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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    9 January 2015 – A mass poisoning at a funeral in Mozambique involving beer that was contaminated with Burkholderia gladioli leaves 75 dead and over 230 people ill.

    Mozambique funeral beer poisoning

    On 9 January 2015, 75 people died and 230 were made ill after drinking contaminated beer at a funeral in Mozambique. All of the people affected had consumed the local beer, pombe, on 9 January, which had been contaminated with the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli which produced the toxic compound bongkrekic acid.[2]

    Early speculation on the source of the illness by Mozambique officials blamed crocodile bile. A Forbes article opposed this hypothesis and instead pointed to the toxic flowering plant foxglove as the likely source of the poison.[3][4] Only in November 2015 was it determined that the deaths and illnesses were a result of bacterial contamination of the beer.[5]

    1. ^ "Where is Chitima in Tete, Mozambique Located?". GoMapper. n.d. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
    2. ^ a b Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Cook, Kyla; Kasper, Amelia M; Vergara, Alfredo; Salomão, Cristolde; Oliveira, Fernanda; Ismael, Hamida; Saeze, Cristovão; Mosse, Carla; Fernandes, Quinhas; Viegas, Sofia Omar; Baltazar, Cynthia S; Doyle, Timothy J; Yard, Ellen; Steck, Alaina; Serret, Mayda; Falconer, Travis M; Kern, Sara E; Brzezinski, Jennifer L; Turner, James A; Boyd, Brian L; Jani, Ilesh V (2018). "Description of a Mass Poisoning in a Rural District in Mozambique: The First Documented Bongkrekic Acid Poisoning in Africa" (PDF). Clinical Infectious Diseases. 66 (9): 1400–1406. doi:10.1093/cid/cix1005. PMC 5908738. PMID 29155976.
    3. ^ "At least 69 die after drinking contaminated beer at Mozambique funeral". The Guardian. Associated Press. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
    4. ^ Camillo, Emmanuel (12 January 2015). "At Least 52 Dead After Drinking Poisoned Beer In Mozambique". The Huffington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
    5. ^ "Mozambique: Mass Poisoning Caused By Bacterial Contamination". allafrica.com. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
     
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    10 January 1920 – The Treaty of Versailles takes effect, officially ending World War I.

    Treaty of Versailles

    Events leading to World War II
    1. Treaty of Versailles 1919
    2. Polish–Soviet War 1919
    3. Treaty of Trianon 1920
    4. Treaty of Rapallo 1920
    5. Franco-Polish alliance 1921
    6. March on Rome 1922
    7. Corfu incident 1923
    8. Occupation of the Ruhr 1923–1925
    9. Mein Kampf 1925
    10. Pacification of Libya 1923–1932
    11. Dawes Plan 1924
    12. Locarno Treaties 1925
    13. Young Plan 1929
    14. Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1931
    15. Pacification of Manchukuo 1931–1942
    16. January 28 incident 1932
    17. World Disarmament Conference 1932–1934
    18. Defense of the Great Wall 1933
    19. Battle of Rehe 1933
    20. Nazis' rise to power in Germany 1933
    21. Tanggu Truce 1933
    22. Italo-Soviet Pact 1933
    23. Inner Mongolian Campaign 1933–1936
    24. German–Polish declaration of non-aggression 1934
    25. Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance 1935
    26. Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance 1935
    27. He–Umezu Agreement 1935
    28. Anglo-German Naval Agreement 1935
    29. December 9th Movement
    30. Second Italo-Ethiopian War 1935–1936
    31. Remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936
    32. Spanish Civil War 1936–1939
    33. Italo-German "Axis" protocol 1936
    34. Anti-Comintern Pact 1936
    35. Suiyuan Campaign 1936
    36. Xi'an Incident 1936
    37. Second Sino-Japanese War 1937–1945
    38. USS Panay incident 1937
    39. Anschluss Mar. 1938
    40. May crisis May 1938
    41. Battle of Lake Khasan July–Aug. 1938
    42. Bled Agreement Aug. 1938
    43. Undeclared German–Czechoslovak War Sep. 1938
    44. Munich Agreement Sep. 1938
    45. First Vienna Award Nov. 1938
    46. German occupation of Czechoslovakia Mar. 1939
    47. Hungarian invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine Mar. 1939
    48. German ultimatum to Lithuania Mar. 1939
    49. Slovak–Hungarian War Mar. 1939
    50. Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War Mar.–Apr. 1939
    51. Danzig Crisis Mar.–Aug. 1939
    52. British guarantee to Poland Mar. 1939
    53. Italian invasion of Albania Apr. 1939
    54. Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations Apr.–Aug. 1939
    55. Pact of Steel May 1939
    56. Battles of Khalkhin Gol May–Sep. 1939
    57. Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Aug. 1939
    58. Invasion of Poland Sep. 1939

    The Treaty of Versailles (French: Traité de Versailles; German: Versailler Vertrag, pronounced [vɛʁˈzaɪ̯ɐ fɛɐ̯ˈtʁaːk] (audio speaker iconlisten)) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in the Palace of Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which led to the war. The other Central Powers on the German side signed separate treaties.[i] Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919.

    Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial being that: "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies." (the other members of the Central Powers signed treaties containing similar articles). This article, Article 231, later became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty required Germany to disarm, make ample territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion gold marks (then $31.4 billion or £6.6 billion, roughly equivalent to US$442 billion or UK£284 billion in 2022). At the time economists, notably John Maynard Keynes (a British delegate to the Paris Peace Conference), predicted that the treaty was too harsh—a "Carthaginian peace"—and said the reparations figure was excessive and counter-productive, views that, since then, have been the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side, such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently.

    The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one satisfied, and, in particular, Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened. The problems that arose from the treaty would lead to the Locarno Treaties, which improved relations between Germany and the other European powers, and the re-negotiation of the reparation system resulting in the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, and the indefinite postponement of reparations at the Lausanne Conference of 1932. The treaty has sometimes been cited as a cause of World War II: although its actual impact was not as severe as feared, its terms led to great resentment in Germany which powered the rise of the Nazi Party.

    Although it is often referred to as the "Versailles Conference", only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace. Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the "Big Four" meetings taking place generally at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the Quai d'Orsay.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=n.> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=n.}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Slavicek 2010, p. 114.
    2. ^ Slavicek 2010, p. 107.
    3. ^ Boyer et al. 2009, p. 153.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-roman> tags or {{efn-lr}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-roman}} template or {{notelist-lr}} template (see the help page).

     
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    11 January 1942World War II: Japanese forces capture Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the Federated Malay States.

    Battle of Kuala Lumpur

    The Battle of Kuala Lumpur was a battle between Japanese invasion forces and the British forces in Kuala Lumpur, then capital of the-Federated Malay States, a British protectorate.

    1. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011.
     
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    12 January 2006A stampede during the Stoning of the Devil ritual on the last day at the Hajj in Mina, Saudi Arabia, kills at least 362 Muslim pilgrims.

    Stoning of the Devil

    A stoning of the Devil from 1942

    The Stoning of the Devil (Arabic: رمي الجمرات ramy al-jamarāt, lit. "throwing of the jamarāt [place of pebbles]")[1][2][3] is part of the annual Islamic Hajj pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. During the ritual, Muslim pilgrims throw pebbles at three walls (formerly pillars), called jamarāt, in the city of Mina just east of Mecca. It is one of a series of ritual acts that must be performed in the Hajj. It is a symbolic reenactment of Ibrahim's (or Abraham's) hajj, where he stoned three pillars representing the temptation to disobey God.

    On Eid al-Adha (the 10th day of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah), pilgrims must strike the Big Jamarah or Al-Jamrah Al-Aqaba with seven pebbles. After the stoning is completed on the day of Eid, every pilgrim must cut or shave their hair.[4] On each of the following two days, they must hit all three walls with seven pebbles each, going in order from east to west. Thus at least 49 pebbles are needed for the ritual, more if some throws miss. Some pilgrims stay at Mina for an additional day, in which case they must again stone each wall seven times. The pebbles used in the stoning are traditionally gathered at Muzdalifah, a plain southeast of Mina, on the night before the first throwing, but can also be collected at Mina.

    1. ^ Burton, Richard Francis (1857). Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El Medinah and Meccah. Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts. p. 226. Retrieved 2016-10-23. The word jamrah is applied to the place of stoning, as well as to the stones.
    2. ^ Abū Dāʼūd (1984). Sunan Abu Dawud: Chapters 519-1337. Sh. M. Ashraf. Archived from the original on 2017-04-09. Retrieved 2016-10-23. 1204. Jamrah originally means a pebble. It is applied to the heap of stones or a pillar.
    3. ^ Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1995) [1885]. Dictionary of Islam. p. 225. ISBN 978-81-206-0672-2. Archived from the original on 2016-05-08. Retrieved 2016-10-23. Literally "gravel, or small pebbles." The three pillars [...] placed against a rough wall of stones [...]
    4. ^ "Day 3: 10th of Dhul Hijjah | Hajj & Umrah Planner". hajjumrahplanner.com (in British English). Archived from the original on 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
     
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    13 January 2018 – A false emergency alert warning of an impending missile strike in Hawaii causes widespread panic in the state.

    2018 Hawaii false missile alert

    On the morning of Saturday, January 13, 2018, a ballistic missile alert was accidentally issued via the Emergency Alert System and Wireless Emergency Alert System over television, radio, and cellphones in the U.S. state of Hawaii. The alert stated that there was an incoming ballistic missile threat to Hawaii, advised residents to seek shelter, and concluded: "This is not a drill". The message was sent at 8:07 a.m. local time. Civil defense outdoor warning sirens were not authorized by the state.

    Thirty-eight minutes and 13 seconds later, state officials blamed a miscommunication during a drill at the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency for the first message. Governor David Ige publicly apologized for the erroneous alert. The Federal Communications Commission and the Hawaii House of Representatives launched investigations into the incident, leading to the resignation of the state's emergency management administrator.

     
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    14 January 1967Counterculture of the 1960s: The Human Be-In takes place in San Francisco, California's Golden Gate Park, launching the Summer of Love

    Human Be-In

    The Human Be-In was an event held in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park Polo Fields on January 14, 1967.[1][2][3] It was a prelude to San Francisco's Summer of Love, which made the Haight-Ashbury district a symbol of American counterculture and introduced the word "psychedelic" to suburbia.

    1. ^ "American Experience Summer of Love". PBS. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2017-08-31.[dead link]
    2. ^ Goldberg, Danny (13 January 2017). "All the Human Be-In Was Saying 50 Years Ago, Was Give Peace a Chance". The Nation. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
    3. ^ Palmer, Steven. "The Human Be-In Teach-In". Oral History Masters of Arts. Columbia University. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
     
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    15 January 2001Wikipedia, a free wiki content encyclopedia, goes online.

    Wikipedia

    Wikipedia (/ˌwɪkɪˈpdiə/ (audio speaker iconlisten) wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or /ˌwɪki-/ (audio speaker iconlisten) wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021, Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[5]

    Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[6] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[7][8] Wales was influenced by the "spontaneous order" ideas associated with Friedrich Hayek and Austrian School of economics, after being exposed to these ideas by Austrian economist and Mises Institute Senior Fellow Mark Thornton.[9] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 58 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[12]

    Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14] Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference autogenerated1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Chapman, Roger (September 6, 2011). "Top 40 Website Programming Languages". rogchap.com. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
    3. ^ a b c "Wikipedia is 20, and its reputation has never been higher". The Economist. January 9, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Alexa siteinfo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ McGregor, Jena (March 17, 2020). "Wikimedia's approach to coronavirus: Staffers can work 20 hours a week, get paid for full time". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
    6. ^ Anderson, Chris (May 8, 2006). "Jimmy Wales – The 2006 Time 100". Time. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference MiliardWho was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference J Sidener was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "Wikipedia's Model Follows Hayek". The Wall Street Journal. April 15, 2009.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference small screen was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ "Wikistats – Statistics For Wikimedia Projects". stats.wikimedia.org. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
    12. ^ Anderson, Chris (May 8, 2006). "Jimmy Wales – The 2006 Time 100". Time. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
    13. ^ a b "Happy Birthday, Wikipedia". The Economist. January 9, 2021.
    14. ^ Harrison, Stephen (June 9, 2020). "How Wikipedia Became a Battleground for Racial Justice". Slate. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
    15. ^ Cooke, Richard (February 17, 2020). "Wikipedia Is the Last Best Place on the Internet". Wired. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
    16. ^ Cohen, Noam (April 7, 2018). "Conspiracy videos? Fake news? Enter Wikipedia, the 'good cop' of the Internet". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018.
    17. ^ "Facebook fights fake news with author info, rolls out publisher context". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 15, 2021.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    16 January 1979 – The last Iranian Shah flees Iran with his family for good and relocates to Egypt.

    Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

    Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا پهلوی, pronounced [mohæmˈmæd reˈzɒː pæhlæˈviː]; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980),[1] also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (محمدرضا شاه), was the last Shah (King) of the Imperial State of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow in the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Due to his status as the last Shah of Iran, he is often known as simply the Shah.

    Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah ("King of Kings")[2] on 26 October 1967 and held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr ("Light of the Aryans") and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilization" (Persian: تمدن بزرگ, romanized: tamadon-e bozorg) in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernization, as well as economic and social reforms.[3][4]

    Mohammad Reza came to power during World War II after an Anglo-Soviet invasion forced the abdication of his father, Reza Shah Pahlavi. During Mohammad Reza's reign, the British owned oil industry was briefly nationalized by Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh until a Army coup d'état supported by the UK and the US deposed Mosaddegh, reinstalled the Shah, and brought back foreign oil firms under the Consortium Agreement of 1954.[5] The Shah went on to become a dominant figure in OPEC, promoting a surge in oil prices crippling Western economies.

    Mohammad Reza introduced the White Revolution, a series of economic, social, and political reforms aimed at transforming Iran into a global power and modernizing the nation by nationalizing key industries and land redistribution. The regime implemented many Iranian nationalist policies leading to the establishment of Cyrus the Great, Cyrus Cylinder, and Tomb of Cyrus the Great as popular symbols of Iran.

    The Shah initiated major investments in infrastructure, subsidies and land grants for peasant populations, profit sharing for industrial workers, construction of nuclear facilities, the nationalization of Iran’s natural resources, and literacy programs which were considered some of the most effective in the world. The Shah also instituted economic policy tariffs and preferential loans to Iranian businesses which sought to create an independent economy for the nation. Manufacturing of cars, appliances, and other goods in Iran increased substantially leading to the creation of a new industrialist class that was considered insulated from threats of foreign competition.

    These reforms led to decades of sustained economic growth that would make Iran one of the fastest-growing economies of both developed and undeveloped nations. During his 38-year rule, Iran spent billions on the industry, education, health, and armed forces and enjoyed economic growth rates exceeding the United States, England, and France. The national income also rose 423 times over. As a result, the nation saw an unprecedented rise in per capita income rising to the highest level at any point in Iran's history and high levels of urbanization. By 1977, Iran's armed services spending, which the Shah saw as a means to end foreign intervention in Iran, had made the nation the world's fifth strongest military.[6]

    By 1978, political unrest became a popular revolution leading to the monarchy's overthrow.[7] The Jaleh Square massacre, where his military killed and wounded dozens of protestors;[8] the Cinema Rex fire, an arson attack largely but erroneously blamed on SAVAK in Abadan led to protests across Iran; and a meeting of western leaders that the Shah felt was a withdrawal of their support, made his position in Iran untenable. He left Iran for exile[9] on 17 January 1979. While the Shah told his contemporaries in the West that he would rather leave than fire on his people,[10] the number of protesters killed by his military is disputed, with the total number of people killed during the revolution ranging from 540-2,000 (historian figures) to 60,000 (figures of the Islamic Republic of Iran).[11] Soon thereafter, the Iranian monarchy was formally abolished, and Iran was declared an Islamic republic led by Ruhollah Khomeini. The Shah died in exile in Egypt, whose president, Anwar Sadat, had granted him asylum.

    1. ^ "Historic Personalities of Iran: Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi". www.iranchamber.com. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
    2. ^ D. N. MacKenzie. A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. Routledge Curzon, 2005.
    3. ^ Reza Gholami (2016). Secularism and Identity: Non-Islamiosity in the Iranian Diaspora. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN 9781317058274.
    4. ^ Leila Alikarami (2019). Women and Equality in Iran: Law, Society and Activism. Bloomsbury. p. 54. ISBN 9781788318877.
    5. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (2003). All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 195 f. ISBN 0-471-26517-9.
    6. ^ Cooper, Andrew. The Fall of Heaven. p. 21,22.
    7. ^ Razipour, Suzanne Maloney and Keian (24 January 2019). "The Iranian revolution—A timeline of events". Brookings (in American English). Retrieved 10 February 2021.
    8. ^ Staff, IFP Editorial (7 September 2016). "Iran's Black Friday: Massacre of Thousands in 1978". Iran Front Page (in English). Retrieved 10 February 2021.
    9. ^ Kabalan, Marwan J. (2020). "Iran-Iraq-Syria". In Mansour, Imad; Thompson, William R. (eds.). Shocks and Rivalries in the Middle East and North Africa. Georgetown University Press. p. 113. After more than a year of civil strife and street protests, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi left Iran for exile in January 1979.
    10. ^ Cooper, Andrew. The Fall of Heaven. p. 10,36.
    11. ^ "Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF).
     
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    17 January 1873 – A group of Modoc warriors defeats the United States Army in the First Battle of the Stronghold, part of the Modoc War.

    Modoc War

    Modoc War

    The Modoc War, or the Modoc Campaign (also known as the Lava Beds War), was an armed conflict between the Native American Modoc people and the United States Army in northeastern California and southeastern Oregon from 1872 to 1873.[3] Eadweard Muybridge photographed the early part of the US Army's campaign.

    Kintpuash, also known as Captain Jack, led 52 warriors in a band of more than 150 Modoc people who left the Klamath Reservation. Occupying defensive positions throughout the lava beds south of Tule Lake (in present-day Lava Beds National Monument), those few warriors resisted for months the more numerous United States Army forces sent against them, which were reinforced with artillery. In April 1873 at a peace commission meeting, Captain Jack and others killed General Edward Canby and Rev. Eleazer Thomas, and wounded two others, mistakenly believing this would encourage the Americans to leave. The Modoc fled back to the lava beds. After U.S. forces were reinforced, some Modoc warriors surrendered and Captain Jack and the last of his band were captured. Jack and five warriors were tried for the murders of the two peace commissioners. Jack and three warriors were executed and two others sentenced to life in prison.

    The remaining 153 Modoc of the band were sent to Indian Territory (pre-statehood Oklahoma), where they were held as prisoners of war until 1909, settled on reservation land with the Shawnee. Some at that point were allowed to return to the Klamath Reservation in Oregon. Most Modoc (and their descendants) stayed in what became the state of Oklahoma. They achieved separate federal recognition and were granted some land in Oklahoma. There are two federally recognized Modoc tribes: in Oregon and Oklahoma.

    1. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-08-08. Retrieved 2010-07-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    2. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-08-11. Retrieved 2016-06-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    3. ^ Beck, Warren A. and Ynez D. Hasse. The Modoc War, 1872 to 1873. Archived 2006-11-08 at the Wayback Machine California State Military Museum. (10 Feb 2008)
     
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    18 January 1919World War I: The Paris Peace Conference opens in Versailles, France.

    Paris Peace Conference (1919–1920)

    Johannes Bell of Germany is portrayed as signing the peace treaties on 28 June 1919 in The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, by Sir William Orpen.

    The Paris Peace Conference was the formal meeting in 1919 and 1920 of the victorious Allies after the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers. Dominated by the leaders of Britain, France, the United States and Italy, it resulted in five treaties that rearranged the maps of Europe and parts of Asia, Africa and the Pacific Islands, and also imposed financial penalties. Germany and the other losing nations had no voice in the Conference's deliberations; this gave rise to political resentments that lasted for decades.

    The conference involved diplomats from 32 countries and nationalities. Its major decisions were the creation of the League of Nations and the five peace treaties with the defeated states; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates", chiefly to Britain and France; the imposition of reparations upon Germany; and the drawing of new national boundaries, sometimes involving plebiscites, to reflect ethnic boundaries more closely.

    Wilson's liberal internationalist foreign policy goals, stated in the Fourteen Points, became the basis for the terms of the German surrender during the conference, as it had earlier been the basis of the German governments negotiations in the Armistice of 11 November 1918.

    The main result was the Treaty of Versailles with Germany; Article 231 of the treaty placed the whole guilt for the war on "the aggression of Germany and her allies". That provision proved very humiliating for Germany, and set the stage for the expensive reparations that Germany was intended to pay (it paid only a small portion before its last payment in 1931). The five great powers (France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the United States) controlled the Conference. The "Big Four" were French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, US President Woodrow Wilson, and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando. They met informally 145 times and made all major decisions before they were ratified.[1]

    The conference began on 18 January 1919. With respect to its end, Professor Michael Neiberg noted, "Although the senior statesmen stopped working personally on the conference in June 1919, the formal peace process did not really end until July 1923, when the Treaty of Lausanne was signed."[2]

    It is often referred to as the "Versailles Conference", but only the signing of the first treaty took place there, in the historic palace; the negotiations occurred at the Quai d'Orsay, in Paris.

    1. ^ Rene Albrecht-Carrie, Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna (1958) p. 363
    2. ^ Neiberg, Michael S. (2017). The Treaty of Versailles: A Concise History. Oxford University Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-19-065918-9.
     
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    19 January 1839 – The British East India Company captures Aden.

    East India Company

    The East India Company (EIC)[a] was an English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600.[4] It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies (the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), and later with Qing China. The company seized control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong after the First Opium War, and maintained trading posts and colonies in the Persian Gulf Residencies.[5]

    Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East-Indies",[6][7] the company rose to account for half of the world's trade during the mid-1700s and early 1800s,[8] particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, sugar, salt, spices, saltpetre, tea, and opium. The company also ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India.[8][9]

    The company eventually came to rule large areas of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey and lasted until 1858 when, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown assuming direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj.

    Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances. The company was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act enacted one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by then rendered it vestigial, powerless, and obsolete. The official government machinery of the British Raj had assumed its governmental functions and absorbed its armies.

    1. ^ "East India Company | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica".
    2. ^ Carey, W. H. (1882). 1882 – The Good Old Days of Honourable John Company. Simla: Argus Press. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
    3. ^ "Company Bahadur". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
    4. ^ The Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock.
    5. ^ Henige, David P. (1970). Colonial governors from the fifteenth century to the present : a comprehensive list. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-05440-3. OCLC 299459478. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
    6. ^ Scott, William. "East India Company, 1817-1827". archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk. Senate House Library Archives, University of London. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
    7. ^ Parliament of England (31 December 1600). "Charter granted by Queen Elizabeth to the East India Company". en.wikisource.org. Wikimedia. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019. Governor and Company of Merchants of London, Trading into the East-Indies
    8. ^ a b Farrington, Anthony (2002). Trading Places: The East India Company and Asia 1600–1834. British Library. ISBN 9780712347563. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    9. ^ "Books associated with Trading Places – the East India Company and Asia 1600–1834, an Exhibition". Archived from the original on 30 March 2014.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    21 January 1981 – Production of the iconic DeLorean sports car begins in Dunmurry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

    DMC DeLorean

    The DMC DeLorean (often referred to as the "DeLorean") is a rear-engine, two-door, two-passenger sports car manufactured and marketed by John DeLorean's DeLorean Motor Company (DMC) for the American market from 1981 until 1983—ultimately the only car brought to market by the fledgling company. The DeLorean is sometimes referred to by its internal DMC pre-production designation, DMC-12.[10][11][12] However, the DMC-12 name was never used in sales or marketing material for the production model.[13]

    Designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro and noted for its gull-wing doors and brushed stainless-steel outer body panels, the sports car was also noted for a lack of power and performance incongruous with its looks and price. Though its production was short-lived, the car became widely known when featured as the time machine in the Back to the Future media franchise.

    With the first production car completed on January 21, 1981, the design incorporated numerous minor revisions to the hood, wheels and interior before production ended in late December 1982, shortly after DMC filed for bankruptcy and after total production reached about 9,000 units.

    Despite the car having a reputation for poor build quality and a less-than-satisfying driving experience, the DeLorean continues to have a strong following driven in part by the popularity of the Back to the Future movies. An estimated 6,500 DeLoreans are still on the road.[14]

    1. ^ Lamm 2003, p. 112.
    2. ^ Espey 2014, p. 115–117.
    3. ^ Lamm 2003, pp. 78–82.
    4. ^ Prisco, Jacopo (August 23, 2019). "Giorgetto Giugiaro, the 20th century's most influential car designer". CNN Style. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
    5. ^ a b Clarke 1995, p. 94.
    6. ^ Clarke 1995, p. 46.
    7. ^ a b c d Espey 2014, p. 15.
    8. ^ Gunnell, John A., ed. (1982). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause. ISBN 0-87341-027-0.
    9. ^ a b c d Espey 2014, p. 16.
    10. ^ Wills 2015, p. 4.
    11. ^ "Seventeenth Board Meeting of De Lorean Motor Cars Limited". DeLorean Museum. October 30, 1979. p. 2. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
    12. ^ Lander, D. H. (April 22, 1981). "Managing Director's Report No.35". DeLorean Museum. p. 2. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lamm9495 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Phelan, Mark. "DeLoreans still ply the roads – and memories". USA Today. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
     
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    21 January 1981 – Production of the iconic DeLorean sports car begins in Dunmurry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

    DMC DeLorean

    The DMC DeLorean (often referred to as the "DeLorean") is a rear-engine, two-door, two-passenger sports car manufactured and marketed by John DeLorean's DeLorean Motor Company (DMC) for the American market from 1981 until 1983—ultimately the only car brought to market by the fledgling company. The DeLorean is sometimes referred to by its internal DMC pre-production designation, DMC-12.[10][11][12] However, the DMC-12 name was never used in sales or marketing material for the production model.[13]

    Designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro and noted for its gull-wing doors and brushed stainless-steel outer body panels, the sports car was also noted for a lack of power and performance incongruous with its looks and price. Though its production was short-lived, the car became widely known when featured as the time machine in the Back to the Future media franchise.

    With the first production car completed on January 21, 1981, the design incorporated numerous minor revisions to the hood, wheels and interior before production ended in late December 1982, shortly after DMC filed for bankruptcy and after total production reached about 9,000 units.

    Despite the car having a reputation for poor build quality and a less-than-satisfying driving experience, the DeLorean continues to have a strong following driven in part by the popularity of the Back to the Future movies. An estimated 6,500 DeLoreans are still on the road.[14]

    1. ^ Lamm 2003, p. 112.
    2. ^ Espey 2014, p. 115–117.
    3. ^ Lamm 2003, pp. 78–82.
    4. ^ Prisco, Jacopo (August 23, 2019). "Giorgetto Giugiaro, the 20th century's most influential car designer". CNN Style. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
    5. ^ a b Clarke 1995, p. 94.
    6. ^ Clarke 1995, p. 46.
    7. ^ a b c d Espey 2014, p. 15.
    8. ^ Gunnell, John A., ed. (1982). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause. ISBN 0-87341-027-0.
    9. ^ a b c d Espey 2014, p. 16.
    10. ^ Wills 2015, p. 4.
    11. ^ "Seventeenth Board Meeting of De Lorean Motor Cars Limited". DeLorean Museum. October 30, 1979. p. 2. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
    12. ^ Lander, D. H. (April 22, 1981). "Managing Director's Report No.35". DeLorean Museum. p. 2. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lamm9495 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Phelan, Mark. "DeLoreans still ply the roads – and memories". USA Today. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
     
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    22 January 1915 – Over 600 people are killed in Guadalajara, Mexico, when a train plunges off the tracks into a deep canyon.

    Guadalajara train disaster

    The Guadalajara train disaster occurred around January 22, 1915, in Mexico and killed over 600 people.

    The Mexican Revolution was in full swing by 1915. After the assassination of Francisco Madero two years earlier, the presidency of the country was assumed by Victoriano Huerta, but revolutionary forces led by Venustiano Carranza and Pancho Villa overthrew him and Carranza became president in 1914. Villa however wanted to continue the revolution and an armed struggle ensued. On January 18, 1915 Carranza's troops captured Guadalajara in southwestern Mexico. He immediately ordered that the families of his troops be transported by train from Colima on the Pacific coast to his newly captured stronghold.

    Around January 22, 1915, a special train of twenty cars left Colima. It was packed, with people even clinging to the roofs and undercarriages. Somewhere between Colima and Guadalajara the engineer lost control on a long steep descent. As the train gathered speed many people were thrown off as the train negotiated curves. Eventually the entire train plunged off the tracks and into a deep canyon, with fewer than 300 of the 900 on board surviving the disaster. Some of Carranza's troops, Yaqui Indians committed suicide when hearing of the death of their families. Others swore vengeance on the train crew, but they had also been killed in the disaster.

    The tragedy remains the deadliest railway accident in North American history.

     
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    23 January 1986 – The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducts its first members: Little Richard, Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, Fats Domino, The Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis and Elvis Presley.

    Rock and Roll Hall of Fame

    The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (RRHOF), sometimes simply referred to as the Rock Hall, is a museum and hall of fame located in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States, on the shore of Lake Erie. The museum documents the history of rock music and the artists, producers, engineers, and other notable figures who have influenced its development.

    The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation was established on April 20, 1983, by Ahmet Ertegun, founder and chairman of Atlantic Records. After a long search for the right city, Cleveland was chosen in 1986 as the Hall of Fame's permanent home. Architect I. M. Pei designed the new museum, and it was dedicated on September 1, 1995.

    1. ^ "2015–16 Annual Report". Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. 2016. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
     
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    24 January 1908 – The first Boy Scout troop is organized in England by Robert Baden-Powell.

    Scouting

    Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide youth movement employing the Scout method, a program of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking, and sports. Another widely recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable head wear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as merit badges and other patches.

    In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell, a Lieutenant General in the British Army, held a Scouting encampment on Brownsea Island in England. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys (London, 1908), partly based on his earlier military books. The Scout Movement of both Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts was well established in the first decade of the twentieth century. Later, programs for younger children, such as Wolf Cubs (1916), now Cubs, and for older adolescents, such as Rovers (1918), were adopted by some Scout organizations. In 1910, Baden-Powell formed the Girl Guides, for girls in the United Kingdom which spread internationally as Girl Guides and includes age programs of (Brownie Guide, Girl Guide and Girl Scout, Ranger Guide).

    In 2007, Scouting and Guiding together had over 38 million members in 216 countries. International umbrella organizations include:

     
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    25 January 1915Alexander Graham Bell inaugurates U.S. transcontinental telephone service, speaking from New York to Thomas Watson in San Francisco.

    Alexander Graham Bell

    Alexander Graham Bell (/ˈɡr.əm/; born Alexander Bell, March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922)[3] was a Scottish-born[N 2] inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He also co-founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in 1885.[6]

    Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf; profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.[7] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone, on March 7, 1876.[N 3] Bell considered his invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.[8][N 4]

    Many other inventions marked Bell's later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoils, and aeronautics. Although Bell was not one of the 33 founders[10] of the National Geographic Society, he had a strong influence on the magazine while serving as the second president from January 7, 1898, until 1903.[11]

    Beyond his work in engineering, Bell had a deep interest in the emerging science of heredity.[12]

    1. ^ Boileau, John (2004). Fastest in the World: The Saga of Canada's Revolutionary Hydrofoils. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-88780-621-6.
    2. ^ "Particle Physics Resurrects Alexander Graham Bell's Voice". IEEE Spectrum. April 30, 2018. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
    3. ^ "The Bell Family". Bell Homestead National Historic Site. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
    4. ^ Gray 2006, p. 228.
    5. ^ Reville, F. Douglas (1920). History of the County of Brant: Illustrated With Fifty Half-Tones Taken From Miniatures And Photographs (PDF). Brantford, Ontario: Brantford Historical Society & Hurley Printing. p. 319. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 19, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
    6. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 291.
    7. ^ Bruce, Robert V. (1990). Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. p. 419. ISBN 978-0-8014-9691-2.
    8. ^ MacLeod, Elizabeth (1999). Alexander Graham Bell: An Inventive Life. Toronto, Ontario: Kids Can Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-55074-456-9.
    9. ^ Bell, Mabel (October 1922). "Dr. Bell's Appreciation of the Telephone Service". Bell Telephone Quarterly. 1 (3): 65. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
    10. ^ "National Geographic founders". National Geographic Society. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
    11. ^ Howley, Andrew (May 26, 2011). "NGS Celebrates 23rd Founders Day". NGS. National Geographic Society. Retrieved January 18, 2016. Though he wasn't one of the original 33 founders, Bell had a major influence on the Society.
    12. ^ Stansfield, W. D. (January 1, 2005). "The Bell Family Legacies". Journal of Heredity. 96 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1093/jhered/esi007. ISSN 0022-1503. PMID 15618310.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=N> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=N}} template (see the help page).

     
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    26 January 1952Black Saturday in Egypt: rioters burn Cairo's central business district, targeting British and upper-class Egyptian businesses.

    Cairo fire

    The Cairo fire (Arabic: حريق القاهرة), also known as Black Saturday,[3][4] was a series of riots that took place on 26 January 1952, marked by the burning and looting of some 750 buildings[5]—retail shops, cafes, cinemas, hotels, restaurants, theatres, nightclubs, and the city's Opera House—in downtown Cairo. The direct trigger of the riots was the attack on an Egyptian government building in the city of Ismaïlia by British Army troops the day prior, which killed 50 Egyptian auxiliary policemen.[4] The spontaneous anti-British protests that followed these deaths were quickly seized upon by organized elements in the crowd, who burned and ransacked large sectors of Cairo amidst the unexplained absence of security forces.[3] The fire is thought by some to have signalled the end of the Kingdom of Egypt.[5][6] The perpetrators of the Cairo Fire remain unknown to this day, and the truth about this important event in modern Egyptian history has yet to be established.[7]

    The disorder that befell Cairo during the 1952 fire has been compared to the chaos that followed the anti-government protests of 25 January 2011, which saw demonstrations take place amidst massive arson and looting, an inexplicable withdrawal of the police, and organized prison-breaking.[8]

    1. ^ a b خسائر الحريق [The Fire Damage]. Al-Ahram (in Arabic). 12 May 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-05-12. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
    2. ^ King 1989, p. 208
    3. ^ a b King 1989, p. 207
    4. ^ a b Goldschmidt & Johnston 2004, p. 83
    5. ^ a b The Rebellion Within, An Al Qaeda mastermind questions terrorism. by Lawrence Wright. newyorker.com, June 2, 2008
    6. ^ Egypt on the Brink by Tarek Osman, Yale University Press, 2010, p.39
    7. ^ Hassan, Fayza (24–30 January 2002). "Burning down the house". Al-Ahram Weekly (570). Archived from the original on 2009-11-08. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
    8. ^ Muhammad, Mohsen (3 February 2011). خسارة [Khusara]. Al Gomhuria (in Arabic). Archived from the original (Reprint) on 6 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
     
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    27 January 1973 – The Paris Peace Accords officially ends the Vietnam War.

    Paris Peace Accords

    The Paris Peace Accords, (Vietnamese: Hiệp định Paris về Việt Nam) officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Viet Nam (Hiệp định về chấm dứt chiến tranh, lập lại hòa bình ở Việt Nam), was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973, to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War. The treaty included the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Republic of South Vietnam (PRG) that represented South Vietnamese communists. US ground forces up to that point had been sidelined with deteriorating morale and gradually withdrawn to coastal regions, not taking part in offensive operations or much direct combat for the preceding two-year period.[1][2] The Paris Agreement Treaty would in effect remove all remaining US Forces, including air and naval forces in exchange. Direct U.S. military intervention was ended, and fighting between the three remaining powers temporarily stopped for less than a day.[2] The agreement was not ratified by the United States Senate.[3][4]

    The negotiations that led to the accord began in 1968, after various lengthy delays. As a result of the accord, the International Control Commission (ICC) was replaced by the International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS) to fulfill the agreement. The main negotiators of the agreement were United States National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese politburo member Lê Đức Thọ; the two men were awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts, although Lê Đức Thọ refused to accept it.

    The agreement's provisions were immediately and frequently broken by both North and South Vietnamese forces with no official response from the United States. Open fighting broke out in March 1973, and North Vietnamese offenses enlarged their control by the end of the year. Two years later, a massive North Vietnamese offensive conquered South Vietnam on April 30, 1975, after which the two countries, separated since 1954, united once more on July 2nd, 1976, as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.[2]

    Part of the negotiations took place in the former residence of French painter Fernand Léger which was bequeathed to the French Communist Party. Ironically the street of the house was named after Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque who had commanded French forces in Vietnam after the Second World War.[5]

    1. ^ Stanton, Shelby L. (2007-12-18). The Rise and Fall of an American Army: U.S. Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1963-1973. Random House Publishing Group. pp. 358–362. ISBN 9780307417343.
    2. ^ a b c Ward & Burns 2017, pp. 508–513.
    3. ^ The Paris Agreement on Vietnam: Twenty-five Years Later Conference Transcript, The Nixon Center, Washington, DC, April 1998. Reproduced on mtholyoke.edu. Accessed 5 September 2012.
    4. ^ The Constitution - Executive agreements Accessed 29 July 2014.
    5. ^ Breakthrough in Paris Blocked in Saigon, October 8–23, 1972 Retrieved December 11, 2021
     

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