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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    27 April 2005Airbus A380 aircraft had its maiden test flight.

    Airbus A380

    The Airbus A380 is a wide-body aircraft manufactured by Airbus. It is the world's largest passenger airliner. Airbus studies started in 1988 and the project was announced in 1990 to challenge the dominance of the Boeing 747 in the long haul market. The then-designated A3XX project was presented in 1994; Airbus launched the €9.5 billion ($10.7 billion) A380 programme on 19 December 2000. The first prototype was unveiled in Toulouse on 18 January 2005, with its first flight on 27 April 2005. Difficulties in electrical wiring caused a two-year delay and the development cost ballooned to €18 billion. It obtained its type certificate from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on 12 December 2006.

    It was first delivered to Singapore Airlines on 15 October 2007 and entered service on 25 October. Production peaked at 30 per year in 2012 and 2014. However, Airbus concedes that its $25 billion investment for the aircraft cannot be recouped. On 14 February 2019, after Emirates reduced its last orders in favour of the A350 and the A330neo, Airbus announced that A380 production would end in 2021.[4]

    The full-length double-deck aircraft, sometimes nicknamed the superjumbo, has a typical seating capacity of 525, though it is certified for up to 853 passengers. It is powered by four Engine Alliance GP7200 or Rolls-Royce Trent 900 turbofans providing a range of 8,000 nmi (14,800 km). As of August 2020, Airbus has received 251 firm orders and delivered 246 aircraft; Emirates is the biggest A380 customer with 123 ordered, of which 118 have been delivered.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "Airbus unveils first A380 centre wingbox". Airbus. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference CNN20210318 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Airbus_O_D was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Airbus14feb2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    28 April 1996 – Port Arthur massacre, Tasmania: A gunman, Martin Bryant, opens fire at the Broad Arrow Cafe in Port Arthur, Tasmania, killing 35 people and wounding 23 others.

    Port Arthur massacre (Australia)

    The Port Arthur massacre of 28–29 April 1996 was a mass shooting in which 35 people were killed and 23 wounded in Port Arthur, Tasmania. The murderer, Martin Bryant, pleaded guilty and was given 35 life sentences without possibility of parole. Fundamental changes of gun control laws within Australia followed the incident. The case is the worst massacre in modern Australia committed by a single person.[3]

    1. ^ "The Queen v. Bryant". Archived from the original on 8 May 2001.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
    2. ^ "As The U.S. Looks To Australia For Hope on Guns, Its Laws Are Being Quietly Pulled Back". HuffPost. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
    3. ^ Wahlquist, Calla (14 March 2016). "It took one massacre: how Australia embraced gun control after Port Arthur". The Guardian.
     
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    29 April 1968 – The controversial musical Hair, a product of the hippie counter-culture and sexual revolution of the 1960s, opens at the Biltmore Theatre on Broadway, with some of its songs becoming anthems of the anti-Vietnam War movement.

    Hair (musical)

    Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical is a rock musical with a book and lyrics by Gerome Ragni and James Rado and music by Galt MacDermot. The work reflects the creators' observations of the hippie counterculture and sexual revolution of the late 1960s, and several of its songs became anthems of the anti-Vietnam War peace movement. The musical's profanity, its depiction of the use of illegal drugs, its treatment of sexuality, its irreverence for the American flag, and its nude scene caused much comment and controversy.[1] The musical broke new ground in musical theatre by defining the genre of "rock musical", using a racially integrated cast, and inviting the audience onstage for a "Be-In" finale.[2]

    Hair tells the story of the "tribe", a group of politically active, long-haired hippies of the "Age of Aquarius" living a bohemian life in New York City and fighting against conscription into the Vietnam War. Claude, his good friend Berger, their roommate Sheila and their friends struggle to balance their young lives, loves, and the sexual revolution with their rebellion against the war and their conservative parents and society. Ultimately, Claude must decide whether to resist the draft as his friends have done, or to succumb to the pressures of his parents (and conservative America) to serve in Vietnam, compromising his pacifist principles and risking his life.

    After an off-Broadway debut on October 17, 1967, at Joseph Papp's Public Theater and a subsequent run at the Cheetah nightclub from December 1967 through January 1968, the show opened on Broadway in April 1968 and ran for 1,750 performances. Simultaneous productions in cities across the United States and Europe followed shortly thereafter, including a successful London production that ran for 1,997 performances. Since then, numerous productions have been staged around the world, spawning dozens of recordings of the musical, including the 3 million-selling original Broadway cast recording. Some of the songs from its score became Top 10 hits, and a feature film adaptation was released in 1979. A Broadway revival opened in 2009, earning strong reviews and winning the Tony Award and Drama Desk Award for Best Revival of a Musical. In 2008, Time wrote, "Today Hair seems, if anything, more daring than ever."[3]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Horn87 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Pacheco, Patrick (June 17, 2001). "Peace, Love and Freedom Party", Archived May 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Los Angeles Times, p. 1. Retrieved on June 10, 2008
    3. ^ Zoglin, Richard. "A New Dawn for Hair", Archived August 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Time, July 31, 2008 (in the August 11, 2008 issue, pp. 61–63)
     
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    30 April 1939 – The 1939–40 New York World's Fair opens.

    1939 New York World's Fair

    The 1939–40 New York World's Fair was a world's fair held at Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, New York, United States. It was the second-most expensive American world's fair of all time, exceeded only by St. Louis's Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904. Many countries around the world participated in it, and over 44 million people attended its exhibits in two seasons.[2] It was the first exposition to be based on the future, with an opening slogan of "Dawn of a New Day", and it allowed all visitors to take a look at "the world of tomorrow".

    When World War II began four months into the 1939 World's Fair, many exhibits were affected, especially those on display in the pavilions of countries under Axis occupation. After the close of the fair in 1940, many exhibits were demolished or removed, though some buildings were retained for the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair, held at the same site.

    1. ^ "1939 New York World's Fair". www.1939nyworldsfair.com. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
    2. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. 58, Random House, New York, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
     
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    1 May 1982Operation Black Buck: The Royal Air Force attacks the Argentine Air Force during Falklands War.

    Operation Black Buck

    Operation Black Buck on the map.

    During the 1982 Falklands War, Operations Black Buck 1 to Black Buck 7 were a series of seven extremely long-range ground attack missions by Royal Air Force (RAF) Vulcan bombers of the RAF Waddington Wing, comprising aircraft from Nos. 44, 50 and 101 Squadrons against Argentine positions in the Falkland Islands, of which five missions completed attacks. The objective of the missions was to attack Port Stanley Airport and its associated defences. The raids, at almost 6,600 nautical miles (12,200 km) and 16 hours for the return journey, were the longest-ranged bombing raids in history at that time.

    The Operation Black Buck raids were staged from RAF Ascension Island, close to the Equator. The Vulcan was designed for medium-range missions in Europe and lacked the range to fly to the Falklands without refuelling several times. The RAF's tanker planes were mostly converted Handley Page Victor bombers with similar range, so they too had to be refuelled in the air. A total of eleven tankers were required for two Vulcans (one primary and one reserve), a daunting logistical effort as all aircraft had to use the same runway. The Vulcans carried either twenty-one 1,000-pound (450 kg) bombs internally or two or four Shrike anti-radar missiles externally. Of the five Black Buck raids flown to completion, three were against Stanley Airfield's runway and operational facilities, while the other two were anti-radar missions using Shrike missiles against a Westinghouse AN/TPS-43 long-range 3D radar in the Port Stanley area. Shrikes hit two of the less valuable and rapidly replaced secondary fire control radars, causing some casualties among the Argentine crews. One Vulcan was nearly lost when a fuel shortage forced it to land in Brazil.

    The raids did minimal damage to the runway and damage to radars was quickly repaired. A single crater was produced on the runway, rendering it impossible for the airfield to be used by fast jets. Argentine ground crew repaired the runway within twenty-four hours, to a level of quality suitable for C-130 Hercules transports. The British were aware that the runway remained in use. Dismissed in some quarters as post-war propaganda, Argentine sources originally claimed that the Vulcan raids influenced Argentina to withdraw some of their Dassault Mirage III fighter aircraft from the Southern Argentina Defence Zone to the Buenos Aires Defence Zone. This dissuasive effect was watered down when British officials made clear that there would be no strikes on air bases in Argentina. It has been suggested that the Black Buck raids were undertaken by the RAF because the British armed forces had been cut in the late 1970s and the RAF may have desired a greater role in the conflict to prevent further cuts.

     
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    2 May 1989Cold War: Hungary begins dismantling its border fence with Austria, which allows a number of East Germans to defect.

    Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria

    Tree-lined road with gates and a guardhouse
    Hungary–Austria border near Sopron, Hungary.

    The removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria occurred in 1989 during the collapse of communism in Hungary, which was part of a broad wave of revolutions in various communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The border was still closely guarded and the Hungarian security forces tried to hold back refugees. The dismantling of the electric fence along Hungary's 240 kilometres (149 mi) long border with Austria was the first little fissure in the "Iron Curtain" that had divided Europe for more than 40 years, since the end of World War II. Then the Pan-European Picnic caused a chain reaction in East Germany that ultimately resulted in the demise of the Berlin Wall.[1]

    1. ^ Hilde Szabo: Die Berliner Mauer begann im Burgenland zu bröckeln (The Berlin Wall began to crumble in Burgenland - German), in Wiener Zeitung 16 August 1999; Otmar Lahodynsky: Paneuropäisches Picknick: Die Generalprobe für den Mauerfall (Pan-European picnic: the dress rehearsal for the fall of the Berlin Wall - German), in: Profil 9 August 2014.
     
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    3 May 2000 – The sport of geocaching begins, with the first cache placed and the coordinates from a GPS posted on Usenet.

    Geocaching

    Geocaching /ˈˌkæʃɪŋ/ is an outdoor recreational activity, in which participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", at specific locations marked by coordinates all over the world.[2]

    People Geocaching in Norway

    A typical cache is a small waterproof container containing a logbook and sometimes a pen or pencil. The geocacher signs the log with their established code name and dates it, in order to prove that they found the cache. After signing the log, the cache must be placed back exactly where the person found it. Larger containers such as plastic storage containers (Tupperware or similar) or ammunition boxes can also contain items for trading, such as toys or trinkets, usually of more sentimental worth than financial.[3] Geocaching shares many aspects with benchmarking, trigpointing, orienteering, treasure-hunting, letterboxing, waymarking and Munzee.

    1. ^ BBC (April 29, 2009). "Geocaching". BBC. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
    2. ^ Geocaching. "Geocaching - The Official Global GPS Cache Hunt Site". Geocaching. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
    3. ^ Society, National Geographic (January 21, 2011). "geocaching". National Geographic Society. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
     
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    3 May 2000 – The sport of geocaching begins, with the first cache placed and the coordinates from a GPS posted on Usenet.

    Geocaching

    Geocaching /ˈˌkæʃɪŋ/ is an outdoor recreational activity, in which participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", at specific locations marked by coordinates all over the world.[2]

    People Geocaching in Norway

    A typical cache is a small waterproof container containing a logbook and sometimes a pen or pencil. The geocacher signs the log with their established code name and dates it, in order to prove that they found the cache. After signing the log, the cache must be placed back exactly where the person found it. Larger containers such as plastic storage containers (Tupperware or similar) or ammunition boxes can also contain items for trading, such as toys or trinkets, usually of more sentimental worth than financial.[3] Geocaching shares many aspects with benchmarking, trigpointing, orienteering, treasure-hunting, letterboxing, waymarking and Munzee.

    1. ^ BBC (April 29, 2009). "Geocaching". BBC. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
    2. ^ Geocaching. "Geocaching - The Official Global GPS Cache Hunt Site". Geocaching. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
    3. ^ Society, National Geographic (January 21, 2011). "geocaching". National Geographic Society. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
     
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    4 May 2014 – Three people are killed and 62 injured in a pair of bombings on buses in Nairobi, Kenya.

    2014 Nairobi bus bombings

    On 4 May 2014, two improvised explosive devices exploded on buses in Nairobi, Kenya, killing three people and injuring sixty-two.[1][2] Both of the bombs exploded northeast of Nairobi on the Thika Road, an eight-lane controlled-access highway, and detonated 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) apart. Twenty of the wounded were in critical condition after the blast.

    1. ^ a b "Kenya buses hit by deadly twin blasts in Nairobi". BBC. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
    2. ^ a b "Kenya: Three Killed In Nairobi Bus Bombings". Sky News. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
     
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    5 May 1980Operation Nimrod: The British Special Air Service storms the Iranian embassy in London after a six-day siege.

    Iranian Embassy siege

    The Iranian Embassy siege took place from 30 April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy on Prince's Gate in South Kensington, London. The gunmen, Iranian Arabs campaigning for sovereignty of Khuzestan Province, took 26 people hostage, including embassy staff, several visitors, and a police officer who had been guarding the embassy. They demanded the release of prisoners in Khuzestan and their own safe passage out of the United Kingdom. The British government quickly decided that safe passage would not be granted and a siege ensued. Subsequently, police negotiators secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions, such as the broadcasting of the hostage-takers' demands on British television.

    By the sixth day of the siege the gunmen were increasingly frustrated at the lack of progress in meeting their demands. That evening, they killed a hostage and threw his body out of the embassy. The Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment of the British Army, initiated "Operation Nimrod" to rescue the remaining hostages, abseiling from the roof and forcing entry through the windows. During the 17-minute raid they rescued all but one of the remaining hostages and killed five of the six hostage-takers. An inquest cleared the SAS of any wrongdoing. The sole remaining gunman served 27 years in British prisons.

    The Iran–Iraq War broke out later that year and the hostage crisis in Tehran continued until January 1981. Nonetheless, the operation brought the SAS to the public eye for the first time and bolstered the reputation of Thatcher's government. The SAS was quickly overwhelmed by the number of applications it received from people inspired by the operation and experienced greater demand for its expertise from foreign governments. The building, damaged by fire during the assault, was not reopened until 1993. The SAS raid, televised live on a bank holiday evening, became a defining moment in British history and proved a career break for several journalists; it became the subject of multiple documentaries and works of fiction, including several films and television series.

     
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    6 May 1954Roger Bannister becomes the first person to run the mile in under four minutes.

    Roger Bannister

    Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister CH CBE FRCP (23 March 1929 – 3 March 2018) was a British middle-distance athlete and neurologist who ran the first sub-4-minute mile.

    At the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Bannister set a British record in the 1500 metres and finished in fourth place. This achievement strengthened his resolve to become the first athlete to finish the mile run in under four minutes. He accomplished this feat on 6 May 1954 at Iffley Road track in Oxford, with Chris Chataway and Chris Brasher providing the pacing. When the announcer, Norris McWhirter, declared "The time was three...", the cheers of the crowd drowned out Bannister's exact time, which was 3 minutes and 59.4 seconds. He had attained this record with minimal training, while practising as a junior doctor. Bannister's record lasted just 46 days.

    Bannister went on to become a neurologist and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, before retiring in 1993. As Master of Pembroke, he was on the governing body of Abingdon School from 1986 to 1993.[3] When asked whether the 4-minute mile was his proudest achievement, he said he felt prouder of his contribution to academic medicine through research into the responses of the nervous system. Bannister was patron of the MSA Trust. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 2011.[4]

    1. ^ a b c "Roger Bannister at sports-reference.com". www.sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
    2. ^ All-Athletics. "Profile of Roger Bannister". Archived from the original on 4 April 2016.
    3. ^ "Abingdon School Athletics" (PDF). The Abingdonian.
    4. ^ Sale, Jerome (2 May 2014). "Sir Roger Bannister reveals Parkinson's disease battle". BBC News.
     
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    7 May 1994Edvard Munch's painting The Scream is recovered undamaged after being stolen from the National Gallery of Norway in February.

    The Scream

    The Scream is the popular name given to a composition created by Norwegian Expressionist artist Edvard Munch in 1893. The original German title given by Munch to his work was Der Schrei der Natur (The Scream of Nature), and the Norwegian title is Skrik (Shriek). The agonised face in the painting has become one of the most iconic images of art, seen as symbolising the anxiety of the human condition.

    Munch recalled that he had been out for a walk at sunset when suddenly the setting sun's light turned the clouds "a blood red". He sensed an "infinite scream passing through nature". Scholars have located the spot to a fjord overlooking Oslo,[1] and have suggested other explanations for the unnaturally orange sky, ranging from the effects of a volcanic eruption to a psychological reaction by Munch to his sister’s commitment at a nearby lunatic asylum.

    Munch created two versions in paint and two in pastels, as well as a lithograph stone from which several prints survive. Both of the painted versions have been stolen, but since recovered. One of the pastel versions commanded the fourth highest nominal price paid for an artwork at a public auction.

    1. ^ (59°54′02.4″N 10°46′12.9″E / 59.900667°N 10.770250°E / 59.900667; 10.770250)
     
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    8 May 1980 – The World Health Organization confirms the eradication of smallpox.

    Smallpox

    Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.[7] The agent of variola virus (VARV) belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus. [11] The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977, and the World Health Organization (WHO) certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980.[10] The risk of death after contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among babies.[6][12] Often those who survived had extensive scarring of their skin, and some were left blind.[6]

    The initial symptoms of the disease included fever and vomiting.[5] This was followed by formation of ulcers in the mouth and a skin rash.[5] Over a number of days the skin rash turned into characteristic fluid-filled blisters with a dent in the center.[5] The bumps then scabbed over and fell off, leaving scars.[5] The disease was spread between people or via contaminated objects.[6][13] Prevention was achieved mainly through the smallpox vaccine.[9] Once the disease had developed, certain antiviral medication may have helped.[9]

    The origin of smallpox is unknown;[14] however, the earliest evidence of the disease dates to the 3rd century BCE in Egyptian mummies.[14] The disease historically occurred in outbreaks.[10] In 18th-century Europe, it is estimated that 400,000 people died from the disease per year, and that one-third of all cases of blindness were due to smallpox.[10][15] Smallpox is estimated to have killed up to 300 million people in the 20th century[16][17] and around 500 million people in the last 100 years of its existence,[18] including six monarchs.[10][15] As recently as 1967, 15 million cases occurred a year.[10]

    Inoculation for smallpox appears to have started in China around the 1500s.[19][20] Europe adopted this practice from Asia in the first half of the 18th century.[21] In 1796 Edward Jenner introduced the modern smallpox vaccine.[22][23] In 1967, the WHO intensified efforts to eliminate the disease.[10] Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest in 2011.[24][25] The term "smallpox" was first used in Britain in the early 16th century to distinguish the disease from syphilis, which was then known as the "great pox".[26][27] Other historical names for the disease include pox, speckled monster, and red plague.[3][4][27]

    1. ^ Barton LL, Friedman NR (2008). The Neurological Manifestations of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunodeficiency Syndromes. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-59745-391-2.
    2. ^ Schaller KF (2012). Colour Atlas of Tropical Dermatology and Venerology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. Chapter 1. ISBN 978-3-642-76200-0.
    3. ^ a b Fenner F, Henderson DA, Arita I, Ježek Z, Ladnyi ID (1988). "The History of Smallpox and its Spread Around the World" (PDF). Smallpox and its eradication. History of International Public Health. 6. Geneva: World Health Organization. pp. 209–44. hdl:10665/39485. ISBN 978-92-4-156110-5. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    4. ^ a b Medicine: The Definitive Illustrated History. Pengui. 2016. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-4654-5893-3.
    5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Signs and Symptoms". CDC. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    6. ^ a b c d e "What is Smallpox?". CDC. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    7. ^ a b Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 525–28. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0.
    8. ^ a b "Diagnosis & Evaluation". CDC. 25 July 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    9. ^ a b c "Prevention and Treatment". CDC. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    10. ^ a b c d e f g "Smallpox". WHO Factsheet. Archived from the original on 21 September 2007.
    11. ^ Babkin, I, Babkina, I (March 2015). "The Origin of the Variola Virus". Viruses. 7 (3): 1100–1112. doi:10.3390/v7031100. PMC 4379562. PMID 25763864.
    12. ^ Riedel S (January 2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination". Proceedings. 18 (1): 21–25. doi:10.1080/08998280.2005.11928028. PMC 1200696. PMID 16200144.
    13. ^ Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I (2013). Treatment of Skin Disease E-Book: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-7020-5236-1.
    14. ^ a b "History of Smallpox". CDC. 25 July 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
    15. ^ a b Hays JN (2005). Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impacts on Human History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 151–52. ISBN 978-1-85109-658-9.
    16. ^ Koprowski H, Oldstone MB (1996). Microbe hunters, then and now. Medi-Ed Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-936741-11-6.
    17. ^ Henderson DA (December 2011). "The eradication of smallpox – an overview of the past, present, and future". Vaccine. 29 Suppl 4: D7–9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.080. PMID 22188929.
    18. ^ Henderson D (2009). Smallpox : the death of a disease. Prometheus Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-61592-230-7.
    19. ^ Needham J (2000). Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 6, Biology and Biological Technology, Part 6, Medicine. Cambridge University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-521-63262-1. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
    20. ^ Silverstein AM (2009). A History of Immunology (2nd ed.). Academic Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0080919461..
    21. ^ Strathern P (2005). A Brief History of Medicine. London: Robinson. p. 179. ISBN 978-1-84529-155-6.
    22. ^ Wolfe RM, Sharp LK (August 2002). "Anti-vaccinationists past and present". BMJ. 325 (7361): 430–32. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7361.430. PMC 1123944. PMID 12193361.
    23. ^ "Smallpox vaccines". WHO. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
    24. ^ Guidotti TL (2015). Health and Sustainability: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. T290. ISBN 978-0-19-932568-9.
    25. ^ Roossinck MJ (2016). Virus: An Illustrated Guide to 101 Incredible Microbes. Princeton University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-4008-8325-7.
    26. ^ Harper D. "Smallpox". Online Etymology Dictionary.
    27. ^ a b Barquet N, Domingo P (October 1997). "Smallpox: the triumph over the most terrible of the ministers of death". Annals of Internal Medicine. 127 (8 Pt 1): 635–42. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.695.883. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-127-8_Part_1-199710150-00010. PMID 9341063. S2CID 20357515.
     
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    9 May 2001 – In Ghana, 129 football fans die in what became known as the Accra Sports Stadium disaster. The deaths are caused by a stampede (caused by the firing of tear gas by police personnel at the stadium) that followed a controversial decision by the referee.

    Accra Sports Stadium disaster

    The Accra Sport Stadium disaster occurred at the Ohene Djan Stadium, Accra, Ghana on May 9, 2001. It took the lives of 126 people, making it the worst stadium disaster to have ever taken place in Africa.[1][2]

    1. ^ "Prosecution closes case on stadium disaster". Ghanaweb. June 23, 2003. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
    2. ^ Afanyi-Dadzie, Ebenezer (May 9, 2017). "May 9 victims remembered 16-yrs on; Herbert Mensah urges discipline". Ghana News. Archived from the original on May 9, 2017. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
     
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    10 May 1774Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette become King and Queen of France

    Marie Antoinette

    Marie Antoinette (/ˌæntwəˈnɛt, ˌɒ̃t-/;[1] French: [maʁi ɑ̃twanɛt] (About this soundlisten); born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last queen of France before the French Revolution. She was born an archduchess of Austria and was the penultimate child and youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I. She became dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne. On 10 May 1774, her husband ascended the throne as Louis XVI and she became queen.

    Marie Antoinette's position at court improved when, after eight years of marriage, she started having children. She became increasingly unpopular among the people, however, with the French libelles accusing her of being profligate, promiscuous, harboring sympathies for France's perceived enemies—particularly her native Austria—and her children of being illegitimate. The false accusations of the Affair of the Diamond Necklace damaged her reputation further. During the Revolution, she became known as Madame Déficit because the country's financial crisis was blamed on her lavish spending and her opposition to the social and financial reforms of Turgot and Necker.

    Several events were linked to Marie Antoinette during the Revolution after the government had placed the royal family under house arrest in the Tuileries Palace in October 1789. The June 1791 attempted flight to Varennes and her role in the War of the First Coalition had disastrous effects on French popular opinion. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the royal family to take refuge at the Assembly, and they were imprisoned in the Temple Prison on 13 August. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. Louis XVI was executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. Marie Antoinette's trial began on 14 October 1793, and two days later she was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason and executed, also by guillotine, on the Place de la Révolution.

    1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
     
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    11 May 330Constantinople is consecrated

    Constantinople

    Constantinople (/ˌkɒnstæntɪˈnpəl/;[5] Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις Kōnstantinoupolis; Latin: Constantinopolis; Ottoman Turkish: قسطنطينيه‎‎, romanized: Ḳosṭanṭīnīye) was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), the Byzantine Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922).

    In 324, the ancient city of Byzantium was renamed “New Rome” and declared the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was renamed, and dedicated on 11 May 330.[6] From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe.[7] The city became famous for its architectural masterpieces, such as Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of the Eastern Orthodox Church, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, and opulent aristocratic palaces. The University of Constantinople was founded in the fifth century and contained artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453,[8] including its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria and had 100,000 volumes.[9] The city was the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the Crown of thorns and the True Cross.

    Aerial view of Byzantine Constantinople and the Propontis (Sea of Marmara).

    Constantinople was famed for its massive and complex defenses. The Theodosian Walls consisted of a double wall lying about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front.[10] This formidable complex of defences was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity. The city was built intentionally to rival Rome, and it was claimed that several elevations within its walls matched the 'seven hills' of Rome. Because it was located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara the land area that needed defensive walls were reduced, and this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces, domes, and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents (Europe and Asia) and two seas (the Mediterranean and the Black Sea). Although besieged on numerous occasions by various armies, the defenses of Constantinople proved impregnable for nearly nine hundred years.

    In 1204, however, the armies of the Fourth Crusade took and devastated the city and, for several decades, its inhabitants resided under Latin occupation in a dwindling and depopulated city. In 1261 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos liberated the city, and after the restoration under the Palaiologos dynasty, enjoyed a partial recovery. With the advent of the Ottoman Empire in 1299, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territories and the city began to lose population. By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire; after a 53-day siege the city eventually fell to the Ottomans, led by Sultan Mehmed II, on 29 May 1453,[11] whereafter it replaced Edirne (Adrianople) as the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.[12]

    1. ^ Croke, Brian (2001). Count Marcellinus and His Chronicle, p. 103. University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0198150016.
    2. ^ Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 86.
    3. ^ "The Chronicle of John Malalas", Bk 18.86 Translated by E. Jeffreys, M. Jeffreys, and R. Scott. Australian Association of Byzantine Studies, 1986 vol 4.
    4. ^ "The Chronicle of Theophones Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History AD 284-813". Translated with commentary by Cyril Mango and Roger Scott. AM 6030 pg 316, with this note: Theophanes' precise date should be accepted.
    5. ^ Roach, Peter (2011). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2.
    6. ^ Mango, Cyril (1991). "Constantinople". In Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 508–512. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.
    7. ^ Pounds, Norman John Greville. An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500–1840, p. 124. CUP Archive, 1979. ISBN 0-521-22379-2.
    8. ^ Janin (1964), passim
    9. ^ "Preserving The Intellectual Heritage--Preface • CLIR". CLIR.
    10. ^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 89.
    11. ^ Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 28
    12. ^ Rosenberg, Matt. "Largest cities through history." About.com.
     
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    12 May 2015 – Massive Nepal earthquake kills 218 people and injures more than 3500.

    May 2015 Nepal earthquake

    Aftershocks of 2015 Nepal earthquake

    A major earthquake occurred in Nepal on 12 May 2015 at 12:50 pm local time (07:05 UTC) with a moment magnitude of 7.3, 18 kilometres (11 mi) southeast of Kodari. The epicenter was on the border of Dolakha and Sindhupalchowk, two districts of Nepal. This earthquake occurred on the same fault as the larger magnitude 7.8 earthquake of 25 April, but further east than the original quake.[1] As such, it is considered to be an aftershock of the April quake.[1] It struck at a depth of 18.5 km (11.5 mi). Shaking was felt in northern parts of India including Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.[6] Tremors were felt as far as about 2,400 km away from the epicenter in Chennai.[7][8]

    Minutes later, another 6.3-magnitude earthquake hit Nepal with its epicenter in Ramechhap, east of Kathmandu. The earthquake was felt in Bangladesh, China and many other states in India.[9] The impact of these tremors was felt even 1,000 kilometres away in the Indian capital New Delhi, where buildings shook and office workers evacuated.[10]

    1. ^ a b c d e f "M7.3 - 18km SE of Kodari, Nepal". USGS Earthquake Hazards Program.
    2. ^ "M5.7 - 24km N of Ramechhap, Nepal". usgs.gov. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
    3. ^ "Mild tremors in Bihar as 5.7 magnitude earthquake hits Nepal". The Indian Express. 16 May 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
    4. ^ a b c "Fresh earthquake kills scores in Nepal and India". Yahoo News. 12 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
    5. ^ Greg Botelho and Jethro Mullen, CNN (12 May 2015). "Another Nepal earthquake: Deaths in 3 nations - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
    6. ^ "7.3 Magnitude Earthquake hits North India including Bihar". news.biharprabha.com. 12 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
    7. ^ "Mild tremors in Chennai too". The Hindu. 12 May 2015.
    8. ^ "Ttremors felt in Chennai". Times of India. 12 May 2015.
    9. ^ "Nepal earthquake, magnitude 7.3, strikes near Everest". BBC News. 12 May 2015.
    10. ^ "Nepal Earthquake on 12 May 2015: Magnitude, Epicenter, Damages and Relief Operations". news.biharprabha.com. Ventuno/AFP. 12 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
     
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    13 May 1995Alison Hargreaves, a 33-year-old British mother, becomes the first woman to conquer Everest without oxygen or the help of sherpas.

    Alison Hargreaves

    Alison Jane Hargreaves (17 February 1962 – 13 August 1995) was a British mountain climber. Her accomplishments included scaling Mount Everest alone, without supplementary oxygen or support from a Sherpa team, in 1995. She soloed all the great north faces of the Alps in a single season—a first for any climber. This feat included climbing the difficult north face of the Eiger in the Alps. Hargreaves also climbed 6,812-metre (22,349 ft) Ama Dablam in Nepal.[1][2]

    In 1995, Hargreaves intended to climb the three highest mountains in the world—Mount Everest, K2, and Kangchenjungaunaided. On 13 May 1995, she reached the summit of Everest without the aid of Sherpas or bottled oxygen; on 13 August, she died while descending from the summit of K2.[2][3][4]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC_timeline was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference outsideol was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Maya Salam (14 March 2018). "Overlooked No More: Alison Hargreaves, Who Conquered Everest Solo and Without Bottled Oxygen". New York Times.
    4. ^ Alison Hargreaves Biographical entry from EverestNews.com
     
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    14 May 1796Edward Jenner administers the first smallpox inoculation

    Edward Jenner

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox scientist with unknown parameter "residence" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE[1] (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who pioneered the concept of vaccines including creating the smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.[2][3] The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 in the long title of his Inquiry into the Variolae vaccinae known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox.[4]

    In the West, Jenner is often called "the father of immunology", and his work is said to have "saved more lives than the work of any other human".[5][6][7] In Jenner's time, smallpox killed around 10% of the population, with the number as high as 20% in towns and cities where infection spread more easily.[5] In 1821, he was appointed physician extraordinary to King George IV, and was also made mayor of Berkeley and justice of the peace. A member of the Royal Society, in the field of zoology he was the first person to describe the brood parasitism of the cuckoo. In 2002, Jenner was named in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons.

    1. ^ "Jenner, Edward (1749 – 1823)". rcpe.ac.uk. Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
    2. ^ Riedel, Stefan (January 2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination". Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center). Baylor University Medical Center. 18 (1): 21–25. doi:10.1080/08998280.2005.11928028. PMC 1200696. PMID 16200144.
    3. ^ Baxby, Derrick. "Jenner, Edward (1749–1823)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
    4. ^ Baxby, Derrick (1999). "Edward Jenner's Inquiry; a bicentenary analysis". Vaccine. 17 (4): 301–7. doi:10.1016/s0264-410x(98)00207-2. PMID 9987167.
    5. ^ a b "How did Edward Jenner test his smallpox vaccine?". Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference JennerSundayTimes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference JennerBBC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    14 May 1796Edward Jenner administers the first smallpox inoculation

    Edward Jenner

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox scientist with unknown parameter "residence" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE[1] (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who pioneered the concept of vaccines including creating the smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.[2][3] The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 in the long title of his Inquiry into the Variolae vaccinae known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox.[4]

    In the West, Jenner is often called "the father of immunology", and his work is said to have "saved more lives than the work of any other human".[5][6][7] In Jenner's time, smallpox killed around 10% of the population, with the number as high as 20% in towns and cities where infection spread more easily.[5] In 1821, he was appointed physician extraordinary to King George IV, and was also made mayor of Berkeley and justice of the peace. A member of the Royal Society, in the field of zoology he was the first person to describe the brood parasitism of the cuckoo. In 2002, Jenner was named in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons.

    1. ^ "Jenner, Edward (1749 – 1823)". rcpe.ac.uk. Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
    2. ^ Riedel, Stefan (January 2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination". Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center). Baylor University Medical Center. 18 (1): 21–25. doi:10.1080/08998280.2005.11928028. PMC 1200696. PMID 16200144.
    3. ^ Baxby, Derrick. "Jenner, Edward (1749–1823)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
    4. ^ Baxby, Derrick (1999). "Edward Jenner's Inquiry; a bicentenary analysis". Vaccine. 17 (4): 301–7. doi:10.1016/s0264-410x(98)00207-2. PMID 9987167.
    5. ^ a b "How did Edward Jenner test his smallpox vaccine?". Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference JennerSundayTimes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference JennerBBC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    15 May 1849 – The Sicilian revolution of 1848 is finally extinguished.

    Sicilian revolution of 1848

    The Sicilian revolution of independence of 1848 occurred in a year replete with revolutions and popular revolts. It commenced on 12 January 1848, and therefore was the first of the numerous revolutions to occur that year. Three revolutions against Bourbon rule had previously occurred on the island of Sicily starting from 1800: this final one resulted in an independent state surviving for 16 months. The constitution that survived the 16 months was quite advanced for its time in liberal democratic terms, as was the proposal of an Italian confederation of states. It was in effect a curtain raiser to the end of the Bourbon kingdom of the Two Sicilies which was started by Giuseppe Garibaldi's Expedition of the Thousand in 1860 and culminated with the siege of Gaeta of 1860–1861.

     
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    16 May 1568Mary, Queen of Scots, flees to England

    Mary, Queen of Scots

    Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart[3] or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 until her forced abdication on 24 July 1567.

    Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, and in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. Mary was queen consort of France from his accession in 1559 until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years later, she married her half-cousin Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and in June 1566 they had a son, James.

    In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, and he was found murdered in the garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. On 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southward seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed Queen Elizabeth I of England.

    Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own and was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving Mary as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586, and was beheaded the following year at Fotheringhay Castle. Mary's life, marriages, lineage, alleged involvement in plots against Elizabeth, and subsequent execution established her as a divisive and highly romanticised historical character, depicted in culture for centuries.

    1. ^ Bishop John Lesley said Mary was born on the 7th, but Mary and John Knox claimed the 8th, which was the feast day of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary (Fraser 1994, p. 13; Wormald 1988, p. 11).
    2. ^ While Catholic Europe switched to the New Style Gregorian calendar in the 1580s, England and Scotland retained the Old Style Julian calendar until 1752. In this article, dates before 1752 are Old Style, with the exception that years are assumed to start on 1 January rather than 25 March.
    3. ^ Also spelled as Marie and as Steuart or Stewart
     
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    17 May 2000Arsenal and Galatasaray fans clash in the 2000 UEFA Cup Final riots in Copenhagen

    2000 UEFA Cup Final riots

    The 2000 UEFA Cup Final Riots, also known as the Battle of Copenhagen,[1] were a series of riots in City Hall Square, Copenhagen, Denmark between fans of English football team Arsenal and Turkish team Galatasaray around the 2000 UEFA Cup Final on 17 May 2000. Four people were stabbed in the scuffles, which also involved fans from other clubs and were viewed by the media as part of a retaliation for the killing of two Leeds United fans by Galatasaray supporters the month before.

    The events of the day started early in the morning when skirmishes broke out in a bar, which led to an Arsenal fan being stabbed. Later in the day, Galatasaray fans occupied City Hall Square before heading towards Arsenal fans in bars nearby. The Galatasaray fans were later attacked from behind by members of British hooligan firms seeking revenge for the Istanbul stabbings. The police had prior warning of potential trouble and deployed 2,000 officers to the area, yet they were unable to control the riot until they fired tear gas. This led to 19 injuries, including 4 stabbings, and 60 arrests with similar events occurring in England and Turkey in the aftermath of the riots.

    Football authorities condemned the riots and threatened to expel national football teams from European competition if such events happened again. The Danish police also were criticized for their handling of the riots.

    1. ^ MacInnes, Paul (19 May 2000). "Copenhagen's hall of shame". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
     
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    18 May 1291Fall of Acre, the end of Crusader presence in the Holy Land.

    Siege of Acre (1291)

    The siege of Acre (also called the fall of Acre) took place in 1291 and resulted in the Crusaders losing control of Acre to the Mamluks. It is considered one of the most important battles of the period. Although the crusading movement continued for several more centuries, the capture of the city marked the end of further crusades to the Levant. When Acre fell, the Crusaders lost their last major stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. They still maintained a fortress at the northern city of Tartus (today in north-western Syria), engaged in some coastal raids, and attempted an incursion from the tiny island of Ruad, but when they lost that as well in 1302 in the siege of Ruad, the Crusaders no longer controlled any part of the Holy Land.[4]

    1. ^ Folda (2005), p. 485
    2. ^ Nicolle (2005), p. 39
    3. ^ Sean McGlynn (18 May 2018). "The Siege of Acre: a monstrous blot on the Third Crusade". The Spectator. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
    4. ^ Burgtorf, Jochen (2006). "Acre, Siege of (1291)". In Alan V. Murray (ed.). The Crusades: An Encyclopedia. 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 13–14. OCLC 70122512.
     
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    19 May 1655 – The Invasion of Jamaica begins during the Anglo-Spanish War.

    Invasion of Jamaica

    The Invasion of Jamaica took place in May 1655, during the 1654 to 1660 Anglo-Spanish War, when an English expeditionary force captured Spanish Jamaica. It was part of an ambitious plan by Oliver Cromwell to acquire new colonies in the Americas, known as the Western Design.

    Although major settlements like Santiago de la Vega, now Spanish Town, were poorly defended and quickly occupied, resistance by escaped slaves, or Jamaican Maroons, continued in the interior. The Western Design was largely a failure, but Jamaica remained in English hands, and was formally ceded by Spain in the 1670 Treaty of Madrid.

    The Colony of Jamaica remained a British possession until independence in 1962.

    1. ^ a b Marly 1998, p. 149.
     
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    20 May 1969 – The Battle of Hamburger Hill in Vietnam ends.

    Battle of Hamburger Hill

    The Battle of Hamburger Hill was a battle of the Vietnam War that was fought by U.S. Army and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces against People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) forces from 10 to 20 May 1969 during Operation Apache Snow. Although the heavily fortified Hill 937 was of little strategic value, U.S. command ordered its capture by a frontal assault, only to abandon it soon thereafter. The action caused a controversy both in the American military and public.

    The battle was primarily an infantry engagement, with the U.S. Airborne troops moving up the steeply sloped hill against well-entrenched troops. Attacks were repeatedly repelled by the PAVN defenses. Bad weather also hindered operations. Nevertheless, the Airborne troops took the hill through direct assault, causing extensive casualties to the PAVN forces.

    1. ^ Smedberg, M(2008) (2008). Vietnamkrigen: 1880-1980. Historiska Media. p. 211.
    2. ^ "Battle of Dong Ap Bia - Hill 937 10-21 May 1969" (PDF). Headquarters 101st Airborne Division. 24 May 1969. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
    3. ^ "Người phụ nữ chỉ huy trận đánh trên 'Đồi thịt băm'". Báo điện tử Tiền Phong. 4 May 2015.
    4. ^ "Battle of Dong Ap Bia - Hill 937 10–21 May 1969" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
    5. ^ "Battles of the Vietnam War".
     
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    21 May 1992 – After 30 seasons Johnny Carson hosted his penultimate episode and last featuring guests (Robin Williams and Bette Midler) of The Tonight Show.

    Johnny Carson

    John William Carson (October 23, 1925 – January 23, 2005) was an American television host, comedian, writer, and producer. He is best known as the host of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson (1962–1992). Carson received six Emmy Awards, the Television Academy's 1980 Governor's Award, and a 1985 Peabody Award. He was inducted into the Television Academy Hall of Fame in 1987. Carson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1992 and received a Kennedy Center Honor in 1993.[1]

    During World War II, Carson served in the Navy. After the war, Carson started a career in radio. He moved from radio to TV and followed Jack Paar as the host of the late night talk show, Tonight. Although his show was already successful by the end of the 1960s, during the 1970s, Carson became an American icon and remained so even after his retirement in 1992. He adopted a casual, conversational approach with extensive interaction with guests, an approach pioneered by Arthur Godfrey and previous Tonight Show hosts Steve Allen and Jack Paar. Former late-night host and friend David Letterman has cited Carson's influence.[2]

    1. ^ Johnny Carson. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
    2. ^ "Interview: David Letterman He's No Johnny Carson". Time. February 6, 1989.
     
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    22 May 1840 – The penal transportation of British convicts to the New South Wales colony is abolished.

    Penal transportation

    Women in England mourning their lovers who are soon to be transported to Botany Bay, 1792

    Penal transportation or transportation was the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony, for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination. While the prisoners may have been released once the sentences were served, they generally did not have the resources to return home.

     
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    23 May 1911 – The New York Public Library is dedicated.

    New York Public Library

    The New York Public Library (NYPL) is a public library system in New York City. With nearly 53 million items and 92 locations, the New York Public Library is the second largest public library in the United States (behind the Library of Congress) and the fourth largest in the world.[5] It is a private, non-governmental, independently managed, nonprofit corporation operating with both private and public financing.[6]

    The library has branches in the boroughs of the Bronx, Manhattan and Staten Island and affiliations with academic and professional libraries in the New York metropolitan area. The city's other two boroughs, Brooklyn and Queens, are not served by the New York Public Library system, but rather by their respective borough library systems: the Brooklyn Public Library and the Queens Public Library. The branch libraries are open to the general public and consist of circulating libraries. The New York Public Library also has four research libraries, which are also open to the general public.

    The library, officially chartered as The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations, was developed in the 19th century, founded from an amalgamation of grass-roots libraries and social libraries of bibliophiles and the wealthy, aided by the philanthropy of the wealthiest Americans of their age.

    The "New York Public Library" name may also refer to its Main Branch, which is easily recognizable by its lion statues named Patience and Fortitude that sit either side of the entrance. The branch was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965,[7] listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966,[8] and designated a New York City Landmark in 1967.[9]

    1. ^ About The New York Public Library
    2. ^ "New York Public Library General Fact Sheet" (PDF). Nypl.org. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
    3. ^ a b "New York Public Library Annual Report 2017" (PDF). Nypl.org. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
    4. ^ "President and Leadership". Nypl.org. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
    5. ^ Burke, Pat (July 2, 2015). "CTO Takes the New York Public Library Digital". CIO Insight. Quinstreet Enterprise. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
    6. ^ The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations. Financial Statements and Supplemental Schedules, June 2016, page 8.
    7. ^ "New York Public Library". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. September 16, 2007. Archived from the original on December 5, 2007.
    8. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007. Archived from the original on October 2, 2007.
    9. ^ "New York Public Library" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. January 11, 1967. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 7, 2017. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
     
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    24 May 1956 – The first Eurovision Song Contest is held in Lugano, Switzerland.

    Eurovision Song Contest

    The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la chanson), sometimes abbreviated to ESC and often known simply as Eurovision, is an international song competition organised annually by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) which features participants representing primarily European countries. Each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio, transmitted to national broadcasters via the EBU's Eurovision and Euroradio networks, with competing countries then casting votes for the other countries' songs to determine a winner.

    Based on the Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951, Eurovision has been held annually (apart from 2020) since 1956, making it the longest-running annual international televised music competition and one of the world's longest-running television programmes. Active members of the EBU, as well as invited associate members, are eligible to compete, and as of 2021, 52 countries have participated at least once. Each participating broadcaster sends one original song of three minutes duration or less to be performed live by a singer or group of up to six people aged 16 or older. Each country awards two sets of 1–8, 10 and 12 points to their favourite songs, based on the views of an assembled group of music professionals and the country's viewing public, with the song receiving the most points declared the winner. Other performances feature alongside the competition, including a specially-commissioned opening and interval act and guest performances by musicians and other personalities, with past acts including Cirque du Soleil, Madonna and the first performance of Riverdance. Originally consisting of a single evening event, the contest has expanded as new countries joined, leading to the introduction of relegation procedures in the 1990s, and eventually the creation of semi-finals in the 2000s. As of 2021, Germany has competed more times than any other country, having participated in all but one edition, while Ireland holds the record for the most victories, with seven wins in total.

    Traditionally held in the country which won the preceding year's event, the contest provides an opportunity to promote the host country and city as a tourist destination. Thousands of spectators attend each year, and journalists are present to cover all aspects of the contest, including rehearsals in venue, press conferences with the competing acts, and other related events and performances in the host city. Alongside the generic Eurovision logo, a unique theme and slogan is typically used for each event. The contest has aired in countries across all continents, and has been available online via the official Eurovision website since 2000. Eurovision ranks among the world's most watched non-sporting events every year, with hundreds of millions of viewers globally, and performing at the contest has often provided artists with a local career boost and in some cases long-lasting international success. Several of the best-selling music artists in the world have competed in past editions, including ABBA, Celine Dion, Julio Iglesias, and Olivia Newton-John, and some of the world's best-selling singles have received their first international performance on the Eurovision stage.

    The contest has received criticism for its musical and artistic quality, and for a perceived political aspect to the event. Competing entries have previously been derided for spanning various ethnic and international styles, and in recent years a tendency towards elaborate stage shows has been highlighted as a distraction. Concerns have been raised regarding political friendships and rivalries between countries potentially influencing the results. Controversial moments from past editions include participating countries withdrawing at a late stage, censorship of segments of the broadcast by broadcasters, and political events impacting participation. Eurovision has however gained popularity for its kitsch appeal and emergence as part of LGBT culture, resulting in a large active fan base and influence on popular culture. The popularity of the contest has led to the creation of several similar events, either organised by the EBU or created by external organisations, and several special events have been organised by the EBU to celebrate select anniversaries or as a replacement due to cancellation.

     
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    25 May 1977Star Wars (retroactively titled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope) is released in theaters.

    Star Wars (film)

    Star Wars (retroactively titled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope) is a 1977 American epic space-opera film written and directed by George Lucas, produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by 20th Century Fox. It stars Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Peter Cushing, Alec Guinness, David Prowse, James Earl Jones, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker and Peter Mayhew. It is the first installment of the original Star Wars trilogy, the first of the franchise to be produced, and the fourth episode of the "Skywalker saga".

    Lucas had the idea for a science-fiction film in the vein of Flash Gordon around the time he completed his first film, THX 1138 (1971) and began working on a treatment after the release of American Graffiti (1973). Star Wars takes place "a long time ago", in a fictional universe inhabited by both humans and various alien species; most of the known galaxy is ruled by the tyrannical Galactic Empire, which is only opposed by the Rebel Alliance, a group of freedom fighters. The narrative of the film focuses on the hero journey of Luke Skywalker (Hamill), an everyman who becomes caught in the galactic conflict between the Empire and the Rebellion after coming into possession of two droids, R2-D2 (Baker) and C-3PO (Daniels), who are carrying the schematics of the Empire's ultimate weapon, the Death Star. While attempting to deliver the droids to the Rebellion, Luke is joined by wizened Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi (Guinness), who teaches him about the metaphysical power known as "the Force", cynical smuggler Han Solo (Ford), his Wookiee companion Chewbacca (Mayhew), and Rebellion leader Princess Leia (Fisher). Meanwhile, Imperial officers Darth Vader (Prowse, voiced by Jones), a Sith Lord, and Grand Moff Tarkin (Cushing), the commander of the Death Star, seek to retrieve the stolen schematics and locate the Rebellion's secret base.

    After a turbulent production, Star Wars was released in a limited number of theaters in the United States on May 25, 1977, and quickly became a blockbuster hit, leading to it being expanded to a much wider release. The film opened to critical acclaim, most notably for its groundbreaking visual effects. It grossed a total of $775 million (over $550 million during its initial run), surpassing Jaws (1975) to become the highest-grossing film at the time until the release of E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982). When adjusted for inflation, Star Wars is the second-highest-grossing film in North America (behind Gone with the Wind) and the fourth-highest-grossing film in the world. It received ten Oscar nominations (including Best Picture), winning seven. In 1989, it became one of the first 25 films that was selected by the U.S. Library of Congress for preservation in the National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[5][6] At the time, it was the most recent film in the registry and the only one chosen from the 1970s. In 2004, its soundtrack was added to the U.S. National Recording Registry, and was additionally listed by the American Film Institute as the best movie score of all time a year later. Today, it is widely regarded by many in the motion picture industry as one of the greatest and most important films in film history.

    The film has been reissued multiple times with Lucas's support—most significantly with its 20th-anniversary theatrical "Special Edition"—incorporating many changes including modified computer-generated effects, altered dialogue, re-edited shots, remixed soundtracks and added scenes. The film became a pop-cultural phenomenon and launched an industry of tie-in products, including novels, comics, video games, amusement park attractions, and merchandise including toys, games, clothing and many other spin-off works. The film's success led to two critically and commercially successful sequels, The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983), and later to a prequel trilogy, a sequel trilogy, two anthology films and various spin-off TV series.

    1. ^ "Star Wars". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on January 27, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
    2. ^ "Star Wars (1977)". Archived from the original on July 9, 2017.
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference BOM was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cyriaque Lamar (January 13, 2012). "Behold, the 1977 budget breakdown for Star Wars". io9. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
    5. ^ "ENTERTAINMENT: Film Registry Picks First 25 Movies". Los Angeles Times. Washington, D.C. September 19, 1989. Archived from the original on May 5, 2020. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference NFR-Titles was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    26 May 1923 – The first 24 Hours of Le Mans was held and has since been run annually in June.

    24 Hours of Le Mans

    The 24 Hours of Le Mans (French: 24 Heures du Mans) is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France.[1] It is considered one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world[2] and has been called the "Grand Prix of Endurance and Efficiency". The event represents one leg of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, with the other events being the Indianapolis 500 and the Monaco Grand Prix. Unlike fixed-distance races whose winner is determined by minimum time, the 24 Hours of Le Mans is won by the car that covers the greatest distance in 24 hours. Racing teams must balance the demands of speed with the cars' ability to run for 24 hours without mechanical failure. In the 2019 race, 47 of the 61 qualifying cars ran the full duration.[3]

    The race is organized by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and is held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, which is composed of closed public roads and dedicated sections of racing track.

    The 24 Hours of Le Mans was frequently part of the World Sportscar Championship from 1953 until that series' final season in 1992. In 2011, it was a part of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup. Since 2012, the race has been a part of the FIA World Endurance Championship.[4] In World Endurance Championship's super-season of May 2018 to June 2019, the 24 Hours of Le Mans was both the second and the last round of the season.[5]

    Le Mans inspired 24-hour races around the globe, including at Daytona, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, and Bathurst. The American Le Mans Series and Europe's Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships were spun off from 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. Other races include the Le Mans Classic, a race for historic Le Mans race cars from years past held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, a motorcycle version of the race which is held on the shortened Bugatti version of the same circuit, a kart race (24 Heures Karting), a truck race (24 Heures Camions), and a parody race 24 Hours of LeMons.

    1. ^ "Weekly auto agenda: Le Mans". The Independent. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
    2. ^ Hargreaves, Eilidh (14 June 2019). "An insider's guide to the Le Mans 24 hours: how to experience the ultimate endurance race in style". The Daily Telegraph.
    3. ^ "FIA WEC 86th 24 Heures du Mans Race – Provisional Classification" (PDF). Automobile Club de l'Ouest. 17 June 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
    4. ^ "Past seasons". fiawec.com. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
    5. ^ "Calendar". fiawec.com. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
     
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    27 May 1971 – Pakistani forces massacre over 200 civilians, mostly Bengali Hindus, in the Bagbati massacre.

    Bagbati massacre

    Bagbati massacre (Bengali: বাগবাটি গণহত্যা) refers to the cold blooded killings of more than 200 unarmed Bengali by the Al Badar, Pakistan Army, Razakars and Peace Committee, in the Bagbati Union of Sirajganj sub-division in the erstwhile district of greater Pabna in May 1971.[1] After the massacre the bodies were buried or dumped in wells.

    1. ^ ১৯৭১ গণহত্যায় শহীদ মুক্তিযুদ্ধাদের তালিকা. সিরাজগঞ্জ জেলা (in Bengali). Government of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
     
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    28 May 1907 – The first Isle of Man TT race was held.

    Isle of Man TT

    The Isle of Man TT or Tourist Trophy races are an annual motorcycle racing event run on the Isle of Man in May/June of most years since its inaugural race in 1907. The event is often called one of the most dangerous racing events in the world.[2]

    1. ^ "Isle of Man TT results: Peter Hickman becomes the world's fastest rider with record-breaking Senior TT victory". Isle of Man TT. Duke Marketing Limited. 2 June 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018. Peter Hickman produces an astonishing record final lap to win the Senior TT at the Isle of Man TT to pip race-long leader Dean Harrison in one of the closest races ever seen.
    2. ^ The Manx Experience. A Souvenir Guide to the Isle of Man. page 66-67 Gordon N.Kniverton 8th edition The Manx Experience (1987) Mannin Publishing Ltd
     
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    29 May 1864Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico arrives in Mexico for the first time.

    Maximilian I of Mexico

    Maximilian I (German: Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph Maria von Habsburg-Lothringen, Spanish: Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was an Austrian archduke who reigned as the only Emperor of the Second Mexican Empire from 10 April 1864 until his execution on 19 June 1867. A younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, Maximilian had a distinguished career as commander-in-chief of the Imperial Austrian Navy.

    France, together with Spain and the United Kingdom, had invaded Mexico in the winter of 1861 to pressure the Mexican government into settling its debts with the three powers after Mexico had announced a suspension on debt repayment; the Spanish and British both withdrew the following year after negotiating agreements with the Mexican government and realising the true intention of the French, who sought to conquer the country. Seeking to legitimize French rule, Emperor Napoleon III invited Maximilian to establish a new pro-French Mexican monarchy. With the support of the French army and a group of Conservative Party monarchists hostile to the Liberal Party administration of President Benito Juárez, Maximilian accepted the crown of Mexico on 10 April 1864.[2]

    The Empire managed to gain the diplomatic recognition of several European powers, including Russia, Austria, and Prussia.[3] The United States, however, continued to recognize Juárez as the legal president of Mexico and saw the French invasion as a violation of the Monroe Doctrine, but was unable to intervene due to their ongoing civil war. Maximilian never completely defeated the Mexican Republic; Republican forces led by Juárez continued to be active during Maximilian's rule. With the end of the American Civil War in 1865, the United States began providing more explicit aid to Juárez's forces. Matters worsened for Maximilian after French armies withdrew from Mexico in 1866 in part due to needing to deal with matters closer to home. The Empire collapsed without French aid, and Maximilian was captured and executed by the restored Republican government in 1867.[4]

    1. ^ Maximilian I of Mexico at the Encyclopædia Britannica
    2. ^ McAllen, M.M. (April 2015). A Lurid Grandeur. Maximilian & Carlota of Mexico. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-59534-263-8.
    3. ^ Harding 1934, pp. 175.
    4. ^ Editors, History com. "Emperor of Mexico executed". HISTORY. Retrieved 17 April 2021.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
     
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    30 May 1922 – The Lincoln Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C..

    Lincoln Memorial

    Future site of the Memorial, c. 1912
    President Warren G. Harding speaking at the dedication, 1922

    The Lincoln Memorial is a US national memorial built to honor the 16th president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is on the western end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., across from the Washington Monument, and is in the form of a neoclassical temple. The memorial's architect was Henry Bacon. The designer of the memorial interior's large central statue, Abraham Lincoln (1920), was Daniel Chester French; the Lincoln statue was carved by the Piccirilli Brothers.[3] The painter of the interior murals was Jules Guerin, and the epithet above the statue was written by Royal Cortissoz. Dedicated in May 1922, it is one of several memorials built to honor an American president. It has always been a major tourist attraction and since the 1930s has sometimes been a symbolic center focused on race relations.

    The building is in the form of a Greek Doric temple and contains a large seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two well-known speeches by Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address. The memorial has been the site of many famous speeches, including Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered on August 28, 1963, during the rally at the end of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

    Like other monuments on the National Mall – including the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, and World War II Memorial – the national memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15, 1966, and was ranked seventh on the American Institute of Architects' 2007 list of America's Favorite Architecture. The memorial is open to the public 24 hours a day, and more than seven million people visit it annually.[4]

    1. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
    2. ^ "Annual Visitation Highlights". nps.gov. National Park Service. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
    3. ^ "Lincoln Memorial National Memorial; Washington, DC National Park Service
    4. ^ "Annual Park Recreation Visitation (1904 – Last Calendar Year)" National Park Service
     
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    31 May 1910 – The South Africa Act comes into force, establishing the Union of South Africa.

    South Africa Act 1909

    The South Africa Act 1909 was an Act of the British Parliament which created the Union of South Africa from the British colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Orange River Colony, and Transvaal.[1] The Act also made provisions for admitting Rhodesia as a fifth province of the Union in the future, but Rhodesian colonists rejected this option in a referendum held in 1922.[2] The South Africa Act was the third major piece of legislation passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom with the intent of uniting various British colonies and granting them some degree of autonomy. Earlier, the British North America Act, 1867 had united three colonies (the Province of Canada (which was split into Ontario and Quebec) Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick) and the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, 1900 had united the Australian colonies.

    1. ^ South Africa Act, 1909, 9 Edward VII, Chapter 9. It can be found at wikisource.org/wiki/South_Africa_Act_1909.
    2. ^ See section 150 of South Africa Act.
     
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    1 June 1941 – The Farhud, a massive pogrom in Iraq, starts and as a result, many Iraqi Jews are forced to leave their homes.

    Farhud

    Farhud (Arabic: الفرهود‎) was the pogrom or "violent dispossession" carried out against the Jewish population of Baghdad, Iraq, on June 1–2, 1941, immediately following the British victory in the Anglo-Iraqi War. The riots occurred in a power vacuum following the collapse of the pro-Nazi government of Rashid Ali while the city was in a state of instability.[3][4][5] The violence came immediately after the rapid defeat of Rashid Ali by British forces, whose earlier coup had generated a short period of national euphoria, and was fueled by allegations that Iraqi Jews had aided the British.[6] Over 180 Jews were killed[7] and 1,000 injured, and up to 300–400 non-Jewish rioters were killed in the attempt to quell the violence.[8] Looting of Jewish property took place and 900 Jewish homes were destroyed.[1]

    The Farhud took place during the Jewish holiday of Shavuot. It has been referred to as a pogrom which was part of the Holocaust, although such comparison has been disputed.[9][10] The event spurred the migration of Iraqi Jews out of the country, although a direct connection to the 1951–2 Jewish exodus from Iraq is also disputed,[note 1][12][13] as many Jews who left Iraq immediately following the Farhud returned to the country and permanent emigration did not accelerate significantly until 1950–51.[11][14] According to Hayyim Cohen, the Farhud "was the only [such event] known to the Jews of Iraq, at least during their last hundred years of life there".[15][16] Historian Edy Cohen writes that up until the Farhud, Jews had enjoyed relatively favorable conditions and coexistence with Muslims in Iraq.[17][18]

    1. ^ a b Martin Gilbert. The atlas of Jewish history, William Morrow and Company, 1993. pg. 114. ISBN 0-688-12264-7.
    2. ^ "BBC News - Farhud memories: Baghdad's 1941 slaughter of the Jews". BBC News. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
    3. ^ Tsimhoni, D. (2001). "The Pogrom (Farhud) against the Jews of Baghdad in 1941". In Roth, J. K.; Maxwell, E.; Levy, M.; Whitworth, W. (eds.). Remembering for the Future. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-80486-4.
    4. ^ "1941: The beginning of the end of Iraq's Jewish community". Haaretz.com.
    5. ^ "The Farhud". encyclopedia.ushmm.org.
    6. ^ Bashkin, Orit (2012). New Babylonians: A History of Jews in Modern Iraq. Stanford University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8047-8201-2. The quick defeat of Rashid 'Ali, after a short period of national euphoria, and the allegations that the Jews had aided the British, made for a volatile situation, which exploded violently on the first and second days of June.
    7. ^ Kaplan, Robert D. (April 2014). "In Defense of Empire". The Atlantic. pp. 13–15.
    8. ^ Bashkin 2012, p. 121.
    9. ^ Wien, Peter (2006). Iraqi Arab Nationalism: Authoritarian, Totalitarian and Pro-Fascist Inclinations, 1932–1941. Routledge. p. 108. ISBN 0-4153-6858-8. The presence of German troops on the war scene, however, gave way to interpretations of the pogrom as a racial anti-Semitic endeavor 'in the fringes of the Shoah, the Jewish Holocaust.' While this is surely an exaggeration in its comparative perspective, the apologetic approach of several Arab authors is insufficient as well. According to them, the outbreak of violence resulted from the anti-Zionist zeal of the public...
    10. ^ Bashkin 2012, p. 102: "As is to be expected, both Arab and Zionist national memories have silenced important aspects of the Farhud. ... Zionist historiography ... has highlighted the Farhud as a watershed in the history of the Iraqi-Jewish community. From the Zionist standpoint, the Farhud was the outcome of the anti-Semitism and Iraqi nationalist rhetoric in the 1930s. It was also viewed as having galvanized the Zionist movement in Iraq and ultimately as causing Iraq's Jews to recognize that their country had rejected their attempts at integration and assimilation. In some Zionist circles, the event came to be understood as an extension of the European Holocaust into the Middle East. This connection is made manifest today by the archiving of certain documents relating to the Farhud in Yad Va-Shem, the Israeli Holocaust Museum in Jerusalem."
    11. ^ a b Gat, Moshe (1997). The Jewish exodus from Iraq, 1948–1951. London: Frank Cass. pp. 23–24, 28. ISBN 0-7146-4689-X.
    12. ^ Shatz, Adam (6 November 2008). "Leaving Paradise". London Review of Books. 30 (21). ISSN 0260-9592. Yet Sasson Somekh insists that the farhud was not 'the beginning of the end'. Indeed, he claims it was soon 'almost erased from the collective Jewish memory', washed away by 'the prosperity experienced by the entire city from 1941 to 1948'. Somekh, who was born in 1933, remembers the 1940s as a 'golden age' of 'security', 'recovery' and 'consolidation', in which the 'Jewish community had regained its full creative drive'. Jews built new homes, schools and hospitals, showing every sign of wanting to stay. They took part in politics as never before; at Bretton Woods, Iraq was represented by Ibrahim al-Kabir, the Jewish finance minister. Some joined the Zionist underground, but many more waved the red flag. Liberal nationalists and Communists rallied people behind a conception of national identity far more inclusive than the Golden Square's Pan-Arabism, allowing Jews to join ranks with other Iraqis – even in opposition to the British and Nuri al-Said, who did not take their ingratitude lightly.
    13. ^ World Organization of Jews from Arab Countries (WOJAC): History and Purpose, 17 OCTOBER 2012, Heskel M. Haddad, "The turning point for the Jews in Iraq was not the Farhood, as it is wrongly assumed."
    14. ^ Mike Marqusee, "Diasporic Dimensions" in If I am Not for Myself, Journey of an Anti-Zionist Jew, 2011
    15. ^ Cohen, Hayyim (October 1966). "The Anti-Jewish Farhūd in Baghdad, 1941". Middle Eastern Studies. 3 (1): 2–17. doi:10.1080/00263206608700059. ISSN 1743-7881. JSTOR 4282184.
    16. ^ Shenhav, Yehouda (May 2002). "Ethnicity and National Memory: The World Organization of Jews from Arab Countries (WOJAC) in the Context of the Palestinian National Struggle". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 29 (1): 29. ISSN 1353-0194. JSTOR 826147. In 1941 a two-day pogrom (known as the farhud) was perpetrated in Baghdad. It was the only pogrom in the history of Iraqi Jews and it did not spread to other cities: it was confined to Baghdad alone. Historians agree that this was an exceptional event in the history of Jewish-Muslim relations in Iraq.
    17. ^ Edy Cohen - European Holocaust Research Infrastructure. Edy Cohen earned his PhD in Middle Eastern History at Bar-Ilan University
    18. ^ Israel Today: This Day in History: The Nazi-Arab Massacre of Iraqi Jews Jun 1, 2020


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    2 June 1962 – During the FIFA World Cup, police had to intervene multiple times in fights between Chilean and Italian players in one of the most violent games in football history.

    Battle of Santiago (1962 FIFA World Cup)

    The Battle of Santiago (Italian: Battaglia di Santiago, Spanish: Batalla de Santiago) was a football match during the 1962 FIFA World Cup, played between host Chile and Italy on 2 June 1962 in Santiago.[1] It gained its nickname from the level of violence seen in the game, in which two players were sent off, numerous punches were thrown and police intervention was required four times. The referee was Ken Aston, who later went on to invent yellow and red cards.[2]

    1. ^ Murray, Scott (6 November 2003). "Battle of Santiago". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 June 2006.
    2. ^ "Ken Aston – the inventor of yellow and red cards". FIFA.com. 15 January 2002. Archived from the original on 6 June 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
     
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    3 June 1991Mount Unzen erupts in Kyūshū, Japan, killing 43 people, all of them either researchers or journalists.

    Mount Unzen

    Relief Map of Unzen Volcano

    Mount Unzen (雲仙岳, Unzen-dake) is an active volcanic group of several overlapping stratovolcanoes, near the city of Shimabara, Nagasaki on the island of Kyushu, Japan's southernmost main island.

    In 1792, the collapse of one of its several lava domes triggered a megatsunami that killed 14,524 people in Japan's worst volcanic-related disaster. The volcano was most recently active from 1990 to 1995, and a large eruption in 1991 generated a pyroclastic flow that killed 43 people, including three volcanologists.

    Its highest peaks are Fugen-dake (普賢岳) at 1,359 metres (4,459 ft) and Heisei-shinzan (平成新山) at 1,486 metres (4,875 ft). The latter emerged during the eruptions of the early, eponymous Heisei era (1989–2019).

    1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-04-29. Retrieved 2006-04-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
     

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