Welcome to the Podiatry Arena forums

You are currently viewing our podiatry forum as a guest which gives you limited access to view all podiatry discussions and access our other features. By joining our free global community of Podiatrists and other interested foot health care professionals you will have access to post podiatry topics (answer and ask questions), communicate privately with other members, upload content, view attachments, receive a weekly email update of new discussions, access other special features. Registered users do not get displayed the advertisements in posted messages. Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please, join our global Podiatry community today!

  1. Everything that you are ever going to want to know about running shoes: Running Shoes Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
  2. Have you considered the Critical Thinking and Skeptical Boot Camp, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
  3. Have you considered the Clinical Biomechanics Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
Dismiss Notice
Have you considered the Clinical Biomechanics Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
Dismiss Notice
Have you liked us on Facebook to get our updates? Please do. Click here for our Facebook page.
Dismiss Notice
Do you get the weekly newsletter that Podiatry Arena sends out to update everybody? If not, click here to organise this.

This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    27 April 2005Airbus A380 aircraft had its maiden test flight.

    Airbus A380

    The Airbus A380 is a wide-body aircraft manufactured by Airbus. It is the world's largest passenger airliner. Airbus studies started in 1988 and the project was announced in 1990 to challenge the dominance of the Boeing 747 in the long haul market. The then-designated A3XX project was presented in 1994; Airbus launched the €9.5 billion ($10.7 billion) A380 programme on 19 December 2000. The first prototype was unveiled in Toulouse on 18 January 2005, with its first flight on 27 April 2005. Difficulties in electrical wiring caused a two-year delay and the development cost ballooned to €18 billion. It obtained its type certificate from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on 12 December 2006.

    It was first delivered to Singapore Airlines on 15 October 2007 and entered service on 25 October. Production peaked at 30 per year in 2012 and 2014. However, Airbus concedes that its $25 billion investment for the aircraft cannot be recouped. On 14 February 2019, after Emirates reduced its last orders in favour of the A350 and the A330neo, Airbus announced that A380 production would end in 2021.[4]

    The full-length double-deck aircraft, sometimes nicknamed the superjumbo, has a typical seating capacity of 525, though it is certified for up to 853 passengers. It is powered by four Engine Alliance GP7200 or Rolls-Royce Trent 900 turbofans providing a range of 8,000 nmi (14,800 km). As of August 2020, Airbus has received 251 firm orders and delivered 246 aircraft; Emirates is the biggest A380 customer with 123 ordered, of which 118 have been delivered.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "Airbus unveils first A380 centre wingbox". Airbus. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference CNN20210318 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Airbus_O_D was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Airbus14feb2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  2. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    28 April 1996 – Port Arthur massacre, Tasmania: A gunman, Martin Bryant, opens fire at the Broad Arrow Cafe in Port Arthur, Tasmania, killing 35 people and wounding 23 others.

    Port Arthur massacre (Australia)

    The Port Arthur massacre of 28–29 April 1996 was a mass shooting in which 35 people were killed and 23 wounded in Port Arthur, Tasmania. The murderer, Martin Bryant, pleaded guilty and was given 35 life sentences without possibility of parole. Fundamental changes of gun control laws within Australia followed the incident. The case is the worst massacre in modern Australia committed by a single person.[3]

    1. ^ "The Queen v. Bryant". Archived from the original on 8 May 2001.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
    2. ^ "As The U.S. Looks To Australia For Hope on Guns, Its Laws Are Being Quietly Pulled Back". HuffPost. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
    3. ^ Wahlquist, Calla (14 March 2016). "It took one massacre: how Australia embraced gun control after Port Arthur". The Guardian.
     
  3. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    29 April 1968 – The controversial musical Hair, a product of the hippie counter-culture and sexual revolution of the 1960s, opens at the Biltmore Theatre on Broadway, with some of its songs becoming anthems of the anti-Vietnam War movement.

    Hair (musical)

    Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical is a rock musical with a book and lyrics by Gerome Ragni and James Rado and music by Galt MacDermot. The work reflects the creators' observations of the hippie counterculture and sexual revolution of the late 1960s, and several of its songs became anthems of the anti-Vietnam War peace movement. The musical's profanity, its depiction of the use of illegal drugs, its treatment of sexuality, its irreverence for the American flag, and its nude scene caused much comment and controversy.[1] The musical broke new ground in musical theatre by defining the genre of "rock musical", using a racially integrated cast, and inviting the audience onstage for a "Be-In" finale.[2]

    Hair tells the story of the "tribe", a group of politically active, long-haired hippies of the "Age of Aquarius" living a bohemian life in New York City and fighting against conscription into the Vietnam War. Claude, his good friend Berger, their roommate Sheila and their friends struggle to balance their young lives, loves, and the sexual revolution with their rebellion against the war and their conservative parents and society. Ultimately, Claude must decide whether to resist the draft as his friends have done, or to succumb to the pressures of his parents (and conservative America) to serve in Vietnam, compromising his pacifist principles and risking his life.

    After an off-Broadway debut on October 17, 1967, at Joseph Papp's Public Theater and a subsequent run at the Cheetah nightclub from December 1967 through January 1968, the show opened on Broadway in April 1968 and ran for 1,750 performances. Simultaneous productions in cities across the United States and Europe followed shortly thereafter, including a successful London production that ran for 1,997 performances. Since then, numerous productions have been staged around the world, spawning dozens of recordings of the musical, including the 3 million-selling original Broadway cast recording. Some of the songs from its score became Top 10 hits, and a feature film adaptation was released in 1979. A Broadway revival opened in 2009, earning strong reviews and winning the Tony Award and Drama Desk Award for Best Revival of a Musical. In 2008, Time wrote, "Today Hair seems, if anything, more daring than ever."[3]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Horn87 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Pacheco, Patrick (June 17, 2001). "Peace, Love and Freedom Party", Archived May 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Los Angeles Times, p. 1. Retrieved on June 10, 2008
    3. ^ Zoglin, Richard. "A New Dawn for Hair", Archived August 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Time, July 31, 2008 (in the August 11, 2008 issue, pp. 61–63)
     
  4. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    30 April 1939 – The 1939–40 New York World's Fair opens.

    1939 New York World's Fair

    The 1939–40 New York World's Fair was a world's fair held at Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, New York, United States. It was the second-most expensive American world's fair of all time, exceeded only by St. Louis's Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904. Many countries around the world participated in it, and over 44 million people attended its exhibits in two seasons.[2] It was the first exposition to be based on the future, with an opening slogan of "Dawn of a New Day", and it allowed all visitors to take a look at "the world of tomorrow".

    When World War II began four months into the 1939 World's Fair, many exhibits were affected, especially those on display in the pavilions of countries under Axis occupation. After the close of the fair in 1940, many exhibits were demolished or removed, though some buildings were retained for the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair, held at the same site.

    1. ^ "1939 New York World's Fair". www.1939nyworldsfair.com. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
    2. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. 58, Random House, New York, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
     
  5. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    1 May 1982Operation Black Buck: The Royal Air Force attacks the Argentine Air Force during Falklands War.

    Operation Black Buck

    Operation Black Buck on the map.

    During the 1982 Falklands War, Operations Black Buck 1 to Black Buck 7 were a series of seven extremely long-range ground attack missions by Royal Air Force (RAF) Vulcan bombers of the RAF Waddington Wing, comprising aircraft from Nos. 44, 50 and 101 Squadrons against Argentine positions in the Falkland Islands, of which five missions completed attacks. The objective of the missions was to attack Port Stanley Airport and its associated defences. The raids, at almost 6,600 nautical miles (12,200 km) and 16 hours for the return journey, were the longest-ranged bombing raids in history at that time.

    The Operation Black Buck raids were staged from RAF Ascension Island, close to the Equator. The Vulcan was designed for medium-range missions in Europe and lacked the range to fly to the Falklands without refuelling several times. The RAF's tanker planes were mostly converted Handley Page Victor bombers with similar range, so they too had to be refuelled in the air. A total of eleven tankers were required for two Vulcans (one primary and one reserve), a daunting logistical effort as all aircraft had to use the same runway. The Vulcans carried either twenty-one 1,000-pound (450 kg) bombs internally or two or four Shrike anti-radar missiles externally. Of the five Black Buck raids flown to completion, three were against Stanley Airfield's runway and operational facilities, while the other two were anti-radar missions using Shrike missiles against a Westinghouse AN/TPS-43 long-range 3D radar in the Port Stanley area. Shrikes hit two of the less valuable and rapidly replaced secondary fire control radars, causing some casualties among the Argentine crews. One Vulcan was nearly lost when a fuel shortage forced it to land in Brazil.

    The raids did minimal damage to the runway and damage to radars was quickly repaired. A single crater was produced on the runway, rendering it impossible for the airfield to be used by fast jets. Argentine ground crew repaired the runway within twenty-four hours, to a level of quality suitable for C-130 Hercules transports. The British were aware that the runway remained in use. Dismissed in some quarters as post-war propaganda, Argentine sources originally claimed that the Vulcan raids influenced Argentina to withdraw some of their Dassault Mirage III fighter aircraft from the Southern Argentina Defence Zone to the Buenos Aires Defence Zone. This dissuasive effect was watered down when British officials made clear that there would be no strikes on air bases in Argentina. It has been suggested that the Black Buck raids were undertaken by the RAF because the British armed forces had been cut in the late 1970s and the RAF may have desired a greater role in the conflict to prevent further cuts.

     
  6. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    2 May 1989Cold War: Hungary begins dismantling its border fence with Austria, which allows a number of East Germans to defect.

    Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria

    Tree-lined road with gates and a guardhouse
    Hungary–Austria border near Sopron, Hungary.

    The removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria occurred in 1989 during the collapse of communism in Hungary, which was part of a broad wave of revolutions in various communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The border was still closely guarded and the Hungarian security forces tried to hold back refugees. The dismantling of the electric fence along Hungary's 240 kilometres (149 mi) long border with Austria was the first little fissure in the "Iron Curtain" that had divided Europe for more than 40 years, since the end of World War II. Then the Pan-European Picnic caused a chain reaction in East Germany that ultimately resulted in the demise of the Berlin Wall.[1]

    1. ^ Hilde Szabo: Die Berliner Mauer begann im Burgenland zu bröckeln (The Berlin Wall began to crumble in Burgenland - German), in Wiener Zeitung 16 August 1999; Otmar Lahodynsky: Paneuropäisches Picknick: Die Generalprobe für den Mauerfall (Pan-European picnic: the dress rehearsal for the fall of the Berlin Wall - German), in: Profil 9 August 2014.
     
  7. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    3 May 2000 – The sport of geocaching begins, with the first cache placed and the coordinates from a GPS posted on Usenet.

    Geocaching

    Geocaching /ˈˌkæʃɪŋ/ is an outdoor recreational activity, in which participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", at specific locations marked by coordinates all over the world.[2]

    People Geocaching in Norway

    A typical cache is a small waterproof container containing a logbook and sometimes a pen or pencil. The geocacher signs the log with their established code name and dates it, in order to prove that they found the cache. After signing the log, the cache must be placed back exactly where the person found it. Larger containers such as plastic storage containers (Tupperware or similar) or ammunition boxes can also contain items for trading, such as toys or trinkets, usually of more sentimental worth than financial.[3] Geocaching shares many aspects with benchmarking, trigpointing, orienteering, treasure-hunting, letterboxing, waymarking and Munzee.

    1. ^ BBC (April 29, 2009). "Geocaching". BBC. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
    2. ^ Geocaching. "Geocaching - The Official Global GPS Cache Hunt Site". Geocaching. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
    3. ^ Society, National Geographic (January 21, 2011). "geocaching". National Geographic Society. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
     
  8. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    3 May 2000 – The sport of geocaching begins, with the first cache placed and the coordinates from a GPS posted on Usenet.

    Geocaching

    Geocaching /ˈˌkæʃɪŋ/ is an outdoor recreational activity, in which participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", at specific locations marked by coordinates all over the world.[2]

    People Geocaching in Norway

    A typical cache is a small waterproof container containing a logbook and sometimes a pen or pencil. The geocacher signs the log with their established code name and dates it, in order to prove that they found the cache. After signing the log, the cache must be placed back exactly where the person found it. Larger containers such as plastic storage containers (Tupperware or similar) or ammunition boxes can also contain items for trading, such as toys or trinkets, usually of more sentimental worth than financial.[3] Geocaching shares many aspects with benchmarking, trigpointing, orienteering, treasure-hunting, letterboxing, waymarking and Munzee.

    1. ^ BBC (April 29, 2009). "Geocaching". BBC. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
    2. ^ Geocaching. "Geocaching - The Official Global GPS Cache Hunt Site". Geocaching. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
    3. ^ Society, National Geographic (January 21, 2011). "geocaching". National Geographic Society. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
     
  9. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    4 May 2014 – Three people are killed and 62 injured in a pair of bombings on buses in Nairobi, Kenya.

    2014 Nairobi bus bombings

    On 4 May 2014, two improvised explosive devices exploded on buses in Nairobi, Kenya, killing three people and injuring sixty-two.[1][2] Both of the bombs exploded northeast of Nairobi on the Thika Road, an eight-lane controlled-access highway, and detonated 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) apart. Twenty of the wounded were in critical condition after the blast.

    1. ^ a b "Kenya buses hit by deadly twin blasts in Nairobi". BBC. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
    2. ^ a b "Kenya: Three Killed In Nairobi Bus Bombings". Sky News. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
     
  10. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    5 May 1980Operation Nimrod: The British Special Air Service storms the Iranian embassy in London after a six-day siege.

    Iranian Embassy siege

    The Iranian Embassy siege took place from 30 April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy on Prince's Gate in South Kensington, London. The gunmen, Iranian Arabs campaigning for sovereignty of Khuzestan Province, took 26 people hostage, including embassy staff, several visitors, and a police officer who had been guarding the embassy. They demanded the release of prisoners in Khuzestan and their own safe passage out of the United Kingdom. The British government quickly decided that safe passage would not be granted and a siege ensued. Subsequently, police negotiators secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions, such as the broadcasting of the hostage-takers' demands on British television.

    By the sixth day of the siege the gunmen were increasingly frustrated at the lack of progress in meeting their demands. That evening, they killed a hostage and threw his body out of the embassy. The Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment of the British Army, initiated "Operation Nimrod" to rescue the remaining hostages, abseiling from the roof and forcing entry through the windows. During the 17-minute raid they rescued all but one of the remaining hostages and killed five of the six hostage-takers. An inquest cleared the SAS of any wrongdoing. The sole remaining gunman served 27 years in British prisons.

    The Iran–Iraq War broke out later that year and the hostage crisis in Tehran continued until January 1981. Nonetheless, the operation brought the SAS to the public eye for the first time and bolstered the reputation of Thatcher's government. The SAS was quickly overwhelmed by the number of applications it received from people inspired by the operation and experienced greater demand for its expertise from foreign governments. The building, damaged by fire during the assault, was not reopened until 1993. The SAS raid, televised live on a bank holiday evening, became a defining moment in British history and proved a career break for several journalists; it became the subject of multiple documentaries and works of fiction, including several films and television series.

     
  11. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    6 May 1954Roger Bannister becomes the first person to run the mile in under four minutes.

    Roger Bannister

    Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister CH CBE FRCP (23 March 1929 – 3 March 2018) was a British middle-distance athlete and neurologist who ran the first sub-4-minute mile.

    At the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Bannister set a British record in the 1500 metres and finished in fourth place. This achievement strengthened his resolve to become the first athlete to finish the mile run in under four minutes. He accomplished this feat on 6 May 1954 at Iffley Road track in Oxford, with Chris Chataway and Chris Brasher providing the pacing. When the announcer, Norris McWhirter, declared "The time was three...", the cheers of the crowd drowned out Bannister's exact time, which was 3 minutes and 59.4 seconds. He had attained this record with minimal training, while practising as a junior doctor. Bannister's record lasted just 46 days.

    Bannister went on to become a neurologist and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, before retiring in 1993. As Master of Pembroke, he was on the governing body of Abingdon School from 1986 to 1993.[3] When asked whether the 4-minute mile was his proudest achievement, he said he felt prouder of his contribution to academic medicine through research into the responses of the nervous system. Bannister was patron of the MSA Trust. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 2011.[4]

    1. ^ a b c "Roger Bannister at sports-reference.com". www.sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
    2. ^ All-Athletics. "Profile of Roger Bannister". Archived from the original on 4 April 2016.
    3. ^ "Abingdon School Athletics" (PDF). The Abingdonian.
    4. ^ Sale, Jerome (2 May 2014). "Sir Roger Bannister reveals Parkinson's disease battle". BBC News.
     
  12. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    7 May 1994Edvard Munch's painting The Scream is recovered undamaged after being stolen from the National Gallery of Norway in February.

    The Scream

    The Scream is the popular name given to a composition created by Norwegian Expressionist artist Edvard Munch in 1893. The original German title given by Munch to his work was Der Schrei der Natur (The Scream of Nature), and the Norwegian title is Skrik (Shriek). The agonised face in the painting has become one of the most iconic images of art, seen as symbolising the anxiety of the human condition.

    Munch recalled that he had been out for a walk at sunset when suddenly the setting sun's light turned the clouds "a blood red". He sensed an "infinite scream passing through nature". Scholars have located the spot to a fjord overlooking Oslo,[1] and have suggested other explanations for the unnaturally orange sky, ranging from the effects of a volcanic eruption to a psychological reaction by Munch to his sister’s commitment at a nearby lunatic asylum.

    Munch created two versions in paint and two in pastels, as well as a lithograph stone from which several prints survive. Both of the painted versions have been stolen, but since recovered. One of the pastel versions commanded the fourth highest nominal price paid for an artwork at a public auction.

    1. ^ (59°54′02.4″N 10°46′12.9″E / 59.900667°N 10.770250°E / 59.900667; 10.770250)
     
  13. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    8 May 1980 – The World Health Organization confirms the eradication of smallpox.

    Smallpox

    Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.[7] The agent of variola virus (VARV) belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus. [11] The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977, and the World Health Organization (WHO) certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980.[10] The risk of death after contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among babies.[6][12] Often those who survived had extensive scarring of their skin, and some were left blind.[6]

    The initial symptoms of the disease included fever and vomiting.[5] This was followed by formation of ulcers in the mouth and a skin rash.[5] Over a number of days the skin rash turned into characteristic fluid-filled blisters with a dent in the center.[5] The bumps then scabbed over and fell off, leaving scars.[5] The disease was spread between people or via contaminated objects.[6][13] Prevention was achieved mainly through the smallpox vaccine.[9] Once the disease had developed, certain antiviral medication may have helped.[9]

    The origin of smallpox is unknown;[14] however, the earliest evidence of the disease dates to the 3rd century BCE in Egyptian mummies.[14] The disease historically occurred in outbreaks.[10] In 18th-century Europe, it is estimated that 400,000 people died from the disease per year, and that one-third of all cases of blindness were due to smallpox.[10][15] Smallpox is estimated to have killed up to 300 million people in the 20th century[16][17] and around 500 million people in the last 100 years of its existence,[18] including six monarchs.[10][15] As recently as 1967, 15 million cases occurred a year.[10]

    Inoculation for smallpox appears to have started in China around the 1500s.[19][20] Europe adopted this practice from Asia in the first half of the 18th century.[21] In 1796 Edward Jenner introduced the modern smallpox vaccine.[22][23] In 1967, the WHO intensified efforts to eliminate the disease.[10] Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest in 2011.[24][25] The term "smallpox" was first used in Britain in the early 16th century to distinguish the disease from syphilis, which was then known as the "great pox".[26][27] Other historical names for the disease include pox, speckled monster, and red plague.[3][4][27]

    1. ^ Barton LL, Friedman NR (2008). The Neurological Manifestations of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunodeficiency Syndromes. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-59745-391-2.
    2. ^ Schaller KF (2012). Colour Atlas of Tropical Dermatology and Venerology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. Chapter 1. ISBN 978-3-642-76200-0.
    3. ^ a b Fenner F, Henderson DA, Arita I, Ježek Z, Ladnyi ID (1988). "The History of Smallpox and its Spread Around the World" (PDF). Smallpox and its eradication. History of International Public Health. 6. Geneva: World Health Organization. pp. 209–44. hdl:10665/39485. ISBN 978-92-4-156110-5. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    4. ^ a b Medicine: The Definitive Illustrated History. Pengui. 2016. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-4654-5893-3.
    5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Signs and Symptoms". CDC. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    6. ^ a b c d e "What is Smallpox?". CDC. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    7. ^ a b Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 525–28. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0.
    8. ^ a b "Diagnosis & Evaluation". CDC. 25 July 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    9. ^ a b c "Prevention and Treatment". CDC. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    10. ^ a b c d e f g "Smallpox". WHO Factsheet. Archived from the original on 21 September 2007.
    11. ^ Babkin, I, Babkina, I (March 2015). "The Origin of the Variola Virus". Viruses. 7 (3): 1100–1112. doi:10.3390/v7031100. PMC 4379562. PMID 25763864.
    12. ^ Riedel S (January 2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination". Proceedings. 18 (1): 21–25. doi:10.1080/08998280.2005.11928028. PMC 1200696. PMID 16200144.
    13. ^ Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I (2013). Treatment of Skin Disease E-Book: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-7020-5236-1.
    14. ^ a b "History of Smallpox". CDC. 25 July 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    15. ^ a b Hays JN (2005). Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impacts on Human History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 151–52. ISBN 978-1-85109-658-9.
    16. ^ Koprowski H, Oldstone MB (1996). Microbe hunters, then and now. Medi-Ed Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-936741-11-6.
    17. ^ Henderson DA (December 2011). "The eradication of smallpox – an overview of the past, present, and future". Vaccine. 29 Suppl 4: D7–9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.080. PMID 22188929.
    18. ^ Henderson D (2009). Smallpox : the death of a disease. Prometheus Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-61592-230-7.
    19. ^ Needham J (2000). Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 6, Biology and Biological Technology, Part 6, Medicine. Cambridge University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-521-63262-1. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
    20. ^ Silverstein AM (2009). A History of Immunology (2nd ed.). Academic Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0080919461..
    21. ^ Strathern P (2005). A Brief History of Medicine. London: Robinson. p. 179. ISBN 978-1-84529-155-6.
    22. ^ Wolfe RM, Sharp LK (August 2002). "Anti-vaccinationists past and present". BMJ. 325 (7361): 430–32. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7361.430. PMC 1123944. PMID 12193361.
    23. ^ "Smallpox vaccines". WHO. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
    24. ^ Guidotti TL (2015). Health and Sustainability: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. T290. ISBN 978-0-19-932568-9.
    25. ^ Roossinck MJ (2016). Virus: An Illustrated Guide to 101 Incredible Microbes. Princeton University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-4008-8325-7.
    26. ^ Harper D. "Smallpox". Online Etymology Dictionary.
    27. ^ a b Barquet N, Domingo P (October 1997). "Smallpox: the triumph over the most terrible of the ministers of death". Annals of Internal Medicine. 127 (8 Pt 1): 635–42. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.695.883. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-127-8_Part_1-199710150-00010. PMID 9341063. S2CID 20357515.
     
  14. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    9 May 2001 – In Ghana, 129 football fans die in what became known as the Accra Sports Stadium disaster. The deaths are caused by a stampede (caused by the firing of tear gas by police personnel at the stadium) that followed a controversial decision by the referee.

    Accra Sports Stadium disaster

    The Accra Sport Stadium disaster occurred at the Ohene Djan Stadium, Accra, Ghana on May 9, 2001. It took the lives of 126 people, making it the worst stadium disaster to have ever taken place in Africa.[1][2]

    1. ^ "Prosecution closes case on stadium disaster". Ghanaweb. June 23, 2003. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
    2. ^ Afanyi-Dadzie, Ebenezer (May 9, 2017). "May 9 victims remembered 16-yrs on; Herbert Mensah urges discipline". Ghana News. Archived from the original on May 9, 2017. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
     
  15. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    10 May 1774Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette become King and Queen of France

    Marie Antoinette

    Marie Antoinette (/ˌæntwəˈnɛt, ˌɒ̃t-/;[1] French: [maʁi ɑ̃twanɛt] (About this soundlisten); born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last queen of France before the French Revolution. She was born an archduchess of Austria and was the penultimate child and youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I. She became dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne. On 10 May 1774, her husband ascended the throne as Louis XVI and she became queen.

    Marie Antoinette's position at court improved when, after eight years of marriage, she started having children. She became increasingly unpopular among the people, however, with the French libelles accusing her of being profligate, promiscuous, harboring sympathies for France's perceived enemies—particularly her native Austria—and her children of being illegitimate. The false accusations of the Affair of the Diamond Necklace damaged her reputation further. During the Revolution, she became known as Madame Déficit because the country's financial crisis was blamed on her lavish spending and her opposition to the social and financial reforms of Turgot and Necker.

    Several events were linked to Marie Antoinette during the Revolution after the government had placed the royal family under house arrest in the Tuileries Palace in October 1789. The June 1791 attempted flight to Varennes and her role in the War of the First Coalition had disastrous effects on French popular opinion. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the royal family to take refuge at the Assembly, and they were imprisoned in the Temple Prison on 13 August. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. Louis XVI was executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. Marie Antoinette's trial began on 14 October 1793, and two days later she was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason and executed, also by guillotine, on the Place de la Révolution.

    1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
     

Share This Page