 19th century.[13] The policies of the Boer republics were also racially exclusive; for instance, the Transvaal's constitution barred black African and Coloured participation in church and state.[14]

    The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed closely by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines.[15] The Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, and cultural lifestyle: "Black", "White", "Coloured", and "Indian", the last two of which included several sub-classifications.[16] Places of residence were determined by racial classification.[15] Between 1960 and 1983, 3.5 million black Africans were removed from their homes and forced into segregated neighbourhoods as a result of apartheid legislation, in some of the largest mass evictions in modern history.[17] Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the black population to ten designated "tribal homelands", also known as bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states.[15] The government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans.[8]

    Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century.[18] It was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations and brought about an extensive arms and trade embargo on South Africa.[19] During the 1970s and 1980s, internal resistance to apartheid became increasingly militant, prompting brutal crackdowns by the National Party government and protracted sectarian violence that left thousands dead or in detention.[20] Some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and Coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed to appease most activist groups.[21]

    Between 1987 and 1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress (ANC), the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule.[21][22] In 1990, prominent ANC figures such as Nelson Mandela were released from prison.[23] Apartheid legislation was repealed on 17 June 1991,[2] pending multiracial elections held under a universal suffrage set for April 1994.[24]

    1. ^ "Repeal of Population Registration Act". C-Span. 17 June 1991. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
    2. ^ a b Myre, Greg (18 June 1991). "South Africa ends racial classifications". Associated Press. Cape Girardeau: Southeast Missourian. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
    3. ^ Bartusis, Mark (2012). Gomez, Edmund; Premdas, Ralph (eds.). Affirmative Action, Ethnicity and Conflict. New York: Routledge Books. pp. 126–132. ISBN 978-0415627689.
    4. ^ a b Mayne, Alan (1999). From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0.
    5. ^ Leander (15 June 2015). "Despite the 1994 political victory against apartheid, its economic legacy persists by Haydn Cornish-Jenkins". South African History Online. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
    6. ^ "'Apartheid legacy haunts SA economy' - SABC News - Breaking news, special reports, world, business, sport coverage of all South African current events. Africa's news leader". www.sabcnews.com. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
    7. ^ "Ramaphosa's tough job on fixing Apartheid legacy". 6 April 2018. Archived from the original on 23 June 2018.
    8. ^ a b Crompton, Samuel Willard (2007). Desmond Tutu: Fighting Apartheid. New York: Chelsea House, Publishers. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0791092217.
    9. ^ Jacklyn Cock, Laurie Nathan (1989). War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa. New Africa Books. pp. 36–37, 283–289. ISBN 978-0-86486-115-3.
    10. ^ Breckenridge, Keith (2014). Biometric State: The Global Politics of Identification and Surveillance in South Africa, 1850 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 70–74. ISBN 978-1107077843.
    11. ^ Ottoway, Marina (1993). South Africa: The Struggle for a New Order. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. pp. 23–26. ISBN 978-0815767152.
    12. ^ Glaser, Daryl (2001). Politics and Society in South Africa. London: Sage Publications. pp. 9–12. ISBN 978-0761950172.
    13. ^ Bickford-Smith, Vivian (1995). Ethnic Pride and Racial Prejudice in Victorian Cape Town: Group identity and social practice, 1875—1902. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 190–192. ISBN 978-0521526395.
    14. ^ Dyzenhaus, David (1991). Hard Cases in Wicked Legal Systems: South African Law in the Perspective of Legal Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0198252924.
    15. ^ a b c Walton, F. Carl; Udayakumar, S.P.; Muck, William; McIlwain, Charlton; Kramer, Eric; Jensen, Robert; Ibrahim, Vivian; Caliendo, Stephen Maynard; Asher, Nhia (2011). The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity. New York: Routledge Books. pp. 103–105. ISBN 978-0415777070.
    16. ^ Baldwin-Ragaven, Laurel; London, Lesley; du Gruchy, Jeanelle (1999). An ambulance of the wrong colour: health professionals, human rights and ethics in South Africa. Juta and Company Limited. p. 18
    17. ^ "South Africa – Overcoming Apartheid". African Studies Center of Michigan State University. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
    18. ^ Lodge, Tim (2011). Sharpeville: An Apartheid Massacre and Its Consequences. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 234–235. ISBN 978-0192801852.
    19. ^ Lodge, Tom (1983). Black Politics in South Africa Since 1945. New York: Longman.
    20. ^ Pandey, Satish Chandra (2006). International Terrorism and the Contemporary World. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons, Publishers. pp. 197–199. ISBN 978-8176256384.
    21. ^ a b Thomas, Scott (1995). The Diplomacy of Liberation: The Foreign Relations of the ANC Since 1960. London: Tauris Academic Studies. pp. 202–210. ISBN 978-1850439936.
    22. ^ "De Klerk dismantles apartheid in South Africa". BBC News. 2 February 1990. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
    23. ^ Alex Duval Smith (31 January 2010). "Why FW de Klerk let Nelson Mandela out of prison". the Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
    24. ^ Mitchell, Thomas (2008). Native vs Settler: Ethnic Conflict in Israel/Palestine, Northern Ireland and South Africa. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 8. ISBN 978-0313313578.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    12 August 1964South Africa is banned from the Olympic Games due to the country's racist policies.

    Apartheid

    Apartheid (South African English/əˈpɑːrtd/; Afrikaans: [aˈpartɦɛit], segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s.[note 1] Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap (or white supremacy), which ensured that South Africa was dominated politically, socially, and economically by the nation's minority white population.[4] According to this system of social stratification, white citizens had the highest status, followed by Asians and Coloureds, then black Africans.[4] The economic legacy and social effects of apartheid continue to the present day.[5][6][7]

    Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race.[8] Prior to the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had already emerged in the form of minority rule by white South Africans and the socially enforced separation of black Africans from other races, which later extended to pass laws and land apportionment.[9][10] Apartheid was adopted as a formal policy by the South African government after the ascension of the National Party (NP) during the 1948 general elections.[11]

    A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised, ethnically diverse slave population.[12] With the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony, racial policies and laws which had previously been relatively relaxed became increasingly rigid, discriminating specifically against black Africans, in the last decade of the 19th century.[13] The policies of the Boer republics were also racially exclusive; for instance, the Transvaal's constitution barred black African and Coloured participation in church and state.[14]

    The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed closely by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines.[15] The Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, and cultural lifestyle: "Black", "White", "Coloured", and "Indian", the last two of which included several sub-classifications.[16] Places of residence were determined by racial classification.[15] Between 1960 and 1983, 3.5 million black Africans were removed from their homes and forced into segregated neighbourhoods as a result of apartheid legislation, in some of the largest mass evictions in modern history.[17] Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the black population to ten designated "tribal homelands", also known as bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states.[15] The government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans.[8]

    Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century.[18] It was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations and brought about an extensive arms and trade embargo on South Africa.[19] During the 1970s and 1980s, internal resistance to apartheid became increasingly militant, prompting brutal crackdowns by the National Party government and protracted sectarian violence that left thousands dead or in detention.[20] Some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and Coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed to appease most activist groups.[21]

    Between 1987 and 1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress (ANC), the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule.[21][22] In 1990, prominent ANC figures such as Nelson Mandela were released from prison.[23] Apartheid legislation was repealed on 17 June 1991,[2] pending multiracial elections held under a universal suffrage set for April 1994.[24]

    1. ^ "Repeal of Population Registration Act". C-Span. 17 June 1991. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
    2. ^ a b Myre, Greg (18 June 1991). "South Africa ends racial classifications". Associated Press. Cape Girardeau: Southeast Missourian. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
    3. ^ Bartusis, Mark (2012). Gomez, Edmund; Premdas, Ralph (eds.). Affirmative Action, Ethnicity and Conflict. New York: Routledge Books. pp. 126–132. ISBN 978-0415627689.
    4. ^ a b Mayne, Alan (1999). From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0.
    5. ^ Leander (15 June 2015). "Despite the 1994 political victory against apartheid, its economic legacy persists by Haydn Cornish-Jenkins". South African History Online. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
    6. ^ "'Apartheid legacy haunts SA economy' - SABC News - Breaking news, special reports, world, business, sport coverage of all South African current events. Africa's news leader". www.sabcnews.com. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
    7. ^ "Ramaphosa's tough job on fixing Apartheid legacy". 6 April 2018. Archived from the original on 23 June 2018.
    8. ^ a b Crompton, Samuel Willard (2007). Desmond Tutu: Fighting Apartheid. New York: Chelsea House, Publishers. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0791092217.
    9. ^ Jacklyn Cock, Laurie Nathan (1989). War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa. New Africa Books. pp. 36–37, 283–289. ISBN 978-0-86486-115-3.
    10. ^ Breckenridge, Keith (2014). Biometric State: The Global Politics of Identification and Surveillance in South Africa, 1850 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 70–74. ISBN 978-1107077843.
    11. ^ Ottoway, Marina (1993). South Africa: The Struggle for a New Order. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. pp. 23–26. ISBN 978-0815767152.
    12. ^ Glaser, Daryl (2001). Politics and Society in South Africa. London: Sage Publications. pp. 9–12. ISBN 978-0761950172.
    13. ^ Bickford-Smith, Vivian (1995). Ethnic Pride and Racial Prejudice in Victorian Cape Town: Group identity and social practice, 1875—1902. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 190–192. ISBN 978-0521526395.
    14. ^ Dyzenhaus, David (1991). Hard Cases in Wicked Legal Systems: South African Law in the Perspective of Legal Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0198252924.
    15. ^ a b c Walton, F. Carl; Udayakumar, S.P.; Muck, William; McIlwain, Charlton; Kramer, Eric; Jensen, Robert; Ibrahim, Vivian; Caliendo, Stephen Maynard; Asher, Nhia (2011). The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity. New York: Routledge Books. pp. 103–105. ISBN 978-0415777070.
    16. ^ Baldwin-Ragaven, Laurel; London, Lesley; du Gruchy, Jeanelle (1999). An ambulance of the wrong colour: health professionals, human rights and ethics in South Africa. Juta and Company Limited. p. 18
    17. ^ "South Africa – Overcoming Apartheid". African Studies Center of Michigan State University. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
    18. ^ Lodge, Tim (2011). Sharpeville: An Apartheid Massacre and Its Consequences. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 234–235. ISBN 978-0192801852.
    19. ^ Lodge, Tom (1983). Black Politics in South Africa Since 1945. New York: Longman.
    20. ^ Pandey, Satish Chandra (2006). International Terrorism and the Contemporary World. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons, Publishers. pp. 197–199. ISBN 978-8176256384.
    21. ^ a b Thomas, Scott (1995). The Diplomacy of Liberation: The Foreign Relations of the ANC Since 1960. London: Tauris Academic Studies. pp. 202–210. ISBN 978-1850439936.
    22. ^ "De Klerk dismantles apartheid in South Africa". BBC News. 2 February 1990. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
    23. ^ Alex Duval Smith (31 January 2010). "Why FW de Klerk let Nelson Mandela out of prison". the Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
    24. ^ Mitchell, Thomas (2008). Native vs Settler: Ethnic Conflict in Israel/Palestine, Northern Ireland and South Africa. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 8. ISBN 978-0313313578.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    13 August 1913 – First production in the UK of stainless steel by Harry Brearley.

    Stainless steel

    Stainless steel is used for industrial equipment when it is important that the equipment lasts and can be kept clean

    Stainless steel[1][2][3]:276 is a family of iron-based alloys that contain a minimum of approximately 11% chromium,[4]:3[5][6] a composition that prevents the iron from rusting,[7] as well as providing heat-resistant properties.[4]:3[5][8][9][10][11] Different types of stainless steel include the elements carbon (from 0.03% to greater than 1.00%), nitrogen, aluminium, silicon, sulfur, titanium, nickel, copper, selenium, niobium, and molybdenum.[4]:3 Specific types of stainless steel are often designated by a three-digit number, e.g., 304 stainless.

    Stainless steel's resistance to ferric oxide formation results from the presence of chromium in the alloy, which forms a passive film that protects the underlying material from corrosion attack, and can self-heal in the presence of oxygen.[4]:3 Corrosion resistance can be increased further, by:

    • increasing the chromium content to levels above 11%;[5]
    • addition of 8% or higher amounts of nickel;[5] and
    • addition of molybdenum (which also improves resistance to "pitting corrosion").[5]

    The addition of nitrogen also improves resistance to pitting corrosion and increases mechanical strength.[5] Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure.[12]

    Resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, and familiar luster make stainless steel an ideal material for many applications where both the strength of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Moreover, stainless steel can be rolled into sheets, plates, bars, wire, and tubing. These can be used in cookware, cutlery, surgical instruments, major appliances, construction material in large buildings, industrial equipment (e.g., in paper mills, chemical plants, water treatment), and storage tanks and tankers for chemicals and food products. The material's corrosion resistance, the ease with which it can be steam-cleaned and sterilized, and the absence of the need for surface coatings have prompted the use of stainless steel in kitchens and food processing plants.[citation needed]

    1. ^ Cobb, Harold M. (2010). The History of Stainless Steel. Materials Park, OH: ASM International. ISBN 9781615030118. Retrieved 8 March 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
    2. ^ Peckner, Donald; Bernstein, I.M. (1977). Handbook of Stainless Steels. McGraw Hill. ISBN 9780070491472.
    3. ^ Lacombe, P.; Baroux, B.; Beranger, G. (1990). Les Aciers Inoxydables. Les Editions de Physique. ISBN 2-86883-142-7.
    4. ^ a b c d Davis, Joseph R. (ed.) (1994). Stainless Steels. ASM Specialty Handbook. Materials Park, OH: ASM International. ISBN 9780871705037. Retrieved 8 March 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
    5. ^ a b c d e f ISSF Staff (8 March 2020). "The Stainless Steel Family" (PDF). Brussels, Belgium: International Stainless Steel Forum. p. 1, of 5. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
    6. ^ The ISSF whitepaper cited immediately preceding this note states "a minimum of 10.5% chromium", which is more specific than but consistent with Davis, op. cit.
    7. ^ Rust refers hydrated forms of ferric oxide, that is, to the "reddish brittle coating formed on iron especially when chemically attacked by moist air", see Merriam-Webster.com, op. cit.
    8. ^ “Rust” and "Ferric oxide". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Accessed 8 March 2020.
    9. ^ "Definition of RUST". www.merriam-webster.com.
    10. ^ “Corrosion" Chemical process". Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Accessed 8 March 2020.
    11. ^ "Corrosion | chemical process". Encyclopedia Britannica.
    12. ^ Chapter 05: Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels https://www.imoa.info/download_files/stainless-steel/issf/educational/Module_05_Corrosion_Resistance_of_Stainless_Steels_en.pdf
     
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    13 August 1913 – First production in the UK of stainless steel by Harry Brearley.

    Stainless steel

    Stainless steel is used for industrial equipment when it is important that the equipment lasts and can be kept clean

    Stainless steel[1][2][3]:276 is a family of iron-based alloys that contain a minimum of approximately 11% chromium,[4]:3[5][6] a composition that prevents the iron from rusting,[7] as well as providing heat-resistant properties.[4]:3[5][8][9][10][11] Different types of stainless steel include the elements carbon (from 0.03% to greater than 1.00%), nitrogen, aluminium, silicon, sulfur, titanium, nickel, copper, selenium, niobium, and molybdenum.[4]:3 Specific types of stainless steel are often designated by a three-digit number, e.g., 304 stainless.

    Stainless steel's resistance to ferric oxide formation results from the presence of chromium in the alloy, which forms a passive film that protects the underlying material from corrosion attack, and can self-heal in the presence of oxygen.[4]:3 Corrosion resistance can be increased further, by:

    • increasing the chromium content to levels above 11%;[5]
    • addition of 8% or higher amounts of nickel;[5] and
    • addition of molybdenum (which also improves resistance to "pitting corrosion").[5]

    The addition of nitrogen also improves resistance to pitting corrosion and increases mechanical strength.[5] Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure.[12]

    Resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, and familiar luster make stainless steel an ideal material for many applications where both the strength of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Moreover, stainless steel can be rolled into sheets, plates, bars, wire, and tubing. These can be used in cookware, cutlery, surgical instruments, major appliances, construction material in large buildings, industrial equipment (e.g., in paper mills, chemical plants, water treatment), and storage tanks and tankers for chemicals and food products. The material's corrosion resistance, the ease with which it can be steam-cleaned and sterilized, and the absence of the need for surface coatings have prompted the use of stainless steel in kitchens and food processing plants.[citation needed]

    1. ^ Cobb, Harold M. (2010). The History of Stainless Steel. Materials Park, OH: ASM International. ISBN 9781615030118. Retrieved 8 March 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
    2. ^ Peckner, Donald; Bernstein, I.M. (1977). Handbook of Stainless Steels. McGraw Hill. ISBN 9780070491472.
    3. ^ Lacombe, P.; Baroux, B.; Beranger, G. (1990). Les Aciers Inoxydables. Les Editions de Physique. ISBN 2-86883-142-7.
    4. ^ a b c d Davis, Joseph R. (ed.) (1994). Stainless Steels. ASM Specialty Handbook. Materials Park, OH: ASM International. ISBN 9780871705037. Retrieved 8 March 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
    5. ^ a b c d e f ISSF Staff (8 March 2020). "The Stainless Steel Family" (PDF). Brussels, Belgium: International Stainless Steel Forum. p. 1, of 5. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
    6. ^ The ISSF whitepaper cited immediately preceding this note states "a minimum of 10.5% chromium", which is more specific than but consistent with Davis, op. cit.
    7. ^ Rust refers hydrated forms of ferric oxide, that is, to the "reddish brittle coating formed on iron especially when chemically attacked by moist air", see Merriam-Webster.com, op. cit.
    8. ^ “Rust” and "Ferric oxide". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Accessed 8 March 2020.
    9. ^ "Definition of RUST". www.merriam-webster.com.
    10. ^ “Corrosion" Chemical process". Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Accessed 8 March 2020.
    11. ^ "Corrosion | chemical process". Encyclopedia Britannica.
    12. ^ Chapter 05: Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels https://www.imoa.info/download_files/stainless-steel/issf/educational/Module_05_Corrosion_Resistance_of_Stainless_Steels_en.pdf
     
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    14 August 2013Egypt declares a state of emergency as security forces kill hundreds of demonstrators supporting former president Mohamed Morsi.

    August 2013 Rabaa massacre

    On 14 August 2013, Egyptian security forces and army under the command of General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi raided two camps of protesters in Cairo: one at al-Nahda Square and a larger one at Rabaa al-Adawiya Square. The two sites had been occupied by supporters of President Mohamed Morsi, who had been removed from office by the military a month earlier in the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. The camps were raided after initiatives to end the six-week sit-ins by peaceful means failed and as a result of the raids the camps were cleared out within hours.[8] The raids were described by Human Rights Watch as crimes against humanity and "one of the world's largest killings of demonstrators in a single day in recent history".[9] According to Human Rights Watch, a minimum of 904 people were killed (at least 817 in Rabaa Square and at least 87 in al-Nahda Square) with strong evidence to suggest more likely at least 1,000 died during the dispersal.[10] However, according to the Egyptian Health Ministry, 595 civilians and 43 police officers were killed and at least 3,994 were injured.[6][11][12] Later, the official Forensic Medical Authority stated only 8 police officers were killed and Egypt's National Council for Human Rights stated at least 624 civilians were killed. The Muslim Brotherhood and the National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy stated the number of deaths from the Rabaa al-Adawiya Mosque sit-in alone was about 2,600.[7][13] The total casualty count made 14 August the deadliest day in Egypt since the 2011 Egyptian revolution which had toppled former President Hosni Mubarak.[14] Several world leaders denounced the violence during the sit-in dispersals.[15][16]

    Violent retaliation followed in several cities across the country. The military appointed interim government declared a three-month-long state of emergency in response and curfews were instituted in many areas.

    1. ^ "Morsi supporters end brief sit-in outside High Court in Cairo". Al Ahram. 12 August 2013. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
    2. ^ "Islamist forces join together for Rabaa Al-Adaweya protest". Daily News Egypt. 28 June 2013. Archived from the original on 4 July 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
    3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    4. ^ "Egypt's Rabaa massacre: one year on". Daily News Egypt. 16 August 2014. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
    5. ^ "Egypt: Rabaa Killings Likely Crimes against Humanity". Human Rights Watch. 12 August 2014. Archived from the original on 16 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
    6. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference DeathToll-16-8-13 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b "Egypt's Brotherhood to hold 'march of anger'". Al Jazeera. 16 August 2013. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
    8. ^ "Rabaa Al-Adawiyah Mosque Destroyed In Cairo Clashes". Huffington Post. 15 August 2013. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
    9. ^ "Egypt: Rab'a Killings Likely Crimes against Humanity | Human Rights Watch". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 16 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
    10. ^ "All According to Plan". Hrw.org. 17 August 2013. Archived from the original on 19 July 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
    11. ^ "Death toll from Egypt violence rises to 638: Health ministry". Al Ahram. 15 August 2013. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
    12. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (15 August 2013). "Islamists Debate Their Next Move in Tense Cairo". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
    13. ^ "NSF spokesman quits over Rabaa, Nahda massacres". World Bulletin. 14 August 2013. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
    14. ^ Hauslohner, Abigail; Sharaf al-Hourani (14 August 2013). "Scores dead in Egypt after security forces launch assault on protesters' camp". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
    15. ^ "Global condemnation of Egypt crackdown". Al Jazeera. 15 August 2013. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
    16. ^ "Most world states condemn Egypt's violence". Al Ahram. 15 August 2013. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
     
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    15 August 1965The Beatles play to nearly 60,000 fans at Shea Stadium in New York City, an event later regarded as the birth of stadium rock.

    The Beatles' 1965 US tour

    The Beatles staged their second concert tour of the United States (with one date in Canada) in the late summer of 1965. At the peak of American Beatlemania, they played a mixture of outdoor stadiums and indoor arenas, with historic concerts at Shea Stadium in New York and the Hollywood Bowl. Typically of the era, the tour was a "package" presentation, with several artists on the bill. The Beatles played for just 30 minutes at each show, following sets by support acts such as Brenda Holloway and the King Curtis Band, Cannibal & the Headhunters, and Sounds Incorporated.

    After the tour's conclusion, the Beatles took a six-week break before reconvening in mid-October to record the album Rubber Soul.

     
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    16 August 1954 – The first issue of Sports Illustrated is published.

    Sports Illustrated

    Sports Illustrated (SI) is an American sports magazine owned by Authentic Brands Group, and was first published in August 1954.

    It was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the National Magazine Award for General Excellence twice. It is also known for its annual swimsuit issue, which has been published since 1964, and has spawned other complementary media works and products.

    In 2018, the magazine was sold to Meredith Corporation by means of its acquisition of parent company Time Inc., but Meredith stated that it planned to sell Sports Illustrated as it did not align with its lifestyle properties. The following year, Meredith announced that it would sell Sports Illustrated to Authentic Brands Group. While Meredith initially planned to continue publishing its print and digital properties under license from ABG (who planned to leverage the Sports Illustrated brand in other markets), ABG later announced that it would instead give the publishing rights to theMaven, Inc.—a digital media company.

    1. ^ "New Sports Illustrated Photography Director: Brad Smith". nppa.org. February 28, 2013. Archived from the original on June 20, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
    2. ^ MacCambridge, Michael (April 11, 2018). "Who Can Explain the Athletic Heart?". theringer.com. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
     
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    17 August 2005 – Over 500 bombs are set off by terrorists at 300 locations in 63 out of the 64 districts of Bangladesh

    2005 Bangladesh series bombings

    On 17 August 2005, around 500 bomb explosions occurred at 300 locations in 63 out of the 64 districts of Bangladesh. The bombs exploded within a half-hour period starting from 11:30 am. An Islamist terrorist organization, Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) claimed responsibility for the bombings. The group, led by Shaykh Abdur Rahman and Siddiqur Rahman (also known as Bangla Bhai), is alleged to be affiliated with Al Qaeda, although this has not been proven. Another Islamic terrorist group, named Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, was associated with JMB in executing the co-ordinated attack. Following the bombings, both groups were banned by the Government of Bangladesh.

     
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    18 August 1966 – Vietnam War: The Battle of Long Tan ensues after a patrol from the 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment clashes with a Viet Cong force in Phước Tuy Province.

    Battle of Long Tan

    The Battle of Long Tan (18 August 1966) took place in a rubber plantation near Long Tân, in Phước Tuy Province, South Vietnam, during the Vietnam War. The action was fought between Viet Cong (VC) and People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) units and elements of the 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF).

    Australian signals intelligence (SIGINT) had tracked the VC 275th Regiment and D445 Battalion moving to a position just north of Long Tan. By 16 August, it was positioned near Long Tan outside the range of the artillery at Nui Dat. On the night of 16/17 August, mortars and recoilless rifles attacked Nui Dat from a position 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the east until counter-battery fire caused it to cease. The next morning D Company, 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (6 RAR), departed Nui Dat to locate the firing points and the direction of the enemy withdrawal. Weapon pits were found including mortars and RCLs. D Company clashed with VC around midday 18 August.

    Facing a larger force, D Company called down artillery. Heavy fighting ensued as the VC attempted to encircle and destroy the Australians. After several hours two UH-1B Iroquois from No. 9 Squadron RAAF arrived overhead to resupply them. Supported by strong artillery fire, D Company held off a regimental assault before a relief force of M113 armoured personnel carriers and infantry from Nui Dat reinforced them at nighttime. The Australian forces had withdrawn to evacuate their casualties and formed a defensive position overnight. The next day Australian forces swept the area though the VC had withdrawn. The operation ended on 21 August.

    Although 1 ATF initially thought it had suffered a defeat, it was later thought to have been a victory by preventing the VC from moving against Nui Dat. The battle's outcome was indecisive, with disagreements on its effect between the 275th Regiment and D445 Battalion. The D445 Battalion regarded the battle as a success, with the political victory of an effective ambush, and the securing of the areas around Long Tan village itself. While the 275th Regiment were unable to wipe out the entire company, it gained greater support among the local people by forcing a retreat. Whether the battle impaired the capabilities of the VC is disputed.

     
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    19 August 1945August Revolution: Viet Minh led by Ho Chi Minh take power in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Ho Chi Minh

    Hồ Chí Minh (/h mɪn/;[1] Vietnamese: [hò cǐ mīŋ̟] (About this soundlisten), Saigon: [hò cǐ mɨ̄n]; Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung,[2][a][4] also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành, Nguyễn Ái Quốc, Bác Hồ, or simply Bác ('Uncle', pronounced [ʔɓaːk̚˦˥]), was a Vietnamese revolutionary and politician. He served as Prime Minister of Vietnam from 1945 to 1955 and President from 1945 to 1969. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist, he served as Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.

    Hồ Chí Minh led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, ending the First Indochina War. He was a key figure in the People's Army of Vietnam and the Việt Cộng during the Vietnam War, which lasted from 1955 to 1975. Democratic Republic of Vietnam was victorious against the United States and was reunified with the Republic of South Vietnam in 1976. Saigon, the former capital of South Vietnam, was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in his honor. Ho officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems and died in 1969.

    Hồ Chí Minh's life before he came to power in Vietnam is ambiguous. He is known to have used between 50[5]:582 to 200 pseudonyms.[6] His birth is subject to academic debate. At least four existing official biographies vary on names, dates, places and other hard facts while unofficial biographies vary even more widely.[7]

    Aside from being a politician, Ho was also a writer, a poet and a journalist. He wrote several books, articles and poems in French, Chinese and Vietnamese.

    1. ^ "Ho Chi Minh". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    2. ^ Trần Quốc Vượng. "Lời truyền miệng dân gian về Hồ Chí Minh". BBC Vietnamese. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
    3. ^ Vũ Ngự Chiêu (23 October 2011). "Vài vấn nạn lịch sử thế kỷ XX: Hồ Chí Minh—Nhà ngoại giao, 1945–1946". Hợp Lưu Magazine (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013. Note: See the document in French, from Centre des archives d'Outre-mer [CAOM] (Aix)/Gouvernement General de l'Indochine [GGI]/Fonds Residence Superieure d'Annam [RSA]/carton R1, and the note in English at the end of the cited article
    4. ^ Nguyễn Vĩnh Châu. "Phỏng vấn sử gia Vũ Ngự Chiêu về những nghiên cứu lịch sử liên quan đến Hồ Chí Minh". Hợp Lưu Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Duiker was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Duncanson, Dennis J. "Ho Chi Minh in Hong Kong 1931–1932". 57 (Jan–Mar 1957). The China Quarterly: 85. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    7. ^ Pike, Douglas (3 August 1976). "Ho Chi Minh: A Post-War Re-evaluation". Mexico City: 30th Annual Congress of Orientalists. Retrieved 21 December 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)


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    20 August 1988 – Iran–Iraq War: A ceasefire is agreed after almost eight years of war.

    Iran–Iraq War

    The Iran–Iraq War (Persian: جنگ ایران و عراق‎; Arabic: حرب الخليج الأولى‎; “First Gulf War”)[67] was a protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 when Iran was invaded by neighbouring Iraq. The war lasted almost eight years, ending in a stalemate on 20 August 1988 when Iran accepted a UN-brokered ceasefire. Iraq's rationale for the invasion was primarily to cripple Iran and prevent Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini from exporting the 1979 Iranian Revolution movement to Shia-majority Iraq and threaten the Sunni-dominated Ba'athist leadership. Iraq had also wished to replace Iran as the dominant state in the Persian Gulf, which had not been previously possible due to pre-revolutionary Iran's goliath status in both economic and military terms as well as its close alliances with the United States and Israel. The war followed a long-running history of border disputes, as a result of which Iraq had planned to annex Iran's oil-rich Khuzestan Province and the east bank of the Shatt al-Arab (Arvand Rud).

    Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of Iran's post-revolutionary chaos and expected a decisive victory in the face of a weakened Iran, the Iraqi military only made progress for three months, and by December 1980 the invasion had stalled. As fierce fighting broke out between the two sides, the Iranian military started to gain momentum against the Iraqis and regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982, pushing the Iraqis back to the pre-war border lines. Following this, the next five years saw Iran go on the offensive[68] until Iraq took back the initiative in mid-1988, and whose major offensives led to the final conclusion of the war.[69][62] There were a number of proxy forces operating for both countries—most notably the People's Mujahedin of Iran, which had sided with Iraq and the Iraqi Kurdish militias of the KDP and PUK, which had sided with Iran. The United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, France, and most Arab countries provided large-scale political and logistic support for Iraq, while Iran was largely isolated.

    After eight years of war-exhaustion, economic devastation, decreased morale, military stalemate, lack of international sympathy against the use of weapons of mass destruction against Iranian civilians by Iraqi forces, and increased U.S.–Iran military tensions all led to a ceasefire brokered by the United Nations.

    The conflict has been compared to World War I in terms of the tactics used, including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across fortified defensive lines, manned machine gun posts, bayonet charges, Iranian human wave attacks, extensive use of chemical weapons by Iraq, and, later, deliberate attacks on civilian targets. A special feature of the war can be seen in the Iranian cult of the martyr which had been developed in the years before the revolution. The discourses on martyrdom formulated in the Iranian Shia context led to the tactics of "human wave attacks" and thus had a lasting impact on the dynamics of the war.[70]

    An estimated 500,000 Iraqi and Iranian soldiers died, in addition to a smaller number of civilians. The end of the war resulted in neither reparations nor border changes.

    1. ^ Iran and Syria Archived 14 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine Jubin Goodarzi
    2. ^ "Iraq Breaks Ties with Libya over Support for Iran". 27 June 1985. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
    3. ^ Allam, Shah (October–December 2004). "Iran-Pakistan Relations: Political and Strategic Dimensions" (pdf). Strategic Analysis. The Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. 28 (4): 526. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
    4. ^ Ansar, Arif (27 January 2013). "Preventing the next regional conflict". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
    5. ^ Shah, Mehtab Ali (1997). The Foreign Policy of Pakistan: Ethnic Impacts on Diplomacy, 1971–1994. London [u.a.]: Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-169-5.
    6. ^ "The Iran-North Korea Connection". Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
    7. ^ Garver, John W. (2006). China and Iran: Ancient Partners In A Post-Imperial World. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. pp. 72, 80–81. ISBN 9780295986319.
    8. ^ Karsh, Efraim (3 July 1989). The Iran–Iraq War: Impact and Implications. ISBN 9781349200504.
    9. ^ El-Azhary, M. S. (23 May 2012). The Iran–Iraq War (RLE Iran A). ISBN 9781136841750.
    10. ^ Razoux, Pierre (3 November 2015). The Iran–Iraq War. ISBN 9780674088634.
    11. ^ Johnson, Rob (24 November 2010). The Iran–Iraq War. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137267788 – via Google Books.
    12. ^ Murray, Williamson; Woods, Kevin M. (4 September 2014). The Iran–Iraq War: A Military and Strategic History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107062290 – via Google Books.
    13. ^ Middleton, Drew (4 October 1982). "SUDANESE BRIGADES COULD PROVIDE KEY AID FOR IRAQ; Military Analysis (The New York Times)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
    14. ^ "Iraq-Iran war becoming Arab-Persian war? (The Christian Science Monitor)". Christian Science Monitor. 5 February 1982. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
    15. ^ "Jordan's call for volunteers to fight Iran misfires (The Christian Science Monitor)". Christian Science Monitor. 11 February 1982. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
    16. ^ Schenker, David Kenneth (2003). Dancing with Saddam: The Strategic Tango of Jordanian-Iraqi Relations (PDF). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy / Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0649-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 January 2017.
    17. ^ "Jordanian Unit Going To Aid Iraq 6 Hussein Will Join Volunteer Force Fighting Iranians (The Washington Post)". Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
    18. ^ Berridge, W. J. "Civil Uprisings in Modern Sudan: The 'Khartoum Springs' of 1964 and 1985", p. 136. Bloomsbury Academic, 2015
    19. ^ Dictionary of modern Arab history, Kegan Paul International 1998. ISBN 9780710305053 p. 196.
    20. ^ Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1988), "The Soviet Union" Archived 8 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Iraq: a Country Study, Library of Congress Country Studies
    21. ^ Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1988), "Arms from The Soviet Union" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Iraq: a Country Study, Library of Congress
    22. ^ Ibrahim, Youssef M. (21 September 1990), "Confrontation in the Gulf; French Reportedly Sent Iraq Chemical War Tools", The New York Times
    23. ^ Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1988), "Arms from France" Archived 14 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Iraq: a Country Study, Library of Congress[verification needed]
    24. ^ Timmerman, Kenneth R. "Chapter 7: Operation Staunch". Fanning the Flames: Guns, Greed & Geopolitics in the Gulf War. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2015 – via Iran Brief. (syndicated by New York Times Syndication Sales, 1987, published in book form as "Öl ins Feuer Internationale Waffengeschäfte im Golfkrieg" Orell Füssli Verlag Zürich and Wiesbaden 1988 ISBN 3-280-01840-4
    25. ^ Anderson, Jack; Spear, Joseph (17 May 1988). "Greece Arms Both Sides in Iran–Iraq War". Washington Post.
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    27. ^ "china and the iran-iraq conflict" (PDF). CIA. 19 September 1986. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 January 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
    28. ^ "U.S. Links to Saddam During Iran–Iraq War". NPR. 22 September 2005.
    29. ^ Friedman, Alan. Spider's Web: The Secret History of How the White House Illegally Armed Iraq, Bantam Books, 1993.[page needed]
    30. ^ Timmerman, Kenneth R. (1991). The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Iraq. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-59305-0.
    31. ^ Stothard, Michael (30 December 2011). "UK secretly supplied Saddam". Financial Times.
    32. ^ "US and British Support for Hussein Regime". Archived from the original on 24 June 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
    33. ^ a b Vatanka, Alex (22 March 2012). "The Odd Couple". The Majalla. Saudi Research and Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
    34. ^ Anthony, John Duke; Ochsenwald, William L.; Crystal, Jill Ann. "Kuwait". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
    35. ^ "Iraqi Scientist Reports on German, Other Help for Iraq Chemical Weapons Program". Archived from the original on 13 May 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
    36. ^ Sciolino, Elaine; Baquet, Dean (18 October 1992), "Review Finds Inquiry Into Iraqi Loans Was Flawed", The New York Times, archived from the original on 31 January 2013
    37. ^ El camino de la libertad: la democracia año a año (1986) [The Path of Liberty: Democracy Year to Year] (in Spanish). El Mundo. pp. 27–32.
    38. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H. (2006). Iraqi Security Forces: A Strategy for Success. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. xviii. ISBN 9780275989088. Hundreds of thousands of Arab Shi'ites were driven out of [Iraq], and many formed an armed opposition with Iranian support. While most of the remaining Arab Shi'ites remained loyal, their secular and religious leaders were kept under constant surveillance and sometimes imprisoned and killed.
    39. ^ Mearsheimer, John J.; Walt, Stephen M. (12 November 2002). "Can Saddam Be Contained? History Says Yes". International Security. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
    40. ^ a b Pollack, p. 186.
    41. ^ Farrokh, Kaveh, 305 (2011)
    42. ^ Pollack, p. 187.
    43. ^ Farrokh, Kaveh, 304 (2011)
    44. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 October 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    45. ^ Pollack, p. 232.
    46. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H. "The Lessons of Modern War: The Iran–Iraq War." Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990. Chapter 10: "In fact, Iraq had captured so much equipment that it was able to put on an incredible show on the outskirts of Baghdad. Rather than include all of Iraq's gains, it included the equipment that could either be used immediately or be easily reconditioned. Iraqi sources claimed that since March, Iraq had captured a total of 1,298 tanks, 155 armored infantry fighting vehicles, 512 heavy artillery weapons, 6,196 mortars, 5,550 recoilless rifles and light guns, 8,050 rocket propelled grenades, 60,694 rifles, 322 pistols, 6,156 telecommunications devices, 501 items of heavy engineering equipment, 454 trucks, 1,600 light vehicles and trailers, 16,863 items of chemical defense gear, and 16,863 caskets... After its recent defeats, Iran was virtually defenseless in the south. It was down to less than 200 tanks."
    47. ^ Pollack, p. 3.
    48. ^ a b c d Hiro, Dilip (1991). The Longest War: The Iran–Iraq Military Conflict. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-415-90406-3. OCLC 22347651.
    49. ^ a b c Rajaee, Farhang (1997). Iranian Perspectives on the Iran–Iraq War. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8130-1476-0. OCLC 492125659.
    50. ^ a b c Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 418. ISBN 978-1-59884-336-1. OCLC 775759780.
    51. ^ Hammond Atlas of the 20th Century (1999), pp. 134–135.
    52. ^ Dunnigan, A Quick and Dirty Guide to War (1991)
    53. ^ Dictionary of Twentieth Century World History, by Jan Palmowski (Oxford, 1997)
    54. ^ Clodfelter, Michael, Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618–1991
    55. ^ Chirot, Daniel: Modern Tyrants : the power and prevalence of evil in our age (1994)
    56. ^ "B&J": Jacob Bercovitch and Richard Jackson, International Conflict : A Chronological Encyclopedia of Conflicts and Their Management 1945–1995 (1997), p. 195.
    57. ^ a b Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge, England; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. pp. 171–175, 212. ISBN 978-0-521-52891-7. OCLC 171111098.
    58. ^ a b c Potter, Lawrence G.; Sick, Gary (2006). Iran, Iraq and the Legacies of War. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4039-7609-3. OCLC 70230312.
    59. ^ a b Zargar, Moosa; Araghizadeh, Hassan; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Khaji, Ali (December 2012). "Iranian casualties during the eight years of Iraq-Iran conflict" (PDF). Revista de Saúde Pública. São Paulo: Faculdade de Higiene e Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo. 41 (6): 1065–1066. doi:10.1590/S0034-89102007000600025. ISSN 0034-8910. OCLC 4645489824. PMID 18066475. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
    60. ^ a b c Hiro, Dilip (1991). The Longest War: The Iran–Iraq Military Conflict. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-415-90406-3. OCLC 22347651.
    61. ^ Rumel, Rudolph. "Centi-Kilo Murdering States: Estimates, Sources, and Calculations". Power Kills. University of Hawai'i. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
    62. ^ a b c d Karsh, Efraim (2002). The Iran–Iraq War, 1980–1988. Oxford, England: Osprey Publishing. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-84176-371-2. OCLC 48783766.
    63. ^ Koch, Christian; Long, David E. (1997). Gulf Security in the Twenty-First Century. Abu Dhabi: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-86064-316-3. OCLC 39035954.
    64. ^ Black, Ian (23 September 2010). "Iran and Iraq remember war that cost more than a million lives". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
    65. ^ Rumel, Rudolph. "Lesser Murdering States, Quasi-States, and Groups: Estimates, Sources, and Calculations". Power Kills. University of Hawai'i. Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
    66. ^ Sinan, Omar (25 June 2007). "Iraq to hang 'Chemical Ali'". Tampa Bay Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
    67. ^ Also known as the First Gulf War.
    68. ^ Molavi, Afshin (2005). The Soul of Iran: A Nation's Journey to Freedom (Revised ed.). England: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-393-32597-3.
    69. ^ Segal, David (28 January 2009). "The Iran-Iraq War: A Military Analysis". Foreign Affairs – via www.foreignaffairs.com.
    70. ^ Gölz, "Martyrdom and Masculinity in Warring Iran. The Karbala Paradigm, the Heroic, and the Personal Dimensions of War." Archived 17 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine , Behemoth 12, no. 1 (2019): 35–51, 35.


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    21 August 1991 – Coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev collapses.

    1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt

    The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup,[a] was a failed attempt made by Communist leaders of the Soviet Union to take control of the country from Mikhail Gorbachev, who was Soviet President and General Secretary. The coup leaders were hard-line opponents of Gorbachev's reform program and of the new union treaty that he had negotiated. The treaty decentralized much of the central government's power to the republics. The hard-liners were opposed, mainly in Moscow, by a short but effective campaign of civil resistance[11] led by Russian president Boris Yeltsin, who had been both an ally and critic of Gorbachev. Although the coup collapsed in only two days and Gorbachev returned to power, the event destabilized the USSR and is widely considered to have contributed to both the demise of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the dissolution of the USSR.

    After the capitulation of the State Committee on the State of Emergency (GKChP), popularly referred to as the "Gang of Eight", both the Supreme Court of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev described their actions as a coup attempt.

    1. ^ a b Ольга Васильева, «Республики во время путча» в сб.статей: «Путч. Хроника тревожных дней». // Издательство «Прогресс», 1991. (in Russian). Accessed 14 June 2009. Archived 17 June 2009.
    2. ^ Solving Transnistria: Any Optimists Left? by Cristian Urse. p. 58. Available at http://se2.isn.ch/serviceengine/Files/RESSpecNet/57339/ichaptersection_singledocument/7EE8018C-AD17-44B6-8BC2-8171256A7790/en/Chapter_4.pdf
    3. ^ A party led by the politician Vladimir Zhirinovskyhttp://www.lenta.ru/lib/14159799/full.htm. Accessed 13 September 2009. Archived 16 September 2009-.
    4. ^ a b "Би-би-си - Россия - Хроника путча. Часть II". news.bbc.co.uk.
    5. ^ Р. Г. Апресян. Народное сопротивление августовскому путчу (recuperato il 27 novembre 2010 tramite Internet Archive)
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference SovietCoup_Intl was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20070911002221/http://ethics.iph.ras.ru/works/N/9.html
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gupta was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "Third Soviet official commits suicide". United Press International. 26 August 1991. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
    10. ^ "THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE CHIEF OF ADMINISTRATION KILLS HIMSELF". Deseret News. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
    11. ^ Mark Kramer, "The Dialectics of Empire: Soviet Leaders and the Challenge of Civil Resistance in East-Central Europe, 1968–91", in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009 pp. 108–09.


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    22 August 1902Cadillac Motor Company is founded.

    Cadillac

    The Cadillac Motor Car Division /ˈkædɪlæk/ is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors Company (GM) that designs and builds luxury vehicles. Its major markets are the United States, Canada, and China. Cadillac models are distributed in 34 additional markets worldwide. Cadillac automobiles are at the top of the luxury field within the United States.[2] In 2019, Cadillac sold 390,458 vehicles worldwide, a record for the brand.[3]

    Cadillac is among the first automobile brands in the world, second in the United States only to fellow GM marque Buick. The firm was founded from the remnants of the Henry Ford Company in 1902.[4] It was named after Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, who founded Detroit, Michigan. The Cadillac crest is based on his coat of arms.

    By the time General Motors purchased the company in 1909, Cadillac had already established itself as one of America's premier luxury car makers. The complete interchangeability of its precision parts had allowed it to lay the foundation for the modern mass production of automobiles. It was at the forefront of technological advances, introducing full electrical systems, the clashless manual transmission and the steel roof. The brand developed three engines, with its V8 setting the standard for the American automotive industry.

    Cadillac had the first U.S. car to win the Royal Automobile Club of the United Kingdom's Dewar Trophy by successfully demonstrating the interchangeability of its component parts during a reliability test in 1908; this spawned the firm's slogan "Standard of the World". It won the trophy again in 1912 for incorporating electric starting and lighting in a production automobile.[5]

    1. ^ "Form 10-K Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2012 Commission File Number 001-34960 General Motors Company". General Motors. General Motors Company. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
    2. ^ Rick Kranz (30 November 2011). "Cadillac Develops New Strategy in Europe". Automotive News. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
    3. ^ "GM Reports Earnings and Provides 2020 Outlook". General Motors. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
    4. ^ General Motors (1954). "Cars That Built GM: An Album of Historic General Motors Cars" (PDF). p. 8,12. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
    5. ^ General Motors (1954). "Cars That Built GM: An Album of Historic General Motors Cars" (PDF). p. 10,12,14,16. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
     
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    23 August 1914 – World War I: Japan declares war on Germany.

    Japan during World War I

    Japan participated in World War I from 1914 to 1918 in an alliance with Entente Powers and played an important role in securing the sea lanes in the West Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Imperial German Navy as the member of the Allies. Politically, the Japanese Empire seized the opportunity to expand its sphere of influence in China, and to gain recognition as a great power in postwar geopolitics.

    Japan's military, taking advantage of the great distances and Imperial Germany's preoccupation with the war in Europe, seized German possessions in the Pacific and East Asia, but there was no large-scale mobilization of the economy.[1] Foreign Minister Katō Takaaki and Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu wanted to use the opportunity to expand Japanese influence in China. They enlisted Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925), then in exile in Japan, but they had little success.[2] The Imperial Japanese Navy, a nearly autonomous bureaucratic institution, made its own decision to undertake expansion in the Pacific. It captured Germany's Micronesian territories north of the equator, and ruled the islands until they were transitioned to civilian control in 1921. The operation gave the Navy a rationale for enlarging its budget to double the Army budget and expanding the fleet. The Navy thus gained significant political influence over national and international affairs.[3]

    1. ^ Frederick R. Dickinson, War and National Reinvention: Japan in the Great War, 1913–1919 (1999)
    2. ^ Albert A. Altman and Harold Z. Schiffrin, "Sun Yat-Sen and the Japanese, 1914–16", Modern Asian Studies, (July 1972) 6#4 pp 385–400
    3. ^ J. C. Schencking, "Bureaucratic Politics, Military Budgets and Japan's Southern Advance: The Imperial Navy’s Seizure of German Micronesia in the First World War", War in History, (July 1998) 5#3 pp 308–326
     
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    24 August 1991 – Ukraine declares itself independent from the Soviet Union.

    Declaration of Independence of Ukraine

    The Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Акт проголошення незалежності України, translit. Akt proholoshennya nezalezhnosti Ukrayiny) was adopted by the Ukrainian parliament on 24 August 1991.[1] The Act reestablished Ukraine's state independence.[2][1]

    1. ^ a b A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples by Paul Robert Magocsi, University of Toronto Press, 2010, ISBN 1442610212 (page 722/723)
    2. ^ Volodymyr Vasylenko. Non-nuclear status of Ukraine: past, present, and future (Без’ядерний статус України: минуле, сучасне, майбутнє). The Ukrainian Week. 31 May 2018
     
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    25 August 1997Egon Krenz, the former East German leader, is convicted of a shoot-to-kill policy at the Berlin Wall.

    Schießbefehl

    Three Border Troops guards in a watch tower on the Inner German border in 1984.

    Schießbefehl (German for "order to fire") was the term in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) for standing orders authorizing the use of lethal force by the Border Troops to prevent Republikflucht at the Inner German border from 1960 to 1989.

    Schießbefehl recommended guards use firearms to stop unauthorised border crossings in the direction of West Germany and procedure to conceal incidents from the public. Various Schießbefehl orders were issued, and their instructions to prevent East Germans leaving were not officially legal until 1982 and in violation of Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with an estimated 300 to 400 people having died at the Inner German border during its existence. After German Reunification in 1990, East German leader Erich Honecker was indicted by the Berlin District Court on charges of mass murder stemming from the Schießbefehl orders, but his failing health and legal disputes over jurisdiction caused his trial to be abandoned.

     
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    26 August 1966 – The South African Border War starts with the battle at Omugulugwombashe.

    South African Border War

    The South African Border War, also known as the Namibian War of Independence, and sometimes denoted in South Africa as the Angolan Bush War, was a largely asymmetric conflict that occurred in Namibia (then South West Africa), Zambia, and Angola from 26 August 1966 to 21 March 1990. It was fought between the South African Defence Force (SADF) and the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN), an armed wing of the South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO). The South African Border War resulted in some of the largest battles on the African continent since World War II and was closely intertwined with the Angolan Civil War.

    Following several years of unsuccessful petitioning through the United Nations and the International Court of Justice for Namibian independence, SWAPO formed the PLAN in 1962 with material assistance from the Soviet Union, China, and sympathetic African states such as Tanzania, Ghana, and Algeria.[29] Fighting broke out between PLAN and the South African authorities in August 1966. Between 1975 and 1988 the SADF staged massive conventional raids into Angola and Zambia to eliminate PLAN's forward operating bases.[30] It also deployed specialist counter-insurgency units such as Koevoet and 32 Battalion trained to carry out external reconnaissance and track guerrilla movements.[31]

    South African tactics became increasingly aggressive as the conflict progressed.[30] The SADF's incursions produced Angolan casualties and occasionally resulted in severe collateral damage to economic installations regarded as vital to the Angolan economy.[32] Ostensibly to stop these raids, but also to disrupt the growing alliance between the SADF and the National Union for the Total Independence for Angola (UNITA), which the former was arming with captured PLAN equipment,[33] the Soviet Union backed the People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola (FAPLA) through a large contingent of military advisers and up to four billion dollars' worth of modern defence technology in the 1980s.[34] Beginning in 1984, regular Angolan units under Soviet command were confident enough to confront the SADF.[34] Their positions were also bolstered by thousands of Cuban troops.[34] The state of war between South Africa and Angola briefly ended with the short-lived Lusaka Accords, but resumed in August 1985 as both PLAN and UNITA took advantage of the ceasefire to intensify their own guerrilla activity, leading to a renewed phase of FAPLA combat operations culminating in the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale.[32] The South African Border War was virtually ended by the Tripartite Accord, mediated by the United States, which committed to a withdrawal of Cuban and South African military personnel from Angola and South West Africa, respectively.[35] PLAN launched its final guerrilla campaign in April 1989.[36] South West Africa received formal independence as the Republic of Namibia a year later, on 21 March 1990.[20]

    Despite being largely fought in neighbouring states, the South African Border War had a phenomenal cultural and political impact on South African society.[37] The country's apartheid government devoted considerable effort towards presenting the war as part of a containment programme against regional Soviet expansionism[38] and used it to stoke public anti-communist sentiment.[39] It remains an integral theme in contemporary South African literature at large and Afrikaans-language works in particular, having given rise to a unique genre known as grensliteratuur (directly translated "border literature").[32]

    1. ^ Beckett, Ian; Pimlott, John (2011). Counter-insurgency: Lessons from History. Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Books. pp. 204–219. ISBN 978-1848843967.
    2. ^ Cann, John (2015). Flight Plan Africa: Portuguese Airpower in Counterinsurgency, 1961–1974. Solihull: Helion & Company. pp. 362–363. ISBN 978-1909982062.
    3. ^ a b Fryxell, Cole. To Be Born a Nation. p. 13.
    4. ^ a b Lulat, Y.G.M. (1992). United States Relations with South Africa: A Critical Overview from the Colonial Period to the Present. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Incorporated. pp. 143–146, 210. ISBN 978-0820479071.
    5. ^ Dale, Richard (2014). The Namibian War of Independence, 1966-1989: Diplomatic, Economic and Military Campaigns. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Incorporated Publishers. pp. 74–77, 93–95. ISBN 978-0786496594.
    6. ^ Thomas, Scott (1995). The Diplomacy of Liberation: The Foreign Relations of the ANC Since 1960. London: Tauris Academic Studies. pp. 202–210. ISBN 978-1850439936.
    7. ^ Larmer, Miles (2011). Rethinking African Politics: A History of Opposition in Zambia. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. pp. 209–217. ISBN 978-1409482499.
    8. ^ a b Vanneman, Peter (1990). Soviet Strategy in Southern Africa: Gorbachev's Pragmatic Approach. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. pp. 41–57. ISBN 978-0817989026.
    9. ^ a b Udogu, Emmanuel (2011). Liberating Namibia: The Long Diplomatic Struggle Between the United Nations and South Africa. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. pp. 121–123. ISBN 978-0786465767.
    10. ^ a b Taylor, Ian (2006). China and Africa: Engagement and Compromise. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge Books. pp. 153–158. ISBN 978-0415545525.
    11. ^ Hughes, Geraint (2014). My Enemy's Enemy: Proxy Warfare in International Politics. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. pp. 73–86. ISBN 978-1845196271.
    12. ^ Schleicher, Hans-Georg; Schleicher, Ilona (1998). Special flights: the GDR and liberation movements in southern Africa. Harare: SAPES Books. p. 213. ISBN 978-1779050717.
    13. ^ a b c d Shultz, Richard (1988). Soviet Union and Revolutionary Warfare: Principles, Practices, and Regional Comparisons. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press. pp. 121–123, 140–145. ISBN 978-0817987114.
    14. ^ Bermudez, Joseph (1997). Terrorism, the North Korean connection. New York: Crane, Russak & Company. p. 124. ISBN 978-0844816104.
    15. ^ a b c Williams, Christian (October 2015). National Liberation in Postcolonial Southern Africa: A Historical Ethnography of SWAPO's Exile Camps. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 73–89. ISBN 978-1107099340.
    16. ^ a b c Herbstein, Denis; Evenson, John (1989). The Devils Are Among Us: The War for Namibia. London: Zed Books Ltd. pp. 14–23. ISBN 978-0862328962.
    17. ^ a b Abegunrin, Olayiwola (1997). Nigerian Foreign Policy Under Military Rule, 1966-1999. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. pp. 81, 93. ISBN 978-0275978815.
    18. ^ Gebril, Mahmoud (1988). Imagery and Ideology in U.S. Policy Toward Libya 1969–1982. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0822985075.
    19. ^ Lal, Priya (2015). African Socialism in Postcolonial Tanzania: Between the Village and the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 39–42. ISBN 978-1107104525.
    20. ^ a b Hampson, Fen Osler (1996). Nurturing Peace: Why Peace Settlements Succeed Or Fail. Stanford: United States Institute of Peace Press. pp. 53–70. ISBN 978-1878379573.
    21. ^ Tsokodayi, Cleophas Johannes. Namibia's Independence Struggle: The Role of the United Nations. pp. 1–305.
    22. ^ McMullin, Jaremey (2013). Ex-Combatants and the Post-Conflict State: Challenges of Reintegration. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 81–88. ISBN 978-1-349-33179-6.
    23. ^ George, Edward (2005). The Cuban intervention in Angola. New York: Frank Cass Publishers. pp. 236–246. ISBN 978-0415647106.
    24. ^ Gwyneth Williams & Brian Hackland. The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of Southern Africa (2016 ed.). Routledge Books. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-1-138-19517-2.
    25. ^ a b Akawa, Martha; Silvester, Jeremy (2012). "Waking the dead: civilian casualties in the Namibian liberation struggle" (PDF). Windhoek, Namibia: University of Namibia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    26. ^ Reginald Herbold Green. "Namibia : The road to Namibia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
    27. ^ Corum, James; Johnson, Wray (2003). Airpower in small wars: fighting insurgents and terrorists. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. p. 315. ISBN 978-0700612406.
    28. ^ Polack, Peter (2013). The Last Hot Battle of the Cold War: South Africa vs. Cuba in the Angolan Civil War (illustrated ed.). Oxford: Casemate Publishers. pp. 72, 92–108, 156–171. ISBN 978-1612001951.
    29. ^ Hooper, Jim (2013) [1988]. Koevoet! Experiencing South Africa's Deadly Bush War. Solihull: Helion and Company. pp. 86–93. ISBN 978-1868121670.
    30. ^ a b Clayton, Anthony (1999). Frontiersmen: Warfare in Africa since 1950. Philadelphia: UCL Press, Limited. pp. 119–124. ISBN 978-1857285253.
    31. ^ Stapleton, Timothy (2013). A Military History of Africa. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 251–257. ISBN 978-0313395703.
    32. ^ a b c Jacklyn Cock, Laurie Nathan (1989). War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa. New Africa Books. pp. 124–276. ISBN 978-0-86486-115-3.
    33. ^ Weigert, Stephen (2011). Angola: A Modern Military History. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 71–72. ISBN 978-0230117778.
    34. ^ a b c Blank, Stephen (1991). Responding to Low-Intensity Conflict Challenges. Montgomery: Air University Press. pp. 223–239. ISBN 978-0160293320.
    35. ^ Harris, Geoff (1999). Recovery from Armed Conflict in Developing Countries: An Economic and Political Analysis. Oxfordshire: Routledge Books. pp. 262–264. ISBN 978-0415193795.
    36. ^ Hearn, Roger (1999). UN Peacekeeping in Action: The Namibian Experience. Commack, New York: Nova Science Publishers. pp. 89–95. ISBN 978-1-56072-653-1.
    37. ^ Du Preez, Max (2011). Pale Native: Memories of a Renegade Reporter. Cape Town: Penguin Random House South Africa. pp. 88–90. ISBN 978-1770220607.
    38. ^ Mashiri, Mac; Shaw, Timothy (1989). Africa in World Politics: Into the 1990s. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 208–209. ISBN 978-0333429310.
    39. ^ Baines, Gary (2014). South Africa's 'Border War': Contested Narratives and Conflicting Memories. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 1–4, 138–140. ISBN 978-1472509710.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  40. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    26 August 1966 – The South African Border War starts with the battle at Omugulugwombashe.

    South African Border War

    The South African Border War, also known as the Namibian War of Independence, and sometimes denoted in South Africa as the Angolan Bush War, was a largely asymmetric conflict that occurred in Namibia (then South West Africa), Zambia, and Angola from 26 August 1966 to 21 March 1990. It was fought between the South African Defence Force (SADF) and the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN), an armed wing of the South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO). The South African Border War resulted in some of the largest battles on the African continent since World War II and was closely intertwined with the Angolan Civil War.

    Following several years of unsuccessful petitioning through the United Nations and the International Court of Justice for Namibian independence, SWAPO formed the PLAN in 1962 with material assistance from the Soviet Union, China, and sympathetic African states such as Tanzania, Ghana, and Algeria.[29] Fighting broke out between PLAN and the South African authorities in August 1966. Between 1975 and 1988 the SADF staged massive conventional raids into Angola and Zambia to eliminate PLAN's forward operating bases.[30] It also deployed specialist counter-insurgency units such as Koevoet and 32 Battalion trained to carry out external reconnaissance and track guerrilla movements.[31]

    South African tactics became increasingly aggressive as the conflict progressed.[30] The SADF's incursions produced Angolan casualties and occasionally resulted in severe collateral damage to economic installations regarded as vital to the Angolan economy.[32] Ostensibly to stop these raids, but also to disrupt the growing alliance between the SADF and the National Union for the Total Independence for Angola (UNITA), which the former was arming with captured PLAN equipment,[33] the Soviet Union backed the People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola (FAPLA) through a large contingent of military advisers and up to four billion dollars' worth of modern defence technology in the 1980s.[34] Beginning in 1984, regular Angolan units under Soviet command were confident enough to confront the SADF.[34] Their positions were also bolstered by thousands of Cuban troops.[34] The state of war between South Africa and Angola briefly ended with the short-lived Lusaka Accords, but resumed in August 1985 as both PLAN and UNITA took advantage of the ceasefire to intensify their own guerrilla activity, leading to a renewed phase of FAPLA combat operations culminating in the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale.[32] The South African Border War was virtually ended by the Tripartite Accord, mediated by the United States, which committed to a withdrawal of Cuban and South African military personnel from Angola and South West Africa, respectively.[35] PLAN launched its final guerrilla campaign in April 1989.[36] South West Africa received formal independence as the Republic of Namibia a year later, on 21 March 1990.[20]

    Despite being largely fought in neighbouring states, the South African Border War had a phenomenal cultural and political impact on South African society.[37] The country's apartheid government devoted considerable effort towards presenting the war as part of a containment programme against regional Soviet expansionism[38] and used it to stoke public anti-communist sentiment.[39] It remains an integral theme in contemporary South African literature at large and Afrikaans-language works in particular, having given rise to a unique genre known as grensliteratuur (directly translated "border literature").[32]

    1. ^ Beckett, Ian; Pimlott, John (2011). Counter-insurgency: Lessons from History. Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Books. pp. 204–219. ISBN 978-1848843967.
    2. ^ Cann, John (2015). Flight Plan Africa: Portuguese Airpower in Counterinsurgency, 1961–1974. Solihull: Helion & Company. pp. 362–363. ISBN 978-1909982062.
    3. ^ a b Fryxell, Cole. To Be Born a Nation. p. 13.
    4. ^ a b Lulat, Y.G.M. (1992). United States Relations with South Africa: A Critical Overview from the Colonial Period to the Present. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Incorporated. pp. 143–146, 210. ISBN 978-0820479071.
    5. ^ Dale, Richard (2014). The Namibian War of Independence, 1966-1989: Diplomatic, Economic and Military Campaigns. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Incorporated Publishers. pp. 74–77, 93–95. ISBN 978-0786496594.
    6. ^ Thomas, Scott (1995). The Diplomacy of Liberation: The Foreign Relations of the ANC Since 1960. London: Tauris Academic Studies. pp. 202–210. ISBN 978-1850439936.
    7. ^ Larmer, Miles (2011). Rethinking African Politics: A History of Opposition in Zambia. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. pp. 209–217. ISBN 978-1409482499.
    8. ^ a b Vanneman, Peter (1990). Soviet Strategy in Southern Africa: Gorbachev's Pragmatic Approach. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. pp. 41–57. ISBN 978-0817989026.
    9. ^ a b Udogu, Emmanuel (2011). Liberating Namibia: The Long Diplomatic Struggle Between the United Nations and South Africa. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. pp. 121–123. ISBN 978-0786465767.
    10. ^ a b Taylor, Ian (2006). China and Africa: Engagement and Compromise. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge Books. pp. 153–158. ISBN 978-0415545525.
    11. ^ Hughes, Geraint (2014). My Enemy's Enemy: Proxy Warfare in International Politics. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. pp. 73–86. ISBN 978-1845196271.
    12. ^ Schleicher, Hans-Georg; Schleicher, Ilona (1998). Special flights: the GDR and liberation movements in southern Africa. Harare: SAPES Books. p. 213. ISBN 978-1779050717.
    13. ^ a b c d Shultz, Richard (1988). Soviet Union and Revolutionary Warfare: Principles, Practices, and Regional Comparisons. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press. pp. 121–123, 140–145. ISBN 978-0817987114.
    14. ^ Bermudez, Joseph (1997). Terrorism, the North Korean connection. New York: Crane, Russak & Company. p. 124. ISBN 978-0844816104.
    15. ^ a b c Williams, Christian (October 2015). National Liberation in Postcolonial Southern Africa: A Historical Ethnography of SWAPO's Exile Camps. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 73–89. ISBN 978-1107099340.
    16. ^ a b c Herbstein, Denis; Evenson, John (1989). The Devils Are Among Us: The War for Namibia. London: Zed Books Ltd. pp. 14–23. ISBN 978-0862328962.
    17. ^ a b Abegunrin, Olayiwola (1997). Nigerian Foreign Policy Under Military Rule, 1966-1999. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. pp. 81, 93. ISBN 978-0275978815.
    18. ^ Gebril, Mahmoud (1988). Imagery and Ideology in U.S. Policy Toward Libya 1969–1982. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0822985075.
    19. ^ Lal, Priya (2015). African Socialism in Postcolonial Tanzania: Between the Village and the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 39–42. ISBN 978-1107104525.
    20. ^ a b Hampson, Fen Osler (1996). Nurturing Peace: Why Peace Settlements Succeed Or Fail. Stanford: United States Institute of Peace Press. pp. 53–70. ISBN 978-1878379573.
    21. ^ Tsokodayi, Cleophas Johannes. Namibia's Independence Struggle: The Role of the United Nations. pp. 1–305.
    22. ^ McMullin, Jaremey (2013). Ex-Combatants and the Post-Conflict State: Challenges of Reintegration. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 81–88. ISBN 978-1-349-33179-6.
    23. ^ George, Edward (2005). The Cuban intervention in Angola. New York: Frank Cass Publishers. pp. 236–246. ISBN 978-0415647106.
    24. ^ Gwyneth Williams & Brian Hackland. The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of Southern Africa (2016 ed.). Routledge Books. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-1-138-19517-2.
    25. ^ a b Akawa, Martha; Silvester, Jeremy (2012). "Waking the dead: civilian casualties in the Namibian liberation struggle" (PDF). Windhoek, Namibia: University of Namibia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    26. ^ Reginald Herbold Green. "Namibia : The road to Namibia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
    27. ^ Corum, James; Johnson, Wray (2003). Airpower in small wars: fighting insurgents and terrorists. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. p. 315. ISBN 978-0700612406.
    28. ^ Polack, Peter (2013). The Last Hot Battle of the Cold War: South Africa vs. Cuba in the Angolan Civil War (illustrated ed.). Oxford: Casemate Publishers. pp. 72, 92–108, 156–171. ISBN 978-1612001951.
    29. ^ Hooper, Jim (2013) [1988]. Koevoet! Experiencing South Africa's Deadly Bush War. Solihull: Helion and Company. pp. 86–93. ISBN 978-1868121670.
    30. ^ a b Clayton, Anthony (1999). Frontiersmen: Warfare in Africa since 1950. Philadelphia: UCL Press, Limited. pp. 119–124. ISBN 978-1857285253.
    31. ^ Stapleton, Timothy (2013). A Military History of Africa. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 251–257. ISBN 978-0313395703.
    32. ^ a b c Jacklyn Cock, Laurie Nathan (1989). War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa. New Africa Books. pp. 124–276. ISBN 978-0-86486-115-3.
    33. ^ Weigert, Stephen (2011). Angola: A Modern Military History. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 71–72. ISBN 978-0230117778.
    34. ^ a b c Blank, Stephen (1991). Responding to Low-Intensity Conflict Challenges. Montgomery: Air University Press. pp. 223–239. ISBN 978-0160293320.
    35. ^ Harris, Geoff (1999). Recovery from Armed Conflict in Developing Countries: An Economic and Political Analysis. Oxfordshire: Routledge Books. pp. 262–264. ISBN 978-0415193795.
    36. ^ Hearn, Roger (1999). UN Peacekeeping in Action: The Namibian Experience. Commack, New York: Nova Science Publishers. pp. 89–95. ISBN 978-1-56072-653-1.
    37. ^ Du Preez, Max (2011). Pale Native: Memories of a Renegade Reporter. Cape Town: Penguin Random House South Africa. pp. 88–90. ISBN 978-1770220607.
    38. ^ Mashiri, Mac; Shaw, Timothy (1989). Africa in World Politics: Into the 1990s. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 208–209. ISBN 978-0333429310.
    39. ^ Baines, Gary (2014). South Africa's 'Border War': Contested Narratives and Conflicting Memories. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 1–4, 138–140. ISBN 978-1472509710.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     

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