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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

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    11 July 2006Mumbai train bombings: Two hundred nine people are killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbai, India.

    2006 Mumbai train bombings

    The 2006 Mumbai train bombings were a series of seven bomb blasts on 11 July. They took place over a period of 11 minutes on the Suburban Railway in Mumbai, the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the nation's financial capital. The bombs were set off in pressure cookers on trains plying on the Western Line Suburban Section of the Mumbai Division of Western Railway. The blasts killed 209 people and injured over 700 more.

     
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    12 July 2007U.S. Army Apache helicopters engage in airstrikes against armed insurgents in Baghdad, Iraq, where civilians are killed; footage from the cockpit is later leaked to the Internet

    July 12, 2007, Baghdad airstrike

    The July 12, 2007, Baghdad airstrike was a series of air-to-ground attacks conducted by a team of two U.S. AH-64 Apache helicopters in Al-Amin al-Thaniyah, New Baghdad during the Iraqi insurgency which followed the Iraq War. On April 5, 2010, the attacks received worldwide coverage and controversy following the release of 39 minutes of gunsight footage by the Internet whistleblower website WikiLeaks. The footage was portrayed as classified,[7] but the individual who leaked it, U.S. Army soldier Chelsea Manning, testified in 2013 that the video was not classified.[8] The video, which WikiLeaks titled Collateral Murder, showed the crew firing on a group of men and killing several of them, then laughing at some of the casualties, all of whom were civilians, including two Reuters journalists.[15] An anonymous U.S. military official confirmed the authenticity of the footage,[16] which provoked global discussion on the legality and morality of the attacks.

    In the first strike, the crews of two Apaches directed 30 mm cannon fire at a group of ten Iraqi men, including some armed,[17][18][19] standing where insurgents earlier that day had shot at an American Humvee with small arms fire. Among the group were two Iraqi war correspondents working for Reuters, Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen. Seven men (including Noor-Eldeen) were killed during this first strike; Saeed Chmagh, who was injured, later died in a hospital.

    The second strike, also using 30 mm rounds, was directed at a van whose driver, Saleh Matasher Tomal, appeared to happen to drive by and who proceeded to help the wounded Chmagh. However, in the long version of the video this van was targeted prior to the first engagement by one Apache (Crazyhorse 1/8) as it traveled south toward the Reuters employees who were, simultaneously, targeted by the other Apache (Crazyhorse 1/9) as they walked north on the same road toward the van. Minutes after the first engagement ended the van returned traveling in an opposite direction (north) once again on this same road. Two men assisting in the rescue effort were from a group of five standing at an intersection – seen in the upper right corner of the video when the Reuters employees arrive in the courtyard – reported to Apaches as being a second position combatants were using to attack the Humvee. Both of these men, Chmagh and Tomal, were killed in the second strike, and two of Tomal's children were badly wounded.

    In a third strike, Apache pilots watched people, including some armed men, run into a building and engaged that building with several AGM-114 Hellfire missiles.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference nytimes20100726 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYT20100505_Bumiller was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference NewYorker-Nosecrets was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Keller, Bill (January 26, 2011). "Dealing With Assange and the WikiLeaks Secrets" (adapted from introduction to the book Open Secrets). New York Times. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
    5. ^ "Iraq war files: Apache Hellfire victims". Channel 4. October 22, 2010. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
    6. ^ "US soldier on aftermath of WikiLeaks Apache attack". BBC. October 28, 2010. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
    7. ^ Leaked U.S. video shows deaths of Reuters' Iraqi staffers Archived November 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Reuters.
    8. ^ O'Brien, Alexa (February 28, 2013). "Notes from the Courtroom: Alexa O'Brien's Transcript of Pfc. Manning's Providence Inquiry". sparrowmedia.net. The Sparrow Project. Archived from the original on March 17, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
    9. ^ Thakur, Ramesh (2016). "International Criminal Justice". The United Nations, Peace and Security. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 109–133. ISBN 9781107176942. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
    10. ^ "Bradley Manning Convicted for Classified U.S. Document Leaks". Historic Documents of 2013. Los Angeles/London: SAGE Publishing. 2014. p. 365. ISBN 9781483347868. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
    11. ^ "US military video showing 2007 Apache attack on Iraqi civilians released". The Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. April 5, 2010. Archived from the original on April 24, 2017. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
    12. ^ Bamat, Joseph (April 6, 2010). "Leaked video shows US military killing of civilians, Reuters staff". France 24. Paris: France Médias Monde. Archived from the original on April 2, 2016. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
    13. ^ Morris, Alex (August 30, 2012). "Permission to Engage: WikiLeaks collateral murder footage examined". London: The Bureau of Investigative Journalism. Archived from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
    14. ^ "US soldier linked to Iraq helicopter video leak charged". BBC News. BBC. July 6, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
    15. ^ [9][10][11][12][13][14]
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Reuters: leaked video was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference PolitiFact was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference cohen-cnn was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    13 July 2011Mumbai is rocked by three bomb blasts during the evening rush hour, killing 26 and injuring 130.

    2011 Mumbai bombings

    The 2011 Mumbai bombings were a series of three coordinated bomb explosions at different locations in Mumbai, India, on 13 July 2011 between 18:54 and 19:06 IST.[5] The blasts occurred at the Opera House, at Zaveri Bazaar and at Dadar West localities,[6] leaving 26 killed and 130 injured.[2][3][4]

    1. ^ Three blasts in Mumbai, thirteen dead, 81 injured, NDTV, archived from the original on 13 July 2011, retrieved 13 July 2011
    2. ^ a b Mumbai-blasts-Death-toll-rises-to-26, archived from the original on 5 September 2012, retrieved 30 July 2011
    3. ^ a b "Mumbai blasts: Death toll rises to 23". NDTV. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
    4. ^ a b "Death toll in Mumbai terror blasts rises to 19". NDTV. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
    5. ^ "Three blasts in Mumbai". NDTV 24x7. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
    6. ^ "3 bomb blasts in Mumbai; 8 killed, 70 injured". CNN-IBN. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
     
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    14 July 1933 – Nazi eugenics programme begins with the proclamation of the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring requiring the compulsory sterilization of any citizen who suffers from alleged genetic disorders

    Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring

    Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring (German: Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses) or "Sterilisation Law" was a statute in Nazi Germany enacted on July 14, 1933, (and made active in January 1934)[1] which allowed the compulsory sterilisation of any citizen who in the opinion of a "Genetic Health Court" (Erbgesundheitsgericht) suffered from a list of alleged genetic disorders – many of which were not, in fact, genetic. The elaborate interpretive commentary on the law was written by three dominant figures in the racial hygiene movement: Ernst Rüdin, Arthur Gütt and the lawyer Falk Ruttke. The law itself was based on the American Model Eugenical Sterilization Law developed by Harry H. Laughlin.

    1. ^ ... made active: IBM and the Holocaust, Edwin Black, 2001 Crown / Random House, p 93
     
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    15 July 1927Massacre of July 15, 1927: Eighty-nine protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna.

    July Revolt of 1927

    The July Revolt of 1927 (also known as the Vienna Palace of Justice fire, German: Wiener Justizpalastbrand) was a major riot starting on 15 July 1927 in the Austrian capital Vienna. It culminated with police forces firing into the outraged crowd, killing 89 protesters,[1] while five policemen died. More than 600 protestors and around 600 policemen were injured.

    1. ^ Brook-Shepherd, Gordon (December 1996). The Austrians : a thousand-year odyssey. HarperCollins. p. 260. ISBN 0-00-638255-X.
     
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    16 July 1965 – The Mont Blanc Tunnel linking France and Italy opens.

    Mont Blanc Tunnel

    Mont Blanc Tunnel in Italy
    Mont Blanc Tunnel in France
    Mont Blanc Tunnel in 2008

    The Mont Blanc Tunnel is a highway tunnel between France and Italy, under the Mont Blanc mountain in the Alps. It links Chamonix, Haute-Savoie, France with Courmayeur, Aosta Valley, Italy, via the French Route Nationale 205 and the Italian Traforo T1 (forming the European route E25), in particular the motorways serving Geneva (A40 of France) and Turin (A5 of Italy). The passageway is one of the major trans-Alpine transport routes, particularly for Italy, which relies on this tunnel for transporting as much as one-third of its freight to northern Europe. It reduces the route from France to Turin by 50 kilometres (30 miles) and to Milan by 100 km (60 mi). Northeast of Mont Blanc's summit, the tunnel is about 15 km (10 mi) southwest of the tripoint with Switzerland, near Mont Dolent.

    The agreement between France and Italy on building a tunnel was signed in 1949. Two operating companies were founded, each responsible for one half of the tunnel: the French Autoroutes et tunnel du Mont-Blanc (ATMB), founded on 30 April 1958, and the Italian Società italiana per azioni per il Traforo del Monte Bianco (SITMB), founded on 1 September 1957.[1] Drilling began in 1959 and was completed in 1962; the tunnel was opened to traffic on 19 July 1965.

    The tunnel is 11.611 km (7.215 mi) in length, 8.6 m (28 ft) in width, and 4.35 m (14.3 ft) in height. The passageway is not horizontal, but in a slightly inverted "V", which assists ventilation. The tunnel consists of a single gallery with a two-lane dual direction road. At the time of its construction, it was three times longer than any existing highway tunnel.[2]

    The tunnel passes almost exactly under the summit of the Aiguille du Midi. At this spot, it lies 2,480 metres (8,140 ft) beneath the surface, making it the world's second deepest operational tunnel[3] after the Gotthard Base Tunnel.

    The Mont Blanc Tunnel was originally managed by the two building companies. Following a fire in 1999 in which 39 people died, which showed how lack of coordination could hamper the safety of the tunnel, all the operations are managed by a single entity: MBT-EEIG, controlled by both ATMB and SITMB together, through a 50–50 shares distribution.[4]

    An alternative route for road traffic between France to Italy is the Fréjus Road Tunnel. Road traffic grew steadily until 1994, even with the opening of the Fréjus tunnel. Since then, the combined traffic volume of the former has remained roughly constant.

    1. ^ Barry, Keith (15 July 2010). "July 16, 1965: Mont Blanc Tunnel Opens". Wired. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
    2. ^ Soule, Gardner (December 1959). "World's longest auto tunnel to pierce the Alps". Popular Science. pp. 121–123/236–238.
    3. ^ "Today in Science History". Retrieved 22 November 2014.
    4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
     
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    17 July 1996TWA Flight 800: Off the coast of Long Island, New York, a Paris-bound TWA Boeing 747 explodes, killing all 230 on board.

    TWA Flight 800

    Trans World Airlines Flight 800 (TWA 800) was a Boeing 747-100 that exploded and crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York, on July 17, 1996, at about 8:31 p.m. EDT, 12 minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport on a scheduled international passenger flight to Rome, with a stopover in Paris.[1]: 1 All 230 people on board died in the crash; it is the third-deadliest aviation accident in U.S. history. Accident investigators from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) traveled to the scene, arriving the following morning[1]: 313 amid speculation that a terrorist attack was the cause of the crash.[2][3][4] Consequently, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and New York Police Department Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) initiated a parallel criminal investigation.[5] Sixteen months later, the JTTF announced that no evidence of a criminal act had been found and closed its active investigation.[6]

    The four-year NTSB investigation concluded with the approval of the Aircraft Accident Report on August 23, 2000, ending the most extensive, complex and costly air disaster investigation in U.S. history at that time.[7][8] The report's conclusion was that the probable cause of the accident was explosion of flammable fuel vapors in the center fuel tank. Although it could not be determined with certainty, the likely ignition source was a short circuit.[1]: xvi Problems with the aircraft's wiring were found, including evidence of arcing in the Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) wiring that enters the tank. The FQIS on Flight 800 is known to have been malfunctioning; the captain remarked on "crazy" readings from the system approximately two minutes and thirty seconds before the aircraft exploded. As a result of the investigation, new requirements were developed for aircraft to prevent future fuel tank explosions.[9]

    1. ^ a b c "In-flight Breakup Over the Atlantic Ocean Trans World Airlines Flight 800 Boeing 747-131, N93119 Near East Moriches, New York July 17, 1996" (PDF). Aircraft Accident Report. National Transportation Safety Board. August 23, 2000. NTSB/AAR-00/03. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
    2. ^ "What happened to Flight 800?". CNN. July 19, 1996. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
    3. ^ Knowlton, Brian (July 24, 1996). "Investigators Focus Closely on Terrorism As Cause of Explosion: Chemicals Found on Jet Victims, U.S. Reports". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
    4. ^ Fedarko, Kevin; et al. (July 29, 1996). "Terror on Flight 800: Who wishes us ill?". Time. Archived from the original on January 31, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
    5. ^ "Aviation and criminal experts probe TWA crash". CNN. July 19, 1996. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
    6. ^ "FBI: No criminal evidence behind TWA 800 crash". CNN. November 18, 1997. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
    7. ^ "NTSB Board Meeting on TWA 800 August 23, 2000, Part 4". National Transportation Safety Board. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
    8. ^ Tauss, Randolph M. (August 14, 2008). "The Crash of TWA Flight 800". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
    9. ^ Lowery, Joan (July 16, 2008). "Jet fuel-tank protection ordered". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Associated Press. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
     
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    18 July 2014 – The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant requires Christians to either accept dhimmi status, emigrate from ISIL lands, or be killed.

    Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

    The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; /ˈsəl, ˈsɪl/), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS; /ˈsɪs/),[91] officially known as the Islamic State (IS) and also known by its Arabic acronym Daesh (Arabic: داعش‎, Dāʿish, IPA: [ˈdaːʕɪʃ]),[92] is a militant group and former unrecognized proto-state[93] that follows a Salafi jihadist doctrine.[94]

    ISIL was founded by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and gained global prominence in 2014 when it drove Iraqi security forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive,[95] followed by its capture of Mosul[96] and the Sinjar massacre.[97]

    The group has been designated as a terrorist organisation by the United Nations. ISIL is known for its videos of beheadings and other types of executions[98] of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, and its destruction of cultural heritage sites.[99] The United Nations holds ISIL responsible for committing human rights abuses, genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.[100] The Islamic State committed genocide and ethnic cleansing on a historic scale in northern Iraq.[101][102]

    ISIL originated in 1999, pledged allegiance to Al-Qaeda and participated in the Iraqi insurgency following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces. In June 2014, the group proclaimed itself a worldwide caliphate[103][104] and began referring to itself as the Islamic State (الدولة الإسلامية ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah; IS).[105] As a caliphate, it claimed religious, political, and military authority over all Muslims worldwide.[106] Its adoption of the name Islamic State and its idea of a caliphate have been criticised, with the United Nations, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting its statehood.[107]

    In Syria, the group conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions, and by December 2015, it held an area extending from western Iraq to eastern Syria, containing an estimated eight to twelve million people,[50][51][108] where it enforced its interpretation of sharia law. ISIL is believed to be operational in 18 countries, including Afghanistan and Pakistan.[109] In 2015, ISIL was estimated to have an annual budget of more than US$1 billion and more than 30,000 fighters.[110]

    In mid-2014, an international coalition led by the United States intervened against ISIL in Syria and Iraq with an airstrike campaign, in addition to supplying advisors, weapons, training, and supplies to ISIL's enemies in the Iraqi Security Forces and Syrian Democratic Forces. This campaign reinvigorated the latter two forces and damaged ISIL, killing tens of thousands of its troops[111] and reducing its financial and military infrastructure.[112] This was followed by a smaller-scale Russian intervention exclusively in Syria, in which ISIL lost thousands more fighters to airstrikes, cruise missile attacks, and other Russian military activities and had its financial base further degraded.[113] In July 2017, the group lost control of its largest city, Mosul, to the Iraqi army, followed by the loss of its de facto political capital of Raqqa to the Syrian Democratic Forces.[114] By December 2017, the Islamic State controlled just 2% of its maximum territory (in May 2015).[115] In December 2017, Iraqi forces had driven the last remnants of the Islamic State underground, three years after the group captured about a third of Iraq's territory.[116] By March 2019, ISIL lost one of their last significant territories in the Middle East in the Deir ez-Zor campaign, surrendering their "tent city" and pockets in Al-Baghuz Fawqani to the Syrian Democratic Forces after the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani.[29]

    In October 2019, ISIL media announced that Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi was the new leader of the Islamic State,[117] after Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi killed himself by detonating a suicide vest during the US Barisha raid in the Syrian rebel–held Idlib province of Syria four days previously.[118][119][120]

    In August 2021, the Islamic State's Afghan affiliate, ISIL-KP killed 13 American military personnel and at least 169 Afghan civilians[121][122] during the U.S. evacuation of Kabul. The U.S. deaths were the highest number of U.S. military deaths in Afghanistan since 2011.[122][123][124][121]

    1. ^ Gander, Kashmira (7 July 2015). "Isis flag: What do the words mean and what are its origins?". The Independent.
    2. ^ Zelin, Aaron Y. (29 January 2019). "New video message from The Islamic State: "Fulfilling the Promise – Wilāyat al-'Irāq, Kirkūk"". Jihadology.net.
       • "Statement of ISIS – The Battle of Brussels". The Investigative Project on Terrorism (in Arabic).
       • "ISIS ID Card". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (in Arabic).
    3. ^ Breslow, Jason M. (17 May 2016). "Who Was the Founder of ISIS?". Frontline. PBS.
    4. ^ "Islamic State confirms Baghdadi is dead, appoints successor". Reuters. 31 October 2019.
    5. ^ Rubin, Alissa J. (5 July 2014). "Militant Leader in Rare Appearance in Iraq". The New York Times.
    6. ^ a b Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad (24 January 2016). "An Account of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi & Islamic State Succession Lines". Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi's Blog.
    7. ^ "Abd al-Rahman Mustafa al-Qaduli". Rewards for Justice. United States Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security. 5 May 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.
       • Schmidt, Michael (25 March 2016). "A Top ISIS Leader Is Killed in an Airstrike, the Pentagon Says". The New York Times.
    8. ^ Paton, Callum (10 March 2016). "New Isis leader in Libya – Abdel Qader al-Najdi threatens Daesh invasion of Rome through Africa". IB Times. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
       • "Eastern Libyan forces say they killed Islamic State leader". Reuters. 23 September 2020.
    9. ^ "ISIS Leadership". Frontline. PBS. 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chulov310816 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ a b Lister, Charles (2014). "Islamic State Senior Leadership: Who's Who" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2016.
       • "Here's What We Know About the 'Caliph' of the New Islamic State". Business Insider. AFP. 29 June 2014.
       • "ISIS Spokesman Declares Caliphate, Rebrands Group as Islamic State". Jihadist News. SITE Intelligence Group. 29 June 2014.
       • "Pentagon Confirms U.S. Strike in Syria Killed ISIL Leader". DoD News. United States Department of Defense. 12 September 2016.
    12. ^ Garland, Chad (14 July 2016). "Islamic State says top commander is dead; Pentagon unsure". Stars and Stripes.
       • Worley, Will (13 July 2016). "Isis confirms death of hugely popular 'minister of war' Omar al-Shishani". The Independent.
       • Starr, Barbara (15 March 2016). "U.S. assesses ISIS operative Omar al-Shishani is dead". CNN.
       • "Tarkhan Tayumurazovich Batirashvili". Rewards for Justice. U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security. 5 May 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.
    13. ^ "Isis: US-trained Tajik special forces chief Gulmurod Khalimov becomes Isis 'war minister'". International Business Times. 6 September 2016.
       • "IS 'minister of war' killed in Syria air attack, claims Russia". Middle East Eye. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
       • "Gulmurod Khalimov". Rewards for Justice. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
    14. ^ "Sami Jasim Muhammad al-Jaburi". Rewards for Justice. Rewards for Justice. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
    15. ^ "IS confirms death of propaganda chief Abu Mohammed al-Furqan - BBC News". Bbc.com. 11 October 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
    16. ^ "Islamic State group names its new leader as Abu Ibrahim al-Hashemi". BBC News. 31 October 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
    17. ^ Holmes, Oliver (3 February 2014). "Al Qaeda breaks link with Syrian militant group ISIL". Reuters.
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       • "Al-Qaeda disavows ISIS militants in Syria". BBC News. 3 February 2014.
    19. ^ Laskar, Rezaul H. (29 January 2015). "IS announces expansion into AfPak, parts of India". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 29 January 2015.
    20. ^ Elbagir, Nima; Cruickshank, Paul; Tawfeeq, Mohammed (7 March 2015). "Boko Haram purportedly pledges allegiance to ISIS". CNN.
    21. ^ Gambhir, Harleen (23 June 2015). "ISIS Declares Governorate in Russia's North Caucasus Region". Institute for the Study of War.
    22. ^ "Syrian army captures Mayadin from ISIS near Deir ez-Zor". Rudaw. 14 October 2017.
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       • "US-backed fighters seize east Syria village from ISIS". The National.
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       • Saltman, Erin Marie (3 November 2016). "The mind of Islamic State: more coherent and consistent than Nazism". The Guardian. ISBN 978-1-906603-98-4. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017.
    32. ^ Manne, Robert (2017). Mind of the Islamic state: ISIS and the ideology of the caliphate. Level 1, 221 Drummond Street, Carlton VIC 3053, Australia: Prometheus Books. p. 12. ISBN 9781633883710. several scholars have termed the ideology that provided the foundation of the Islamic State “Qutbism.CS1 maint: location (link)
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       • Rickenbacher, Daniel (2019). "The Centrality of Anti-Semitism in the Islamic State's Ideology and Its Connection to Anti-Shiism". Religions. 10 (8): 483–492. doi:10.3390/rel10080483.
       • Ghasemi, Faezeh (2017). "Anti-Shiite and Anti-Iranian Discourses in ISIS Texts". Discourse. 11 (3): 75–96.
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  9. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    18 July 2014 – The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant requires Christians to either accept dhimmi status, emigrate from ISIL lands, or be killed.

    Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

    The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; /ˈsəl, ˈsɪl/), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS; /ˈsɪs/),[91] officially known as the Islamic State (IS) and also known by its Arabic acronym Daesh (Arabic: داعش‎, Dāʿish, IPA: [ˈdaːʕɪʃ]),[92] is a militant group and former unrecognized proto-state[93] that follows a Salafi jihadist doctrine.[94]

    ISIL was founded by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and gained global prominence in 2014 when it drove Iraqi security forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive,[95] followed by its capture of Mosul[96] and the Sinjar massacre.[97]

    The group has been designated as a terrorist organisation by the United Nations. ISIL is known for its videos of beheadings and other types of executions[98] of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, and its destruction of cultural heritage sites.[99] The United Nations holds ISIL responsible for committing human rights abuses, genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.[100] The Islamic State committed genocide and ethnic cleansing on a historic scale in northern Iraq.[101][102]

    ISIL originated in 1999, pledged allegiance to Al-Qaeda and participated in the Iraqi insurgency following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces. In June 2014, the group proclaimed itself a worldwide caliphate[103][104] and began referring to itself as the Islamic State (الدولة الإسلامية ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah; IS).[105] As a caliphate, it claimed religious, political, and military authority over all Muslims worldwide.[106] Its adoption of the name Islamic State and its idea of a caliphate have been criticised, with the United Nations, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting its statehood.[107]

    In Syria, the group conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions, and by December 2015, it held an area extending from western Iraq to eastern Syria, containing an estimated eight to twelve million people,[50][51][108] where it enforced its interpretation of sharia law. ISIL is believed to be operational in 18 countries, including Afghanistan and Pakistan.[109] In 2015, ISIL was estimated to have an annual budget of more than US$1 billion and more than 30,000 fighters.[110]

    In mid-2014, an international coalition led by the United States intervened against ISIL in Syria and Iraq with an airstrike campaign, in addition to supplying advisors, weapons, training, and supplies to ISIL's enemies in the Iraqi Security Forces and Syrian Democratic Forces. This campaign reinvigorated the latter two forces and damaged ISIL, killing tens of thousands of its troops[111] and reducing its financial and military infrastructure.[112] This was followed by a smaller-scale Russian intervention exclusively in Syria, in which ISIL lost thousands more fighters to airstrikes, cruise missile attacks, and other Russian military activities and had its financial base further degraded.[113] In July 2017, the group lost control of its largest city, Mosul, to the Iraqi army, followed by the loss of its de facto political capital of Raqqa to the Syrian Democratic Forces.[114] By December 2017, the Islamic State controlled just 2% of its maximum territory (in May 2015).[115] In December 2017, Iraqi forces had driven the last remnants of the Islamic State underground, three years after the group captured about a third of Iraq's territory.[116] By March 2019, ISIL lost one of their last significant territories in the Middle East in the Deir ez-Zor campaign, surrendering their "tent city" and pockets in Al-Baghuz Fawqani to the Syrian Democratic Forces after the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani.[29]

    In October 2019, ISIL media announced that Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi was the new leader of the Islamic State,[117] after Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi killed himself by detonating a suicide vest during the US Barisha raid in the Syrian rebel–held Idlib province of Syria four days previously.[118][119][120]

    In August 2021, the Islamic State's Afghan affiliate, ISIL-KP killed 13 American military personnel and at least 169 Afghan civilians[121][122] during the U.S. evacuation of Kabul. The U.S. deaths were the highest number of U.S. military deaths in Afghanistan since 2011.[122][123][124][121]

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    81. ^ Musa, Rami (10 June 2015). "Al-Qaida-linked militants attack IS affiliate in Libya". Military Times.
    82. ^ Farmer, Ben (24 January 2019). "Taliban agree Isil and Al-Qaeda will be barred from Afghanistan in major concession during talks with US". Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited.
    83. ^ "الحشد الشعبي يوسع نطاق متابعة فلول داعش الى محافظة حمص السورية" [The Popular Mobilization Forces expands the scope of follow-up to ISIS remnants to the Syrian province of Homs]. Iraq Today (in Arabic). 13 April 2017.
    84. ^ Kittleson, Shelly (11 April 2018). "Iraqi police who fought for tribal PMUs won't return to force". Al-Monitor.
    85. ^ "ISIS kills 6 militants from Hezbollah-backed Quwat al-Ridha in Homs". Zamanalwsl.net. 23 September 2017.
    86. ^ Aboufadel, Leith (21 March 2016). "Iranian special forces arrive in Palmyra to help liberate the city". Al-Masdar News.
    87. ^ "التعرف على جثة امر لواء زينبيون الايراني الذي قتل في سوريا بنيران داعش الارهابي قبل عامين" [Identification of the body of the order of the Iranian Zainabiyoun Brigade, who was killed in Syria by ISIS terrorist fire two years ago]. IraqNewspaper.net (in Arabic). 12 June 2019.
    88. ^ "لماذا أوقفت كتائب الحر والجبهة الإسلامية قتال داعش في جنوب دمشق؟" [Why did the Free and Islamic Front Brigades stop the fight against ISIS in southern Damascus?]. akhbaralaan.net (in Arabic). 27 September 2014.
    89. ^ "عملية نوعية لـ "كتائب البعث" خلف خطوط "داعش"" [A qualitative operation by the "Baath Brigades" behind the lines of ISIS]. DamPress.net (in Arabic). 5 October 2014.
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    92. ^ Schwartz, Felica (23 December 2014). "One More Name for Islamic State: Daesh". The Wall Street Journal.
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       • Wedeman, Ben; Said-Moorhouse, Lauren (23 March 2019). "ISIS has lost its final stronghold in Syria, the Syrian Democratic Forces says". CNN.
       • Frantzman, Seth J. "After ISIS 'defeat,' what comes next? – Analysis". The Jerusalem Post.
       • McKernan, Bethan (23 March 2019). "Isis defeated, US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces announce". The Guardian.
       • Callimachi, Rukmini (23 March 2019). "ISIS Caliphate Crumbles as Last Village in Syria Falls". The New York Times.
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       • Dolgov, Boris (23 September 2014). "Islamic State and the policy of the West". Oriental Review.
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       • Cockburn, Patrick (3 March 2016). "End Times for the Caliphate?". London Review of Books. Vol. 38 no. 5. pp. 29–30.
       • Pastukhov, Dmitry; Greenwold, Nathaniel. "Does Islamic State have the economic and political institutions for future development?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
       • Pedler, John (2015). A Word Before Leaving: A Former Diplomat's Weltanschauung. Troubador. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-78462-223-7.
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    124. ^ "At least 48 dead: Kabul's deadliest day since 2011". Los Angeles Times. 8 August 2015.
     
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    19 July 1981 – In a private meeting with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, French President François Mitterrand reveals the existence of the Farewell Dossier, a collection of documents showing the Soviet Union had been stealing American technological research and development.

    Farewell Dossier

    The Farewell Dossier was the collection of documents that Colonel Vladimir Vetrov, a KGB defector "en place" (code-named "Farewell"), gathered and gave to the Direction de la surveillance du territoire (DST) in 1981–82, during the Cold War.

    Vetrov was an engineer who had been assigned to evaluate information on NATO hardware and software gathered by the "Line X" technical intelligence operation for Directorate T, the Soviet Union directorate for scientific and technical intelligence collection from the West. He became increasingly disillusioned with the Soviet system and decided to work with the French at the end of the 1970s. Between early 1981 and early 1982, Vetrov gave almost 4,000 secret documents to the DST, including the complete list of 250 Line X officers stationed under legal cover in embassies around the world.

    As a consequence, Western nations undertook a mass expulsion of Soviet technology spies. The CIA also mounted a counter-intelligence operation that transferred modified hardware and software designs to the Soviets. Thomas Reed alleged this was the cause of a trans-Siberian pipeline disaster in 1982; however this claim has been challenged.[citation needed]

    Vetrov's story inspired the 1997 book Bonjour Farewell: La Vérité sur la Taupe Française du KGB by Serguei Kostine.[1] It was adapted in the French film L'affaire Farewell (2009) starring Emir Kusturica and Guillaume Canet.[2]

    1. ^ Kostine, Sergueï (1997). Bonjour, Farewell: La Vérité sur la Taupe Française du KGB. R. Laffont. ISBN 2221079086.
    2. ^ "L'affaire Farewell". IMDb.
     
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    20 July 1960 – The Polaris missile is successfully launched from a submarine, the USS George Washington, for the first time.

    UGM-27 Polaris

    The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). As the United States Navy's first SLBM, it served from 1961 to 1980.

    In the mid-1950s the Navy was involved in the Jupiter missile project with the U.S. Army, and had influenced the design by making it squat so it would fit in submarines. However, they had concerns about the use of liquid fuel rockets on board ships, and some consideration was given to a solid fuel version, Jupiter S. In 1956, during an anti-submarine study known as Project Nobska, Edward Teller suggested that very small hydrogen bomb warheads were possible. A crash program to develop a missile suitable for carrying such warheads began as Polaris, launching its first shot less than four years later, in February 1960.[1]

    As the Polaris missile was fired underwater from a moving platform, it was essentially invulnerable to counterattack. This led the Navy to suggest, starting around 1959, that they be given the entire nuclear deterrent role. This led to new infighting between the Navy and the U.S. Air Force, the latter responding by developing the counterforce concept that argued for the strategic bomber and ICBM as key elements in flexible response. Polaris formed the backbone of the U.S. Navy's nuclear force aboard a number of custom-designed submarines. In 1963, the Polaris Sales Agreement led to the Royal Navy taking over the United Kingdom's nuclear role, and while some tests were carried out by the Italian Navy, this did not lead to use.

    The Polaris missile was gradually replaced on 31 of the 41 original SSBNs in the U.S. Navy by the MIRV-capable Poseidon missile beginning in 1972. During the 1980s, these missiles were replaced on 12 of these submarines by the Trident I missile. The 10 George Washington- and Ethan Allen-class SSBNs retained Polaris A-3 until 1980 because their missile tubes were not large enough to accommodate Poseidon. With USS Ohio beginning sea trials in 1980, these submarines were disarmed and redesignated as attack submarines to avoid exceeding the SALT II strategic arms treaty limits.

    The Polaris missile program's complexity led to the development of new project management techniques, including the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) to replace the simpler Gantt chart methodology.

    1. ^ "Polaris A1". Retrieved 26 November 2017.
     
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    21 July 2011NASA's Space Shuttle program ends with the landing of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-135 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center

    Space Shuttle Atlantis

    Space Shuttle Atlantis (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV‑104) is a Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle which belongs to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the spaceflight and space exploration agency of the United States.[1] Manufactured by the Rockwell International company in Southern California and delivered to the Kennedy Space Center in Eastern Florida in April 1985, Atlantis is the fourth operational and the second-to-last Space Shuttle built.[2][3] Its maiden flight was STS-51-J from 3 to 7 October 1985.

    Atlantis embarked on its 33rd and final mission, also the final mission of a space shuttle, STS-135, on 8 July 2011. STS-134 by Endeavour was expected to be the final flight before STS-135 was authorized in October 2010. STS-135 took advantage of the processing for the STS-335 Launch on Need mission that would have been necessary if STS-134's crew became stranded in orbit.[4] Atlantis landed for the final time at the Kennedy Space Center on 21 July 2011.

    By the end of its final mission, Atlantis had orbited the Earth a total of 4,848 times, traveling nearly 126,000,000 mi (203,000,000 km) or more than 525 times the distance from the Earth to the Moon.

    Atlantis is named after RV Atlantis, a two-masted sailing ship that operated as the primary research vessel for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution from 1930 to 1966.[5]

    1. ^ NASA (2007). "Space Shuttle Overview: Atlantis (OV-104)". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
    2. ^ Justin Ray (11 May 2010). "Respecting Atlantis as the shuttle faces retirement". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
    3. ^ Peter W. Merlin (20 May 2010). "Space Shuttle Atlantis Wraps Up 25-year Career". NASA. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
    4. ^ Svitak, Amy (19 November 2010). "Bolden Says Extra Shuttle Flight Needed As Hedge Against Additional COTS Delays". Space News International. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
    5. ^ "Space Shuttle Atlantis Orbitor Fleet". Retrieved 23 September 2008.
     
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    22 July 1983Martial law in Poland is officially revoked.

    Martial law in Poland

    Martial law in Poland (Polish: Stan wojenny w Polsce) was declared in the period between 13 December 1981 and 22 July 1983. The government of the Polish People's Republic drastically restricted everyday life by introducing martial law and a military junta in an attempt to counter political opposition, in particular the Solidarity movement. Thousands of opposition activists were imprisoned without charge, and as many as 91 killed.[2] Although martial law was lifted in 1983, many political prisoners were not released until a general amnesty in 1986.

    Since the 1970s, communist Poland was in a deep economic recession. First Secretary Edward Gierek took out a series of large loans from western creditors to achieve a better economic output that instead resulted in a domestic crisis. Essential goods were being heavily rationed, which acted as a stimulus to establish a first anti-communist trade union in the Eastern Bloc, known as Solidarity, in 1980. Gierek, who permitted the trade union to appear per the Gdańsk Agreement, was dismissed from his post less than a month later under pressure from the USSR and confined to house arrest. Poland's already somewhat liberal policies concerning the opposition were worrisome for hardliners in the neighbouring Soviet Union. The latter feared that the Poles might overthrow communism and ally themselves with the Western Bloc. The Soviets were particularly uneasy as the departure of the most populous nation from Comecon would trigger further financial and economic problems that would bring an end to communist rule in the Eastern Bloc. After a series of strikes and demonstrations by employees of chief industrial regions, Poland was directly heading towards bankruptcy.

    The Military Council of National Salvation was formed by the new First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party, General Wojciech Jaruzelski, who was determined to put an end to the demonstrations and crush the opposition by force if necessary. There is speculation whether Jaruzelski instigated martial law to prevent bloodshed if the Soviets and other Warsaw Pact countries were to enter Poland under the mutual assistance treaty, like in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. On the 13th December 1981, Jaruzelski announced the introduction of martial law in a televised speech addressed to the entire nation. The Polish People's Army, Citizens' Militia (MO), ZOMO special units and tanks rolled onto the streets to scare off demonstrators, begin regular patrols and maintain curfew. Intercity travelling was forbidden unless a permit was granted by the authorities, food shortages intensified and censorship was placed again on all media and post. The secret services (SB) wiretapped phones in public booths and state institutions.

    On 16 December, pro-Solidarity miners organized a strike against the declaration of martial law at the Wujek Coal Mine in the industrial city of Katowice. The ZOMO squads harshly pacified Wujek, which resulted in 9 miners' deaths. All other demonstrations across Poland were met with an armed force, which utilized water cannons, tear gas, batons, truncheons and clubs to disperse crowds and beat protesters. Thousands were detained, and some were tortured in state prisons. On the 31 August 1982, in the copper-mining town of Lubin, three people were mortally wounded. Until the end of Martial Law on the 22 July 1983, approximately 91 people were killed, though this figure varies and is still debated among historians.[2]

    1. ^ "The Day Poland Stood Still: Memories from the Introduction of Martial Law". Culture.pl.
    2. ^ a b Poland marks communist crackdown, BBC News, 13th December 2006
     
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    23 July 1903 – The Ford Motor Company sells its first car.

    Ford Motor Company

    Coordinates: 42°18′53″N 83°12′38″W / 42.31472°N 83.21056°W / 42.31472; -83.21056

    Ford Motor Company (commonly known as Ford) is an American multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, United States. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand, and luxury cars under its Lincoln luxury brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors.[5] It also has joint-ventures in China (Changan Ford), Taiwan (Ford Lio Ho), Thailand (AutoAlliance Thailand), Turkey (Ford Otosan), and Russia (Ford Sollers). The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family; they have minority ownership but the majority of the voting power.[6][4]

    Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914, these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to the Indian automaker Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010.[7] In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Middle East since 1938.

    Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker (behind General Motors) and the fifth-largest in the world (behind Toyota, Volkswagen, Hyundai and General Motors) based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe.[8] The company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights.[9][4] During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it struggled financially to the point of collapse which was in large part prevented by President George W. Bush announcing his emergency financial rescue plan to help Ford Motors as well as Chrysler LLC and General Motors, making immediately available $13.4 billion to the automaker.[10] Ford Motors has since returned to profitability.[11] Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion.[12] In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles[13] and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide.

    1. ^ Hyde, Charles K. (June 2005). "National Historic Landmark Nomination – Ford Piquette Avenue Plant" (PDF). National Park Service. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
    2. ^ a b c d e f g "Ford Motor Company 2020 Annual Report (Form 10-K)". sec.report. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. February 4, 2021. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
    3. ^ a b "Ford Motor Company company : Shareholders, managers and business summary". 4-Traders. France. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
    4. ^ a b c Rogers, Christina (May 12, 2016). "Shareholders Again Back Ford Family". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 30, 2019. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
    5. ^ "Jiangling Motors Corporation, Ltd. 2017 Annual Report" (PDF). JMC. pp. 27, 29. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2019. Retrieved February 1, 2019 – via Sohu.
    6. ^ Muller, Joann (December 2, 2010). "Ford Family's Stake Is Smaller, But They're Richer And Still Firmly In Control". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 20, 2019. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
    7. ^ "Ford Motor Company Completes Sale of Volvo to Geely". Ford Motor Co. August 2, 2010. Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
    8. ^ "New Passenger Car Registrations by Manufacturer European Union (EU)". ACEA. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
    9. ^ Muller, Joann (March 9, 2014). "William Clay Ford's Legacy Cemented Family's Dynasty". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
    10. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. "Ford Motor Company | History & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannic. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
    11. ^ Hammond, Lou Ann. "How Ford stayed strong through the financial crisis - Jan. 13, 2011". Fortune. Archived from the original on July 2, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
    12. ^ "Ford Motor". Fortune. Archived from the original on August 23, 2019. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
    13. ^ "Ford Motor Company / 2008 Annual Report, Operating Highlights" (PDF). p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 19, 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
     
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    24 July 2013 – A high-speed train derails in Spain rounding a curve with an 80 km/h (50 mph) speed limit at 190 km/h (120 mph), killing 78 passengers.

    Santiago de Compostela derailment

    The Santiago de Compostela derailment occurred on 24 July 2013, when an Alvia high-speed train traveling from Madrid to Ferrol, in the north-west of Spain, derailed at high speed on a bend about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) outside of the railway station at Santiago de Compostela. Out of 222 people (218 passengers and 4 crew) on board, around 140 were injured and 79 died.[2]

    The train's data recorder showed that it was traveling at about twice the posted speed limit of 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph) when it entered a bend in the rail. The crash was recorded on a track-side camera which shows all thirteen train cars derailing and four overturning. On 28 July 2013, the train's driver, Francisco José Garzón Amo, was charged with 79 counts of homicide by professional recklessness and an undetermined number of counts of causing injury by professional recklessness.[3]

    The crash was Spain's worst rail accident in forty years, since a crash near El Cuervo, Seville, in 1972.[4][note 1] The Torre del Bierzo crash in 1944 remains the deadliest.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference renfe was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ (in Spanish) "El fallecimiento de una estadounidense eleva a 79 los muertos en el accidente de Santiago" RTVE. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
    3. ^ "Spanish train conductor charged in deadly crash". CNN. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
    4. ^ Gómez, Luis (25 July 2013). "El accidente de la cochinita deja 86 muertos". El País. ELPAIS. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
     
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    25 July 1946 – The Crossroads Baker device is the first underwater nuclear weapon test.

    Operation Crossroads

    Operation Crossroads was a pair of nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in mid-1946. They were the first nuclear weapon tests since Trinity in July 1945, and the first detonations of nuclear devices since the atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effect of nuclear weapons on warships.

    The Crossroads tests were the first of many nuclear tests held in the Marshall Islands, and the first to be publicly announced beforehand and observed by an invited audience, including a large press corps. They were conducted by Joint Army/Navy Task Force One, headed by Vice Admiral William H. P. Blandy rather than by the Manhattan Project, which had developed nuclear weapons during World War II. A fleet of 95 target ships was assembled in Bikini Lagoon and hit with two detonations of Fat Man plutonium implosion-type nuclear weapons of the kind dropped on Nagasaki, each with a yield of 23 kilotons of TNT (96 TJ).

    The first test was Able. The bomb was named Gilda after Rita Hayworth's character in the 1946 film Gilda, and was dropped from the B-29 Superfortress Dave's Dream of the 509th Bombardment Group on July 1, 1946. It detonated 520 feet (158 m) above the target fleet and caused less than the expected amount of ship damage because it missed its aim point by 2,130 feet (649 m).

    The second test was Baker. The bomb was known as Helen of Bikini and was detonated 90 feet (27 m) underwater on July 25, 1946. Radioactive sea spray caused extensive contamination. A third deep-water test named Charlie was planned for 1947 but was canceled primarily because of the United States Navy's inability to decontaminate the target ships after the Baker test. Ultimately, only nine target ships were able to be scrapped rather than scuttled. Charlie was rescheduled as Operation Wigwam, a deep-water shot conducted in 1955 off the coast of Mexico (Baja California).

    Bikini's native residents agreed to evacuate the island, and were evacuated on board the LST-861, with most moving to the Rongerik Atoll. In the 1950s, a series of large thermonuclear tests rendered Bikini unfit for subsistence farming and fishing because of radioactive contamination. Bikini remains uninhabited as of 2017, though it is occasionally visited by sport divers. Planners attempted to protect participants in the Operation Crossroads tests against radiation sickness, but one study showed that the life expectancy of participants was reduced by an average of three months. The Baker test's radioactive contamination of all the target ships was the first case of immediate, concentrated radioactive fallout from a nuclear explosion. Chemist Glenn T. Seaborg, the longest-serving chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, called Baker "the world's first nuclear disaster."[1]

    1. ^ Weisgall 1994, p. ix.
     
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    26 July 2005 – Mumbai, India receives 99.5cm of rain (39.17 inches) within 24 hours, resulting in floods killing over 5,000 people.

    Maharashtra floods of 2005

    The 2005 Maharashtra floods impacted many parts of the Indian state of Maharashtra including large areas of the metropolis Mumbai, a city located on the coast of the Arabian Sea, on the Western coast of India, in which approximately 1,094 people died. It occurred just one month after the June 2005 Gujarat floods. The term 26 July, is used to refer to the day when the city of Mumbai came to a standstill due to flooding.

    Many people were stranded on the roads, lost their homes while many walked long distances back home from work that evening. The floods were caused by the eighth heaviest-ever recorded 24-hour rainfall figure of 944 mm (37.17 inches) which lashed the metropolis on 26 July 2005, and intermittently continued for the next day. 644mm (25.35 inches) was received within the 12-hour period between 8 am and 8 pm. Torrential rainfall continued for the next week. The highest 24-hour period in India was 1,168 mm (46.0 inches) in Aminidivi in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep on 6 May 2004 although some reports suggest that it was a new Indian record. The previous record high rainfall in a 24-hour period for Mumbai was 575 mm (22.6 inches) in 1974.

    Other places severely affected were Raigad, Chiplun and Khed, Guhagar.

    1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
     
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    28 July 1960 – The German Volkswagen Act came into force.

    Volkswagen Act

    The Volkswagen Act is a set of German (originally West German) federal laws enacted in 1960, regulating the privatisation of Volkswagenwerk GmbH into the Volkswagen Group.[1] In order to maintain government control in the privately owned company, it stipulated that the votes in major shareholder meeting resolutions require 4/5th (80%) agreement.[2] This part of the law was deemed to violate the "free movement of capital" principle of European Union corporate law.[3] After a series of challenges from 2007 to 2013, the German parliament finally amended the part in 2013 to EU Court of Justice satisfaction.[4]

    1. ^ "Gesetz über die Überführung der Anteilsrechte an der Volkswagenwerk Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung in private Hand". Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz.
    2. ^ § 4, Abs.3 of the above referenced law.
    3. ^ F. Sander. "Case C-112/05, European Commission v. Federal Republic of Germany The Volkswagen Case and Art. 56 EC". Columbia Journal of European Law (2008). 14: 359–370.
    4. ^ "Germany has complied with Volkswagen law ruling". Retrieved 2014-07-28.
     
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    29 July 1980 – Iran adopts a new "holy" flag after the Islamic Revolution.

    Flag of Iran

    The flag of Iran (Persian: پرچم ایران‎, romanizedparčam-e Irân, pronounced [pʰæɾˌtʃʰæme ʔiːˈɾɒːn]), also known as the Three-Coloured Flag (پرچم سه رنگ ایران parčam-e se rang Irân [pʰæɾˌtʃʰæme se ræŋ ʔiːˈɾɒːn]), is a tricolour comprising equal horizontal bands of green, white and red with the national emblem ("Allah") in red centred on the white band and the takbir written 11 times each in the Kufic script in white, at the bottom of the green and the top of the red band.[1]

    This flag was adopted on 29 July 1980, as a reflection of the changes brought about by the Iranian Revolution of 1979, which resulted in the replacement of Pahlavi monarchy with an Islamic Republic, supported by a wide range of Islamist organizations[2] and student movements. In opposition to the current regime in Iran, a number of Iranian exiles (particularly in Los Angeles, Paris, London, Berlin, Amsterdam, etc.) continue to use the Iranian tricolor with the Lion and Sun at the center.[3]

    1. ^ Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran: Chapter II, Article 18: "The official flag of Iran is composed of green, white and red colours with the special emblem of the Islamic Republic, together with the motto (Allahu Akbar)."
    2. ^ Jubin M. GOODARZİ (8 February 2013). "Syria and Iran: Alliance Cooperation in a Changing Regional Environment" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
    3. ^ Najmabadi, Afsaneh (2005), "II", Women with Mustaches and Men without Beards: Gender and Sexual Anxieties of Iranian Modernity, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-24262-9
     
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    29 July 1980 – Iran adopts a new "holy" flag after the Islamic Revolution.

    Flag of Iran

    The flag of Iran (Persian: پرچم ایران‎, romanizedparčam-e Irân, pronounced [pʰæɾˌtʃʰæme ʔiːˈɾɒːn]), also known as the Three-Coloured Flag (پرچم سه رنگ ایران parčam-e se rang Irân [pʰæɾˌtʃʰæme se ræŋ ʔiːˈɾɒːn]), is a tricolour comprising equal horizontal bands of green, white and red with the national emblem ("Allah") in red centred on the white band and the takbir written 11 times each in the Kufic script in white, at the bottom of the green and the top of the red band.[1]

    This flag was adopted on 29 July 1980, as a reflection of the changes brought about by the Iranian Revolution of 1979, which resulted in the replacement of Pahlavi monarchy with an Islamic Republic, supported by a wide range of Islamist organizations[2] and student movements. In opposition to the current regime in Iran, a number of Iranian exiles (particularly in Los Angeles, Paris, London, Berlin, Amsterdam, etc.) continue to use the Iranian tricolor with the Lion and Sun at the center.[3]

    1. ^ Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran: Chapter II, Article 18: "The official flag of Iran is composed of green, white and red colours with the special emblem of the Islamic Republic, together with the motto (Allahu Akbar)."
    2. ^ Jubin M. GOODARZİ (8 February 2013). "Syria and Iran: Alliance Cooperation in a Changing Regional Environment" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
    3. ^ Najmabadi, Afsaneh (2005), "II", Women with Mustaches and Men without Beards: Gender and Sexual Anxieties of Iranian Modernity, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-24262-9
     
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    30 July 1975Jimmy Hoffa disappears from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, at about 2:30 p.m. He is never seen or heard from again.

    Jimmy Hoffa

    Preview warning: Page using Template:Infobox person with unknown empty parameter "denomination"
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    James Riddle Hoffa (born February 14, 1913 – disappeared July 30, 1975, declared dead July 30, 1982) was an American labor union leader who served as the president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) from 1957 until 1971.

    From an early age, Hoffa was a union activist, and he became an important regional figure with the IBT by his mid-twenties. By 1952, he was the national vice-president of the IBT and between 1957 and 1971 he was its general president. He secured the first national agreement for teamsters' rates in 1964 with the National Master Freight Agreement. He played a major role in the growth and the development of the union, which eventually became the largest by membership in the United States, with over 2.3 million members at its peak, during his terms as its leader.

    Hoffa became involved with organized crime from the early years of his Teamsters work, a connection that continued until his disappearance in 1975. He was convicted of jury tampering, attempted bribery, conspiracy, and mail and wire fraud in 1964 in two separate trials. He was imprisoned in 1967 and sentenced to 13 years. In mid-1971, he resigned as president of the union as part of a commutation agreement with US President Richard Nixon and was released later that year, but Hoffa was barred from union activities until 1980. Hoping to regain support and to return to IBT leadership, he unsuccessfully tried to overturn the order.

    Hoffa disappeared on July 30, 1975. He is believed to have been murdered by the Mafia and was declared legally dead in 1982. Hoffa's legacy continues to stir debate.[1]

    1. ^ "Jimmy Hoffa's Legacy". New York Times. New York City. July 24, 1994. p. 27. Archived from the original on 2020-07-24. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
     
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    30 July 1975Jimmy Hoffa disappears from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, at about 2:30 p.m. He is never seen or heard from again.

    Jimmy Hoffa

    Preview warning: Page using Template:Infobox person with unknown empty parameter "denomination"
    Preview warning: Page using Template:Infobox person with unknown empty parameter "salary"

    James Riddle Hoffa (born February 14, 1913 – disappeared July 30, 1975, declared dead July 30, 1982) was an American labor union leader who served as the president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) from 1957 until 1971.

    From an early age, Hoffa was a union activist, and he became an important regional figure with the IBT by his mid-twenties. By 1952, he was the national vice-president of the IBT and between 1957 and 1971 he was its general president. He secured the first national agreement for teamsters' rates in 1964 with the National Master Freight Agreement. He played a major role in the growth and the development of the union, which eventually became the largest by membership in the United States, with over 2.3 million members at its peak, during his terms as its leader.

    Hoffa became involved with organized crime from the early years of his Teamsters work, a connection that continued until his disappearance in 1975. He was convicted of jury tampering, attempted bribery, conspiracy, and mail and wire fraud in 1964 in two separate trials. He was imprisoned in 1967 and sentenced to 13 years. In mid-1971, he resigned as president of the union as part of a commutation agreement with US President Richard Nixon and was released later that year, but Hoffa was barred from union activities until 1980. Hoping to regain support and to return to IBT leadership, he unsuccessfully tried to overturn the order.

    Hoffa disappeared on July 30, 1975. He is believed to have been murdered by the Mafia and was declared legally dead in 1982. Hoffa's legacy continues to stir debate.[1]

    1. ^ "Jimmy Hoffa's Legacy". New York Times. New York City. July 24, 1994. p. 27. Archived from the original on 2020-07-24. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
     
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    31 July 1941The Holocaust: Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Nazi official Hermann Göring, orders SS General Reinhard Heydrich to "submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired Final Solution of the Jewish question."

    The Holocaust

    The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah,[b] was the genocide of European Jews during World War II.[3] Between 1941 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews across German-occupied Europe,[a] around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population.[c] The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through labor in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland.[5]

    Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933.[6] After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March,[7] which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society; this included boycotting Jewish businesses in April 1933 and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935. On 9–10 November 1938, eight months after Germany annexed Austria, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria on what became known as Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"). After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews. Eventually, thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe.

    The segregation of Jews in ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the Final Solution to the Jewish Question, discussed by senior government officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942. As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, and within territories controlled by Germany's allies. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with the German Army and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings and pogroms from the summer of 1941. By mid-1942, victims were being deported from ghettos across Europe in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were gassed, worked or beaten to death, or killed by disease, medical experiments, or during death marches. The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945.

    The European Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era (1933–1945),[8] in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered millions of others, including ethnic Poles, Soviet civilians and prisoners of war, the Roma, the disabled, political and religious dissidents, and gay men.[9]

    1. ^ "Deportation of Hungarian Jews". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 25 November 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
    2. ^ Landau 2016, p. 3.
    3. ^ Bloxham 2009, p. 1.
    4. ^ "Remaining Jewish Population of Europe in 1945". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference deathcamps was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ For the date, see Marcuse 2001, p. 21.
    7. ^ Stackelberg & Winkle 2002, pp. 141–143.
    8. ^ Gray 2015, p. 5.
    9. ^ Stone 2010, pp. 2–3.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    1 August 1976Niki Lauda has a severe accident that almost claims his life at the German Grand Prix at Nurburgring

    Niki Lauda

    Andreas Nikolaus Lauda (22 February 1949 – 20 May 2019) was an Austrian Formula One driver and aviation entrepreneur. He was a three-time F1 World Drivers' Champion, winning in 1975, 1977 and 1984, and is the only driver in F1 history to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren, the sport's two most successful constructors.

    As an aviation entrepreneur, he founded and ran three airlines: Lauda Air, Niki, and Lauda. He was a Bombardier Business Aircraft brand ambassador. He was also a consultant for Scuderia Ferrari and team manager of the Jaguar Formula One racing team for two years. Afterwards, he worked as a pundit for German TV during Grand Prix weekends and acted as non-executive chairman of Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport, of which Lauda owned 10%.[1]

    Having emerged as Formula One's star driver amid a 1975 title win and leading the 1976 championship battle, Lauda was seriously injured in a crash at the 1976 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring during which his Ferrari 312T2 burst into flames, and he came close to death after inhaling hot toxic fumes and suffering severe burns.[2] He survived and recovered sufficiently to race again just six weeks later at the Italian Grand Prix. Although he lost that year's title – by just one point – to James Hunt, he won his second championship the year after, during his final season at Ferrari. After a couple of years at Brabham and two years' hiatus, Lauda returned and raced four seasons for McLaren between 1982 and 1985 – during which he won the 1984 title by half a point over his teammate Alain Prost.

    1. ^ "Mercedes give Toto Wolff and Niki Lauda new long-term contracts". skysports.com. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
    2. ^ Daily Express pages 1, 8 & 16 BATTLE FOR LAUDA'S LIFE Monday 2 August 1976 "Heroes pull world champion from race wreck."
     
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    2 August 1990Iraq invades Kuwait, eventually leading to the Gulf War.

    Invasion of Kuwait

    The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait was an operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighbouring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.[17] The invasion and Iraq's subsequent refusal to withdraw from Kuwait by a deadline mandated by the United Nations[18] led to a direct military intervention by a United Nations-authorized coalition of forces led by the United States. These events came to be known as the first Gulf War, eventually resulting in the forced expulsion of Iraqi troops from Kuwait and the Iraqis setting 600 Kuwaiti oil wells on fire during their retreat (see scorched earth strategy).

    In early 1990, Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through cross-border slant drilling, although some Iraqi sources indicated that Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was already made a few months before the actual invasion.[19] However, a variety of speculations have been made regarding the true intents behind the Iraqi move, including Iraq's inability to pay the more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed from Kuwait to finance the Iran–Iraq War, and Kuwait's surge in petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq.[20] The invasion started on 2 August 1990, and within two days, most of the Kuwaiti military was either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or retreated to neighbouring Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Immediately following the invasion, Iraq set up a puppet government known as the "Republic of Kuwait" to rule over Kuwait, eventually annexing it outright, when Saddam Hussein announced a few days later that it was the 19th province of Iraq.[21]

    1. ^ Al Moquatel Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ "1990: Iraq invades Kuwait". BBC On This Day. BBC. 2 August 1990. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
    3. ^ Johns, Dave (24 January 2006). "1990 The Invasion of Kuwait". Frontline/World. PBS. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
    4. ^ a b c "Kuwait Organization and Mission of the Forces". Country Studies. Library of Congress. January 1993. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
    5. ^ "سير العمليات العسكرية للغزو العراقي للكويت", Al Moqatel
    6. ^ "Kuwaiti casualties". kkackm.
    7. ^ John Pike. "Iraqi Ground Forces Equipment". Retrieved 19 December 2014.
    8. ^ Jane's Armour and Artillery 2003–2004
    9. ^ Armies of the Gulf War, Gordon L. Rottman, 1993, p.48,49
    10. ^ Tanki v operacii "Shok i trepet", Aleksei Brusilov, Leonid Karyakin, Tankomaster 2003–08(Russian: Танки в операции «Шок и трепет», Алексей Брусилов, Леонид Карякин, Танкомастер 2003–08)
    11. ^ See the House of Lords case Kuwait Airways Corporation v Iraqi Airways Corporation [2002] UKHL 19.
    12. ^ "Kuwaiti Casualties". kkamkm.
    13. ^ "IRAQ: NAVAL THREAT TO US FORCES". Retrieved 19 December 2014.
    14. ^ المبحث الرابع, إعادة بناء القوات المسلحة لكل من دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي، بعد الحرب, Al Moquatel
    15. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    16. ^ "Kuwait had loaned a battery of French 155mm Mk F3 SP guns to Iraq during the Iran-Iraq War and a further 80 fell into Iraqi hands after the invasion."/Armies of the Gulf War. Gordon L. Rottman, Ronald Volstad. Osprey Publishing. 1993. P.49
    17. ^ Editors, History com. "Iraq invades Kuwait". HISTORY. Retrieved 9 June 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    18. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 (Condemning the Invasion of Kuwait by Iraq), S.C. res. 660, 45 U.N. SCOR at 19, U.N. Doc. S/RES/660 (1990) Archived 20 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. umn.edu. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
    19. ^ Gause, F. Gregory, III (2005). "The International Politics of the Gulf". In Louise Fawcett (ed.). International Relations of the Middle East. Oxford: The University Press. pp. 263–274. ISBN 0-19-926963-7.
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference airCombatInformationGroup was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ Fineman, Mark (29 August 1990). "Iraq Remaps Kuwait as Province 19". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
     
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    3 August 1492Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos de la Frontera, Spain.

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus[a] (/kəˈlʌmbəs/;[3] born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian[b] explorer and navigator who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and colonization of the Americas. His expeditions, sponsored by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, were the first European contact with the Caribbean, Central America, and South America.

    The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. Scholars generally agree that Columbus was born in the Republic of Genoa and spoke a dialect of Ligurian as his first language. He went to sea at a young age and travelled widely, as far north as the British Isles and as far south as what is now Ghana. He married Portuguese noblewoman Filipa Moniz Perestrelo and was based in Lisbon for several years, but later took a Castilian mistress; he had one son with each woman. Though largely self-educated, Columbus was widely read in geography, astronomy, and history. He formulated a plan to seek a western sea passage to the East Indies, hoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade. Following Columbus's persistent lobbying to multiple kingdoms, Catholic monarchs Queen Isabella I and King Ferdinand II agreed to sponsor a journey west. Columbus left Castile in August 1492 with three ships, and made landfall in the Americas on 12 October (ending the period of human habitation in the Americas now referred to as the pre-Columbian era). His landing place was an island in the Bahamas, known by its native inhabitants as Guanahani. Columbus subsequently visited the islands now known as Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti. Columbus returned to Castile in early 1493, bringing a number of captured natives with him. Word of his voyages soon spread throughout Europe.

    Columbus made three further voyages to the Americas, exploring the Lesser Antilles in 1493, Trinidad and the northern coast of South America in 1498, and the eastern coast of Central America in 1502. Many of the names he gave to geographical features—particularly islands—are still in use. He also gave the name indios ("Indians") to the indigenous peoples he encountered. The extent to which he was aware that the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain; he never clearly renounced his belief that he had reached the Far East. As a colonial governor, Columbus was accused by his contemporaries of significant brutality and was soon removed from the post. Columbus's strained relationship with the Crown of Castile and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown. Columbus's expeditions inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for centuries, helping create the modern Western world. The transfers between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange.

    Columbus was widely venerated in the centuries after his death, but public perception has fractured in recent decades as scholars give greater attention to the harm committed under his governance, particularly the near-extermination of Hispaniola's indigenous Taíno population from mistreatment and European diseases, as well as their enslavement. Proponents of the Black Legend theory of history claim that Columbus has been unfairly maligned as part of a wider anti-Catholic sentiment. Many places in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia, the District of Columbia, and the Canadian province of British Columbia.

    1. ^ Lester, Paul M. (January 1993). "Looks are deceiving: The portraits of Christopher Columbus". Visual Anthropology. 5 (3–4): 211–227. doi:10.1080/08949468.1993.9966590.
    2. ^ Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Columbus, Diego. The youngest brother of Christopher Columbus" . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead. – The names Giacomo and Diego are cognates, along with James, all sharing a common origin. See Behind the Name, Mike Campbell, pages Giacomo, Diego, and James. All retrieved 3 February 2017.
    3. ^ "Columbus". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    4. ^ Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference britannicaWeb was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    4 August 1914 – In response to the German invasion of Belgium, Belgium and the British Empire declare war on Germany. The United States declares its neutrality.

    German invasion of Belgium (1914)

    The German invasion of Belgium was a military campaign which began on 4 August 1914. Earlier, on 24 July, the Belgian government had announced that if war came it would uphold its historic neutrality. The Belgian government mobilised its armed forces on 31 July and a state of heightened alert (Kriegsgefahr) was proclaimed in Germany. On 2 August, the German government sent an ultimatum to Belgium, demanding passage through the country, and German forces invaded Luxembourg. Two days later, the Belgian government refused the demands and the British government guaranteed military support to Belgium. The German government declared war on Belgium on 4 August, troops crossed the border and began the Battle of Liège.

    German military operations in Belgium were intended to bring the 1st, 2nd and 3rd armies into positions in Belgium from which they could invade France, which, after the fall of Liège on 7 August, led to sieges of Belgian fortresses along the river Meuse at Namur and the surrender of the last forts (16–17 August). The government abandoned the capital, Brussels, on 17 August and after fighting on the Gete river, the Belgian field army withdrew westwards to the National Redoubt at Antwerp on 19 August. Brussels was occupied the following day and the siege of Namur began on 21 August.

    After the Battle of Mons and the Battle of Charleroi, the bulk of the German armies marched south into France, leaving small forces to garrison Brussels and the Belgian railways. The III Reserve Corps advanced to the fortified zone around Antwerp and a division of the IV Reserve Corps took over in Brussels. The Belgian field army made several sorties from Antwerp in late August and September to harass German communications and to assist the French and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), by keeping German troops in Belgium. German troop withdrawals to reinforce the main armies in France were postponed to repulse a Belgian sortie from 9 to 13 September and a German corps in transit was retained in Belgium for several days. Belgian resistance and German fear of francs-tireurs, led the Germans to implement a policy of terror (schrecklichkeit) against Belgian civilians soon after the invasion, in which massacres, executions, hostage taking and the burning of towns and villages took place and became known as the Rape of Belgium.

    After the Battle of the Frontiers ended, the French armies and the BEF began the Great Retreat into France (24 August – 28 September), the Belgian army and small detachments of French and British troops fought in Belgium against German cavalry and Jäger. On 27 August, a squadron of the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) flew to Ostend, to conduct air reconnaissance between Bruges, Ghent and Ypres. Royal Marines landed in France on 19–20 September and began scouting unoccupied Belgium in motor cars; an RNAS Armoured Car Section was created by fitting vehicles with bulletproof steel. On 2 October, the Marine Brigade of the Royal Naval Division was moved to Antwerp, followed by the rest of the division on 6 October. From 6 to 7 October, the 7th Division and the 3rd Cavalry Division landed at Zeebrugge and naval forces collected at Dover were formed into the Dover Patrol, to operate in the Channel and off the French–Belgian coast. Despite minor British reinforcement, the siege of Antwerp ended when its defensive ring of forts was destroyed by German super-heavy artillery. The city was abandoned on 9 October and Allied forces withdrew to West Flanders.

    At the end of the Great Retreat, the Race to the Sea (17 September – 19 October) began, a period of reciprocal attempts by the Germans and Franco-British to outflank their opponents, extending the front line northwards from the Aisne, into Picardy, Artois and Flanders. Military operations in Belgium also moved westwards as the Belgian army withdrew from Antwerp to the area close to the border with France. The Belgian army fought the defensive Battle of the Yser (16–31 October) from Nieuwpoort (Nieuport) south to Diksmuide (Dixmude), as the German 4th Army attacked westwards and French, British and some Belgian troops fought the First Battle of Ypres (19 October – 22 November) against the 4th and 6th armies. By November 1914, most of Belgium was under German occupation and Allied naval blockade. A German military administration was established on 26 August 1914, to rule through the pre-war Belgian administrative system, overseen by a small group of German officers and officials. Belgium was divided into administrative zones, the General Government of Brussels and its hinterland; a second zone, under the 4th Army, including Ghent and Antwerp and a third zone under the German Navy along the coastline. The German occupation lasted until late 1918.

     
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    5 August 1914 – In Cleveland, Ohio, the first electric traffic light is installed.

    Traffic light

    Schema of a standard vertical traffic light
    An LED 50 watts traffic light in Portsmouth, UK
    A traffic light for pedestrians in Switzerland
    A traffic light in Jakarta, Indonesia with its timer

    Traffic lights, traffic signals, stoplights or robots (as they are known in South Africa)[1][2] are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.[3]

    The world's first traffic light was a manually operated gas-lit signal installed in London in December 1868. It exploded less than a month after it was implemented, injuring its policeman operator.[4] Earnest Sirrine from Chicago patented the first automated traffic control system in 1910. It used the words "STOP" and "PROCEED", although neither word was illuminated.[5]

    Traffic lights follow a universal colour code which alternates the right of way accorded to users with a sequence of illuminating lamps or LEDs of three standard colours:

    • Green light
      Allows traffic to proceed in the direction denoted, if it is safe to do so and there is room on the other side of the intersection.[6][7][8]
    • Red light
      Prohibits any traffic from proceeding. A flashing red indication requires traffic to stop and then proceed when safe (equivalent to a stop sign).
    • Amber light (also known as 'orange light' or 'yellow light')
      Warns that the signal is about to change to red, with some jurisdictions requiring drivers to stop if it is safe to do so, and others allowing drivers to go through the intersection if safe to do so. In some European countries (such as the UK), red and amber is displayed together, indicating that the signal is about to change to green.[9]
      A flashing amber indication is a warning signal. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, a flashing amber light is used only at pelican crossings, in place of the combined red–amber signal, and indicates that drivers may pass if no pedestrians are on the crossing. The length of time that a traffic light remains green or red is known as a phase.

    In some countries traffic signals will go into a flashing mode if the conflict monitor detects a problem, such as a fault that tries to display green lights to conflicting traffic. The signal may display flashing amber to the main road and flashing red to the side road, or flashing red in all directions. Flashing operation can also be used during times of day when traffic is light, such as late at night.[10]

    1. ^ "robot - definition of robot in English - Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries - English.
    2. ^ "see robot - definition of robot in Dictionary of South African English". Editor's Note: The origin of 'robot' used as 'traffic light' is from the English translation of the play R.U.R. by Karl Capek which debuted in England in 1923 which introduced the term 'robot' to an English audience. For a short time in England it was fashionable to use 'robot' for 'traffic light' from the late 1920's, when traffic lights were being installed in England. This usage traveled to South Africa in the early 1930's, when they had their first traffic lights installed, and where it continues to be used almost 90 years later, while 'robot' for 'traffic light' fell out of usage in England. See Foster, B. 1970. The changing English language. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.
    3. ^ McShane, Clay (March 1999). "The Origins and Globalization of Traffic Control Signals" (PDF). Journal of Urban History. 25 (3): 379–404. doi:10.1177/009614429902500304. S2CID 110125733. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
    4. ^ "The man who gave us traffic lights". BBC. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
    5. ^ "Traffic lights in use before there were motorcars". didyouknow.org. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
    6. ^ "Traffic Lights in the UK - Meanings,Sequence & Rules for Learner Drivers". Theory Test. 28 March 2019.
    7. ^ "UK Traffic Lights 57000 Tonnes Of CO2 | REUK.co.uk".
    8. ^ "200mm traffic signals lighting | Competitive Traffic Signal Directly from Manufacturer | ITS Product Provider". www.trafficsolution.cn.
    9. ^ "Traffic Lights Sequence". drivingtesttips.biz.
    10. ^ "driving in America". What is USA News. 10 March 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
     
  30. NewsBot

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    1
    5 August 1914 – In Cleveland, Ohio, the first electric traffic light is installed.

    Traffic light

    Schema of a standard vertical traffic light
    An LED 50 watts traffic light in Portsmouth, UK
    A traffic light for pedestrians in Switzerland
    A traffic light in Jakarta, Indonesia with its timer

    Traffic lights, traffic signals, stoplights or robots (as they are known in South Africa)[1][2] are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.[3]

    The world's first traffic light was a manually operated gas-lit signal installed in London in December 1868. It exploded less than a month after it was implemented, injuring its policeman operator.[4] Earnest Sirrine from Chicago patented the first automated traffic control system in 1910. It used the words "STOP" and "PROCEED", although neither word was illuminated.[5]

    Traffic lights follow a universal colour code which alternates the right of way accorded to users with a sequence of illuminating lamps or LEDs of three standard colours:

    • Green light
      Allows traffic to proceed in the direction denoted, if it is safe to do so and there is room on the other side of the intersection.[6][7][8]
    • Red light
      Prohibits any traffic from proceeding. A flashing red indication requires traffic to stop and then proceed when safe (equivalent to a stop sign).
    • Amber light (also known as 'orange light' or 'yellow light')
      Warns that the signal is about to change to red, with some jurisdictions requiring drivers to stop if it is safe to do so, and others allowing drivers to go through the intersection if safe to do so. In some European countries (such as the UK), red and amber is displayed together, indicating that the signal is about to change to green.[9]
      A flashing amber indication is a warning signal. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, a flashing amber light is used only at pelican crossings, in place of the combined red–amber signal, and indicates that drivers may pass if no pedestrians are on the crossing. The length of time that a traffic light remains green or red is known as a phase.

    In some countries traffic signals will go into a flashing mode if the conflict monitor detects a problem, such as a fault that tries to display green lights to conflicting traffic. The signal may display flashing amber to the main road and flashing red to the side road, or flashing red in all directions. Flashing operation can also be used during times of day when traffic is light, such as late at night.[10]

    1. ^ "robot - definition of robot in English - Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries - English.
    2. ^ "see robot - definition of robot in Dictionary of South African English". Editor's Note: The origin of 'robot' used as 'traffic light' is from the English translation of the play R.U.R. by Karl Capek which debuted in England in 1923 which introduced the term 'robot' to an English audience. For a short time in England it was fashionable to use 'robot' for 'traffic light' from the late 1920's, when traffic lights were being installed in England. This usage traveled to South Africa in the early 1930's, when they had their first traffic lights installed, and where it continues to be used almost 90 years later, while 'robot' for 'traffic light' fell out of usage in England. See Foster, B. 1970. The changing English language. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.
    3. ^ McShane, Clay (March 1999). "The Origins and Globalization of Traffic Control Signals" (PDF). Journal of Urban History. 25 (3): 379–404. doi:10.1177/009614429902500304. S2CID 110125733. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
    4. ^ "The man who gave us traffic lights". BBC. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
    5. ^ "Traffic lights in use before there were motorcars". didyouknow.org. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
    6. ^ "Traffic Lights in the UK - Meanings,Sequence & Rules for Learner Drivers". Theory Test. 28 March 2019.
    7. ^ "UK Traffic Lights 57000 Tonnes Of CO2 | REUK.co.uk".
    8. ^ "200mm traffic signals lighting | Competitive Traffic Signal Directly from Manufacturer | ITS Product Provider". www.trafficsolution.cn.
    9. ^ "Traffic Lights Sequence". drivingtesttips.biz.
    10. ^ "driving in America". What is USA News. 10 March 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
     
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    6 August 1944 – The Warsaw Uprising occurs on August 1. It is brutally suppressed and all able-bodied men in Kraków are detained afterwards to prevent a similar uprising, the Kraków Uprising, that was planned but never carried out.

    Warsaw Uprising

    The Warsaw Uprising (Polish: powstanie warszawskie; German: Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Polish resistance Home Army (Polish: Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation. The uprising was timed to coincide with the retreat of the German forces from Poland ahead of the Soviet advance.[13] While approaching the eastern suburbs of the city, the Red Army temporarily halted combat operations, enabling the Germans to regroup and defeat the Polish resistance and to destroy the city in retaliation. The Uprising was fought for 63 days with little outside support. It was the single largest military effort taken by any European resistance movement during World War II.[14]

    The Uprising began on 1 August 1944 as part of a nationwide Operation Tempest, launched at the time of the Soviet Lublin–Brest Offensive. The main Polish objectives were to drive the Germans out of Warsaw while helping the Allies defeat Germany. An additional, political goal of the Polish Underground State was to liberate Poland's capital and assert Polish sovereignty before the Soviet-backed Polish Committee of National Liberation could assume control. Other immediate causes included a threat of mass German round-ups of able-bodied Poles for "evacuation"; calls by Radio Moscow's Polish Service for uprising; and an emotional Polish desire for justice and revenge against the enemy after five years of German occupation.[15][16]

    Initially, the Poles established control over most of central Warsaw, but the Soviets ignored Polish attempts to make radio contact with them and did not advance beyond the city limits. Intense street fighting between the Germans and Poles continued. By 14 September, the eastern bank of the Vistula River opposite the Polish resistance positions was taken over by the Polish troops fighting under the Soviet command; 1,200 men made it across the river, but they were not reinforced by the Red Army. This, and the lack of air support from the Soviet air base five-minutes flying time away, led to allegations that Joseph Stalin tactically halted his forces to let the operation fail and allow the Polish resistance to be crushed. Arthur Koestler called the Soviet attitude "one of the major infamies of this war which will rank for the future historian on the same ethical level with Lidice."[17]

    Winston Churchill pleaded with Stalin and Franklin D. Roosevelt to help Britain's Polish allies, to no avail.[18] Then, without Soviet air clearance, Churchill sent over 200 low-level supply drops by the Royal Air Force, the South African Air Force, and the Polish Air Force under British High Command, in an operation known as the Warsaw Airlift. Later, after gaining Soviet air clearance, the U.S. Army Air Force sent one high-level mass airdrop as part of Operation Frantic.

    Although the exact number of casualties is unknown, it is estimated that about 16,000 members of the Polish resistance were killed and about 6,000 badly wounded. In addition, between 150,000 and 200,000 Polish civilians died, mostly from mass executions. Jews being harboured by Poles were exposed by German house-to-house clearances and mass evictions of entire neighbourhoods. German casualties totalled over 2,000 to 17,000 soldiers killed and missing.[11] During the urban combat, approximately 25% of Warsaw's buildings were destroyed. Following the surrender of Polish forces, German troops systematically levelled another 35% of the city block by block. Together with earlier damage suffered in the 1939 invasion of Poland and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943, over 85% of the city was destroyed by January 1945 when the course of the events in the Eastern Front forced the Germans to abandon the city.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Davies 2004 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Airlift to Warsaw. The Rising of 1944 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference BW was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference AB1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Borodziej, p. 75.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference WUmuseumcom was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b c d e Cite error: The named reference wufaq was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Tadeusz Sawicki: Rozkaz zdławić powstanie. Niemcy i ich sojusznicy w walce z powstaniem warszawskim. Warszawa: Bellona, 2010. ISBN 978-83-11-11892-8. pp. 189.
    9. ^ Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski: Armia Podziemna. Warszawa: Bellona, 1994. ISBN 83-11-08338-X. pp. 443.
    10. ^ Marek Getter. Straty ludzkie i materialne w Powstaniu Warszawskim. „Biuletyn IPN”. 8–9 (43–44), sierpień – wrzesień 2004., s. 70.
    11. ^ a b Ilu Niemców naprawdę zginęło w Powstaniu Warszawskim? Paweł Stachnik, ciekawostkihistoryczne.pl 31.07.2017 Accessed 12 September 2019
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference AB2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference sb was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Duraczyński, Eugeniusz; Terej, Jerzy Janusz (1974). Europa podziemna: 1939–1945 [Europe underground: 1939–1945] (in Polish). Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. OCLC 463203458.
    15. ^ Davies 2008, pp. 268, 271.
    16. ^ Warsaw Uprising 1944 www.warsawuprising.com, accessed 12 September 2019
    17. ^ Koestler, letter in Tribune magazine 15 September 1944, reprinted in Orwell, Collected Works, I Have Tried to Tell the Truth, p.374
    18. ^ Kochanski, Halik (2013). The Eagle Unbowed: Poland and the Poles in the Second World War. pp. 417–418. ISBN 978-1846143588.
     
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    7 August 1999 – The Chechnya-based Islamic International Brigade invades neighboring Dagestan

    War of Dagestan

    The War of Dagestan (Russian: Дагестанская война), also known as the Invasion of Militants in Dagestan (Russian: Нашествие чеченских боевиков в Дагестан)[7] began when the Chechnya-based Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade (IIPB), an Islamist group, led by warlords Shamil Basayev, Ibn al-Khattab, Ramzan Akhmadov and Arbi Barayev invaded the neighboring Russian republic of Dagestan, on 7 August 1999, in support of the Shura of Dagestan separatist rebels. The war ended with a major victory for the Russian Federation and Dagestan Republic, and the retreat of the IIPB. The invasion of Dagestan served as the main casus belli alongside the series of apartment bombings in September 1999 for the Second Chechen War.

    1. ^ a b c Alexander Pashin (2002). "Russian Army Operations and Weaponry During Second Military Campaign in Chechnya". Moscow Defense Brief (#3). Mdb.cast.ru. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
    2. ^ Oleg Lukin (2008). "Новейшая история: Российско-чеченские войны". Vestnik "Mostok" (in Russian). Vestnikmostok.ru. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
    3. ^ "Tsumadinskiy Rayon". Google Maps. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
    4. ^ "Botlikhskiy Rayon". Google Maps. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
    5. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20090414193131/http://www.soldat.ru/doc/casualties/book/chapter7_3.html |date=10 March 2020
    6. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140501050127/http://mdb.cast.ru/mdb/3-2002/ac/raowdsmcc/ |date=5 Feb 2020
    7. ^ John Pike (1999-08-17). "War In Dagestan". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
     
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    8 August 2000 – Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley is raised to the surface after 136 years on the ocean floor and 30 years after its discovery by undersea explorer E. Lee Spence.

    H. L. Hunley (submarine)

    H. L. Hunley, often referred to as Hunley or as CSS Hunley, was a submarine of the Confederate States of America that played a small part in the American Civil War. Hunley demonstrated the advantages and the dangers of undersea warfare. She was the first combat submarine to sink a warship (USS Housatonic), although Hunley was not completely submerged and, following her successful attack, was lost along with her crew before she could return to base. The Confederacy lost 21 crewmen in three sinkings of Hunley during her short career. She was named for her inventor, Horace Lawson Hunley, shortly after she was taken into government service under the control of the Confederate States Army at Charleston, South Carolina.

    Hunley, nearly 40 ft (12 m) long, was built at Mobile, Alabama, and launched in July 1863. She was then shipped by rail on 12 August 1863, to Charleston. Hunley (then referred to as the "fish boat", the "fish torpedo boat", or the "porpoise") sank on 29 August 1863, during a test run, killing five members of her crew. She sank again on 15 October 1863, killing all eight of her second crew, including Horace Lawson Hunley himself, who was aboard at the time, even though he was not a member of the Confederate military. Both times Hunley was raised and returned to service.

    On 17 February 1864, Hunley attacked and sank the 1,240-displacement ton United States Navy[2] screw sloop-of-war Housatonic, which had been on Union blockade-duty in Charleston's outer harbor. Hunley did not survive the attack and also sank, taking with her all eight members of her third crew, and was lost.

    Finally located in 1995, Hunley was raised in 2000, and is on display in North Charleston, South Carolina, at the Warren Lasch Conservation Center on the Cooper River. Examination in 2012 of recovered Hunley artifacts suggests that the submarine was as close as 20 ft (6.1 m) to her target, Housatonic, when her deployed torpedo exploded, which caused the submarine's own loss.[3]

    1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
    2. ^ Housatonic Archived copy at the Library of Congress (December 5, 2013).
    3. ^ Smith, Bruce (January 28, 2013). "Experts find new evidence in submarine mystery". Associated Press. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
     
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    9 August 1965Singapore is expelled from Malaysia and becomes the only country to date to gain independence unwillingly.

    History of the Republic of Singapore

    The history of the Republic of Singapore began when Singapore was expelled from Malaysia and became an independent republic on 9 August 1965.[1] After the separation, the fledgling nation had to become self-sufficient, and faced problems including mass unemployment, housing shortages and lack of land and natural resources such as petroleum. During Lee Kuan Yew's term as prime minister from 1959 to 1990, his administration curbed unemployment, raised the standard of living and implemented a large-scale public housing programme. The country's economic infrastructure was developed, racial tension was eliminated and an independent national defence system was created. Singapore evolved from a dying nation to first world status towards the end of the 20th century.[2]

    In 1990, Goh Chok Tong succeeded Lee as Prime Minister. During his tenure, the country tackled the economic impacts of the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the 2003 SARS outbreak, as well as terrorist threats posed by the Jemaah Islamiah (JI) post–11 September and the Bali bombings. In 2004 Lee Hsien Loong, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the third prime minister.[3]

    1. ^ "Road to Independence". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 14 April 2006.
    2. ^ "Country Groups". The World Bank. Retrieved 2 May 2006.
    3. ^ "Country profile: Singapore". BBC News. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2006.
     
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    10 August 2014 – Forty people are killed when Sepahan Airlines Flight 5915 crashes at Tehran's Mehrabad Airport.

    Sepahan Airlines Flight 5915

    Sepahan Airlines Flight 5915 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight from Iranian capital Tehran Mehrabad International Airport to Tabas, South Khorasan Province, Iran. On 10 August 2014, the HESA IrAn-140 twin turboprop serving the flight crashed shortly after takeoff from Mehrabad International Airport, falling into a boulevard near the Azadi Stadium.[1][2] Of the 42 passengers and six crew on board, 40 people died.[3][4]

    Iran's Civil Aviation Organization mainly attributed the crash to mechanical error. The aircraft suffered a malfunction on one of its engines shortly after take-off. Mismanagement of the emergency by the crew caused the aircraft to lose altitude rapidly, causing it to crash onto a boulevard. Subsequently, investigators also blamed the confusing Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) that caused the crew to over-estimate the maximum take-off weight.[3]

    1. ^ "Dozens dead in plane crash at Tehran airport". Al Jazeera. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
    2. ^ Haroon, Agha Iqrar (10 August 2014). "Passenger plane crashed with 48 persons on board in Tehran". Dispatch News Desk. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
    3. ^ a b "Aircraft Accident Investigation Final Report" (PDF).
    4. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident HESA IrAn-140-100 EP-GPA Tehran-Mehrabad Airport (THR)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
     
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    11 August 2006 – The oil tanker MT Solar 1 sinks off the coast of Guimaras and Negros Islands in the Philippines, causing the country's worst oil spill.

    Guimaras oil spill

    On August 11, 2006, an oil spill occurred in the Panay Gulf when the oil tanker, MT Solar 1, sank off the coasts of Guimaras and Negros in the Philippines, causing what is considered to be the worst oil spill in the country's history.[2][3]

    1. ^ Baua, Niko (2012-03-17). "Petron, Sunshine Maritime face P200-M suit over oil spill". ABS-CBN Corporation. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
    2. ^ Sarah Toms (15 August 2006). "Oil spill threatens Philippines". BBC News. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
    3. ^ "Arroyo forms task force to oversee oil spill cleanup". INQ7.net. 2006-08-23.
     
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    12 August 1964South Africa is banned from the Olympic Games due to the country's racist policies.

    Apartheid

    Apartheid (/əˈpɑːrt(h)t/, especially South African English/əˈpɑːrt(h)t/, Afrikaans: [aˈpartɦɛit]; transl. "separateness", lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s.[note 1] Apartheid was characterized by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap (boss-hood or boss-ship), which ensured that South Africa was dominated politically, socially, and economically by the nation's minority white population.[4] According to this system of social stratification, white citizens had the highest status, followed by Asians and Coloureds, then black Africans.[4] The economic legacy and social effects of apartheid continue to the present day.[5][6][7]

    Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race.[8] The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed closely by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines.[9] The Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, and cultural lifestyle: "Black", "White", "Coloureds", and "Indian", the last two of which included several sub-classifications.[10] Places of residence were determined by racial classification.[9] Between 1960 and 1983, 3.5 million black Africans were removed from their homes and forced into segregated neighbourhoods as a result of apartheid legislation, in some of the largest mass evictions in modern history.[11] Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the black population to ten designated "tribal homelands", also known as bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states.[9] The government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans.[8]

    Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century.[12] It was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations and brought about an extensive arms and trade embargo on South Africa.[13] During the 1970s and 1980s,