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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    29 October 1998 – In South Africa, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission presents its report, which condemns both sides for committing atrocities.

    Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)

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    Preview warning: Page using Template:Infobox court with unknown parameter "abbreviation"

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like restorative justice[1] body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid.[2] Witnesses who were identified as victims of gross human rights violations were invited to give statements about their experiences, and some were selected for public hearings. Perpetrators of violence could also give testimony and request amnesty from both civil and criminal prosecution.

    The TRC, the first of the 1003 held internationally to stage public hearings, was seen by many as a crucial component of the transition to full and free democracy in South Africa. Despite some flaws, it is generally (although not universally) thought to have been successful.[3]

    The Institute for Justice and Reconciliation was established in 2000 as the successor organisation of the TRC.

    1. ^ Suffolk University, College of Arts & Sciences, Center for Restorative Justice, http://www.suffolk.edu/college/centers/15970.php What is Restorative Justice?
    2. ^ Though it is a common claim that the TRC was a restorative justice body, it has been argued that the connection between the TRC and restorative justice is not as straightforward and unproblematic as often assumed. See b C.B.N. Restorative Justice and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process, South African Journal of Philosophy 32(1), 10–35 (click to read)
    3. ^ "Truth Telling, Identities, and Power in South Africa and Guatemala", International Center for Transitional Justice. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
     
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    30 October 1961 – Due to "violations of Vladimir Lenin's precepts", it is decreed that Joseph Stalin's body be removed from its place of honour inside Lenin's tomb and buried near the Kremlin Wall with a plain granite marker.

    Lenin's Mausoleum

    Lenin's Mausoleum (from 1953 to 1961 Lenin's & Stalin's Mausoleum) (Russian: Мавзолей Ленина, tr. Mavzoley Lenina, IPA: [məvzɐˈlʲej ˈlʲenʲɪnə]), also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated on Red Square in the centre of Moscow, is a mausoleum that serves as the resting place of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. His preserved body has been on public display there since shortly after his death in 1924, with rare exceptions in wartime. Alexey Shchusev's diminutive but monumental granite structure incorporates some elements from ancient mausoleums, such as the Step Pyramid, the Tomb of Cyrus the Great and, to some degree, the Temple of the Inscriptions.

     
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    31 October 2011 – The global population of humans reaches seven billion. This day is now recognized by the United Nations as the Day of Seven Billion.

    Day of Seven Billion

    Estimated and projected populations of the world and its inhabited continents from 1950. The shaded regions correspond to range of projections by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs; for example, it estimates that the world population will reach 8 billion between 2022 and 2035.[1]
    Estimated and projected populations of the world and its inhabited continents from 1950. The shaded regions correspond to range of projections by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs; for example, it estimates that the world population will reach 8 billion between 2022 and 2035.[1]

    The Day of Seven Billion, October 31, 2011, is the day that has been officially designated by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) as the approximate day on which the world's population reached seven billion people.[2] United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon spoke at the United Nations building in New York City on this new milestone in the size of world population and the issues that it will raise, along with promoting the UNFPA's new program named 7 Billion Actions,[3] which will seek to "build global awareness around the opportunities and challenges associated with a world of seven billion people" and inspire individuals and organizations to take action.[4]

    1. ^ World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision
    2. ^ World Population Prospects, the 2008 Revision Frequently Asked Questions Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat updated November 10, 2010. Retrieved January 26, 2011
    3. ^ "Day of 7 Billion". UNFPA. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
    4. ^ "About 7 Billion Actions". 7 Billion Actions. Archived from the original on October 24, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
     
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    1 November 1952Nuclear weapons testing: The United States successfully detonates Ivy Mike, the first thermonuclear device, at the Eniwetok atoll.

    Ivy Mike

    Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first full-scale test of a thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion.[1][2][3] Ivy Mike was detonated on November 1, 1952, by the United States on the island of Elugelab in Enewetak Atoll, in the now independent island nation of the Marshall Islands, as part of Operation Ivy. It was the first full test of the Teller–Ulam design, a staged fusion device.[4]

    Due to its physical size and fusion fuel type (cryogenic liquid deuterium), the "Mike" device was not suitable for use as a deliverable weapon. It was intended as a "technically conservative" proof of concept experiment to validate the concepts used for multi-megaton detonations.[4]

    As a result of the collection of samples from the explosion by U.S. Air Force pilots, scientists found traces of the isotopes plutonium-246 and plutonium-244, and confirmed the existence of the predicted but undiscovered elements einsteinium and fermium.[5]

    1. ^ "OPERATION GREENHOUSE - 1951". ATOMIC SHADOWS. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
    2. ^ The first small-scale thermonuclear test was the George explosion of Operation Greenhouse.
    3. ^ United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (PDF) (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, December 1, 2000, archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2010, retrieved December 18, 2013
    4. ^ a b Wellerstein, Alex (January 8, 2016). "A Hydrogen Bomb by Any Other Name". The New Yorker. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Distillations was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    2 November 1947 – In California, designer Howard Hughes performs the maiden (and only) flight of the Hughes H-4 Hercules (also known as the "Spruce Goose"), the largest fixed-wing aircraft ever built.

    Hughes H-4 Hercules

    The Hughes H-4 Hercules (commonly known as the Spruce Goose; registration NX37602) is a prototype strategic airlift flying boat designed and built by the Hughes Aircraft Company. Intended as a transatlantic flight transport for use during World War II, it was not completed in time to be used in the war. The aircraft made only one brief flight, on November 2, 1947, and the project never advanced beyond the single example produced.

    Built from wood (Duramold process) because of wartime restrictions on the use of aluminum and concerns about weight, the aircraft was nicknamed the Spruce Goose by critics, although it was made almost entirely of birch.[1][2] The Hercules is the largest flying boat ever built, and it had the largest wingspan of any aircraft that had ever flown until the Scaled Composites Stratolaunch first flew on April 13, 2019.[3][4] The aircraft remains in good condition. After having been displayed to the public in Long Beach, California, from 1980 to 1992, it is now on display at the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum in McMinnville, Oregon, United States.[5]

    1. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, pp. 49–58, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
    2. ^ "Hughes HK-1 (H-4) 'Spruce Goose'." The Aviation Zone. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
    3. ^ Spruce Goose. Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
    4. ^ "Stratolaunch airborne in first flight of world's largest aircraft". Flightglobal.com. April 13, 2019. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
    5. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 55, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
     
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    3 November 1936Franklin D. Roosevelt is re-elected President of the United States.

    Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt (/ˈrzəvəlt/, /-vɛlt/[1] ROH-zə-velt; January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which defined modern liberalism in the United States throughout the middle third of the 20th century. His third and fourth terms were dominated by the Second World War, which ended shortly after he died in office.

    Born into the Roosevelt family in Hyde Park, New York, he graduated from both Groton School and Harvard College, and attended Columbia Law School, which he left after passing the bar exam to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt. They had six children, of whom five survived into adulthood. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, and then served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during the First World War. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Republican Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, and his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded a polio rehabilitation center in Warm Springs, Georgia. Although unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office after his election as governor of New York in 1928. He served as governor from 1929 to 1933, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States.

    In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican incumbent Herbert Hoover in a landslide. He took office in the midst of the Great Depression and during the first 100 days of the 73rd U.S. Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief, recovery, and reform. He created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other agencies. He also instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance, communications, and labor, and presided over the end of Prohibition. He used radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and became the first American president to be televised. With the economy having improved rapidly from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. After the election, he sought passage of the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 (or "court packing plan"), which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court. The bill was blocked by the newly formed bipartisan Conservative Coalition. The economy then relapsed into the recession of 1937–1938. Other major 1930s legislation and agencies implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security, and the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    He was reelected in 1940 for his third term, making him the only U.S. president to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, the U.S. remained officially neutral, but Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China, the United Kingdom, and eventually the Soviet Union. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a congressional declaration of war on Japan. When Germany and Italy declared war on the US in response, the US formally entered the European theater of the war. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with very strong national support, he worked closely with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U.S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, initiating the Lend-Lease program and making the defeat of Germany first a priority over that of Japan. His administration oversaw the construction of The Pentagon, initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb, and worked with other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. It was under his wartime leadership that the United States would become a superpower on the world stage.

    Roosevelt won reelection in the 1944 presidential election on his post-war recovery platform. His physical health began declining during the later war years. Fewer than three months into his fourth term, Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. Vice President Harry Truman assumed office as president and oversaw the acceptance of surrender by the Axis powers. Some of Roosevelt's actions have faced substantial criticism, such as his ordering of the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans, as well as his decision to break tradition by running for a third term. Nevertheless, he is consistently ranked by scholars, political scientists, and historians as being among the nation's three greatest presidents.

    1. ^ Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
     
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    4 November 1921 – Japanese Prime Minister Hara Takashi is assassinated in Tokyo.

    Hara Takashi

    Hara Takashi (原 敬, 15 March 1856 – 4 November 1921) was a Japanese politician who served as the Prime Minister of Japan from 1918 to 1921.

    Hara held several minor ambassadorial roles before rising through the ranks of the Rikken Seiyūkai and being elected to the House of Representatives. Hara served as Home Minister in several cabinets under Saionji Kinmochi and Yamamoto Gonnohyōe between 1906 and 1913. Hara was appointed Prime Minister following the Rice Riots of 1918 and positioned himself as a moderate, participating in the Paris Peace Conference, founding the League of Nations, and relaxing oppressive policies in Japanese Korea. Hara's premiership oversaw the Siberian intervention and the March 1st Movement. Hara was assassinated by Nakaoka Kon'ichi on 4 November 1921.

    Hara was the first commoner and first Christian appointed to be Prime Minister of Japan, informally known as Hara Kei, and given the moniker of "commoner prime minister" (平民宰相, heimin saishō).

     
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    5 November 1895George B. Selden is granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile.

    George B. Selden

    George Baldwin Selden (September 14, 1846 – January 17, 1922) was a patent lawyer and inventor who was granted a U.S. patent for an automobile in 1895.[1][2][3]

    1. ^ Flink, p. 51 Probably the most absurd action in the history of patent law was the granting of United States patent number 549,160 on November 5, 1895, to George B. Selden. a Rochester, New York, patent lawyer and inventor, for an "improved road engine" powered by "a liquid-hydrocarbon engine of the compression type."
    2. ^ Flink, p. 51 His own patent application was filed in 1879. He then used evasive legal tactics to delay the patent's acceptance until conditions seemed favorable for commercial exploitation.
    3. ^ Borth, Christy. Masters of Mass Production, pp. 38, 152, Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, IN, 1945.
     
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    6 November 1860Abraham Lincoln is elected the 16th President of the United States

    1860 United States presidential election

    The 1860 United States presidential election was the 19th quadrennial presidential election, held on November 6, 1860. In a four-way contest, the Republican Party ticket of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin, absent from the ballot in ten slave states,[2] won a national popular plurality, a popular majority in the North where states already had abolished slavery, and a national electoral majority comprising only Northern electoral votes. Lincoln's election thus served as the main catalyst of the American Civil War.

    The United States had become increasingly sectionally divided during the 1850s, primarily over extending slavery into the Western territories. The incumbent president, James Buchanan, like his predecessor, Franklin Pierce, was a Northern Democrat with Southern sympathies. From the mid-1850s, the anti-slavery Republican Party became a major political force, driven by Northern voter opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the Supreme Court's 1857 decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford. From the election of 1856, the Republican Party had replaced the defunct Whig Party as the major opposition to the Democrats. A group of former Whigs and Know Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party, which sought to avoid disunion by resolving divisions over slavery with some new compromise.

    The 1860 Republican National Convention in Chicago nominated Lincoln, a moderate former one-term Whig Representative from Illinois. Its platform promised not to interfere with slavery in the South but opposed extension of slavery into the territories. The 1860 Democratic National Convention adjourned in Charleston, South Carolina, without agreeing on a nominee, but a second convention in Baltimore, Maryland, nominated Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas. Douglas's support for the concept of popular sovereignty, which called for each territory's settlers to decide locally on the status of slavery, alienated many radical pro-slavery Southern Democrats, who wanted the territories, and perhaps other lands, open to slavery. With President Buchanan's support, Southern Democrats held their own convention, nominating Vice President John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. The 1860 Constitutional Union Convention nominated a ticket led by former Tennessee Senator John Bell.

    Lincoln's main opponent in the North was Douglas, who won the popular vote in two states, Missouri and New Jersey. In the South, Bell won three states and Breckinridge swept the remaining 11. Lincoln's election motivated seven Southern states, all voting for Breckinridge, to secede before the inauguration and the secession of four more, including two that voted for Bell, after Lincoln mobilized Federal troops to protect Federal property and coerce the seven initially seceding states. The election was the first of six consecutive Republican victories.

    1. ^ "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.
    2. ^ Burlingame, Michael (October 4, 2016). "Abraham Lincoln: Campaign and Elections". Retrieved July 13, 2021.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

     
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    7 November 1929 – In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public.

    Museum of Modern Art

    Coordinates: 40°45′41.8″N 73°58′39.4″W / 40.761611°N 73.977611°W / 40.761611; -73.977611

    The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.

    It plays a major role in developing and collecting modern art, and is often identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world.[2] MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, prints, illustrated books and artist's books, film, and electronic media.[3]

    The MoMA Library includes approximately 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, more than 1,000 periodical titles, and more than 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups.[4] The archives hold primary source material related to the history of modern and contemporary art.[5]

    It attracted 706,060 visitors in 2020, a drop of sixty-five percent from 2019, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It ranked twenty-fifth on the list of most visited art museums in the world in 2020.[6]

    1. ^ The Art Newspaper, List of most-visited museums in 2020, March 31, 2021
    2. ^ Kleiner, Fred S.; Christin J. Mamiya (2005). "The Development of Modernist Art: The Early 20th Century". Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 796. ISBN 978-0-4950-0478-3. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. The Museum of Modern Art in New York City is consistently identified as the institution most responsible for developing modernist art ... the most influential museum of modern art in the world.
    3. ^ Museum of Modern Art – New York Art World Archived February 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
    4. ^ "Library". MoMA. Archived from the original on February 5, 2016.
    5. ^ "About the Archives". MoMA. Archived from the original on February 13, 2016.
    6. ^ The Art Newspaper annual museum visitor survey, published March 31, 2021
     
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    8 November 1973 – The right ear of John Paul Getty III is delivered to a newspaper outlet along with a ransom note, convincing his father to pay US$2.9 million.

    John Paul Getty III

    John Paul Getty III (/ˈɡɛti/; born Eugene Paul Getty II; November 4, 1956 – February 5, 2011)[1] was the grandson of American oil tycoon J. Paul Getty, who was once the richest man in the world. While living in Rome in 1973, he was kidnapped by the 'Ndrangheta and held for a $17 million ransom. His grandfather was reluctant to pay, but, after his severed ear was received by a newspaper, he negotiated a payment of $2.2 million, and Getty was released five months after being kidnapped. Getty developed an addiction to drugs and alcohol soon after, eventually leading to an overdose and stroke which left him severely disabled for the rest of his life.

    1. ^ Eszterhas, Joe (March 21, 2018). "J. Paul Getty III: Exclusive 1974 Interview with Kidnapped Oil Heir". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
     
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    9 November 1979Cold War: Nuclear false alarm: The NORAD computers and the Alternate National Military Command Center in Fort Ritchie, Maryland detected purported massive Soviet nuclear strike. After reviewing the raw data from satellites and checking the early-warning radars, the alert is cancelled.

    North American Aerospace Defense Command

    NORAD Regions and Sectors

    North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD /ˈnɔːræd/), known until March 1981 as the North American Air Defense Command, is a combined organization of the United States and Canada that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and protection for Northern America.[5] Headquarters for NORAD and the NORAD/United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) center are located at Peterson Space Force Base in El Paso County, near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The nearby Cheyenne Mountain Complex has the Alternate Command Center. The NORAD commander and deputy commander (CINCNORAD) are, respectively, a United States four-star general or equivalent and a Canadian three-star general or equivalent.

    1. ^ "NORAD Agreement".
    2. ^ "North American Aerospace Defense Command".
    3. ^ "Leadership".
    4. ^ "NORAD and U.S. Northern Command Hosts Command Senior Enlisted Leader Change of Responsibility Ceremony". DVIDS. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
    5. ^ NORAD – Fact Sheet Archived 1 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
     
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    10 November 1293Raden Wijaya is crowned as the first monarch of Majapahit kingdom of Java, taking the throne name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana.

    Raden Wijaya

    The statue of Harihara, the god combination of Shiva and Vishnu. It was the mortuary deified portrayal of Kertarajasa. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar. (National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)

    Raden Wijaya or Raden Vijaya (also known as Nararya Sangramawijaya, regnal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana) (reigned 1293–1309) was a Javanese King, the founder and the first monarch of the Majapahit Empire.[1] The history of his founding of Majapahit was written in several records, including Pararaton and Negarakertagama. His rule was marked by the victory against the army and the navy of Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty.

    1. ^ Slamet Muljana, 2005, Runtuhnya Kerajaan Hindu-Jawa dan Timbulnya Negara-negara Islam di Nusantara, Yogyakarta: LKiS, ISBN 9798451163.
     
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    11 November 1966NASA launches Gemini 12.

    Gemini 12

    Gemini 12 (officially Gemini XII)[3] was a 1966 crewed spaceflight in NASA's Project Gemini. It was the 10th and final crewed Gemini flight (Gemini 1 and Gemini 2 were uncrewed missions), the 18th crewed American spaceflight, and the 26th spaceflight of all time, including X-15 flights over 100 kilometers (54 nmi). Commanded by Gemini VII veteran James A. Lovell, the flight featured three periods of extravehicular activity (EVA) by rookie Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, lasting a total of 5 hours and 30 minutes. It also achieved the fifth rendezvous and fourth docking with an Agena target vehicle.

    Gemini XII marked a successful conclusion of the Gemini program, achieving the last of its goals by successfully demonstrating that astronauts can effectively work outside of spacecraft. This was instrumental in paving the way for the Apollo program to achieve its goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s.

    1. ^ a b "Gemini XII" (PDF). Gemini Program Mission Report. NASA. 1967. Retrieved 2008-11-10.
    2. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "SATCAT". Jonathan's Space Pages. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
    3. ^ Hacker, Barton C.; Grimwood, James M. (September 1974). "Chapter 11 Pillars of Confidence". On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini. NASA History Series. SP-4203. NASA. p. 239. With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
     
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    12 November 1927Leon Trotsky is expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, leaving Joseph Stalin in undisputed control of the Soviet Union.

    Leon Trotsky

    Lev Davidovich Bronstein[b] (7 November [O.S. 26 October] 1879 – 21 August 1940), better known as Leon Trotsky[c] (/ˈtrɒtski/),[1] was a Ukrainian-Russian Marxist revolutionary, political theorist and politician. Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism which has become known as Trotskyism.

    Born to a wealthy Ukrainian-Jewish family in Yanovka (present-day Bereslavka in Ukraine), Trotsky embraced Marxism after moving to Nikolayev in 1896. In 1898 Tsarist authorities arrested him for revolutionary activities and subsequently exiled him to Siberia. He escaped from Siberia in 1902 and moved to London, where he befriended Vladimir Lenin. In 1903, he sided with Julius Martov's Mensheviks against Lenin's Bolsheviks during the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party's initial organisational split. Trotsky helped organize the failed Russian Revolution of 1905, after which he was again arrested and exiled to Siberia. He once again escaped and spent the following 10 years working in Britain, Austria, Switzerland, France, Spain, and the United States. After the 1917 February Revolution brought an end to the Tsarist monarchy, Trotsky returned to Russia and became a leader in the Bolshevik faction. As chairman of the Petrograd Soviet, he played a key role in the October Revolution of November 1917 that overthrew the new Provisional Government.

    Once in government, Trotsky initially held the post of Commissar for Foreign Affairs and became directly involved in the 1917–1918 Brest-Litovsk negotiations with Germany as Russia pulled out of the First World War. From March 1918 to January 1925, Trotsky headed the Red Army as People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and played a vital role in the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922.[2] He became one of the seven members of the first Bolshevik Politburo[3] in 1919.

    After the death of Lenin (January 1924) and the rise of Joseph Stalin, Trotsky lost his government positions; he was eventually expelled from the Soviet Union in February 1929. He spent the rest of his life in exile, writing prolifically and engaging in open critique of Stalinism.[4][5] In 1938, Trotsky and his supporters founded the Fourth International in opposition to Stalin's Comintern. After surviving multiple attempts on his life, Trotsky was assassinated in August 1940 in Mexico City by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet NKVD agent.[d] Written out of Soviet history books under Stalin, Trotsky was one of the few Soviet political personalities whom the Soviet administration under Nikita Khrushchev did not rehabilitate in the 1950s.[7]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "Trotsky". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
    2. ^ Swain 2006, pp. 86–104.
    3. ^ Volkogonov 1996, p. 185.
    4. ^ Beilharz 1987, Chapters 2 and 3.
    5. ^ McNeal 2015.
    6. ^ Conquest 1992, p. 418.
    7. ^ Deutscher 2003b, p. vi.
     
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    13 November 1940Walt Disney's animated musical film Fantasia is first released

    Fantasia (1940 film)

    Fantasia is a 1940 American animated film produced and released by Walt Disney Productions, with story direction by Joe Grant and Dick Huemer and production supervision by Walt Disney and Ben Sharpsteen. The third Disney animated feature film, it consists of eight animated segments set to pieces of classical music conducted by Leopold Stokowski, seven of which are performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra. Music critic and composer Deems Taylor acts as the film's Master of Ceremonies who introduces each segment in live action.

    Disney settled on the film's concept in 1938 as work neared completion on The Sorcerer's Apprentice, originally an elaborate Silly Symphony cartoon designed as a comeback role for Mickey Mouse, who had declined in popularity. As production costs surpassed what the short could earn, Disney decided to include it in a feature-length film of multiple segments set to classical pieces with Stokowski and Taylor as collaborators. The soundtrack was recorded using multiple audio channels and reproduced with Fantasound, a pioneering sound system developed by Disney and RCA that made Fantasia the first commercial film shown in stereo and a precursor to surround sound.

    Fantasia was first released as a theatrical roadshow that was held in 13 cities across the U.S. between 1940 and 1941; the first began at the Broadway Theatre in New York City on November 13, 1940. While acclaimed by critics, it failed to make a profit owing to World War II's cutting off distribution to the European market, the film's high production costs, and the expense of building Fantasound equipment and leasing theatres for the roadshow presentations. Since 1942, the film has been reissued multiple times by RKO Radio Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution with its original footage and audio being deleted, modified, or restored in each version. When adjusted for inflation, Fantasia is the 24th highest-grossing film of all time in the U.S.

    The Fantasia franchise has grown to include video games, Disneyland attractions, and a live concert series. A sequel, Fantasia 2000, co-produced by Walt's nephew Roy E. Disney, was released in 1999. Fantasia has grown in reputation over the years and is now widely acclaimed; in 1998 the American Film Institute ranked it as the 58th greatest American film in their 100 Years...100 Movies and the fifth greatest animated film in their 10 Top 10 list. In 1990, Fantasia was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

    1. ^ "FANTASIA (U)". British Board of Film Classification. July 21, 1941. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference goldmark88 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference pitts82 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Fantasia Boxofficemojo. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
    5. ^ Box Office Information for Fantasia. The Numbers. Retrieved April 13, 2012.
     
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    14 November 1770James Bruce discovers what he believes to be the source of the Nile.

    Nile

    The Nile[b] is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It flows into the Mediterranean Sea. The longest river in Africa, it has historically been considered the longest river in the world,[3][4] though this has been contested by research suggesting that the Amazon River is slightly longer.[5][6] The Nile is amongst the smallest of the major world rivers by measure of cubic metres flowing annually.[7] About 6,650 km (4,130 mi)[a] long, its drainage basin covers eleven countries: Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan, and Egypt.[9] In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan.[10] Additionally, the Nile is an important economic river, supporting agriculture and fishing.

    The Nile has two major tributaries – the White Nile, which begins at Jinja, Lake Victoria,[11] and the Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. The Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water, containing 80% of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region. It begins from Uganda Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia[12] and flows into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.[13]

    The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, where Cairo is located on its large delta and the river flows into the Mediterranean Sea at Alexandria. Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times and its annual flooding. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan. Nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt developed and are found along river banks.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "ⲓⲁⲣⲟ - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
    2. ^ Reinisch, Leo (1879). Die Nuba-Sprache. Grammatik und Texte. Nubisch-Deutsches und Deutsch-Nubisches Wörterbuch Erster Theil. Zweiter Theil. p. 220.
    3. ^ a b "Nile River". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015.
    4. ^ a b c Liu, Shaochuang; Lu, P; Liu, D; Jin, P; Wang, W (1 March 2009). "Pinpointing the sources and measuring the lengths of the principal rivers of the world". Int. J. Digital Earth. 2 (1): 80–87. Bibcode:2009IJDE....2...80L. doi:10.1080/17538940902746082. S2CID 27548511.
    5. ^ Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say Archived 15 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine
    6. ^ "How Long Is the Amazon River?". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
    7. ^ Said, R (6 December 2012). The Geological Evolution of the River Nile. New York: Springer (published 2012). p. 4. ISBN 9781461258414. Retrieved 23 May 2021 – via Google.
    8. ^ "Where Does the Amazon River Begin?". National Geographic News. 15 February 2014. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
    9. ^ Oloo, Adams (2007). "The Quest for Cooperation in the Nile Water Conflicts: A Case for Eritrea" (PDF). African Sociological Review. 11 (1). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
    10. ^ Elsanabary, Mohamed Helmy Mahmoud Moustafa (2012). Teleconnection, Modeling, Climate Anomalies Impact and Forecasting of Rainfall and Streamflow of the Upper Blue Nile River Basin (PhD thesis). Canada: University of Alberta. doi:10.7939/R3377641M. hdl:10402/era.28151.
    11. ^ Conway, Declan. "The climate and hydrology of the Upper Blue Nile River." Geographical Journal 166.1 (2000): 49-62.
    12. ^ The river's outflow from that lake occurs at 12°02′09″N 37°15′53″E / 12.03583°N 37.26472°E / 12.03583; 37.26472
    13. ^ "What's the Blue Nile and the White Nile?". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
     
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    15 November 1920 – First assembly of the League of Nations is held in Geneva, Switzerland.

    League of Nations

    The League of Nations (French: Société des Nations [sɔsjete de nɑsjɔ̃]), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.[1] Founded on 10 January 1920 following the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War, it ceased operations on 20 April 1946.

    The organisation's primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.[2] Its other concerns included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.[3] The Covenant of the League of Nations was signed on 28 June 1919 as Part I of the Treaty of Versailles, and it became effective together with the rest of the Treaty on 10 January 1920. The first meeting of the Council of the League took place on 16 January 1920, and the first meeting of Assembly of the League took place on 15 November 1920. In 1919 U.S. president Woodrow Wilson won the Nobel Peace Prize for his role as the leading architect of the League.

    The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the victorious First World War Allies (Britain, France, Italy and Japan were the permanent members of the Executive Council) to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, or provide an army when needed. The Great Powers were often reluctant to do so. Sanctions could hurt League members, so they were reluctant to comply with them. During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, when the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that "the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out."[4]

    At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. After some notable successes and some early failures in the 1920s, the League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the 1930s. The credibility of the organization was weakened by the fact that the United States never joined the League and the Soviet Union joined late and was soon expelled after invading Finland.[5][6][7][8] Germany withdrew from the League, as did Japan, Italy, Spain and others. The onset of the Second World War in 1939 showed that the League had failed its primary purpose; it was inactive until its abolition. The League lasted for 26 years; the United Nations (UN) replaced it in 1946 and inherited several agencies and organisations founded by the League.

    1. ^ Christian, Tomuschat (1995). The United Nations at Age Fifty: A Legal Perspective. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 77. ISBN 978-90-411-0145-7.
    2. ^ "Covenant of the League of Nations". The Avalon Project. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
    3. ^ See Article 23, "Covenant of the League of Nations". Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2009., "Treaty of Versailles". Archived from the original on 19 January 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010. and Minority Treaties.
    4. ^ Jahanpour, Farhang. "The Elusiveness of Trust: the experience of Security Council and Iran" (PDF). Transnational Foundation of Peace and Future Research. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
    5. ^ Osakwe, C O (1972). The participation of the Soviet Union in universal international organizations.: A political and legal analysis of Soviet strategies and aspirations inside ILO, UNESCO and WHO. Springer. p. 5. ISBN 978-90-286-0002-7.
    6. ^ Pericles, Lewis (2000). Modernism, Nationalism, and the Novel. Cambridge University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-139-42658-9.
    7. ^ Ginneken, Anique H. M. van (2006). Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations. Scarecrow Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8108-6513-6.
    8. ^ Ellis, Charles Howard (2003). The Origin, Structure & Working of the League of Nations. Lawbook Exchange Ltd. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-58477-320-7.
     
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    16 November 1920Qantas, Australia's national airline, is founded as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited.

    Qantas

    Qantas Airways Limited (/ˈkwɒntəs/ KWON-təs) is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations.[8][9] It is the world's third-oldest airline still in operation, having been founded in November 1920;[10][11] it began international passenger flights in May 1935. Qantas is an acronym of the airline's original name, Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services, as it originally served Queensland and the Northern Territory, and is popularly nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo". Qantas is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance.[12]

    The airline is based in the Sydney suburb of Mascot, adjacent to its main hub at Sydney Airport. As of March 2014, Qantas had a 65-per-cent share of the Australian domestic market and carried 14.9 per cent of all passengers travelling in and out of Australia.[13][14] Various subsidiary airlines operate to regional centres and on some trunk routes within Australia under the QantasLink banner. Qantas also owns Jetstar, a low-cost airline that operates both international services from Australia and domestic services within Australia and New Zealand; and holds stakes in a number of other Jetstar-branded airlines.

    1. ^ "QANTAS INKS STRATEGIC MARKETING PARTNERSHIP WITH SINGAPORE TOURISM BOARD AND CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP". Qantas News Room (Press release).
    2. ^ "Qantas Group: Singapore is our largest hub outside of Australia – Blue Swan Daily". blueswandaily.com. 14 March 2018.
    3. ^ http://qantas2015.reportonline.com.au/system/files_force/downloads/full_qantas_annual_report_2015-1.pdf?download=2[dead link]
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference HQ was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b "Our leadership". Qantas Group. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
    6. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference QGR2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Qantas Group Data Book 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 20 March 2020.
    8. ^ "Qantas reports record annual loss". BBC News. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
    9. ^ Butler, Ben (17 March 2020). "Airlines in crisis: Virgin and Qantas under pressure as government hints at support package". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
    10. ^ "Qantas frequent flyers get microchip cards, heralding new era in faster travel". The Independent. 13 November 2009. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012.
    11. ^ "Oldest Airlines in the World That Are Still Operating". World Atlas. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
    12. ^ "Five leading airlines to launch oneworld global alliance" (Press release). Oneworld. 21 September 1998. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
    13. ^ "Qantas International's market share slips as capacity growth slows". The Australian. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
    14. ^ In Detail, Here's why Alan Joyce says Qantas must defend its 65% marketshare Business Insider 5 March 2014.
     
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    16 November 1920Qantas, Australia's national airline, is founded as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited.

    Qantas

    Qantas Airways Limited (/ˈkwɒntəs/ KWON-təs) is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations.[8][9] It is the world's third-oldest airline still in operation, having been founded in November 1920;[10][11] it began international passenger flights in May 1935. Qantas is an acronym of the airline's original name, Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services, as it originally served Queensland and the Northern Territory, and is popularly nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo". Qantas is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance.[12]

    The airline is based in the Sydney suburb of Mascot, adjacent to its main hub at Sydney Airport. As of March 2014, Qantas had a 65-per-cent share of the Australian domestic market and carried 14.9 per cent of all passengers travelling in and out of Australia.[13][14] Various subsidiary airlines operate to regional centres and on some trunk routes within Australia under the QantasLink banner. Qantas also owns Jetstar, a low-cost airline that operates both international services from Australia and domestic services within Australia and New Zealand; and holds stakes in a number of other Jetstar-branded airlines.

    1. ^ "QANTAS INKS STRATEGIC MARKETING PARTNERSHIP WITH SINGAPORE TOURISM BOARD AND CHANGI AIRPORT GROUP". Qantas News Room (Press release).
    2. ^ "Qantas Group: Singapore is our largest hub outside of Australia – Blue Swan Daily". blueswandaily.com. 14 March 2018.
    3. ^ http://qantas2015.reportonline.com.au/system/files_force/downloads/full_qantas_annual_report_2015-1.pdf?download=2[dead link]
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference HQ was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b "Our leadership". Qantas Group. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
    6. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference QGR2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Qantas Group Data Book 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 20 March 2020.
    8. ^ "Qantas reports record annual loss". BBC News. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
    9. ^ Butler, Ben (17 March 2020). "Airlines in crisis: Virgin and Qantas under pressure as government hints at support package". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
    10. ^ "Qantas frequent flyers get microchip cards, heralding new era in faster travel". The Independent. 13 November 2009. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012.
    11. ^ "Oldest Airlines in the World That Are Still Operating". World Atlas. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
    12. ^ "Five leading airlines to launch oneworld global alliance" (Press release). Oneworld. 21 September 1998. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
    13. ^ "Qantas International's market share slips as capacity growth slows". The Australian. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
    14. ^ In Detail, Here's why Alan Joyce says Qantas must defend its 65% marketshare Business Insider 5 March 2014.
     
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    17 November 2003 – Actor Arnold Schwarzenegger’s tenure as the governor of California began

    Arnold Schwarzenegger

    Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (/ˈʃvɑːrtsnɛɡər/;[1][a] German: [ˈaʁnɔlt ˈʃvaʁtsn̩ˌʔɛɡɐ]; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American film actor, former bodybuilder, producer, businessman, and former politician who served as the 38th governor of California from 2003 to 2011. As of 2021, he is the most recent Republican governor of California.

    Schwarzenegger began lifting weights at the age of 15 and went on to win the Mr. Universe title at age 20, subsequently winning the Mr. Olympia contest seven times; he remains a prominent figure in bodybuilding, and has written many books and articles on it.[2] The Arnold Sports Festival, considered the second-most important bodybuilding event after Mr. Olympia, is named after him.[3]

    After retiring from bodybuilding, Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film star. Having previously appeared in the bodybuilding documentary Pumping Iron (1977), his breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian (1982), a box-office hit that resulted in a sequel in 1984.[4] He then appeared as the title character in the critically and commercially successful sci-fi film The Terminator (1984), and subsequently played similar characters in the sequels Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003), Terminator Genisys (2015), and Terminator: Dark Fate (2019). He also starred in other successful action films such as Commando (1985), The Running Man (1987), Predator (1987), Total Recall (1990), and True Lies (1994), in addition to comedy films such as Twins (1988), Kindergarten Cop (1990), Junior (1994), and Jingle All the Way (1996), and one mixed action/thriller-based comedy, Red Heat (1988).[5] He is the founder of the film production company Oak Productions.[6]

    As a Republican candidate, Schwarzenegger was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis. He received 48.6% of the vote, 17 points ahead of Democrat runner-up Cruz Bustamante. He was sworn in on November 17 to serve the remainder of Davis' term, and was re-elected in the 2006 California gubernatorial election with an increased vote share of 55.9% to serve a full term as governor.[7] In 2011, he reached his term limit as Governor and returned to acting.

    Schwarzenegger was nicknamed the "Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" or "Schwarzy" during his acting career,[8] and "The Governator" (a portmanteau of "Governor" and "Terminator") during his political career. He married Maria Shriver, a niece of President John F. Kennedy, in 1986. They separated in 2011 after he admitted to having fathered a child with their housemaid in 1997, and their divorce was finalized in 2017.[9]

    1. ^ "Final Address – 1/2/10" on YouTube
    2. ^ Gentilcore, Tony (March 2, 2018). "Lift Heavy To Build Muscle Like Arnold Schwarzenegger". Powerlifting.com. Archived from the original on July 15, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
    3. ^ "50 years of the Mr Olympia | MUSCLE INSIDER". muscleinsider.com. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference katzfilm was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Ebert, Roger (June 17, 1988). "Red Heat movie review & film summary (1988)". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
    6. ^ Keslassy, Elsa (October 14, 2019). "Alibaba's Youku Boards 'Stan Lee's Superhero Kindergarten' With Arnold Schwarzenegger". Variety. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
    7. ^ Kurtzman, Laura (January 5, 2007). "Schwarzenegger Sworn in for Second Term". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2008.
    8. ^ "Arnold Schwarzenegger at University of Houston Commencement: 'None of Us Can Make It Alone'". Time. May 15, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
    9. ^ Marcus, Emily (November 2, 2017). Peros, Jennifer (ed.). "Arnold Schwarzenegger: Cheating on Maria Shriver Was a 'Major Screw-up'". Us Weekly. ISSN 1529-7497. Archived from the original on April 8, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2018.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    17 November 2003 – Actor Arnold Schwarzenegger’s tenure as the governor of California began

    Arnold Schwarzenegger

    Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (/ˈʃvɑːrtsnɛɡər/;[1][a] German: [ˈaʁnɔlt ˈʃvaʁtsn̩ˌʔɛɡɐ]; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American film actor, former bodybuilder, producer, businessman, and former politician who served as the 38th governor of California from 2003 to 2011. As of 2021, he is the most recent Republican governor of California.

    Schwarzenegger began lifting weights at the age of 15 and went on to win the Mr. Universe title at age 20, subsequently winning the Mr. Olympia contest seven times; he remains a prominent figure in bodybuilding, and has written many books and articles on it.[2] The Arnold Sports Festival, considered the second-most important bodybuilding event after Mr. Olympia, is named after him.[3]

    After retiring from bodybuilding, Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film star. Having previously appeared in the bodybuilding documentary Pumping Iron (1977), his breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian (1982), a box-office hit that resulted in a sequel in 1984.[4] He then appeared as the title character in the critically and commercially successful sci-fi film The Terminator (1984), and subsequently played similar characters in the sequels Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003), Terminator Genisys (2015), and Terminator: Dark Fate (2019). He also starred in other successful action films such as Commando (1985), The Running Man (1987), Predator (1987), Total Recall (1990), and True Lies (1994), in addition to comedy films such as Twins (1988), Kindergarten Cop (1990), Junior (1994), and Jingle All the Way (1996), and one mixed action/thriller-based comedy, Red Heat (1988).[5] He is the founder of the film production company Oak Productions.[6]

    As a Republican candidate, Schwarzenegger was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis. He received 48.6% of the vote, 17 points ahead of Democrat runner-up Cruz Bustamante. He was sworn in on November 17 to serve the remainder of Davis' term, and was re-elected in the 2006 California gubernatorial election with an increased vote share of 55.9% to serve a full term as governor.[7] In 2011, he reached his term limit as Governor and returned to acting.

    Schwarzenegger was nicknamed the "Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" or "Schwarzy" during his acting career,[8] and "The Governator" (a portmanteau of "Governor" and "Terminator") during his political career. He married Maria Shriver, a niece of President John F. Kennedy, in 1986. They separated in 2011 after he admitted to having fathered a child with their housemaid in 1997, and their divorce was finalized in 2017.[9]

    1. ^ "Final Address – 1/2/10" on YouTube
    2. ^ Gentilcore, Tony (March 2, 2018). "Lift Heavy To Build Muscle Like Arnold Schwarzenegger". Powerlifting.com. Archived from the original on July 15, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
    3. ^ "50 years of the Mr Olympia | MUSCLE INSIDER". muscleinsider.com. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference katzfilm was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Ebert, Roger (June 17, 1988). "Red Heat movie review & film summary (1988)". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
    6. ^ Keslassy, Elsa (October 14, 2019). "Alibaba's Youku Boards 'Stan Lee's Superhero Kindergarten' With Arnold Schwarzenegger". Variety. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
    7. ^ Kurtzman, Laura (January 5, 2007). "Schwarzenegger Sworn in for Second Term". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2008.
    8. ^ "Arnold Schwarzenegger at University of Houston Commencement: 'None of Us Can Make It Alone'". Time. May 15, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
    9. ^ Marcus, Emily (November 2, 2017). Peros, Jennifer (ed.). "Arnold Schwarzenegger: Cheating on Maria Shriver Was a 'Major Screw-up'". Us Weekly. ISSN 1529-7497. Archived from the original on April 8, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2018.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    18 November 1626 – The new St Peter's Basilica is consecrated.

    St. Peter's Basilica

    The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican (Italian: Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply Saint Peter's Basilica (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri), is a church built in the Renaissance style located in Vatican City, the papal enclave that is within the city of Rome. It was initially planned by Pope Nicholas V and then Pope Julius II to replace the aging Old St. Peter's Basilica, which was built in the 4th century by Roman emperor Constantine the Great. Construction of the present basilica began on 18 April 1506 and was completed on 18 November 1626.[2]

    Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture[3] and the largest church in the world by interior measure.[note 1] While it is neither the mother church of the Catholic Church nor the cathedral of the Diocese of Rome (these equivalent titles being held by the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome), St. Peter's is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic shrines. It has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world"[4] and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom."[3][5]

    Catholic tradition holds that the basilica is the burial site of Saint Peter, chief among Jesus's apostles and also the first Bishop of Rome (Pope). Saint Peter's tomb is supposedly directly below the high altar of the basilica, also known as the Altar of the Confession.[6] For this reason, many popes have been interred at St. Peter's since the Early Christian period.

    St. Peter's is famous as a place of pilgrimage and for its liturgical functions. The pope presides at a number of liturgies throughout the year both within the basilica or the adjoining St. Peter's Square; these liturgies draw audiences numbering from 15,000 to over 80,000 people.[7] St. Peter's has many historical associations, with the Early Christian Church, the Papacy, the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-reformation and numerous artists, especially Michelangelo. As a work of architecture, it is regarded as the greatest building of its age.[8] St. Peter's is one of the four churches in the world that hold the rank of major basilica, all four of which are in Rome. Contrary to popular misconception, it is not a cathedral because it is not the seat of a bishop; the cathedra of the pope as Bishop of Rome is at Saint John Lateran.[9]

    1. ^ "St. Peter's Basilica - Dome" (in Italian). Vatican City State. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
    2. ^ Baumgarten 1913
    3. ^ a b Banister Fletcher, the renowned architectural historian calls it "the greatest creation of the Renaissance" and "... the greatest of all churches of Christendom" in Fletcher 1996, p. 719.[clarification needed]
    4. ^ James Lees-Milne describes St. Peter's Basilica as "a church with a unique position in the Christian world" in Lees-Milne 1967, p. 12.
    5. ^ "St. Peter's Basilica (Basilica di San Pietro) in Rome, Italy". reidsitaly.com.
    6. ^ Giuliani, G., Guide to Saint Peter's Basilica: Altar of the Confession, published 1995, accessed 17 August 2021
    7. ^ Papal Mass (accessed 28 February 2012)
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference BF was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Noreen (19 November 2012). "St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican Is Not The Official Church Of The Pope". Today I Found Out. Retrieved 14 February 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    19 November 2004 – The worst brawl in NBA history results in several players being suspended. Several players and fans are charged with assault.

    The Malice at the Palace

    The Malice at the Palace (also known as the Pacers–Pistons brawl)[2][3] occurred during a National Basketball Association (NBA) game between the Indiana Pacers and the defending champion Detroit Pistons on Friday, November 19, 2004, at The Palace in Auburn Hills, Michigan, United States. The Associated Press (AP) called it "the most infamous brawl in NBA history."[4]

    With the Pacers leading 97–82 and 45.9 seconds left in the game,[5] Pistons center Ben Wallace attempted a layup shot but was fouled from behind by Pacers small forward Ron Artest. A furious Wallace then shoved Artest, and a fight broke out on the court between players of both teams. After the fight was broken up, a fan, John Green, threw a drink at Artest from the stands while he was lying on the scorer's table to calm himself down. Artest then charged up to the stands and grabbed another fan, Michael Ryan, whom he mistakenly believed was the culprit, and this immediately escalated into a brawl that lasted for several minutes with fans and players involved. Referees subsequently called an end to the game without playing the remaining time.

    After the game, the NBA suspended nine players, including Artest and Wallace, for a total of 146 games, leading to the players losing US$11 million in salary. Five players were charged with assault, and eventually sentenced to a year of probation and community service. Five fans also faced assault charges and were banned from attending Pistons home games for life. The fight also led the NBA to increase security between players and fans and limit the sale of alcohol at games.

    1. ^ "Indiana Pacers at Detroit Pistons Box Score, November 19, 2004 - Basketball-Reference.com". Basketball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on December 16, 2017. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
    2. ^ Hill, Jemele (November 18, 2009). "The Brawl: Were lessons learned?". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on November 23, 2009. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
    3. ^ Abrams, Jonathan (March 20, 2012). "The Malice at the Palace: An oral history of the scariest moment in NBA history". Grantland. Archived from the original on April 18, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
    4. ^ "Top 10 list of worst NBA fights, cheap shots". National Basketball Association. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
    5. ^ "Archived copy". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2017-04-09. Retrieved 2018-07-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
     
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    20 November 1992 – In England, a fire breaks out in Windsor Castle, badly damaging the castle and causing over £50 million worth of damage.

    1992 Windsor Castle fire

    Giles Downes's new hammer-beam roof in St George's Hall, completed 1997

    On 20 November 1992, a fire broke out in Windsor Castle, the largest inhabited castle in the world and one of the official residences of Queen Elizabeth II. The castle suffered extensive damage and was fully repaired within the next few years at a cost of £36.5 million, in a project led by the conservation architects Donald Insall Associates. It led to the Queen paying tax on her income, and to Buckingham Palace, the Queen's other official residence, being opened to the public to help pay for the restoration work.

     
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    21 November 1953 – The Natural History Museum, London announces that the "Piltdown Man" skull, initially believed to be one of the most important fossilized hominid skulls ever found, is a hoax.

    Piltdown Man

    Group portrait of the Piltdown skull being examined. Back row (from left): F. O. Barlow, G. Elliot Smith, Charles Dawson, Arthur Smith Woodward. Front row: A. S. Underwood, Arthur Keith, W. P. Pycraft, and Ray Lankester. Note the portrait of Charles Darwin on the wall. Painting by John Cooke, 1915.

    The Piltdown Man was a paleoanthropological fraud in which bone fragments were presented as the fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human. Although there were doubts about its authenticity virtually from the beginning, the remains were still broadly accepted for many years, and the falsity of the hoax was only definitively demonstrated in 1953. An extensive scientific review in 2016 established that amateur archaeologist Charles Dawson was responsible for the fraudulent evidence.[1]

    In 1912, Charles Dawson claimed that he had discovered the "missing link" between ape and man. In February 1912, Dawson contacted Arthur Smith Woodward, Keeper of Geology at the Natural History Museum, stating he had found a section of a human-like skull in Pleistocene gravel beds near Piltdown, East Sussex.[2] That summer, Dawson and Smith Woodward purportedly discovered more bones and artifacts at the site, which they connected to the same individual. These finds included a jawbone, more skull fragments, a set of teeth, and primitive tools.

    Smith Woodward reconstructed the skull fragments and hypothesised that they belonged to a human ancestor from 500,000 years ago. The discovery was announced at a Geological Society meeting and was given the Latin name Eoanthropus dawsoni ("Dawson's dawn-man"). The questionable significance of the assemblage remained the subject of considerable controversy until it was conclusively exposed in 1953 as a forgery. It was found to have consisted of the altered mandible and some teeth of an orangutan deliberately combined with the cranium of a fully developed, though small-brained, modern human.

    The Piltdown hoax is prominent for two reasons: the attention it generated around the subject of human evolution, and the length of time, 41 years, that elapsed from its alleged initial discovery to its definitive exposure as a composite forgery.

    1. ^ Webb, Jonathan (10 August 2016). "Piltdown review points decisive finger at forger Dawson". BBC. Archived from the original on 23 July 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
    2. ^ Spencer, Frank (1990). The Piltdown papers, 1908–1955: the correspondence and other documents relating to the Piltdown forgery. Natural History Museum Publications. ISBN 978-0198585237.
     
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    22 November 1956 – The Summer Olympics, officially known as the games of the XVI Olympiad, are opened in Melbourne, Australia.

    1956 Summer Olympics

    The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad and commonly known as Melbourne 1956, were an international multi-sport event held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, from 22 November to 8 December 1956, with the exception of the equestrian events, which were held in Stockholm, Sweden, in June 1956.

    These Games were the first to be staged in the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania, as well as the first to be held outside Europe and North America. Melbourne is the most southerly city ever to host the Olympics. Due to the Southern Hemisphere's seasons being different from those in the Northern Hemisphere, the 1956 Games did not take place at the usual time of year, because of the need to hold the events during the warmer weather of the host's spring/summer (which corresponds to the Northern Hemisphere's autumn/winter) which resulted in the only summer games ever to be held in November and December. Australia did not host the Games again until 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, and will host them again in 2032 in Brisbane, Queensland.

    The Olympic equestrian events could not be held in Melbourne due to Australia's strict quarantine regulations,[2] so they were held in Stockholm five months earlier. This was the second time the Olympics were not held entirely in one country, the first being the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium, with some events taking place in Ostend, Belgium and Amsterdam, Netherlands. Despite uncertainties and various complications encountered during the preparations, the 1956 Games went ahead in Melbourne as planned and turned out to be a success. The enduring tradition of national teams parading as one during the closing ceremony was started at these Olympics.

    Eight teams boycotted the Games for various reasons. Four teams boycotted in response to the Suez Crisis where Egypt was invaded by Israel, France and the United Kingdom, three in response to the Soviet invasion of Hungary and one in response to the presence of the Republic of China at the Games.[3]

    The Soviet Union won the most gold and overall medals for the first time in Summer Olympics history despite a controversial Water Polo match between the Soviet Union and Hungary, who are the defending champions. The Soviet Union had recently suppressed an anti-communist revolution in Hungary and violence broke out during the match between the teams, resulting in numerous injuries. The spectators attempted to join the violence after Ervin Zádor suffered bleeding after being punched by Valentin Prokopov but they were blocked by riot police. The match was cancelled, with Hungary being declared the winner as they were in the lead.

    1. ^ a b "Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
    2. ^ Tarbotton, David (12 November 2016). "Melbourne 1956 makes history as equestrian events take place in Sweden". Australian Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
    3. ^ "Melbourne 1956 Summer Olympics - Athletes, Medals & Results". 24 April 2018.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    23 November 1808 – French and Poles defeat the Spanish at Battle of Tudela.

    Battle of Tudela

      current battle
      Wellington in command
      Wellington not in command

    The Battle of Tudela (23 November 1808) saw an Imperial French army led by Marshal Jean Lannes attack a Spanish army under General Castaños. The battle resulted in the complete victory of the Imperial forces over their adversaries. The combat occurred near Tudela in Navarre, Spain during the Peninsular War, part of a wider conflict known as the Napoleonic Wars.[2]

    1. ^ a b c d e Bodart 1908, p. 391.
    2. ^ Esdaile 2003, p. 135.
     
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    24 November 1963Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President John F. Kennedy, is killed by Jack Ruby.

    Lee Harvey Oswald

    Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was a former U.S. Marine who assassinated United States president John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963.

    Oswald was placed in juvenile detention at the age of 12 for truancy, during which time he was assessed by a psychiatrist as "emotionally disturbed", due to a lack of normal family life. After attending 22 schools in his youth, he quit repeatedly, and finally when he was 17, joined the Marines. Oswald was court-martialed twice while in the Marines, and jailed. He was honorably released from active duty in the Marine Corps into the reserve, then promptly flew to Europe and defected to the Soviet Union in October 1959. He lived in Minsk, Byelorussia, married a Russian woman named Marina, and had a daughter. In June 1962, he returned to the United States with his wife, and eventually settled in Dallas, where their second daughter was also born.

    Oswald shot and killed Kennedy on November 22, 1963, from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository as the President traveled by motorcade through Dealey Plaza in Dallas. About 45 minutes after assassinating Kennedy, Oswald shot and killed Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit on a local street. He then slipped into a movie theater, where he was arrested for Tippit's murder. Oswald was charged with the assassination of Kennedy, but he denied responsibility for the killing, claiming that he was a "patsy".[1][2] Two days later, Oswald was fatally shot by local nightclub owner Jack Ruby on live television in the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters.

    In September 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had acted alone when assassinating Kennedy. This conclusion, though controversial, was supported by investigations from the Dallas Police Department, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the United States Secret Service, and the House Select Committee on Assassinations.[n 1][3][4]

    Despite forensic, ballistic, and eyewitness evidence supporting the official findings, public opinion polls have shown that most Americans still do not believe that the official version tells the whole truth of the events,[5] and the assassination spawned numerous conspiracy theories.

    1. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 366, Kantor Exhibit No. 3—Handwritten notes made by Seth Kantor concerning events surrounding the assassination
    2. ^ "A J.F.K. Assassination Glossary: Key Figures and Theories". The New York Times. October 26, 2017. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
    3. ^ "John F Kennedy, Dallas Police Department Collection – The Portal to Texas History".
    4. ^ Tunheim, John R. (March 1, 1999). Final Report of the Kennedy Assassination Records Review Board. DIANE Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7881-7722-4.
    5. ^ "Gallop: Most Americans Believe Oswald Conspired With Others to Kill JFK". Gallup.com. April 11, 2001. Retrieved December 24, 2012.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=n> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=n}} template (see the help page).

     
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    25 November 1947Red Scare: The "Hollywood Ten" are blacklisted by Hollywood movie studios.

    Hollywood blacklist

    Members of the Hollywood Ten and their families in 1950, protesting the impending incarceration of the ten

    The Hollywood blacklist was the colloquial term for what was in actuality a broader entertainment industry blacklist put in effect in the mid-20th century in the United States during the early years of the Cold War. The blacklist involved the practice of denying employment to entertainment industry professionals believed to be or to have been Communists or sympathizers. Not just actors, but screenwriters, directors, musicians, and other American entertainment professionals were barred from work by the studios. This was usually done on the basis of their membership in, alleged membership in, or sympathy with the Communist Party USA, or on the basis of their refusal to assist Congressional investigations into the party's activities. Even during the period of its strictest enforcement, from the late 1940s through to the late 1950s, the blacklist was rarely made explicit or easily verifiable, as it was the result of numerous individual decisions by the studios and was not the result of official legal action. Nevertheless, it quickly and directly damaged or ended the careers and income of scores of individuals working in the film industry.

     
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    26 November 1942 – Casablanca, the movie starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, premieres in New York City.

    Casablanca (film)

    Casablanca is a 1942 American romantic drama film directed by Michael Curtiz, and starring Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, and Paul Henreid. Filmed and set during World War II, it focuses on an American expatriate (Bogart) who must choose between his love for a woman (Bergman) or helping her and her husband (Henreid), a Czech resistance leader, escape from the Vichy-controlled city of Casablanca to continue his fight against the Germans. The screenplay is based on Everybody Comes to Rick's, an unproduced stage play by Murray Burnett and Joan Alison. The supporting cast features Claude Rains, Conrad Veidt, Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre, and Dooley Wilson.

    Warner Bros. story editor Irene Diamond convinced producer Hal B. Wallis to purchase the film rights to the play in January 1942. Brothers Julius and Philip G. Epstein were initially assigned to write the script. However, despite studio resistance, they left to work on Frank Capra's Why We Fight series early in 1942. Howard Koch was assigned to the screenplay until the Epsteins returned a month later. Principal photography began on May 25, 1942, ending on August 3; the film was shot entirely at Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California with the exception of one sequence at Van Nuys Airport in Van Nuys, Los Angeles.

    Although Casablanca was an A-list film with established stars and first-rate writers, no one involved with its production expected it to stand out among the hundreds of pictures produced by Hollywood yearly.[7] Casablanca was rushed into release to take advantage of the publicity from the Allied invasion of North Africa a few weeks earlier.[8] It had its world premiere on November 26, 1942, in New York City and was released nationally in the United States on January 23, 1943. The film was a solid if unspectacular success in its initial run.

    Exceeding expectations, Casablanca went on to win the Academy Award for Best Picture, while Curtiz was selected as Best Director and the Epsteins and Koch were honored for Best Adapted Screenplay. Its reputation has gradually grown, to the point that its lead characters,[9][10] memorable lines,[11][12][13] and pervasive theme song[14][15] have all become iconic, and it consistently ranks near the top of lists of the greatest films in history. In 1989, the United States Library of Congress selected the film as one of the first for preservation in the National Film Registry.

    1. ^ Ebert, Roger (September 15, 1996). "Great Movies: Casablanca". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on August 11, 2015. Retrieved August 14, 2015. Bogart, Bergman and Paul Henreid were stars, and no better cast of supporting actors could have been assembled on the Warners lot than Peter Lorre, Sidney Greenstreet, Claude Rains and Dooley Wilson
    2. ^ "Casablanca (U)". Warner Bros. British Board of Film Classification. December 17, 1942. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
    3. ^ Thomas Schatz, Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s Uni of California Press, 1999 p. 218
    4. ^ a b Warner Bros financial information in "The William Shaefer Ledger". See Appendix 1, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television (1995) 15:sup 1, 1–31 p. 23 doi:10.1080/01439689508604551
    5. ^ "Casablanca". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
    6. ^ "Top Grossers of the Season", Variety, 5 January 1944 p. 54 Archived March 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
    7. ^ Ebert, Roger (September 15, 1996). "Casablanca (1942)". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on February 28, 2010. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
    8. ^ Stein, Eliot (May 1995). "Howard Koch, Julius Epstein, Frank Miller Interview". Vincent's Casablanca. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved June 11, 2008. Frank Miller: "There was a scene planned, after the ending, that would have shown Rick and Renault on an Allied ship just prior to the landing at Casablanca, but plans to shoot it were scrapped when the marketing department realized they had to get the film out fast to capitalize on the liberation of North Africa."
    9. ^ Smith, Briony; Wallace, Andrew. "The demise of dating: Two writers square off on their favourite fictional dating men". Elle Canada. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
    10. ^ "How Hollywood (Fictionally) Won World War Two". Empire. August 4, 2011. Archived from the original on October 3, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
    11. ^ Jones, Emma (February 13, 2012). "Guess the movie quote: How well do you know classic romantic films?: Casablanca". MSN Entertainment Canada. Archived from the original on April 12, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
    12. ^ Doyle, Dee (June 5, 2008). "Best Movie Lines That Have Stuck In Pop Culture". starpulse.com. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
    13. ^ "Round up the usual suspects", for example, has been incorporated in the titles of business Archived November 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, sociology and political science Archived December 12, 2015, at the Wayback Machine articles.
    14. ^ Beckerman, Jim. "Clifton's crazy connection to 'Casablanca'". North Jersey. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
    15. ^ "Casablanca As Time Goes By Piano Up For Sale". Sky News. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
     
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    27 November 1095Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.

    First Crusade

    The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Islamic rule. While Jerusalem had been under Muslim rule for hundreds of years, by the 11th century the Seljuk takeover of the region threatened local Christian populations, pilgrimages from the West, and the Byzantine Empire itself. The earliest initiative for the First Crusade began in 1095 when Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos requested military support from the Council of Piacenza in the empire's conflict with the Seljuk-led Turks. This was followed later in the year by the Council of Clermont, during which Pope Urban II supported the Byzantine request for military assistance and also urged faithful Christians to undertake an armed pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

    This call was met with an enthusiastic popular response across all social classes in western Europe. Mobs of predominantly poor Christians numbering in the thousands, led by Peter the Hermit, a French priest, were the first to respond. What has become known as the People's Crusade passed through Germany and indulged in wide-ranging anti-Jewish activities, including the Rhineland massacres. On leaving Byzantine-controlled territory in Anatolia, they were annihilated in a Turkish ambush led by the Seljuk Kilij Arslan at the Battle of Civetot in October 1096.

    In what has become known as the Princes' Crusade, members of the high nobility and their followers embarked in late-summer 1096 and arrived at Constantinople between November and April the following year. This was a large feudal host led by notable Western European princes: southern French forces under Raymond IV of Toulouse and Adhemar of Le Puy; men from Upper and Lower Lorraine led by Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin of Boulogne; Italo-Norman forces led by Bohemond of Taranto and his nephew Tancred; as well as various contingents consisting of northern French and Flemish forces under Robert Curthose (Robert II of Normandy), Stephen of Blois, Hugh of Vermandois, and Robert II of Flanders. In total and including non-combatants, the forces are estimated to have numbered as many as 100,000.

    The crusaders marched into Anatolia. With Kilij Arslan absent, a Frankish attack and Byzantine naval assault during the Siege of Nicea in June 1097 resulted in an initial victory for the crusaders. In July, the crusaders won the Battle of Dorylaeum, fighting Turkish lightly-armoured mounted archers. Next the crusaders marched through Anatolia, suffering casualties from starvation, thirst, and disease. The decisive and bloody Siege of Antioch was fought beginning in 1097 and the city was captured by the crusaders in June 1098. Jerusalem was reached in June 1099 and the Siege of Jerusalem resulted in the city being taken by assault from 7 June to 15 July 1099, during which its defenders were ruthlessly massacred. The Kingdom of Jerusalem was established as a secular state under the rule of Godfrey of Bouillon, who shunned the title of "king". A counterattack was repulsed that year at the Battle of Ascalon, ending the First Crusade. Afterwards the majority of the crusaders returned home.

    Four Crusader states were established in the Holy Land. In addition to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, these were the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Tripoli. The crusader presence remained in the region in some form until the Siege of Acre in 1291. This resulted in the loss of the last major Crusader stronghold, leading to the rapid loss of all remaining territory in the Levant. There were no further substantive attempts to recover the Holy Land after this.
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    1. ^ Asbridge 2012, p. 42, The Call of the Cross.
     
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    28 November 1905 – Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Féin as a political party with the main aim of establishing a dual monarchy in Ireland.

    History of Sinn Féin

    Sinn Féin ("We Ourselves", often mistranslated as "Ourselves Alone") is the name of an Irish political party founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith. It subsequently became a focus for various forms of Irish nationalism, especially Irish republicanism. After the Easter Rising in 1916, it grew in membership, with a reorganisation at its Ard Fheis in 1917. Its split in 1922 in response to the Anglo-Irish Treaty which led to the Irish Civil War and saw the origins of Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael, the two parties which have since dominated Irish politics. Another split in the remaining Sinn Féin organisation in the early years of the Troubles in 1970 led to the Sinn Féin of today, which is a republican, left-wing nationalist and secular party.

     
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    29 October 1998 – In South Africa, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission presents its report, which condemns both sides for committing atrocities.

    Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)

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    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like restorative justice[1] body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid.[2] Witnesses who were identified as victims of gross human rights violations were invited to give statements about their experiences, and some were selected for public hearings. Perpetrators of violence could also give testimony and request amnesty from both civil and criminal prosecution.

    The TRC, the first of the 1003 held internationally to stage public hearings, was seen by many as a crucial component of the transition to full and free democracy in South Africa. Despite some flaws, it is generally (although not universally) thought to have been successful.[3]

    The Institute for Justice and Reconciliation was established in 2000 as the successor organisation of the TRC.

    1. ^ Suffolk University, College of Arts & Sciences, Center for Restorative Justice, http://www.suffolk.edu/college/centers/15970.php What is Restorative Justice?
    2. ^ Though it is a common claim that the TRC was a restorative justice body, it has been argued that the connection between the TRC and restorative justice is not as straightforward and unproblematic as often assumed. See b C.B.N. Restorative Justice and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process, South African Journal of Philosophy 32(1), 10–35 (click to read)
    3. ^ "Truth Telling, Identities, and Power in South Africa and Guatemala", International Center for Transitional Justice. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
     
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    30 November 1982Michael Jackson's sixth solo studio album, Thriller, is released worldwide, ultimately to become the best-selling record album in history.

    Thriller (album)

    Thriller is the sixth studio album by American singer and songwriter Michael Jackson, released on November 30, 1982, by Epic Records. It was produced by Quincy Jones, who had previously worked with Jackson on his 1979 album Off the Wall. Jackson wanted to create an album where "every song was a killer". With the ongoing backlash against disco, he moved in a new musical direction, resulting in a mix of pop, post-disco, rock, funk, and R&B sounds. Thriller foreshadows the contradictory themes of Jackson's personal life, as he began using a motif of paranoia and darker themes. The album features a single guest appearance, with Paul McCartney becoming the first artist to be featured on one of Jackson's albums. Recording took place from April to November 1982 at Westlake Recording Studios in Los Angeles, with a production budget of $750,000.

    Thriller became Jackson's first number one album on the US Billboard Top LPs & Tapes chart, where it spent a record 37 weeks at number one, from February 26, 1983, to April 14, 1984. Seven singles were released: "The Girl Is Mine", "Billie Jean", "Beat It", "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'", "Human Nature", "P.Y.T. (Pretty Young Thing)", and "Thriller". They all reached the top 10 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, setting the record for the most top 10 singles from an album, with "Beat It" and "Billie Jean" reaching number one. Following Jackson's performance of "Billie Jean" in Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever, where he debuted his signature moonwalk dance, the sales of the album significantly increased, selling one million copies worldwide per week. The "Thriller" music video was premiered to great anticipation in December 1983 and played regularly on MTV, which also increased the sales of the album.

    With 32 million copies sold worldwide by the end of 1983, Thriller became the best-selling album of all time. It was the best-selling album of 1983 worldwide, and it was the first album to become the best-selling in the United States for two years, in 1983 and 1984. The album broke racial barriers in popular music, enabling Jackson's appearances on MTV and meeting with President Ronald Reagan at the White House. It was among the first to use music videos as promotional tools; the videos for "Billie Jean", "Beat It" and "Thriller" are credited for transforming music videos into a serious art form. The album's success set the standard for the music industry with its songs, music videos, and promotion strategies influencing artists, record labels, producers, marketers, and choreographers.

    Thriller remains the best-selling album of all time, with sales of 70 million copies worldwide. It is the second-best-selling album in the United States and was certified 34× platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) in 2021. It won a record-breaking eight Grammy Awards at the 1984 Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year, while "Beat It" won Record of the Year. Jackson also won a record-breaking eight American Music Awards at the 1984 American Music Awards. The album is often credited by critics and publications as one of the greatest albums of all time. It was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, the Library of Congress' National Recording Registry of "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant recordings", and the "Thriller" music video was inducted into the National Film Preservation Board's National Film Registry of "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant films".

    1. ^ Halstead 2007, p. 144.
    2. ^ Halstead 2007, p. 256.
     

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