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Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    2 November 1956 – Suez Crisis: Israel occupies the Gaza Strip.

    Suez Crisis

    The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli war,[16][17][18] also called the tripartite aggression (Arabic: العدوان الثلاثي‎) in the Arab world[19] and Sinai War in Israel,[20] was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The aims were to regain Western control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had just nationalised the canal.[21] After the fighting had started, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. The episode humiliated the United Kingdom and France and strengthened Nasser.[22][23][24]

    On 29 October, Israel invaded the Egyptian Sinai. Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to cease fire, which was ignored. On 5 November, Britain and France landed paratroopers along the Suez Canal. While the Egyptian forces were defeated, they had blocked the canal to all shipping. It later became clear that Israel, France and Britain had conspired to plan out the invasion. The three allies had attained a number of their military objectives, but the canal was useless. Heavy political pressure from the United States and the USSR led to a withdrawal. U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower had strongly warned Britain not to invade; he threatened serious damage to the British financial system by selling the US government's pound sterling bonds. Historians conclude the crisis "signified the end of Great Britain's role as one of the world's major powers".[25][26][27]

    The Suez Canal was closed from October 1956 until March 1957. Israel fulfilled some of its objectives, such as attaining freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran, which Egypt had blocked to Israeli shipping since 1950.[28]

    As a result of the conflict, the United Nations created the UNEF Peacekeepers to police the Egyptian–Israeli border, British prime minister Anthony Eden resigned, Canadian external affairs minister Lester Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize, and the USSR may have been emboldened to invade Hungary.[29][30]

    1. ^ a b Tal 2001, p. 203
    2. ^ Mart, Michelle (9 February 2006). Eye on Israel: How America Came to View the Jewish State as an Ally. p. 159. ISBN 978-0791466872.
    3. ^ Stewart 2013, p. 133
    4. ^ Kunz 1991, p. 187
    5. ^ Brown, Derek (14 March 2001). "1956: Suez and the end of empire". The Guardian. London.
    6. ^ Reynolds, Paul (24 July 2006). "Suez: End of empire". BBC News.
    7. ^ History's worst decisions and the people who made them, pp. 167–172
    8. ^ Clodfelter, Micheal (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015, 4th ed. McFarland. p. 573. ISBN 978-0786474707.
    9. ^ Casualties in Arab–Israeli Wars, Jewish Virtual Library
    10. ^ Casualties Of Mideast Wars, Los Angeles Times
    11. ^ a b Varble 2003, p. 90
    12. ^ "Armed Conflict Year Index". www.onwar.com.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Schiff 1974, p. 70 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Schiff, Zeev (1 January 1974). A History of the Israeli Army: 1870 - 1974. Straight Arrow Books. ISBN 9780879320775 – via Google Books.
    15. ^ Israel – The Suez War of 1956: U.S. newsreel footage. Event occurs at 0:30–0:40.
    16. ^ Ross, Stewart (2004). Causes and Consequences of the Arab–Israeli Conflict. Evans Brothers. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-237-52585-9.
    17. ^ Isacoff, Jonathan B. (2006). Writing the Arab–Israeli Conflict: Pragmatism and Historical Inquiry. Lexington Books. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-0-7391-1273-1.
    18. ^ Caplan, Neil (1983). Futile Diplomacy: Operation Alpha and the Failure of Anglo-American Coercive Diplomacy in the Arab–Israeli Conflict, 1954–1956. Psychology Press. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-0-7146-4757-9.
    19. ^ "Port Said Remembers 'Tripartite Aggression' of 1956'". Daily News Egypt. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011.
    20. ^ Also known as the Suez War or 1956 War; other names include the Sinai war, Suez–Sinai war, 1956 Arab–Israeli war, the Second Arab–Israeli war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Kadesh Operation and Operation Musketeer
    21. ^ Mayer, Michael S. (2010). The Eisenhower Years. Infobase Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 9780816053872.
    22. ^ Abernathy, David (2000). The Dynamics of Global Dominance: European Overseas Empires, 1415–1980. Yale University Press. p. CXXXIX. ISBN 978-0300093148. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
    23. ^ Roger Owen "Suez Crisis" The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World, Second edition. Joel Krieger, ed. Oxford University Press Inc. 2001.
    24. ^ "An affair to remember". The Economist. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
    25. ^ Sylvia Ellis (2009). Historical Dictionary of Anglo-American Relations. Scarecrow Press. p. 212. ISBN 9780810862975.
    26. ^ Peden, G. C. (December 2012), "Suez and Britain's Decline as a World Power", The Historical Journal, 55 (4): 1073–1096, doi:10.1017/S0018246X12000246
    27. ^ Simon C. Smith, ed. Reassessing Suez 1956: New perspectives on the crisis and its aftermath (Routledge, 2016).
    28. ^ Major Jean-Marc Pierre (15 August 2014). 1956 Suez Crisis And The United Nations. Tannenberg Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78289-608-1. Still in 1950 Egypt blocked the Straits of Tiran barring Israel from the waterway ( Longgood 1958, xii-xiii).
    29. ^ Mastny, Vojtech (March 2002). "NATO in the Beholder's Eye: Soviet Perceptions and Policies, 1949–56" (PDF). Cold War International History Project. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
    30. ^ Christopher, Adam (2010). The 1956 Hungarian Revolution: Hungarian and Canadian Perspectives. University of Ottawa Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780776607054.
     
  2. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    2 November 1956 – Suez Crisis: Israel occupies the Gaza Strip.

    Suez Crisis

    The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli war,[16][17][18] also called the tripartite aggression (Arabic: العدوان الثلاثي‎) in the Arab world[19] and Sinai War in Israel,[20] was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The aims were to regain Western control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had just nationalised the canal.[21] After the fighting had started, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. The episode humiliated the United Kingdom and France and strengthened Nasser.[22][23][24]

    On 29 October, Israel invaded the Egyptian Sinai. Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to cease fire, which was ignored. On 5 November, Britain and France landed paratroopers along the Suez Canal. While the Egyptian forces were defeated, they had blocked the canal to all shipping. It later became clear that Israel, France and Britain had conspired to plan out the invasion. The three allies had attained a number of their military objectives, but the canal was useless. Heavy political pressure from the United States and the USSR led to a withdrawal. U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower had strongly warned Britain not to invade; he threatened serious damage to the British financial system by selling the US government's pound sterling bonds. Historians conclude the crisis "signified the end of Great Britain's role as one of the world's major powers".[25][26][27]

    The Suez Canal was closed from October 1956 until March 1957. Israel fulfilled some of its objectives, such as attaining freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran, which Egypt had blocked to Israeli shipping since 1950.[28]

    As a result of the conflict, the United Nations created the UNEF Peacekeepers to police the Egyptian–Israeli border, British prime minister Anthony Eden resigned, Canadian external affairs minister Lester Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize, and the USSR may have been emboldened to invade Hungary.[29][30]

    1. ^ a b Tal 2001, p. 203
    2. ^ Mart, Michelle (9 February 2006). Eye on Israel: How America Came to View the Jewish State as an Ally. p. 159. ISBN 978-0791466872.
    3. ^ Stewart 2013, p. 133
    4. ^ Kunz 1991, p. 187
    5. ^ Brown, Derek (14 March 2001). "1956: Suez and the end of empire". The Guardian. London.
    6. ^ Reynolds, Paul (24 July 2006). "Suez: End of empire". BBC News.
    7. ^ History's worst decisions and the people who made them, pp. 167–172
    8. ^ Clodfelter, Micheal (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015, 4th ed. McFarland. p. 573. ISBN 978-0786474707.
    9. ^ Casualties in Arab–Israeli Wars, Jewish Virtual Library
    10. ^ Casualties Of Mideast Wars, Los Angeles Times
    11. ^ a b Varble 2003, p. 90
    12. ^ "Armed Conflict Year Index". www.onwar.com.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Schiff 1974, p. 70 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Schiff, Zeev (1 January 1974). A History of the Israeli Army: 1870 - 1974. Straight Arrow Books. ISBN 9780879320775 – via Google Books.
    15. ^ Israel – The Suez War of 1956: U.S. newsreel footage. Event occurs at 0:30–0:40.
    16. ^ Ross, Stewart (2004). Causes and Consequences of the Arab–Israeli Conflict. Evans Brothers. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-237-52585-9.
    17. ^ Isacoff, Jonathan B. (2006). Writing the Arab–Israeli Conflict: Pragmatism and Historical Inquiry. Lexington Books. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-0-7391-1273-1.
    18. ^ Caplan, Neil (1983). Futile Diplomacy: Operation Alpha and the Failure of Anglo-American Coercive Diplomacy in the Arab–Israeli Conflict, 1954–1956. Psychology Press. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-0-7146-4757-9.
    19. ^ "Port Said Remembers 'Tripartite Aggression' of 1956'". Daily News Egypt. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011.
    20. ^ Also known as the Suez War or 1956 War; other names include the Sinai war, Suez–Sinai war, 1956 Arab–Israeli war, the Second Arab–Israeli war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Kadesh Operation and Operation Musketeer
    21. ^ Mayer, Michael S. (2010). The Eisenhower Years. Infobase Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 9780816053872.
    22. ^ Abernathy, David (2000). The Dynamics of Global Dominance: European Overseas Empires, 1415–1980. Yale University Press. p. CXXXIX. ISBN 978-0300093148. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
    23. ^ Roger Owen "Suez Crisis" The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World, Second edition. Joel Krieger, ed. Oxford University Press Inc. 2001.
    24. ^ "An affair to remember". The Economist. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
    25. ^ Sylvia Ellis (2009). Historical Dictionary of Anglo-American Relations. Scarecrow Press. p. 212. ISBN 9780810862975.
    26. ^ Peden, G. C. (December 2012), "Suez and Britain's Decline as a World Power", The Historical Journal, 55 (4): 1073–1096, doi:10.1017/S0018246X12000246
    27. ^ Simon C. Smith, ed. Reassessing Suez 1956: New perspectives on the crisis and its aftermath (Routledge, 2016).
    28. ^ Major Jean-Marc Pierre (15 August 2014). 1956 Suez Crisis And The United Nations. Tannenberg Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78289-608-1. Still in 1950 Egypt blocked the Straits of Tiran barring Israel from the waterway ( Longgood 1958, xii-xiii).
    29. ^ Mastny, Vojtech (March 2002). "NATO in the Beholder's Eye: Soviet Perceptions and Policies, 1949–56" (PDF). Cold War International History Project. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
    30. ^ Christopher, Adam (2010). The 1956 Hungarian Revolution: Hungarian and Canadian Perspectives. University of Ottawa Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780776607054.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    3 November 1812Napoleon's armies are defeated at the Battle of Vyazma.

    Battle of Vyazma

    The Battle of Vyazma (3 November 1812) was a rearguard action which occurred at the beginning of Napoleon's retreat from Moscow. In this encounter, the French rearguard was opposed to Russian forces commanded by General Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich. Although Marshal Davout repelled Miloradovich's attempt to encircle and destroy his corps, the French withdrew in a partial state of disorder after suffering, comparatively to the Russians, fairly important casualties from continued Russian harassment.

    The French reversal at Vyazma was not decisive, but it was noteworthy because of its disruptive impact on the Grande Armée's retreat.[1]

    1. ^ Caulaincourt, page 197; Segur, page 168
     
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    Articles:
    1
    4 November 1979Iran hostage crisis: A group of Iranian college students overruns the U.S. embassy in Tehran and takes 90 hostages.

    Iran hostage crisis

    The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between the United States and Iran. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage after a group of militarized Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran[3][4] and seized hostages. The hostages were held for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981.

    Western media described the crisis as an "entanglement" of "vengeance and mutual incomprehension."[5] American President Jimmy Carter called the hostage-taking an act of "blackmail" and the hostages "victims of terrorism and anarchy."[6] In Iran it was widely seen as an act against the U.S. and its influence in Iran, including its perceived attempts to undermine the Iranian Revolution and its longstanding support of the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was overthrown in 1979.[7]

    After Shah Pahlavi was overthrown, he was admitted to the U.S. for cancer treatment. Iran demanded his return in order to stand trial for crimes that he was accused of committing during his reign. Specifically, he was accused of committing crimes against Iranian citizens with the help of his secret police. Iran's demands were rejected by the United States, and Iran saw the decision to grant him asylum as American complicity in those atrocities. The Americans saw the hostage-taking as an egregious violation of the principles of international law, such as the Vienna Convention, which granted diplomats immunity from arrest and made diplomatic compounds inviolable.[8][9][10][11]

    The Shah left the United States in December 1979 and was ultimately granted asylum in Egypt, where he died from complications of cancer at age 60 on July 27, 1980.

    Six American diplomats who had evaded capture had been rescued by a joint CIA–Canadian effort on January 27, 1980.

    The crisis reached a climax after diplomatic negotiations failed to win the release of the hostages. Carter ordered the U.S. military to attempt a rescue mission – Operation Eagle Claw – using warships that included the USS Nimitz and USS Coral Sea, which were patrolling the waters near Iran. The failed attempt on April 24, 1980 resulted in the death of one Iranian civilian, and the accidental deaths of eight American servicemen after one of the helicopters crashed into a transport aircraft. United States Secretary of State Cyrus Vance resigned his position following the failure.

    In September 1980 Iraq invaded Iran, beginning the Iran–Iraq War. These events led the Iranian government to enter negotiations with the U.S., with Algeria acting as a mediator. The crisis is considered a pivotal episode in the history of Iran–United States relations.[12]

    Political analysts cited the standoff as a major factor in the continuing downfall of Carter's presidency and his landslide loss in the 1980 presidential election;[13] the hostages were formally released into United States custody the day after the signing of the Algiers Accords, just minutes after American President Ronald Reagan was sworn into office. In Iran the crisis strengthened the prestige of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the political power of theocrats who opposed any normalization of relations with the West.[14] The crisis also led to American economic sanctions against Iran, which further weakened ties between the two countries.[15]

    1. ^ Mark Edmond Clark (2016), "An Analysis of the Role of the Iranian Diaspora in the Financial Support System of the Mujaheddin-e-Khalid", in David Gold (ed.), Microeconomics, Routledge, pp. 66–67, ISBN 978-1317045908, Following the seizure of the US embassy in Tehran, the MEK participated physically at the site by assisting in defending it from attack. The MEK also offered strong political support for the hostage-taking action.
    2. ^ James Buchan (2013). Days of God: The Revolution in Iran and Its Consequences. Simon and Schuster. p. 257. ISBN 978-1416597773.
    3. ^ Penn, Nate (November 3, 2009). "444 Days in the Dark: An Oral History of the Iran Hostage Crisis". GQ. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
    4. ^ Sahimi, Muhammad (November 3, 2009). "The Hostage Crisis, 30 Years On". Frontline. PBS. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
    5. ^ Skow, John (January 26, 1981). "The Long Ordeal of the Hostages". Time. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
    6. ^ "Air Force Magazine" (PDF). Air Force Magazine. April 5, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
    7. ^ Kinzer, Stephen. "Thirty-five years after Iranian hostage crisis, the aftershocks remain". BostonGlobe.com. The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
    8. ^ "Doing Satan's Work in Iran" (PDF). The New York Times. November 6, 1979. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
    9. ^ Kinzer, Stephen. (2003). All The Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
    10. ^ Nalle, David. (2003). "All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror"; Middle East Policy, Vol. X (4), 148–55.
    11. ^ Pryce-Jones, David. (2003). "A Very Elegant Coup." National Review, 55 (17), 48–50.
    12. ^ "History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian". Smithsonianmag.com. Archived from the original on April 19, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
    13. ^ Reagan's Lucky Day: Iranian Hostage Crisis Helped The Great Communicator To Victory Archived May 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, CBS News, January 21, 2001
    14. ^ Mackey, Sandra, The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation, New York: Dutton, c. 1996 (p. 298)
    15. ^ "A Review Of US Unilateral Sanctions Against Iran". Mafhoum.com. August 26, 2002. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
     
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    5 November 2017Devin Patrick Kelley kills 26 and injured 20 in a church in Sutherland Springs, Texas.

    Sutherland Springs church shooting

    The Sutherland Springs church shooting occurred on November 5, 2017, when Devin Patrick Kelley of New Braunfels, Texas, fatally shot 26 people and wounded 20 others during a mass shooting at the First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs, Texas. The attack was the deadliest mass shooting in Texas and the fifth-deadliest mass shooting in the United States.[2][note 1] It was the deadliest shooting in an American place of worship in modern history, surpassing the Charleston church shooting of 2015[3] and the Waddell Buddhist temple shooting of 1991.[4]

    Kelley was prohibited by law from purchasing or possessing firearms and ammunition due to a domestic violence conviction in a court-martial while in the United States Air Force. The Air Force failed to record the conviction in the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) National Crime Information Center database, which is used by the National Instant Check System to flag prohibited purchases. The error prompted the Air Force to begin a review.[5]

    1. ^ Medina, Steve Spriester, Mariah (February 6, 2018). "700 rounds in 11 minutes: Sutherland Springs survivor says he's amazed he's alive". KSAT.
    2. ^ Ahmed, Saeed (November 6, 2017). "2 of the 5 deadliest mass shootings in modern US history happened in the last 35 days". CNN. Archived from the original on November 6, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
    3. ^ Weill, Kelly (November 5, 2017). "Deadliest Church Shooting in American History Kills at Least 26". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on November 6, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
    4. ^ "Fast facts: Deadliest mass shootings in modern US history". Springfield, MO: KY3. November 6, 2017. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference screwup was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    6 November 1947Meet the Press, the longest running television program in history, makes its debut

    Meet the Press

    Meet the Press[6][7] is a weekly American television news/interview program broadcast on NBC. It is the longest-running program in television history, though the current format bears little resemblance to the debut episode on November 6, 1947.[8] Meet the Press specializes in interviews with leaders in Washington, D.C., across the country and even the world on issues of politics, economics, foreign policy and other public affairs, along with panel discussions that provide opinions and analysis. It originates from NBC's bureau in Washington, D.C. (WRC-TV).

    The longevity of Meet the Press is attributable in part to the fact that the program debuted during what was only the second official "network television season" for American television. It was the first live television network news program on which a sitting President of the United States appeared; this occurred on its broadcast on November 9, 1975, which featured Gerald Ford. The program has been hosted by 12 different moderators to date, beginning with creator Martha Rountree. The show's moderator since 2014 is Chuck Todd, who also serves as political director for NBC News.[9]

    Currently, the hour-long program airs in most markets on Sundays at 9:00 a.m. live in the Eastern Time Zone and on tape delay elsewhere. Meet the Press is also occasionally pre-empted due to network coverage of sports events held outside the U.S. The program is also rebroadcast on Sundays at 6:00 p.m., and Mondays at 4:00 a.m. Eastern Time on MSNBC, whose audio feed is also simulcast on Sirius/XM Satellite Radio. The program is also syndicated by Westwood One to various radio stations around the United States, as well as on C-SPAN Radio as part of its replays of the Sunday morning talk shows.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference 60th was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference shemadeit was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Meet the Press - Credits". NBCUniversal. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
    4. ^ "The Sounds of War". Slate. April 2003.
    5. ^ (as of 2017)
    6. ^ "Meet the Press: Cast & Details". TV Guide. Retrieved December 30, 2008.
    7. ^ "About Meet The Press". MSNBC. Archived from the original on February 3, 2004. Retrieved December 30, 2008.
    8. ^ "Meet the Press: U.S. Public Affairs/Interview". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012.
    9. ^ "Chuck Todd Takes Helm of 'Meet the Press'". NBC News. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
     
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    7 November 2007Jokela school shooting in Tuusula, Finland, resulting in the death of nine people.

    Jokela school shooting

    The Jokela school shooting occurred on 7 November 2007, at Jokela High School in the town of Jokela, Tuusula, Finland. The gunman, Pekka-Eric Auvinen, entered the school that morning armed with a semi-automatic pistol. He killed eight people and wounded one person in the toe before shooting himself in the head; twelve others were also injured by flying glass or sprained ankles.[4] Auvinen died later that evening in a Helsinki hospital.

    This was the second school shooting in the history of Finland. The previous incident occurred in 1989 at the Raumanmeri school in Rauma, when a 14-year-old fatally shot two fellow students.[5] Less than one year after the Jokela school massacre, the Kauhajoki school shooting occurred, which is thought to have been heavily inspired by Auvinen.

    1. ^ "Nine Dead in School Shooting". Yle. 2007-11-08. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
    2. ^ "Teen gunman dead from critical injuries who opened fire on Finnish classmates". CNN. 2007-11-07. Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
    3. ^ "Fatal shooting at Finnish school". BBC News. 2007-11-07. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
    4. ^ a b Petäjäniemi, Tuulikki (Chairman); Valonen, Kai (LL.M. Secretary, Chief Accident Investigator) (February 26, 2009). "Jokela School Shooting on 7 November 2007: Report of the Investigation Commission" (PDF). Helsinki: Ministry of Justice. Retrieved May 19, 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    5. ^ "School Shootings Rare in Finland". YLE. 2007-11-07. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
     
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    8 November 1895 – While experimenting with electricity, Wilhelm Röntgen discovers the X-ray.

    Wilhelm Röntgen

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (/ˈrɛntɡən, -ən, ˈrʌnt-/;[2] German: [ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈʁœntɡən]; 27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German[1] mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.[3] In honour of his accomplishments, in 2004 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) named element 111, roentgenium, a radioactive element with multiple unstable isotopes, after him.

    1. ^ a b "Wilhelm Röntgen (1845–1923) – Ontdekker röntgenstraling". historiek.net. 31 October 2010.
    2. ^ "Röntgen". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    3. ^ Novelize, Robert. Squire's Fundamentals of Radiology. Harvard University Press. 5th edition. 1997. ISBN 0-674-83339-2 p. 1.
     
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    9 November 2005 – Suicide bombers attack three hotels in Amman, Jordan, killing at least 60 people.

    2005 Amman bombings

    The 2005 Amman bombings were a series of coordinated bomb attacks on three hotel lobbies in Amman, Jordan, on 9 November 2005. The explosions at the Grand Hyatt Hotel, the Radisson SAS Hotel, and the Days Inn started at around 20:50 local time (18:50 UTC) at the Grand Hyatt.[2][3] The three hotels are frequented by foreign diplomats. The bomb at the Radisson SAS exploded in the Philadelphia Ballroom, where a Jordanian wedding hosting hundreds of guests was taking place. The attacks killed 57 people and injured 115 others.

    Al-Qaeda in Iraq was quick to claim the attack.[1][4] The bombings, a rare terror attack in Jordan, then spurred a wave of new anti-terror measures by the Jordanian government.[5]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference bbc10-11-05 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Deadly Bombings Hit Jordan Archived 2006-11-16 at the Wayback Machine - TheStreet.com, November 9, 2005
    3. ^ Jordan bombings kill 57, wound 300 Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine - Aljazeera, November 9, 2005
    4. ^ Ellis, John (2007). Police Analysis and Planning for Homicide Bombings: Prevention, Defense, and Response. Charles C Thomas Publisher. p. 171. ISBN 9780398085186.
    5. ^ http://www.timesofisrael.com/jordan-battling-to-rescue-its-key-earner-tourism/
     
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    10 November 1983Bill Gates introduces Windows 1.0.

    Windows 1.0

    Windows 1.0 is the first graphical personal computer operating environment developed by Microsoft. Microsoft had worked with Apple Computer to develop applications for Apple's January 1984 original Macintosh, the first mass-produced personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) that enabled users to see user friendly icons on screen. Windows 1.0 was released on November 20, 1985, as the first version of the Microsoft Windows line. It runs as a graphical, 16-bit multi-tasking shell on top of an existing MS-DOS installation. It provides an environment which can run graphical programs designed for Windows, as well as existing MS-DOS software. Its development was spearheaded by the company founder Bill Gates after he saw a demonstration of a similar software suite known as Visi On at COMDEX.

    Despite positive responses to its early presentations and support from a number of hardware and software makers, Windows 1.0 was received poorly by critics. Critics felt Windows 1.0 did not meet their expectations. In particular, they felt that Windows 1.0 put too much emphasis on mouse input at a time when mouse use was not yet widespread; not providing enough resources for new users; and for performance issues, especially on systems with lower computer hardware specifications. Despite these criticisms, Windows 1.0 was an important milestone for Microsoft, as it introduced the Microsoft Windows line.[3] On December 31, 2001, Windows 1.0 was declared obsolete and Microsoft stopped providing support and updates for the system.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference microsoft-obs was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference obsolete-prod was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnet-flop was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    11 November 1934 – The Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne, Australia is opened.

    Shrine of Remembrance

    The Shrine of Remembrance (commonly referred to as The Shrine) is a war memorial in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, located in Kings Domain on St Kilda Road. It was built to honour the men and women of Victoria who served in World War I, but now functions as a memorial to all Australians who have served in any war. It is a site of annual observances for ANZAC Day (25 April) and Remembrance Day (11 November), and is one of the largest war memorials in Australia.

    Designed by architects Phillip Hudson and James Wardrop, both World War I veterans, the Shrine is in classical style, based on the Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus and the Parthenon in Athens, Greece.[1] The crowning element at the top of the ziggurat roof references the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. Built from Tynong granite,[2] the Shrine originally consisted only of the central sanctuary surrounded by the ambulatory. The sanctuary contains the marble Stone of Remembrance, upon which is engraved the words "Greater love hath no man" (John 15:13); once per year, on 11 November at 11 a.m. (Remembrance Day), a ray of sunlight shines through an aperture in the roof to light up the word "Love" in the inscription.[3][4] Beneath the sanctuary lies the crypt, which contains a bronze statue of a soldier father and son, and panels listing every unit of the Australian Imperial Force.

    The Shrine went through a prolonged process of development, which began in 1918 with an initial proposal to build a Victorian memorial. Two committees were formed, the second of which ran a competition for the memorial's design. The winner was announced in 1922.[5] However, opposition to the proposal, led by Keith Murdoch and The Herald, forced the governments of the day to rethink the design. A number of alternatives were proposed, the most significant of which was the ANZAC Square and cenotaph proposal of 1926. In response, General Sir John Monash used the 1927 ANZAC Day march to garner support for the Shrine, and finally won the support of the Victorian government later that year. The foundation stone was laid on 11 November 1927, and the Shrine was officially dedicated on 11 November 1934.[6]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference TaylorP101 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Royall was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Heilbron, J. L. (1999). The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar Observatories. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: Harvard University Press. pp. 288–289. ISBN 0-674-00536-8.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference EducationProgramP8-10 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference InglisP301-302 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Taylor (2005), pp. 101–102
     
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    12 November 1997Ramzi Yousef is found guilty of masterminding the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.

    1993 World Trade Center bombing

    The 1993 World Trade Center bombing was a terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, carried out on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The 1,336 lb (606 kg) urea nitratehydrogen gas enhanced device[1] was intended to send the North Tower (Tower 1) crashing into the South Tower (Tower 2), bringing both towers down and killing tens of thousands of people. It failed to do so, but killed six people, one of whom was pregnant[2] and injured over one thousand.[3] About 50,000 people were evacuated from the buildings that day.[4][5]

    The attack was planned by a group of terrorists including Ramzi Yousef, Mahmud Abouhalima, Mohammad Salameh, Nidal A. Ayyad, Abdul Rahman Yasin, and Ahmed Ajaj. They received financing from Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Yousef's uncle.[6] In March 1994, four men were convicted of carrying out the bombing: Abouhalima, Ajaj, Ayyad, and Salameh. The charges included conspiracy, explosive destruction of property, and interstate transportation of explosives. In November 1997, two more were convicted: Ramzi Yousef, the organizer behind the bombings, and Eyad Ismoil, who drove the truck carrying the bomb.

    1. ^ Whitlock, Craig (July 5, 2005). "Homemade, Cheap and dangerous – Terror Cells Favor from Simple Ingredients In Building Bombs". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
    2. ^ "February 26, 1993 Commemoration". Each year on February 26, victims' families, survivors, downtown residents, and city and state officials gather at the 9/11 Memorial to mark the anniversary of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing with a moment of silence, the tolling of a bell, and a reading of the names of the six victims of the first terror attack at the site.
    3. ^ "FBI 100 First Strike: Global Terror in America". FBI.gov. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
    4. ^ Childers, J. Gilmore; Henry J. DePippo (February 24, 1998). "Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings: Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years After the World Trade Center". US Senate Judiciary Committee. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
    5. ^ Wright, Lawrence, Looming Tower, Knopf, (2006) p. 178.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference ksm was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    1
    13 November 1990 – In Aramoana, New Zealand, David Gray shoots dead 13 people in a massacre before being tracked down and killed by police the next day.

    Aramoana massacre

    The Aramoana massacre was a spree shooting that occurred on 13 November 1990 in the small seaside township of Aramoana, northeast of Dunedin, New Zealand.[1] Resident David Gray[2] killed 13 people including local police Sergeant Stewart Guthrie, one of the first responders to the reports of a shooting, after a verbal dispute with his next-door neighbour. After a careful house-to-house search the next day, police officers led by the Anti-Terrorist Squad (now known as the Special Tactics Group) located Gray, and shot and injured him as he came out of a house firing from the hip.[3][4] He died in an ambulance while being transported to hospital. Television news carried live reports from the scene.

    At the time, the incident was the deadliest mass shooting in New Zealand's history, being surpassed 29 years later by the Christchurch mosque shootings.[5] After the shootings, sweeping changes were made to New Zealand's firearms legislation in 1992, including 10-year photographic licences and tight restrictions on military style semi-automatic firearms.[6]

    1. ^ Staff Reporters (14 November 1990). "GUNMAN ON RAMPAGE". Otago Daily Times. p. 1.
    2. ^ Benson, Nigel (15 November 1990). "Day's outing for Port family turns to tragedy". Otago Daily Times. p. 2.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Forbes1997p206 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference ODT_Kill_me was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Brockell, Gillian (15 March 2019). "'Garry's getting shot': This 1990 massacre was New Zealand's worst before mosque attacks". The Washington Post.
    6. ^ Staff Reporters (15 November 1990). "HOURS OF TERROR END". Otago Daily Times. p. 1.
     
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    14 November 2012Israel launches a major military operation in the Gaza Strip, as hostilities with Hamas escalate.

    2012 Israeli operation in the Gaza Strip

    In November 2012, the Israel Defense Forces launched Operation Pillar of Defense (Hebrewעַמּוּד עָנָן‎, ʿAmúd ʿAnán, literally: "Pillar of Cloud")[22] which was an eight-day campaign in the Hamas-governed Gaza Strip, which began on 14 November 2012 with the killing of Ahmed Jabari, chief of the Gaza military wing of Hamas by an Israeli airstrike.[23][24][25][26]

    The operation was preceded by a period with a number of mutual Israeli–Palestinian responsive attacks.[27] According to the Israeli government, the operation began in response to the launch of over 100 rockets at Israel during a 24-hour period,[28][29] an attack by Gaza militants on an Israeli military patrol jeep within Israeli borders,[citation needed] and an explosion caused by IEDs, which occurred near Israeli soldiers, on the Israeli side of a tunnel passing under the Israeli West Bank barrier.[30][31] The Israeli government stated that the aims of the military operation were to halt rocket attacks against civilian targets originating from the Gaza Strip[32][33] and to disrupt the capabilities of militant organizations.[34] The Palestinians blamed the Israeli government for the upsurge in violence, accusing the IDF of attacks on Gazan civilians in the days leading up to the operation.[35] They cited the blockade of the Gaza Strip and the occupation of West Bank, including East Jerusalem, as the reason for rocket attacks.[23]

    During the course of the operation, the IDF claimed to have struck more than 1,500 sites in the Gaza Strip,[36] including rocket launchpads, weapon depots, government facilities, and apartment blocks.[37] According to a UNHCR report, 174 Palestinians were killed and hundreds were wounded.[38] Many families were displaced.[16][39][40][41] One airstrike[42] killed ten members of the al-Dalu family. Some Palestinian casualties were caused by misfired Palestinian rockets landing inside the Gaza Strip.[43] Eight Palestinians were executed by members of the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades for alleged collaboration with Israel.[44][45][46]

    During the operation, Hamas, the al-Qassam Brigades and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) further intensified their rocket attacks on Israeli cities and towns, in an operation code named Operation Stones of Baked Clay (Arabic: حجارة سجيل‎, ḥijārat sijīl) by the al-Qassam Brigades,[47] firing over 1,456 rockets into Israel, and an additional 142 which fell inside Gaza itself.[48] Palestinian militant groups used weapons including Iranian-made Fajr-5, Russian-made Grad rockets, Qassams, and mortars.[citation needed] Some of these weapons were fired into Rishon LeZion, Beersheba, Ashdod, Ashkelon, and other population centers. Tel Aviv was hit for the first time since the 1991 Gulf War, and rockets were fired at Jerusalem.[49] The rockets killed three Israeli civilians in a direct hit on a home in Kiryat Malachi.[24][45][50] By the end of the operation, six Israelis had been killed, two hundred forty were injured, and more than two hundred had been treated for anxiety by Magen David Adom.[55] About 421 rockets were intercepted by Israel's Iron Dome missile defense system, another 142 fell on Gaza itself, 875 fell in open areas, and 58 hit urban areas in Israel.[48][56] A bus in Tel Aviv was bombed by an Arab-Israeli, injuring 28 civilians.[57]

    Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other Western countries expressed support for what they considered Israel's right to defend itself, or condemned the Hamas rocket attacks on Israel.[69] China,[70] Iran, Russia, Egypt, Turkey, and several other Arab and Muslim countries condemned the Israeli operation.[74] The United Nations Security Council held an emergency session on the situation, but did not reach a decision.[75] After days of negotiations between Hamas and Israel, a ceasefire mediated by Egypt was announced on 21 November.[76][77][78] Both sides claimed victory. Israel said that it had achieved its aim of crippling Hamas's rocket-launching ability,[79] while Hamas stated that Israel's option of invading Gaza had ended.[80][81] According to Human Rights Watch, both sides violated the laws of war during the fighting.[82][83][84]

    1. ^ "IDF believes Hamas, Islamic Jihad will honor cease-fire". Jerusalem Post. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    2. ^ a b "PFLP says fighters will continue to strike Israel". Ma'an News Agency. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    3. ^ "Occupied Quds City Targeted by Palestinian Missile". Fars News Agency. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    4. ^ "Fatah: We also fought against Israel in Pillar of Defense". The Jerusalem Post. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    5. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Birnbaum, Michael (21 November 2012). "After Israel, Hamas reach Gaza cease-fire, both sides claim victory". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    6. ^ Kalman, Matthew; Sengupta, Kim (21 November 2012). "Fragile truce deal hailed as a victory on both sides". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    7. ^ Ahren, Raphael (21 November 2012). "Israel says it 'fulfilled all its goals,' while Hamas hails an 'exceptional victory'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    8. ^ Lyon, Alistair, ed. (21 November 2012). "Israel's battle damage report says Hamas crippled". Jewish Journal. Reuters. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    9. ^ Balmer, Crispian (21 November 2012). "Analysis: Relief at Gaza ceasefire can't mask its frailty". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    10. ^ Ravid, Barak (22 November 2012). "Israel's Pillar of Defense achieved its goals". Haaretz. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    11. ^ "Israel eases restrictions on Gaza fishing – Middle East – Al Jazeera English". Aljazeera.com. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    12. ^ Williams, Dan (22 March 2013). "Hamas appeals to Egypt after Israel halves Gaza fishing zone". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    13. ^ "Rocket fired from Gaza lands near Jerusalem". Al Jazeera English. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    14. ^ "The main armed groups in Gaza". gulfnews.com. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    15. ^ a b "The total numbers of victims". Palestinian Center for Human Rights. 24 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    16. ^ a b c "After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test". Times of Israel. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    17. ^ a b "Operation Pillar of Defence" (PDF). Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
    18. ^ a b "Operation Pillar of Defence Report". B'tselem. 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
    19. ^ "Gaza baby 'only knew how to smile'". BBC News. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
    20. ^ "Hamas executes six suspected informants for Israel on Gaza street". The Guardian. Associated press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    21. ^ a b "Israel under fire – November 2012". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Israel. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
    22. ^ "Chief of Staff Declares 'Operation Pillar of Cloud'". Arutz Sheva. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    23. ^ a b "Q&A: Israel-Gaza violence". BBC News. 20 November 2012.
    24. ^ a b "Day 2: 300+ Rockets Fired at Israel Since Start of Operation Pillar of Defense" (live updates). Algemeiner. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    25. ^ Lappin, Yaakov (14 November 2012). "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    26. ^ Kalman, Matthew (15 November 2012). "Massed Israeli troops poised for invasion of Gaza". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    27. ^ Cite error: The named reference Haaretz_blame_mullet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ "Gaza groups pound Israel with over 100 rockets". The Jerusalem Post. 11 December 2012.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference pound was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "Israel: Tunnel Explodes on Gaza Border". ABC News. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.[dead link]
    31. ^ "Operation Pillar of Defense – Selected statements". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, israel. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    32. ^ Cite error: The named reference UNHCR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    33. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (16 November 2012). "Jerusalem and Tel Aviv under rocket fire, Netanyahu warns Gaza". Chicago Tribune.
    34. ^ "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    35. ^ "Israel warns Hamas of 'heavy price' for Gaza rockets". 11 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    36. ^ "LIVE BLOG: Day 8 of Israel-Gaza conflict 2012". Haaretz. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
    37. ^ "Factbox: Gaza targets bombed by Israel". Reuters. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    38. ^ Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the implementation of Human Rights Council resolutions S-9/1 and S-12/1, Addendum, 6 March 2013.
    39. ^ "Israel Gaza Attacks Intensify Despite Truce Talks". The Huffington Post. The Associated Press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    40. ^ Initial Findings: 40 of the Palestinians killed by the Israeli military up to the night of 19 Nov. were civilians, among them 19 minors., B'Tselem 21 November 2012 Archived 2 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
    41. ^ "Escalation in Hostilities, Gaza and southern Israel" (PDF). Situation Report. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 26 November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
    42. ^ "Dalu Family in Gaza Mourns Dead After Israel Bombs House". The Huffington Post. Reuters. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
    43. ^ "Israeli forces prepare for war as troops mass on Gaza border". Telegraph. London. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    44. ^ Mistaken Lull, Simple Errand, Death in Gaza, The New York Times, 16 November 2012
    45. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference toi7b was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    46. ^ JODI RUDOREN. "Collaborators fall prey to both sides in Gaza ; Price of being suspected, much less convicted, can be fatal – and gruesome." International Herald Tribune. 2012
    47. ^ "كتائب القسام تبدأ عملية "حجارة سجيل" ضد إسرائيل". Al-sharq.com. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    48. ^ a b Ban Ki-moon; UN Secretary General (21 November 2012). "Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council [as delivered]". Tel Aviv. Retrieved 22 November 2012. Overall, in that same time period, more than 1,456 rockets have been fired from Gaza into Israel. 142 have fallen inside Gaza itself. Approximately 409 were intercepted by the Iron Dome anti-missile system. (...) Since Israel's targeted assassination from the air, on 14 November, of Ahmed Jaabari, chief of Hamas' military wing, and with Israel's offensive in Gaza in its eighth day, the Israel Defense Forces publicly reported that it has conducted strikes at more than 1,450 targets in Gaza.
    49. ^ Lappin, Yaakov; Lazaroff, Tovah (15 November 2012). "Gaza rocket hits area south of Tel Aviv for first time". The Jerusalem Post.
    50. ^ Cite error: The named reference gu18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    51. ^ Rettig, Haviv (21 November 2012). "Title: After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test. TOI. Nov 2012". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    52. ^ "MDA: 16 injured in South on sixth day of operation". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
    53. ^ 70 Israelis injured in rocket attacks in last 24 hours, Jerusalem Post 15 November 2012
    54. ^ Oster, Marcy (22 November 2012). "Title: six Israelis die in Operation Pillar of Defense. JTA. 12 Nov". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    55. ^ [21][51][52][53][54]
    56. ^ Levinson, Charles; Adam Entous (26 November 2012). "Israel's Iron Dome Defense Battled to Get Off the Ground". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
    57. ^ "Terror attack: Blast on Tel Aviv bus; 28 hurt". Ynet News. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
    58. ^ Lazaroff, Tovah (16 November 2012). "Ashton, Merkel say Israel has right to defend itself". The Jerusalem Post.
    59. ^ "Gaza Rocket Attacks" (Press release). US: Department of State. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    60. ^ "Foreign Secretary statement on Gaza and southern Israel". UK: Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    61. ^ al-Mughrabi, Nidal (14 November 2012). "UPDATE 8-Rockets hits near Tel Aviv as Gaza death toll rises". Reuters. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    62. ^ Hall, Bianca (16 November 2012). "Gillard condemns attacks on Israel" (Press release). AU: Fairfax Media. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    63. ^ "Les ministres européens mettent en garde Israël quant à l'escalade de la violence à Gaza" [European ministers warn Israel about escalade of violence in Gaza] (in French). EurActiv. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    64. ^ "Foreign minister Nikolay Mladenov commenting on the situation in southern Israel and the Gaza Strip". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bulgaria). 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    65. ^ "Canada Condemns Hamas and Stands with Israel" (Press release). CA: Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    66. ^ Statement of MFA on Israel and the Gaza Strip, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic 15 November 2012
    67. ^ Timmermans condemns rocket attacks on Israel from Gaza, Government of the Netherlands 13 November 2012
    68. ^ a b "Russia condemns 'disproportionate' strikes on Gaza". The Daily Star. LB. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    69. ^ [58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68]
    70. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Regular Press Conference on November 19, 2012". Consulate General of the People’s Republic of China in New York. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
    71. ^ "At the UN, Pakistan slams Israel's offensive in Gaza". The Express Tribune. PK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    72. ^ "Morocco Strongly Condemns Israeli Raids on Gaza". Rabat, BH. Bahrain News Agency. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    73. ^ "Lebanese president: Israeli attack on Gaza obstructs peace". NOW Lebanon. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    74. ^ [68][71][72][73]
    75. ^ "Gaza toll rises as UN calls for end to the bloodshed". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    76. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D.; Rudoren, Jodi (21 November 2012). "Cease-Fire Between Israel and Hamas Takes Effect". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    77. ^ Owen, Paul. "Israel-Gaza: truce talks ongoing in Cairo – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
    78. ^ Iron Dome protects Tel Aviv as army warns of long fight ahead, Times of Israel 17 November 2012
    79. ^ Israel dealt Hamas 'a heavy blow' and is prepared to resume offensive if need be, Netanyahu says, Times of Israel 22 November 2012
    80. ^ Gaza leader Haniyeh thanks Iran for helping make Israel ‘scream with pain', Times of Israel 22 November 2012
    81. ^ IBRAHIM BARZAK and KARIN LAUB The Associated Press (22 November 2012). "Hamas claims victory as ceasefire starts". The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    82. ^ Sarah Leah Whitson; Middle East director (20 December 2012). "Israel/Gaza: Unlawful Israeli Attacks on Palestinian Media". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    83. ^ Cite error: The named reference HRWHamas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    84. ^ Cite error: The named reference HRWreport was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    Articles:
    1
    14 November 2012Israel launches a major military operation in the Gaza Strip, as hostilities with Hamas escalate.

    2012 Israeli operation in the Gaza Strip

    In November 2012, the Israel Defense Forces launched Operation Pillar of Defense (Hebrewעַמּוּד עָנָן‎, ʿAmúd ʿAnán, literally: "Pillar of Cloud")[22] which was an eight-day campaign in the Hamas-governed Gaza Strip, which began on 14 November 2012 with the killing of Ahmed Jabari, chief of the Gaza military wing of Hamas by an Israeli airstrike.[23][24][25][26]

    The operation was preceded by a period with a number of mutual Israeli–Palestinian responsive attacks.[27] According to the Israeli government, the operation began in response to the launch of over 100 rockets at Israel during a 24-hour period,[28][29] an attack by Gaza militants on an Israeli military patrol jeep within Israeli borders,[citation needed] and an explosion caused by IEDs, which occurred near Israeli soldiers, on the Israeli side of a tunnel passing under the Israeli West Bank barrier.[30][31] The Israeli government stated that the aims of the military operation were to halt rocket attacks against civilian targets originating from the Gaza Strip[32][33] and to disrupt the capabilities of militant organizations.[34] The Palestinians blamed the Israeli government for the upsurge in violence, accusing the IDF of attacks on Gazan civilians in the days leading up to the operation.[35] They cited the blockade of the Gaza Strip and the occupation of West Bank, including East Jerusalem, as the reason for rocket attacks.[23]

    During the course of the operation, the IDF claimed to have struck more than 1,500 sites in the Gaza Strip,[36] including rocket launchpads, weapon depots, government facilities, and apartment blocks.[37] According to a UNHCR report, 174 Palestinians were killed and hundreds were wounded.[38] Many families were displaced.[16][39][40][41] One airstrike[42] killed ten members of the al-Dalu family. Some Palestinian casualties were caused by misfired Palestinian rockets landing inside the Gaza Strip.[43] Eight Palestinians were executed by members of the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades for alleged collaboration with Israel.[44][45][46]

    During the operation, Hamas, the al-Qassam Brigades and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) further intensified their rocket attacks on Israeli cities and towns, in an operation code named Operation Stones of Baked Clay (Arabic: حجارة سجيل‎, ḥijārat sijīl) by the al-Qassam Brigades,[47] firing over 1,456 rockets into Israel, and an additional 142 which fell inside Gaza itself.[48] Palestinian militant groups used weapons including Iranian-made Fajr-5, Russian-made Grad rockets, Qassams, and mortars.[citation needed] Some of these weapons were fired into Rishon LeZion, Beersheba, Ashdod, Ashkelon, and other population centers. Tel Aviv was hit for the first time since the 1991 Gulf War, and rockets were fired at Jerusalem.[49] The rockets killed three Israeli civilians in a direct hit on a home in Kiryat Malachi.[24][45][50] By the end of the operation, six Israelis had been killed, two hundred forty were injured, and more than two hundred had been treated for anxiety by Magen David Adom.[55] About 421 rockets were intercepted by Israel's Iron Dome missile defense system, another 142 fell on Gaza itself, 875 fell in open areas, and 58 hit urban areas in Israel.[48][56] A bus in Tel Aviv was bombed by an Arab-Israeli, injuring 28 civilians.[57]

    Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other Western countries expressed support for what they considered Israel's right to defend itself, or condemned the Hamas rocket attacks on Israel.[69] China,[70] Iran, Russia, Egypt, Turkey, and several other Arab and Muslim countries condemned the Israeli operation.[74] The United Nations Security Council held an emergency session on the situation, but did not reach a decision.[75] After days of negotiations between Hamas and Israel, a ceasefire mediated by Egypt was announced on 21 November.[76][77][78] Both sides claimed victory. Israel said that it had achieved its aim of crippling Hamas's rocket-launching ability,[79] while Hamas stated that Israel's option of invading Gaza had ended.[80][81] According to Human Rights Watch, both sides violated the laws of war during the fighting.[82][83][84]

    1. ^ "IDF believes Hamas, Islamic Jihad will honor cease-fire". Jerusalem Post. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    2. ^ a b "PFLP says fighters will continue to strike Israel". Ma'an News Agency. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    3. ^ "Occupied Quds City Targeted by Palestinian Missile". Fars News Agency. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    4. ^ "Fatah: We also fought against Israel in Pillar of Defense". The Jerusalem Post. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    5. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Birnbaum, Michael (21 November 2012). "After Israel, Hamas reach Gaza cease-fire, both sides claim victory". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    6. ^ Kalman, Matthew; Sengupta, Kim (21 November 2012). "Fragile truce deal hailed as a victory on both sides". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    7. ^ Ahren, Raphael (21 November 2012). "Israel says it 'fulfilled all its goals,' while Hamas hails an 'exceptional victory'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    8. ^ Lyon, Alistair, ed. (21 November 2012). "Israel's battle damage report says Hamas crippled". Jewish Journal. Reuters. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    9. ^ Balmer, Crispian (21 November 2012). "Analysis: Relief at Gaza ceasefire can't mask its frailty". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    10. ^ Ravid, Barak (22 November 2012). "Israel's Pillar of Defense achieved its goals". Haaretz. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    11. ^ "Israel eases restrictions on Gaza fishing – Middle East – Al Jazeera English". Aljazeera.com. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    12. ^ Williams, Dan (22 March 2013). "Hamas appeals to Egypt after Israel halves Gaza fishing zone". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    13. ^ "Rocket fired from Gaza lands near Jerusalem". Al Jazeera English. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    14. ^ "The main armed groups in Gaza". gulfnews.com. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    15. ^ a b "The total numbers of victims". Palestinian Center for Human Rights. 24 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    16. ^ a b c "After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test". Times of Israel. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    17. ^ a b "Operation Pillar of Defence" (PDF). Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
    18. ^ a b "Operation Pillar of Defence Report". B'tselem. 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
    19. ^ "Gaza baby 'only knew how to smile'". BBC News. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
    20. ^ "Hamas executes six suspected informants for Israel on Gaza street". The Guardian. Associated press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    21. ^ a b "Israel under fire – November 2012". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Israel. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
    22. ^ "Chief of Staff Declares 'Operation Pillar of Cloud'". Arutz Sheva. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    23. ^ a b "Q&A: Israel-Gaza violence". BBC News. 20 November 2012.
    24. ^ a b "Day 2: 300+ Rockets Fired at Israel Since Start of Operation Pillar of Defense" (live updates). Algemeiner. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    25. ^ Lappin, Yaakov (14 November 2012). "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    26. ^ Kalman, Matthew (15 November 2012). "Massed Israeli troops poised for invasion of Gaza". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    27. ^ Cite error: The named reference Haaretz_blame_mullet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ "Gaza groups pound Israel with over 100 rockets". The Jerusalem Post. 11 December 2012.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference pound was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "Israel: Tunnel Explodes on Gaza Border". ABC News. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.[dead link]
    31. ^ "Operation Pillar of Defense – Selected statements". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, israel. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    32. ^ Cite error: The named reference UNHCR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    33. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (16 November 2012). "Jerusalem and Tel Aviv under rocket fire, Netanyahu warns Gaza". Chicago Tribune.
    34. ^ "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    35. ^ "Israel warns Hamas of 'heavy price' for Gaza rockets". 11 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    36. ^ "LIVE BLOG: Day 8 of Israel-Gaza conflict 2012". Haaretz. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
    37. ^ "Factbox: Gaza targets bombed by Israel". Reuters. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    38. ^ Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the implementation of Human Rights Council resolutions S-9/1 and S-12/1, Addendum, 6 March 2013.
    39. ^ "Israel Gaza Attacks Intensify Despite Truce Talks". The Huffington Post. The Associated Press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    40. ^ Initial Findings: 40 of the Palestinians killed by the Israeli military up to the night of 19 Nov. were civilians, among them 19 minors., B'Tselem 21 November 2012 Archived 2 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
    41. ^ "Escalation in Hostilities, Gaza and southern Israel" (PDF). Situation Report. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 26 November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
    42. ^ "Dalu Family in Gaza Mourns Dead After Israel Bombs House". The Huffington Post. Reuters. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
    43. ^ "Israeli forces prepare for war as troops mass on Gaza border". Telegraph. London. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    44. ^ Mistaken Lull, Simple Errand, Death in Gaza, The New York Times, 16 November 2012
    45. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference toi7b was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    46. ^ JODI RUDOREN. "Collaborators fall prey to both sides in Gaza ; Price of being suspected, much less convicted, can be fatal – and gruesome." International Herald Tribune. 2012
    47. ^ "كتائب القسام تبدأ عملية "حجارة سجيل" ضد إسرائيل". Al-sharq.com. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    48. ^ a b Ban Ki-moon; UN Secretary General (21 November 2012). "Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council [as delivered]". Tel Aviv. Retrieved 22 November 2012. Overall, in that same time period, more than 1,456 rockets have been fired from Gaza into Israel. 142 have fallen inside Gaza itself. Approximately 409 were intercepted by the Iron Dome anti-missile system. (...) Since Israel's targeted assassination from the air, on 14 November, of Ahmed Jaabari, chief of Hamas' military wing, and with Israel's offensive in Gaza in its eighth day, the Israel Defense Forces publicly reported that it has conducted strikes at more than 1,450 targets in Gaza.
    49. ^ Lappin, Yaakov; Lazaroff, Tovah (15 November 2012). "Gaza rocket hits area south of Tel Aviv for first time". The Jerusalem Post.
    50. ^ Cite error: The named reference gu18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    51. ^ Rettig, Haviv (21 November 2012). "Title: After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test. TOI. Nov 2012". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    52. ^ "MDA: 16 injured in South on sixth day of operation". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
    53. ^ 70 Israelis injured in rocket attacks in last 24 hours, Jerusalem Post 15 November 2012
    54. ^ Oster, Marcy (22 November 2012). "Title: six Israelis die in Operation Pillar of Defense. JTA. 12 Nov". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    55. ^ [21][51][52][53][54]
    56. ^ Levinson, Charles; Adam Entous (26 November 2012). "Israel's Iron Dome Defense Battled to Get Off the Ground". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
    57. ^ "Terror attack: Blast on Tel Aviv bus; 28 hurt". Ynet News. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
    58. ^ Lazaroff, Tovah (16 November 2012). "Ashton, Merkel say Israel has right to defend itself". The Jerusalem Post.
    59. ^ "Gaza Rocket Attacks" (Press release). US: Department of State. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    60. ^ "Foreign Secretary statement on Gaza and southern Israel". UK: Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    61. ^ al-Mughrabi, Nidal (14 November 2012). "UPDATE 8-Rockets hits near Tel Aviv as Gaza death toll rises". Reuters. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    62. ^ Hall, Bianca (16 November 2012). "Gillard condemns attacks on Israel" (Press release). AU: Fairfax Media. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    63. ^ "Les ministres européens mettent en garde Israël quant à l'escalade de la violence à Gaza" [European ministers warn Israel about escalade of violence in Gaza] (in French). EurActiv. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    64. ^ "Foreign minister Nikolay Mladenov commenting on the situation in southern Israel and the Gaza Strip". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bulgaria). 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    65. ^ "Canada Condemns Hamas and Stands with Israel" (Press release). CA: Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    66. ^ Statement of MFA on Israel and the Gaza Strip, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic 15 November 2012
    67. ^ Timmermans condemns rocket attacks on Israel from Gaza, Government of the Netherlands 13 November 2012
    68. ^ a b "Russia condemns 'disproportionate' strikes on Gaza". The Daily Star. LB. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    69. ^ [58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68]
    70. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Regular Press Conference on November 19, 2012". Consulate General of the People’s Republic of China in New York. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
    71. ^ "At the UN, Pakistan slams Israel's offensive in Gaza". The Express Tribune. PK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    72. ^ "Morocco Strongly Condemns Israeli Raids on Gaza". Rabat, BH. Bahrain News Agency. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    73. ^ "Lebanese president: Israeli attack on Gaza obstructs peace". NOW Lebanon. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    74. ^ [68][71][72][73]
    75. ^ "Gaza toll rises as UN calls for end to the bloodshed". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    76. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D.; Rudoren, Jodi (21 November 2012). "Cease-Fire Between Israel and Hamas Takes Effect". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    77. ^ Owen, Paul. "Israel-Gaza: truce talks ongoing in Cairo – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
    78. ^ Iron Dome protects Tel Aviv as army warns of long fight ahead, Times of Israel 17 November 2012
    79. ^ Israel dealt Hamas 'a heavy blow' and is prepared to resume offensive if need be, Netanyahu says, Times of Israel 22 November 2012
    80. ^ Gaza leader Haniyeh thanks Iran for helping make Israel ‘scream with pain', Times of Israel 22 November 2012
    81. ^ IBRAHIM BARZAK and KARIN LAUB The Associated Press (22 November 2012). "Hamas claims victory as ceasefire starts". The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    82. ^ Sarah Leah Whitson; Middle East director (20 December 2012). "Israel/Gaza: Unlawful Israeli Attacks on Palestinian Media". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    83. ^ Cite error: The named reference HRWHamas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    84. ^ Cite error: The named reference HRWreport was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    15 November 1955 – The first part of Saint Petersburg Metro is opened.

    Saint Petersburg Metro

    The Saint Petersburg Metro (Russian: Петербургский метрополитен) is a rapid transit system in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Construction began in early 1941, but was put on hold due to World War II and the subsequent Siege of Leningrad, during which the constructed stations were used as bomb shelters. It was finally opened on 15 November 1955.

    Formerly known as the Order of Lenin Leningrad Metro named after V. I. Lenin (Ленинградский Ордена Ленина Метрополитен имени В. И. Ленина), the system exhibits many typical Soviet designs and features exquisite decorations and artwork making it one of the most attractive and elegant metros in the world. Due to the city's unique geology, the Saint Petersburg Metro is also one of the deepest metro systems in the world and the deepest by the average depth of all the stations. The system's deepest station, Admiralteyskaya, is 86 metres (282 ft) below ground.

    The network consists of 5 lines with a total length of 124 kilometres (77 mi). It has 72 stations including 7 transfer points. Serving about 2 million passengers daily, it is the 26th busiest metro system in the world.

    1. ^ Andrew Zalmanov as a private person. "Петербургский метрополитен". Spb.metro.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
     
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    16 October 1943 – Holocaust in Italy: Raid of the Ghetto of Rome.

    Raid of the Ghetto of Rome

    The Raid of the Ghetto of Rome took place on 16 October 1943.[1] A total of 1,259 people, mainly members of the Jewish community—numbering 363 men, 689 women, and 207 children—were detained by the Gestapo. Of these detainees, 1,023 were identified as Jews and deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp. Of these deportees, only fifteen men and one woman survived.

    1. ^ "Italy's first Holocaust museum to be built in Rome". The Jerusalem Post. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
     
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    17 November 2013 – Fifty people are killed when Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363 crashes at Kazan Airport, Russia.

    Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363

    Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight, operated by Tatarstan Airlines on behalf of Ak Bars Aero, from Moscow to Kazan, Russia. On 17 November 2013, at 19:24 local time (UTC+4), the Boeing 737-500 crashed during an aborted landing at Kazan International Airport, killing all 44 passengers and 6 crew members on board.[1][2]

    According to the official investigation report by the Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC), the crash was a result of pilot error, arising from a lack of skill to recover from an excessive nose-up attitude during a go-around procedure. The pilots' deficiencies were caused by a problem with the airline's safety management and a lack of regulatory oversight. One member of the commission filed an alternative opinion report, however, claiming that the commission had ignored the possible malfunction of the aircraft's elevator controls.[3]

    1. ^ "'Dozens dead' in Russian plane crash". BBC News. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
    2. ^ "Russian airline crashes in Kazan, killing dozens". CBS News. 17 November 2013. Archived from the original on 17 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference alternative was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    19 November 1969 – Association football player Pelé scores his 1,000th goal.

    Pelé

    Edson Arantes do Nascimento (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈɛtsõ (w)ɐˈɾɐ̃tʃiz du nɐsiˈmẽtu]; born 23 October 1940), known as Pelé ([peˈlɛ]), is a Brazilian former professional footballer who played as a forward. Regarded as one of the greatest players of all time, he was among the most successful and popular sports figures of the 20th century. During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best-paid athlete in the world.

    In 1999, Pelé was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS), and was one of the two joint winners of the FIFA Player of the Century award. That same year, Pelé was elected Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee and was included in the Time list of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. According to the IFFHS, Pelé is the most successful top division scorer of all times with 541 goals in 560 appearances.[1] His total of 1279 goals in 1363 games, which included friendlies, is a Guinness World Record.[2]

    Pelé began playing for Santos at age 15 and the Brazil national team at 16. During his international career, he won three FIFA World Cups: 1958, 1962 and 1970, being the only player ever to do so. Pelé is the all-time leading goalscorer for Brazil with 77 goals in 92 games. At club level he is Santos' all-time top goalscorer, and led them to the 1962 and 1963 Copa Libertadores, and to the 1962 and 1963 Intercontinental Cup. Known for connecting the phrase "The Beautiful Game" with football, Pelé's "electrifying play and penchant for spectacular goals" made him a star around the world, and his teams toured internationally in order to take full advantage of his popularity. Since retiring in 1977, Pelé has been a worldwide ambassador for football and has made many acting and commercial ventures. In 2010, he was named the Honorary President of the New York Cosmos.

    Averaging almost a goal per game throughout his career, Pelé was adept at striking the ball with either foot in addition to anticipating his opponents' movements on the field. While predominantly a striker, he could also drop deep and take on a playmaking role, providing assists with his vision and passing ability, and he would also use his dribbling skills to go past opponents. In Brazil, he is hailed as a national hero for his accomplishments in football and for his outspoken support of policies that improve the social conditions of the poor. Throughout his career and in his retirement, Pelé received several individual and team awards for his performance in the field, his record-breaking achievements, and legacy in the sport.

    1. ^ "IFFHS Top Division Scorers". Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference GWR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    20 November 1998 – A court in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan declares accused terrorist Osama bin Laden "a man without a sin" in regard to the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.

    1998 United States embassy bombings

    The 1998 United States embassy bombings were attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998. More than 200 people were killed in nearly simultaneous truck bomb explosions in two East African cities, one at the United States Embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, the other at the United States Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.[1]

    The attacks, which were linked to local members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, brought Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, and their terrorist organization, al-Qaeda, to the attention of the U.S. public for the first time, and resulted in the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) placing bin Laden on its ten most-wanted fugitives list. The FBI also connected the attack to Azerbaijan, as 60 calls were placed via satellite phone by bin Laden to associates in the country's capital Baku.[2] Fazul Abdullah Mohammed and Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah were credited with being the masterminds behind the bombings.[3][4][5]

    1. ^ http://hir.harvard.edu/religion/lifting-the-veil?page=0,1 Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ "Book Review: 'Mercenaries, Extremists, and Islamist Fighters in Karabagh War". Armenian Weekly. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
    3. ^ Bennett, Brian (June 12, 2011). "Al Qaeda operative key to 1998 U.S. embassy bombings killed in Somalia". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011.
    4. ^ "Al-Qaida timeline: Plots and attacks – World news – Hunt for Al-Qaeda | NBC News". NBC News. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
    5. ^ "Читать онлайн "The Black Banners" автора Soufan Ali H. - RuLit - Страница 83". Archived from the original on January 15, 2014.
     
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    21 November 2012 – At least 28 are wounded after a bomb is thrown onto a bus in Tel Aviv.

    2012 Tel Aviv bus bombing

    The 2012 Tel Aviv bus bombing was a mass-injury terror attack carried out on November 21, 2012, on a crowded passenger bus driving in the center of Tel Aviv's business district. The attack was carried out by an Israeli citizen of Arab descent, who remotely detonated an explosive device, which he had hid on the bus in advance. Twenty-eight civilians were injured in the attack, among them three who were injured seriously. The attack was carried out on the 8th and last day of Operation Pillar of Defense, only a few hours before the ceasefire was reached.

    The attack was the first mass-injury terror attack in Tel Aviv since the 2006 Tel Aviv shawarma restaurant bombing, in which 11 people were killed and 70 were injured.[2]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference telegraph1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Egypt FM: Israel, Hamas cease-fire to go into effect at 9pm". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
     
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    22 November 1995Toy Story is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.

    Toy Story

    Toy Story is a 1995 American computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The feature film directorial debut of John Lasseter, it was the first entirely computer-animated feature film, as well as the first feature film from Pixar. The screenplay was written by Joss Whedon, Andrew Stanton, Joel Cohen, and Alec Sokolow from a story by Lasseter, Stanton, Pete Docter, and Joe Ranft. The film features music by Randy Newman, was produced by Bonnie Arnold and Ralph Guggenheim, and was executive-produced by Steve Jobs and Edwin Catmull. It features the voices of Tom Hanks, Tim Allen, Don Rickles, Wallace Shawn, John Ratzenberger, Jim Varney, Annie Potts, R. Lee Ermey, John Morris, Laurie Metcalf, and Erik von Detten. Taking place in a world where anthropomorphic toys come to life when humans are not present, the plot focuses on the relationship between an old-fashioned pull-string cowboy doll named Woody and an astronaut action figure, Buzz Lightyear, as they evolve from rivals competing for the affections of their owner Andy Davis, to friends who work together to be reunited with him after being separated from him.

    Following the success of Pixar's 1988 short film Tin Toy, the company was approached by Disney to produce a computer-animated feature film told from a small toy's perspective. Lasseter, Stanton, and Docter wrote early story treatments, which were rejected by Disney, who wanted the film's tone to be "edgier". After several disastrous story reels, production was halted and the script was rewritten to better reflect the tone and theme Pixar desired: "toys deeply want children to play with them, and ... this desire drives their hopes, fears, and actions". The studio, then consisting of a relatively small number of employees, produced the film under only minor financial constraints.

    Toy Story premiered at the El Capitan Theatre in Los Angeles, California, on November 19, 1995, and was released in theaters in North America on November 22, 1995. It was the highest-grossing film during its opening weekend,[2] eventually grossing over $373 million worldwide. The film received critical acclaim, and holds a rare 100% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes. It was praised for the technical innovation of the 3D animation, wit and thematic sophistication of the screenplay, musical score, and vocal performances (particularly Hanks and Allen); it is considered by many to be one of the best animated films ever made.[4] The film received three Academy Award nominations (Best Original Screenplay, Best Original Song for "You've Got a Friend in Me", and Best Original Score) as well as winning a Special Achievement Academy Award.[5] In 2005, its first year of eligibility, it was inducted into the National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[6]

    In addition to home media and theatrical re-releases, Toy Story-inspired material includes toys, video games, theme park attractions, spin-offs, merchandise, and three sequels—Toy Story 2 (1999), Toy Story 3 (2010) and Toy Story 4 (2019)—all of which garnered commercial success and critical acclaim. A spin-off TV series called Buzz Lightyear of Star Command aired from 2000 to 2001, starting with a direct-to-video film, Buzz Lightyear of Star Command: The Adventure Begins.[7][8]

    1. ^ "Toy Story". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
    2. ^ a b "Toy Story (1995) – Financial Information". The Numbers. Archived from the original on December 5, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
    3. ^ "Toy Story (1995)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 22, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference best-animation was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ King, Susan (September 30, 2015). "How 'Toy Story' changed the face of animation, taking off 'like an explosion'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
    6. ^ "Librarian of Congress Adds 25 Films to National Film Registry – News Releases (Library of Congress)". Loc.gov. Archived from the original on August 9, 2009. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference THRCars3Incr2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Lang, Brent (October 26, 2016). "'Incredibles 2' Hitting Theaters a Year Early, 'Toy Story 4' Pushed Back to 2019". Variety. Archived from the original on April 9, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
     
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    23 November 1992 – The first smartphone, the IBM Simon, is introduced at COMDEX in Las Vegas, Nevada.

    IBM Simon

    The IBM Simon Personal Communicator (simply known as IBM Simon) is a handheld, touchscreen PDA designed by International Business Machines (IBM), and manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric.[6] BellSouth Cellular Corp. distributed the Simon Personal Communicator in the United States between August 1994 and February 1995, selling 50,000 units. The Simon Personal Communicator was the first personal digital assistant or PDA to include telephony features. The battery lasted only an hour, and flip phones became increasingly slim which led to its demise.[7]

    1. ^ Sager, Ira (June 29, 2012). "Before IPhone and Android Came Simon, the First Smartphone". Bloomberg Businessweek. ISSN 2162-657X. Retrieved June 30, 2012. Simon was the first smartphone. Twenty years ago, it envisioned our app-happy mobile lives, squeezing the features of a cell phone, pager, fax machine, and computer into an 18-ounce black brick.
    2. ^ O'Malley, Chris (December 1994). "Simonizing the PDA". Byte. 19 (12): 145–148. ISSN 0360-5280. Archived from the original on February 21, 1999. Retrieved June 30, 2012. The CPU is a 16-bit x86-compatible processor running at 16 MHz, a single-chip design manufactured by Vadem. Simon runs a version of DOS called ROM-DOS, from Datalight...
    3. ^ "Bellsouth, IBM Unveil Personal Communicator Phone". Mobile Phone News. November 8, 1993. ISSN 0737-5077. Retrieved June 30, 2012. The phone currently is based on an AMPS standard...
    4. ^ "BellSouth: IBM Simon PDA Cellphone". RetroCom. RetroCom. Retrieved June 30, 2012. Graphic display: 160 x 293
    5. ^ Nochkin, Alexandr (July 10, 2013). "IBM Simon. The first smartphone in the World. What's inside". IBM blog (in Russian). Habrahabr.ru. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
    6. ^ Jin, Dal Yong (2017). Smartland Korea: Mobile Communication, Culture, and Society. University of Michigan Press. pp. 34–35. ISBN 9780472053377.
    7. ^ First Smartphone Turns 20: Fun Facts About Simon, 2014-08-18.
     
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    24 November 1877Anna Sewell's animal welfare novel Black Beauty is published.

    Black Beauty

    Black Beauty: His Grooms and Companions, the Autobiography of a Horse is an 1877 novel by English author Anna Sewell. It was composed in the last years of her life, during which she remained in her house as an invalid.[1] The novel became an immediate best-seller, with Sewell dying just five months after its publication, but having lived long enough to see her only novel become a success. With fifty million copies sold, Black Beauty is one of the best-selling books of all time.[2]

    While forthrightly teaching animal welfare, it also teaches how to treat people with kindness, sympathy, and respect. In 2003, the novel was listed at number 58 on the BBC's survey The Big Read.[3] It is seen as a forerunner of the pony book.

    1. ^ Merriam-Webster (1995). "Black Beauty". Merriam Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature.
    2. ^ The Times on Black Beauty: "Fifty million copies of Black Beauty have been sold in the years since Anna Sewell's publisher paid her £20 for the story." (29 February 2008)
    3. ^ "BBC – The Big Read". BBC. April 2003, Retrieved 18 October 2012
     
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    25 November 1960 – The Mirabal sisters of the Dominican Republic are assassinated.

    Mirabal sisters

    The three assassinated Mirabal sisters (Patria Mirabal, Minerva Mirabal, and María Teresa Mirabal).

    The Mirabal sisters (Spanish pronunciation: [eɾˈmanas miɾaˈβal], Las Hermanas Mirabal) were four sisters, known commonly as Patria, Minerva, María Teresa, and Dedé, who opposed the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo (El Jefe) in the Dominican Republic and were involved in clandestine activities against his regime.[1] Three of the four sisters (Patria, Minerva, María Teresa) were assassinated on 25 November 1960. The last sister, Dedé, died of natural causes on 1 February 2014.[2]

    The assassinations turned the Mirabal sisters into "symbols of both popular and feminist resistance".[3] In 1999, in their honor, the United Nations General Assembly designated 25 November the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.[4]

    1. ^ "International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women". www.un.org.
    2. ^ "La tragedia de las hermanas Mirabal: cómo el asesinato de 3 mujeres dominicanas dio origen al día mundial de la No violencia contra la mujer" – via www.bbc.com.
    3. ^ Rohter, Larry (15 February 1997). "The Three Sisters, Avenged: A Dominican Drama". New York Times.
    4. ^ "International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women". United Nations. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
     
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    26 November 2008Mumbai attacks, a series of terrorist attacks killing approximately 166 citizens by 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, a Pakistan based extremist Islamist terrorist organisation, and the ship, Queen Elizabeth 2 is out of service, and docks in Dubai.

    2008 Mumbai attacks

    The 2008 Mumbai attacks[10] (also referred to as 26/11)[11][a] were a series of terrorist attacks that took place in November 2008, when 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, an extremist organisation, carried out 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks lasting four days across Mumbai.[12][13][14] The attacks, which drew widespread global condemnation, began on Wednesday 26 November and lasted until Saturday 29 November 2008. At least 174 people died, including 9 attackers, and more than 300 were wounded.[2][15]

    Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Mumbai Chabad House,[16] The Oberoi Trident,[17] The Taj Palace & Tower,[17] Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital,[17] The Nariman House,[18] the Metro Cinema,[19] and in a lane behind the Times of India building and St. Xavier's College.[17] There was also an explosion at Mazagaon, in Mumbai's port area, and in a taxi at Vile Parle.[20] By the early morning of 28 November, all sites except for the Taj Hotel had been secured by the Mumbai Police and security forces. On 29 November, India's National Security Guards (NSG) conducted Operation Black Tornado to flush out the remaining attackers; it culminated in the death of the last remaining attackers at the Taj Hotel and ended the attacks.[21]

    Pakistan condemned the attacks.[22][23] Ajmal Kasab,[24] the sole surviving attacker, disclosed that the attackers were members of the terrorist group Lashkar-e-Taiba,[25] among others.[26] The Government of India stated that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan.[27] Pakistan later confirmed that the sole surviving perpetrator of the attacks was a Pakistani citizen.[28][29] On 9 April 2015, the foremost ringleader of the attacks, Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi, was released on bail and disappeared. In 2018, former Pakistani prime minister Nawaz Sharif suggested that the Pakistani government played a role in the 2008 Mumbai attack.[30]

    1. ^ Magnier, Mark; Sharma, Subhash (27 November 2008). "Terror attacks ravage Mumbai". Los Angeles Times. p. A1. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
    2. ^ a b c "Mumbai terrorist attacks of 2008". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
    3. ^ Masood, Salman (12 February 2009). "Pakistan Backtracks on Link to Mumbai Attacks". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
    4. ^ Haider, Kamran (12 February 2009). "Pakistan says it arrests Mumbai attack plotters". Reuters. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
    5. ^ Aziz, Hadi (12 November 2012). "Pakistan admits Pakistanis, LeT training camps used for Mumbai attacks". The News Tribe. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
    6. ^ Nelson, Dean (8 July 2009). "Pakistani president Asif Zardari admits creating terrorist groups". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
    7. ^ "Pakistan admits Mumbai terror link". The National. 12 February 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
    8. ^ "Army preparing for final assault, says Major General Hooda". The Times of India. Press Trust of India. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2008.
    9. ^ "India Blames Pakistan as Mumbai Siege Ends". Deutsche Welle. 29 November 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
    10. ^ "10 years on, revisiting Mumbai's terror hours". OnManorama. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
    11. ^ "26/11 Mumbai Terror Attacks Aftermath: Security Audits Carried Out On 227 Non-Major Seaports Till Date". NDTV. Press Trust of India. 26 November 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
    12. ^ Friedman, Thomas (17 February 2009). "No Way, No How, Not Here". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
    13. ^ "Indian Muslims hailed for not burying 26/11 attackers". Sify News. 19 February 2009. Archived from the original on 23 October 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
    14. ^ Schifrin, Nick (25 November 2009). "Mumbai Terror Attacks: 7 Pakistanis Charged – Action Comes a Year After India's Worst Terrorist Attacks; 164 Die". ABC News. Archived from the original on 27 November 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
    15. ^ Black, Ian (28 November 2008). "Attacks draw worldwide condemnation". The Guardian. London, UK. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2008.
    16. ^ https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/ten-years-after-26/11-chabad-house-continues-to-stand-tall/articleshow/66784843.cms
    17. ^ a b c d "Wave of Terror Attacks Strikes India's Mumbai, Killing at Least 182". Fox News Channel. 27 November 2008. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
    18. ^ Kahn, Jeremy (2 December 2008). "Jews of Mumbai, a Tiny and Eclectic Group, Suddenly Reconsider Their Serene Existence". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
    19. ^ Magnier, Mark (3 December 2008). "Facing attackers with little more than courage". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
    20. ^ "Tracing the terror route". The Indian Express. Mumbai. 10 December 2008. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
    21. ^ "Police declare Mumbai siege over". BBC News. 29 November 2008. Archived from the original on 29 November 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
    22. ^ "PM Gilani denounces Mumbai attacks". The News International. Karachi. 27 November 2008. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
    23. ^ "PM Gilani expresses condolences for slain ISI men". The News International. Karachi. 27 November 2008. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
    24. ^ "Terrorist's name lost in transliteration". The Hindu. Chennai. 6 December 2008. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
    25. ^ Bajoria, Jayshree (14 January 2010). "Profile: Lashkar-e-Taiba (Army of the Pure) (aka Lashkar e-Tayyiba, Lashkar e-Toiba; Lashkar-i-Taiba)". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
    26. ^ Schmitt, Eric; Sengupta, Somini; Perlez, Jane (3 December 2008). "US and India See Link to Militants in Pakistan". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
    27. ^ Schmitt, Eric; Sengupta, Somini (3 December 2008). "Ex-US Official Cites Pakistani Training for India Attackers". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2009.
    28. ^ "Mumbai siege: 'Kill all the hostages – except the two Muslims'". The Independent. 8 January 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
    29. ^ Waraich, Omar (8 January 2009). "Pakistan Continues to Resist India Pressure on Mumbai". TIME. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2009.
    30. ^ Farmer, Ben (24 September 2019). "Pakistan trained al-Qaeda, says Imran Khan". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 September 2019. Pakistan's security apparatus has in the past angrily rejected politicians linking it to militancy. Nawaz Sharif, the former prime minister, faced treason charges last year after an interview where he suggested the Pakistani state played a role in the 2008 Mumbai attack that killed 166 people.


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    27 November 1924 – In New York City, the first Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is held.

    Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade

    The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City, the world's largest parade,[2] is presented by the U.S. based department store chain Macy's. The parade started in 1924,[3] tying it for the second-oldest Thanksgiving parade in the United States with America's Thanksgiving Parade in Detroit (with both parades being four years younger than Philadelphia's Thanksgiving Day Parade). The three-hour parade is held in Manhattan, ending outside Macy's Herald Square, and takes place from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time on Thanksgiving Day, and has been televised nationally on NBC since 1953. Employees at Macy's department stores have the option of marching in the parade.

    1. ^ a b "Portfolio of Brad Lachman-produced programs". Retrieved November 22, 2012.
    2. ^ "Millions Of Revelers Marvel Over Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade". CBS Broadcasting Inc. November 24, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
    3. ^ Grippo, Robert (2004). Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. San Francisco, CA: Arcadia Publishing. p. 9.
     
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    28 November 2014 – Gunmen set off three bombs at the central mosque in the northern Nigerian city of Kano killing at least 120 people.

    2014 Kano attack

    The 2014 Kano bombing was a terrorist attack on November 28, 2014 at the Central Mosque (Grand Mosque) in Kano, the biggest city in the mainly Muslim Northern Nigeria during the Islamist insurgency in Nigeria. The mosque is next to the palace of the Emir of Kano, Muhammad Sanusi II, Nigeria's second most senior Muslim cleric, who had urged the civilians to protect themselves by arming up against Boko Haram. Two suicide bombers blew themselves up and gunmen opened fire on those who were trying to escape. Around 120 people were killed and another 260 injured.[1][2][3][4]

    1. ^ AFP. "Suicide bombers, gunmen kill 64 at prominent Nigeria mosque". Retrieved 29 November 2014.
    2. ^ "BBC News - Nigeria unrest: Kano mosque attack kills dozens". BBC News. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
    3. ^ Al Jazeera and agencies. "Scores killed in Nigeria mosque blasts". Retrieved 29 November 2014.
    4. ^ "Bombs, gunfire kill 81 at crowded mosque in Nigeria's Kano". Reuters. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
     
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    29 November 1944 – World War II: Albania is liberated by the Partisans.

    Liberation Day (Albania)

    Map of Albania during WWII

    Liberation Day (Albanian: Dita e Çlirimit) in Albania is commemorated as the day, November 29, 1944, in which the country was liberated from Nazi Germany forces after the Albanian resistance during World War II.[1]

    1. ^ Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania as dictatorship and democracy: from isolation to the Kosovo War. IB Taurus. p. 221. ISBN 1-84511-105-2.

    29 November 1944 – World War II: Albania is liberated by the Partisans.

    Liberation Day (Albania)

    Map of Albania during WWII

    Liberation Day (Albanian: Dita e Çlirimit) in Albania is commemorated as the day, November 29, 1944, in which the country was liberated from Nazi Germany forces after the Albanian resistance during World War II.[1]

    1. ^ Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania as dictatorship and democracy: from isolation to the Kosovo War. IB Taurus. p. 221. ISBN 1-84511-105-2.

    29 November 1944 – World War II: Albania is liberated by the Partisans.

    Liberation Day (Albania)

    Map of Albania during WWII

    Liberation Day (Albanian: Dita e Çlirimit) in Albania is commemorated as the day, November 29, 1944, in which the country was liberated from Nazi Germany forces after the Albanian resistance during World War II.[1]

    1. ^ Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania as dictatorship and democracy: from isolation to the Kosovo War. IB Taurus. p. 221. ISBN 1-84511-105-2.
     
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    30 November 1995 – Official end of Operation Desert Storm.

    Gulf War

    The Gulf War[b] (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991) was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. It was codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase.

    On 2 August 1990, the Iraqi Army invaded and occupied Kuwait, which was met with international condemnation and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. UK prime minister Margaret Thatcher[29] and US president George H. W. Bush deployed forces into Saudi Arabia, and urged other countries to send their own forces to the scene. An array of nations joined the coalition, forming the largest military alliance since World War II. Most of the coalition's military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and Egypt as leading contributors, in that order. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost.[30]

    The war marked the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN.[31][32][33] The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board U.S. bombers during Operation Desert Storm.[27][34]

    The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991, continuing for five weeks. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition ceased its advance and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the ground campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on Saudi Arabia's border. Iraq launched Scud missiles against Israel and coalition targets in Saudi Arabia.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt-syria-double was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Den 1. Golfkrig". Forsvaret.dk. 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    3. ^ Persian Gulf War, the Sandhurst-trained Prince
      Khaled bin Sultan al-Saud was co-commander with General Norman Schwarzkopf
      www.casi.org.uk/discuss
    4. ^ General Khaled was Co-Commander, with US General Norman Schwarzkopf, of the allied coalition that liberated Kuwait www.thefreelibrary.com
    5. ^ Gulf War coalition forces (latest available) by country "www.nationmaster.com". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
    6. ^ Hersh, Seymour (2005). Chain of Command. Penguin Books. p. 181.
    7. ^ a b "Persian Gulf War". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.
    8. ^ 18 M1 Abrams, 11 M60, 2 AMX-30
    9. ^ CheckPoint, Ludovic Monnerat -. "Guerre du Golfe : le dernier combat de la division Tawakalna".
    10. ^ Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 279.
    11. ^ Halberstadt 1991. p. 35
    12. ^ Atkinson, Rick. Crusade, The untold story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. pp. 332–3
    13. ^ Captain Todd A. Buchs, B. Co. Commander, Knights in the Desert. Publisher/Editor Unknown. p. 111.
    14. ^ Malory, Marcia. "Tanks During the First Gulf War – Tank History". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    15. ^ M60 vs T-62 Cold War Combatants 1956–92 by Lon Nordeen & David Isby
    16. ^ "TAB H – Friendly-fire Incidents". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    17. ^ NSIAD-92-94, "Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams". US General Accounting Office, 10 January 1992. Quote: "According to information provided by the Army's Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 20 Bradleys were destroyed during the Gulf war. Another 12 Bradleys were damaged, but four of these were quickly repaired. Friendly fire accounted for 17 of the destroyed Bradleys and three of the damaged ones
    18. ^ a b c d Pike, John. "Operation Desert Storm". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    19. ^ Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990 (Air War) Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Acig.org. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
    20. ^ a b c d e Bourque P.455
    21. ^ "The Use of Terror during Iraq's invasion of Kuwait". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 24 January 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
    22. ^ "Kuwait: missing people: a step in the right direction". Red Cross.
    23. ^ "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict". Project on Defense Alternatives. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
    24. ^ "Frontline Chronology". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
    25. ^ "Tenth anniversary of the Gulf War: A look back". CNN. 17 January 2001. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
    26. ^ Kenneth Estes. "ISN: The Second Gulf War (1990–1991) – Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
    27. ^ a b A Guerra do Golfo, os Estados Unidos e as Relações Internacionais accessed on 29 March 2011.
    28. ^ Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história, access on 27 November 2011.
    29. ^ "George Bush (Sr) Library – Margaret Thatcher Foundation". www.margaretthatcher.org.
    30. ^ Peters, John E; Deshong, Howard (1995). Out of Area or Out of Reach? European Military Support for Operations in Southwest Asia (PDF). RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-2329-2.
    31. ^ "Memória Globo". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), access on 29 March 2011.
    32. ^ "Livraria da Folha – Livro conta como Guerra do Golfo colocou a CNN no foco internacional – 08/09/2010". .folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
    33. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, accessed on 29 March 2011
    34. ^ Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história, access on 27 November 2011.


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    1 December 1958 – The Our Lady of the Angels School fire in Chicago kills 92 children and three nuns.

    Our Lady of the Angels School fire

    On Monday, December 1, 1958, a fire broke out at Our Lady of the Angels School in Chicago, Illinois, shortly before classes were to be dismissed for the day. The fire originated in the basement near the foot of a stairway. The elementary school was operated by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago and had an enrollment of approximately 1600 students. A total of 92 pupils and 3 nuns ultimately died when smoke, heat, fire, and toxic gases cut off their normal means of egress through corridors and stairways. Many more were injured when they jumped from second-floor windows which, because the building had a raised basement, were nearly as high as a third floor would be on level ground (c. 25 ft.).[1]

    The disaster was the lead headline story in American, Canadian, and European newspapers. Pope John XXIII sent his condolences from the Vatican in Rome. The severity of the fire shocked the nation and surprised educational administrators of both public and private schools. The disaster led to major improvements in standards for school design and fire safety codes.

    1. ^ David Cowan and John Kuenster, To Sleep with the Angels: The Story of a Fire (1996) excerpt
     
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    2 December 1976Fidel Castro becomes President of Cuba, replacing Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado.

    Fidel Castro

    Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (/ˈkæstr/;[1] American Spanish: [fiˈðel aleˈxandɾo ˈkastɾo ˈrus]; 13 August 1926 – 25 November 2016) was a Cuban revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and President from 1976 to 2008. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, he also served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011. Under his administration the Republic of Cuba became a one-party communist state; industry and business were nationalized, and state socialist reforms were implemented throughout society.

    Born in Birán, Oriente as the son of a wealthy Spanish farmer, Castro adopted leftist and anti-imperialist ideas while studying law at the University of Havana. After participating in rebellions against right-wing governments in the Dominican Republic and Colombia, he planned the overthrow of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista, launching a failed attack on the Moncada Barracks in 1953. After a year's imprisonment, Castro traveled to Mexico where he formed a revolutionary group, the 26th of July Movement, with his brother Raúl Castro and Ernesto "Che" Guevara. Returning to Cuba, Castro took a key role in the Cuban Revolution by leading the Movement in a guerrilla war against Batista's forces from the Sierra Maestra. After Batista's overthrow in 1959, Castro assumed military and political power as Cuba's Prime Minister. The United States came to oppose Castro's government and unsuccessfully attempted to remove him by assassination, economic blockade, and counter-revolution, including the Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961. Countering these threats, Castro aligned with the Soviet Union and allowed the Soviets to place nuclear weapons in Cuba, resulting in the Cuban Missile Crisis – a defining incident of the Cold War – in 1962.

    Adopting a Marxist–Leninist model of development, Castro converted Cuba into a one-party, socialist state under Communist Party rule, the first in the Western Hemisphere. Policies introducing central economic planning and expanding healthcare and education were accompanied by state control of the press and the suppression of internal dissent. Abroad, Castro supported anti-imperialist revolutionary groups, backing the establishment of Marxist governments in Chile, Nicaragua, and Grenada, as well as sending troops to aid allies in the Yom Kippur, Ogaden, and Angolan Civil War. These actions, coupled with Castro's leadership of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1979 to 1983 and Cuba's medical internationalism, increased Cuba's profile on the world stage. Following the Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991, Castro led Cuba through the economic downturn of the "Special Period", embracing environmentalist and anti-globalization ideas. In the 2000s, Castro forged alliances in the Latin American "pink tide" – namely with Hugo Chávez's Venezuela – and signed Cuba up to the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas. In 2006, Castro transferred his responsibilities to Vice President Raúl Castro, who was elected to the presidency by the National Assembly in 2008.

    The longest-serving non-royal head of state in the 20th and 21st centuries, Castro polarized opinion throughout the world. His supporters view him as a champion of socialism and anti-imperialism whose revolutionary regime advanced economic and social justice while securing Cuba's independence from US hegemony. He was a tyrannical dictator whose administration oversaw human rights abuses, the exodus of many Cubans, and the impoverishment of the country's economy. Castro was decorated with various international awards and significantly influenced different individuals and groups across the world.
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    3 December 1984Bhopal disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000–600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.

    Bhopal disaster

    The Bhopal disaster, also referred to as the Bhopal gas tragedy, was a gas leak incident on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is considered among the world's worst industrial disasters.[1][2] Over 500,000 people were exposed to methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas. The highly toxic substance made its way into and around the small towns located near the plant.[3]

    Estimates vary on the death toll. The official immediate death toll was 2,259. In 2008, the Government of Madhya Pradesh had paid compensation to the family members of 3,787 victims killed in the gas release, and to 574,366 injured victims.[4] A government affidavit in 2006 stated that the leak caused 558,125 injuries, including 38,478 temporary partial injuries and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries.[5] Others estimate that 8,000 died within two weeks, and another 8,000 or more have since died from gas-related diseases.[6] The cause of the disaster remains under debate. The Indian government and local activists argue that slack management and deferred maintenance created a situation where routine pipe maintenance caused a backflow of water into a MIC tank, triggering the disaster. Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) argues water entered the tank through an act of sabotage.

    The owner of the factory, UCIL, was majority owned by UCC, with Indian Government-controlled banks and the Indian public holding a 49.1 percent stake. In 1989, UCC paid $470 million (equivalent to $860 million in 2019) to settle litigation stemming from the disaster. In 1994, UCC sold its stake in UCIL to Eveready Industries India Limited (EIIL), which subsequently merged with McLeod Russel (India) Ltd. Eveready ended clean-up on the site in 1998, when it terminated its 99-year lease and turned over control of the site to the state government of Madhya Pradesh. Dow Chemical Company purchased UCC in 2001, seventeen years after the disaster.

    Civil and criminal cases filed in the United States against UCC and Warren Anderson, UCC CEO at the time of the disaster, were dismissed and redirected to Indian courts on multiple occasions between 1986 and 2012, as the US courts focused on UCIL being a standalone entity of India. Civil and criminal cases were also filed in the District Court of Bhopal, India, involving UCC, UCIL and UCC CEO Anderson.[7][8] In June 2010, seven Indian nationals who were UCIL employees in 1984, including the former UCIL chairman, were convicted in Bhopal of causing death by negligence and sentenced to two years imprisonment and a fine of about $2,000 each, the maximum punishment allowed by Indian law. All were released on bail shortly after the verdict. An eighth former employee was also convicted, but died before the judgement was passed.[2]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference MandavilliUnfolding was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b "Bhopal trial: Eight convicted over India gas disaster". BBC News. 7 June 2010. Archived from the original on 7 June 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
    3. ^ Varma, Roli; Daya R. Varma (2005). "The Bhopal Disaster of 1984". Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. 25: 37–45. doi:10.1177/0270467604273822. S2CID 109281859.
    4. ^ "Madhya Pradesh Government : Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department, Bhopal". Mp.gov.in. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
    5. ^ AK Dubey (21 June 2010). "Bhopal Gas Tragedy: 92% injuries termed "minor"". First14 News. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Eckerman2005 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Company Defends Chief in Bhopal Disaster". New York Times. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
    8. ^ "U.S. Exec Arrest Sought in Bhopal Disaster". CBS News. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
     
  35. NewsBot

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    3 December 1984Bhopal disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000–600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.

    Bhopal disaster

    The Bhopal disaster, also referred to as the Bhopal gas tragedy, was a gas leak incident on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is considered among the world's worst industrial disasters.[1][2] Over 500,000 people were exposed to methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas. The highly toxic substance made its way into and around the small towns located near the plant.[3]

    Estimates vary on the death toll. The official immediate death toll was 2,259. In 2008, the Government of Madhya Pradesh had paid compensation to the family members of 3,787 victims killed in the gas release, and to 574,366 injured victims.[4] A government affidavit in 2006 stated that the leak caused 558,125 injuries, including 38,478 temporary partial injuries and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries.[5] Others estimate that 8,000 died within two weeks, and another 8,000 or more have since died from gas-related diseases.[6] The cause of the disaster remains under debate. The Indian government and local activists argue that slack management and deferred maintenance created a situation where routine pipe maintenance caused a backflow of water into a MIC tank, triggering the disaster. Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) argues water entered the tank through an act of sabotage.

    The owner of the factory, UCIL, was majority owned by UCC, with Indian Government-controlled banks and the Indian public holding a 49.1 percent stake. In 1989, UCC paid $470 million (equivalent to $860 million in 2019) to settle litigation stemming from the disaster. In 1994, UCC sold its stake in UCIL to Eveready Industries India Limited (EIIL), which subsequently merged with McLeod Russel (India) Ltd. Eveready ended clean-up on the site in 1998, when it terminated its 99-year lease and turned over control of the site to the state government of Madhya Pradesh. Dow Chemical Company purchased UCC in 2001, seventeen years after the disaster.

    Civil and criminal cases filed in the United States against UCC and Warren Anderson, UCC CEO at the time of the disaster, were dismissed and redirected to Indian courts on multiple occasions between 1986 and 2012, as the US courts focused on UCIL being a standalone entity of India. Civil and criminal cases were also filed in the District Court of Bhopal, India, involving UCC, UCIL and UCC CEO Anderson.[7][8] In June 2010, seven Indian nationals who were UCIL employees in 1984, including the former UCIL chairman, were convicted in Bhopal of causing death by negligence and sentenced to two years imprisonment and a fine of about $2,000 each, the maximum punishment allowed by Indian law. All were released on bail shortly after the verdict. An eighth former employee was also convicted, but died before the judgement was passed.[2]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference MandavilliUnfolding was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b "Bhopal trial: Eight convicted over India gas disaster". BBC News. 7 June 2010. Archived from the original on 7 June 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
    3. ^ Varma, Roli; Daya R. Varma (2005). "The Bhopal Disaster of 1984". Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. 25: 37–45. doi:10.1177/0270467604273822. S2CID 109281859.
    4. ^ "Madhya Pradesh Government : Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department, Bhopal". Mp.gov.in. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
    5. ^ AK Dubey (21 June 2010). "Bhopal Gas Tragedy: 92% injuries termed "minor"". First14 News. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Eckerman2005 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Company Defends Chief in Bhopal Disaster". New York Times. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
    8. ^ "U.S. Exec Arrest Sought in Bhopal Disaster". CBS News. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
     
  36. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    4 December 1991Terry A. Anderson is released after seven years in captivity as a hostage in Beirut; he is the last and longest-held American hostage in Lebanon.

    Terry A. Anderson

    Terry A. Anderson (born October 27, 1947)[1] is an American journalist. He reported for the Associated Press.[2] In 1985, he was taken hostage by Shiite Hezbollah militants of the Islamic Jihad Organization in Lebanon [3] and held until 1991. In 2004, he ran unsuccessfully for the Ohio State Senate.

    1. ^ Barron, James (March 16, 1990). "A Lost American in Lebanon: After 5 Years, Trail Is Faint". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
    2. ^ Specter, Michael (December 11, 1991). "Terry Anderson Receives Hero's Welcome at A.P.". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
    3. ^ "Lebanon: The Hostage Crisis". December 1987. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
     

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