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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    29 April 1770James Cook arrives in Australia at Botany Bay, which he names

    James Cook

    James Cook FRS (7 November 1728[NB 1] – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the British Royal Navy, famous for his three voyages between 1768 and 1779 in the Pacific Ocean and to New Zealand and Australia in particular. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

    Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the St. Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec, which brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and the Royal Society. This acclaim came at a crucial moment for the direction of British overseas exploration, and it led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HMS Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages.

    In these voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and on a scale not previously charted by Western explorers. He surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions.

    Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to kidnap the ruling chief of the island of Hawaiʻi, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, in order to reclaim a cutter taken from one of his ships after his crew took wood from a burial ground. There is controversy over Cook's role as 'an enabler of colonialism',[1] and the violence he and his crew used against indigenous peoples. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge that influenced his successors well into the 20th century, and numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=NB> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=NB}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference :02 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    30 April 1513Edmund de la Pole, Yorkist pretender to the English throne, is executed on the orders of Henry VIII.

    Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk

    Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, 6th Earl of Suffolk, KG (c. 1471 – 30 April 1513), Duke of Suffolk, was a son of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk and his wife Elizabeth of York.

    Although the male York line ended with the death of Edward Plantagenet and the Poles at first swore loyalty to the Tudor king of England, they later tried to claim the throne as the Yorkist claimant. Edmund was ultimately executed at the Tower of London.

     
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    1 May 1707 – The Act of Union joining England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain takes effect.

    Acts of Union 1707

    The Acts of Union (Scottish Gaelic: Achd an Aonaidh) were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had been agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation between commissioners representing the parliaments of the two countries. By the two Acts, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland—which at the time were separate states with separate legislatures, but with the same monarch—were, in the words of the Treaty, "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain".[3]

    The two countries had shared a monarch since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne from his double first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I. Although described as a Union of Crowns, and in spite of James's acknowledgement of his accession to a single Crown,[4] England and Scotland were officially separate Kingdoms until 1707 (as opposed to the implied creation of a single unified Kingdom, exemplified by the later Kingdom of Great Britain). Prior to the Acts of Union there had been three previous attempts (in 1606, 1667, and 1689) to unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that both political establishments came to support the idea, albeit for different reasons.

    The Acts took effect on 1 May 1707. On this date, the Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament united to form the Parliament of Great Britain, based in the Palace of Westminster in London, the home of the English Parliament.[5] Hence, the Acts are referred to as the Union of the Parliaments.

    1. ^ The citation of this Act by this short title was authorised by section 1 of, and Schedule 1 to, the Short Titles Act 1896. Due to the repeal of those provisions, it is now authorised by section 19(2) of the Interpretation Act 1978.
    2. ^ The citation of this Act by this short title was authorised by the Statute Law Revision (Scotland) Act 1964, section 2 and Schedule 2. Due to the repeal of those provisions it is now authorised by section 19(2) of the Interpretation Act 1978.
    3. ^ Article I of the Treaty of Union
    4. ^ "House of Commons Journal Volume 1: 31 March 1607". Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
    5. ^ Act of Union 1707, Article 3
     
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    2 May 2011Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind behind the September 11 attacks and the FBI's most wanted man, is killed by the United States special forces in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

    Osama bin Laden

    Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden[a] (10 March 1957[7] – 2 May 2011),[8] also transliterated as Usama bin Ladin, was a founder of the Pan-Islamic militant organization al-Qaeda. The group is designated as a terrorist group by the United Nations Security Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European Union, and various countries. Under bin Laden's leadership, al-Qaeda was responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States, and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.[9][10][11]

    He was a Saudi Arabian citizen until 1994 and a member of the wealthy bin Laden family.[12] Bin Laden's father was Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a Saudi millionaire from Hadhramaut, Yemen, and the founder of the construction company, Saudi Binladin Group.[13] His mother, Alia Ghanem, was from a secular middle-class family in Latakia, Syria.[14] He was born in Saudi Arabia and studied at university in the country until 1979, when he joined Mujahideen forces in Pakistan fighting against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. He helped to fund the Mujahideen by funneling arms, money, and fighters from the Arab world into Afghanistan, and gained popularity among many Arabs.[15] In 1988, he formed al-Qaeda.[16] He was banished from Saudi Arabia in 1992, and shifted his base to Sudan, until US pressure forced him to leave Sudan in 1996. After establishing a new base in Afghanistan, he declared a war against the United States, initiating a series of bombings and related attacks.[17] Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) lists of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives and Most Wanted Terrorists for his involvement in the 1998 US embassy bombings.[18][19][20]

    Bin Laden is most well known for his role in masterminding the September 11 attacks, which resulted in the deaths of nearly 3,000 people and prompted the United States, on the orders of President George W. Bush, to initiate the "War on Terror" and the subsequent War in Afghanistan. He subsequently became the subject of a decade-long international manhunt. From 2001 to 2011, bin Laden was a major target of the United States, as the FBI offered a $25 million bounty in their search for him.[21] On 2 May 2011,[22] bin Laden was shot and killed[23] by US Navy SEALs inside a private residential compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, where he lived with a local family from Waziristan. The covert operation was conducted by members of the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group (SEAL Team Six) and Central Intelligence Agency SAD/SOG operators on the orders of President Barack Obama.[24]

    1. ^ Davies, William D.; Dubinsky, Stanley (2018). Language Conflict and Language Rights: Ethnolinguistic Perspectives on Human Conflict. Cambridge University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-107-02209-6.
    2. ^ Fair, C. Christine; Watson, Sarah J. (18 February 2015). Pakistan's Enduring Challenges. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-8122-4690-2. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Osama bin Laden was a hard-core Salafi who openly espoused violence against the United States in order to achieve Salafi goals.
    3. ^ Brown, Amy Benson; Poremski, Karen M. (18 December 2014). Roads to Reconciliation: Conflict and Dialogue in the Twenty-first Century. Routledge. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-317-46076-3. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016.
    4. ^ Osama Bin Laden (2007) Suzanne J. Murdico
    5. ^ Armstrong, Karen (11 July 2005). "The label of Catholic terror was never used about the IRA". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016.
    6. ^ "Usama BIN LADEN". FBI.gov. Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
    7. ^ "Usama Bin Laden". Rewards for Justice. 29 December 2006. Archived from the original on 29 December 2006.
    8. ^ "FBI – USAMA BIN LADEN". 25 September 2012. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012.
    9. ^ "Death of Osama bin Ladin". Pakistani Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1 May 2011. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
    10. ^ Baker, Peter; Cooper, Helene; Mazzetti, Mark (1 May 2011). "Bin Laden Dead, US Officials Say". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011.
    11. ^ Maqbool, Aleem (1 May 2011). "Osama Bin Laden, al Qaeda leader, dead – Barack Obama". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
    12. ^ Scheuer, Michael (7 February 2008). "Yemen still close to al Qaeda's heart". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 2 July 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2011.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
    13. ^ Strozier, Charles B.; Offer, Daniel; Abdyli, Oliger (24 May 2011). The Leader: Psychological Essays. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4419-8387-9.
    14. ^ Scheuer, Michael (17 February 2011). Osama Bin Laden. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-973866-3.
    15. ^ Fisk, Robert (2005). The Great War for Civilisation. p. 4.
    16. ^ United States v. Usama bin Laden et al., S (7) 98 Cr. 1023, Testimony of Jamal Ahmed Mohamed al-Fadl (SDNY 6 February 2001).
    17. ^ Fisk, Robert (2005). The Great War for Civilisation. p. 22.
    18. ^ "FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives". FBI.gov. Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
    19. ^ Eggen, Dan (28 August 2006). "Bin Laden, Most Wanted For Embassy Bombings?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
    20. ^ "'Most wanted terrorists' list released". CNN. 10 October 2001. Archived from the original on 10 April 2005. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
    21. ^ "Fbi – Usama Bin Laden". Fbi.gov. 7 August 1998. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
    22. ^ "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives 401 to 500". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
    23. ^ "The Navy SEAL Who Shot Bin Laden Is: Rob O'Neill From Butte Montana". Soldier of Fortune Magazine. 6 November 2014. Archived from the original on 3 December 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
    24. ^ "USS Carl Vinson: Osama Bin Laden's Burial at Sea". USA: ABC News. 1 May 2011. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    3 May 1920 – A Bolshevik coup fails in the Democratic Republic of Georgia.

    1920 Georgian coup attempt

    The Georgian coup in May 1920 was an unsuccessful attempt to take power by the Bolsheviks in the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Relying on the 11th Red Army of Soviet Russia operating in neighboring Azerbaijan, the Bolsheviks attempted to take control of a military school and government offices in the Georgian capital of Tiflis on May 3. The Georgian government suppressed the disorders in Tiflis and concentrated its forces to successfully block the advance of the Russian troops on the Azerbaijani-Georgian border. The Georgian resistance, combined with an uneasy war with Poland, persuaded the Red leadership to defer their plans for Georgia's Sovietization and recognize Georgia as an independent nation in the May 7 treaty of Moscow.[1][2][3]

    1. ^ Kazemzadeh, Firuz (1951), The Struggle for Transcaucasia, 1917–1921, pp. 296, 314. The New York Philosophical Library
    2. ^ Lang, David Marshall (1962), A Modern History of Georgia, pp. 225–6. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson
    3. ^ Pipes, Richard (1954), The Formation of the Soviet Union, Communism and Nationalism, 1917–1923, p. 227. Harvard University Press
     
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    4 May 1869 – The Naval Battle of Hakodate is fought in Japan.

    Naval Battle of Hakodate

    The Naval Battle of Hakodate (函館湾海戦, Hakodatewan Kaisen) was fought from 4 to 10 May 1869, between the remnants of the Tokugawa shogunate navy, consolidated into the armed forces of the rebel Ezo Republic, and the newly formed Imperial Japanese Navy. It was one of the last stages of Battle of Hakodate during the Boshin War, and occurred near Hakodate in the northern Japanese island of Hokkaidō.

     
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    5 May 1821 – The first edition of The Manchester Guardian, now The Guardian, is published

    The Guardian

    The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, and changed its name in 1959.[5] Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust.[6] The trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of The Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of The Guardian free from commercial or political interference".[7] The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to owners or shareholders.[7] It is considered a newspaper of record in the UK.[8][9]

    The editor-in-chief Katharine Viner succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015.[10][11] Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format. As of July 2021, its print edition had a daily circulation of 105,134.[4] The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia (founded in 2013) and Guardian US (founded in 2011). The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion,[12][13][14][15] and the term "Guardian reader" is used to imply a stereotype of liberal, left-wing or "politically correct" views.[3] Frequent typographical errors during the age of manual typesetting led Private Eye magazine to dub the paper the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used occasionally by the editors for self-mockery.[16]

    In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what [they] see in it".[17] A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company (PAMCo) stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018. It was also reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions; other "quality" brands included The Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, and the i. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month.[18]

    Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone.[19] The investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history.[20] In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records,[21] and subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden.[22] In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then–Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts. It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most recently in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance.[23]

    1. ^ * Tsang, Amie (15 January 2018). "The Guardian, Britain's Left-Wing News Power, Goes Tabloid". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
    2. ^ * Payling, Daisy (20 April 2017). "City limits: sexual politics and the new urban left in 1980s Sheffield". Contemporary British Society. 31 (2): 256–273. doi:10.1080/13619462.2017.1306194.
    3. ^ a b "Definition of Guardian Reader". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
    4. ^ a b "National press ABCs: FT circulation up a third since October 2020 with return of bulks". PressGazette. 23 November 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
    5. ^ "collection (The University of Manchester Library)". www.library.manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
    6. ^ "'Guardian' newspaper trust keeps journalism at top of its agenda". The Irish Times. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
    7. ^ a b "The Scott Trust: values and history". The Guardian. 26 July 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
    8. ^ Corey Frost; Karen Weingarten; Doug Babington; Don LePan; Maureen Okun (30 May 2017). The Broadview Guide to Writing: A Handbook for Students (6th ed.). Broadview Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-55481-313-1. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
    9. ^ Greg Barton; Paul Weller; Ihsan Yilmaz (18 December 2014). The Muslim World and Politics in Transition: Creative Contributions of the Gülen Movement. A&C Black. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-4411-5873-4. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
    10. ^ "Guardian appoints Katharine Viner as editor-in-chief". The Guardian. 20 March 2015. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
    11. ^ Rusbridger, Alan (29 May 2015). "'Farewell, readers': Alan Rusbridger on leaving The Guardian after two decades at the helm". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
    12. ^ International Socialism, Spring 2003, ISBN 1-898876-97-5.
    13. ^ "Ipsos MORI". Ipsos MORI. Archived from the original on 23 May 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
    14. ^ Christina Schaeffner, ed. (2009). Political Discourse, Media and Translation. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 9781443817936. With regard to political affiliation The Daily Telegraph is a right-wing paper, The Times centre-right, The Financial Times centre-right and liberal, and The Guardian centre-left.
    15. ^ David Wills, ed. (2014). Greece and Britain since 1945 Second Edition. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 198. ISBN 9781443857727. ... are observed in the coverage of the Greek crisis by the centre-right The Times and the centre-left The Guardian.
    16. ^ Marchi, Anna (2019). "Over there at The Guardian". Self-Reflexive Journalism: A Corpus Study of Journalistic Culture and Community in The Guardian. Taylor & Francis. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-351-71412-9.
    17. ^ "The Guardian most trusted and The Sun least trusted online news brand, Pamco reveals". Press Gazette. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
    18. ^ Waterson, Jim (17 December 2018). "Guardian most trusted newspaper in Britain, says industry report". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
    19. ^ "Can The Guardian survive?". The Economist. Intelligent Life. July–August 2012.
    20. ^ Woolf, Nicky (3 July 2012). "Could the newspaper that broke the hacking scandal be the next to close?". GQ.com. Archived from the original on 6 July 2012.
    21. ^ Hosenball, Mark (6 June 2013). "Obama administration defends massive phone record collection". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
    22. ^ Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen; Poitras, Laura (9 June 2013). "Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
    23. ^ Rawlinson, Kevin (2 April 2014). "Guardian wins newspaper and website of the year at British press awards". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
     
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    6 May 1682 – Louis XIV of France moves his court to the Palace of Versailles.

    Palace of Versailles

    The Palace of Versailles (/vɛərˈs, vɜːrˈs/ vair-SY, vur-SY;[1] French: Château de Versailles [ʃɑto d(ə) vɛʁsɑj] (listen)) is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about 12 miles (19 km) west of Paris, France. The palace is owned by the French Republic and has since 1995 been managed, under the direction of the French Ministry of Culture, by the Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of Versailles.[2] 15,000,000 people visit the Palace, Park, or Gardens of Versailles every year, making it one of the most popular tourist attractions in the world.[3] However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of paying visitors to the Château dropped by 75 percent from eight million in 2019 to two million in 2020. The drop was particularly sharp among foreign visitors, who account for eighty percent of paying visitors.[4]

    Louis XIII built a simple hunting lodge on the site of the Palace of Versailles in 1623 and replaced it with a small château in 1631–34. Louis XIV expanded the château into a palace in several phases from 1661 to 1715. It was a favorite residence for both kings, and in 1682, Louis XIV moved the seat of his court and government to Versailles, making the palace the de facto capital of France. This state of affairs was continued by Kings Louis XV and Louis XVI, who primarily made interior alterations to the palace, but in 1789 the royal family and capital of France returned to Paris. For the rest of the French Revolution, the Palace of Versailles was largely abandoned and emptied of its contents, and the population of the surrounding city plummeted.

    Napoleon Bonaparte, following his takeover of France, used Versailles as a summer residence from 1810 to 1814, but did not restore it. When the French Monarchy was restored, it remained in Paris and it was not until the 1830s that meaningful repairs were made to the palace. A museum of French history was installed within it, replacing the apartments of the southern wing.

    The palace and park were designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979 for its importance as the center of power, art, and science in France during the 17th and 18th centuries.[5] The French Ministry of Culture has placed the palace, its gardens, and some of its subsidiary structures on its list of culturally significant monuments.

    1. ^ "Versailles". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
    2. ^ "The Public Establishment". Palace of Versailles. 31 October 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
    3. ^ "Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles)". Explore France. Government of France. 18 June 2021.
    4. ^ "Rapport Annuel d'Activité, Ministere de la Culture, August 2021" (in French). Société des amis de Versailles [fr]. 24 July 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
    5. ^ "Palace and Park of Versailles". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
     
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    7 May 1832 – Greece's independence is recognized by the Treaty of London.

    London Conference of 1832

    The London Conference of 1832 was an international conference convened to establish a stable government in Greece. Negotiations between the three Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia) resulted in the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece under a Bavarian Prince. The decisions were ratified in the Treaty of Constantinople later that year. The treaty followed the Akkerman Convention which had previously recognized another territorial change in the Balkans, the suzerainty of the Principality of Serbia.[1] [2]

    1. ^ Konstantopoulou Photeine, The foundation of the modern Greek state: Major treaties and conventions, 1830-1947 (1999)
    2. ^ Mitev, Plamen; Parvev, Ivan; Baramova, Maria; Racheva, Vania (2010), Empires and Peninsulas: Southeastern Europe between Karlowitz and the Peace of Adrianople, 1699–1829, ISBN 978-3-643-10611-7
     
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    8 May 1821Greek War of Independence: The Greeks defeat the Turks at the Battle of Gravia Inn.

    Battle of Gravia Inn

    The Battle of Gravia Inn (Greek: Μάχη στο Χάνι της Γραβιάς) was fought between Greek revolutionaries and the Ottoman Empire during the Greek War of Independence. The Greek leader, Odysseas Androutsos, with a group of 120 men, repulsed an Ottoman army numbering 8,000 men and artillery under the command of Omer Vrioni. The battle ended with heavy losses for the Ottomans and minimal casualties on the Greek side.

    The Ottoman army under the command of Omer Vrioni, following his defeat of the Greeks at the Battle of Alamana and the execution of their leader Athanasios Diakos, planned to attack the Peloponnese with an army of 8,000 men.[5] However, his army was met by a Greek group numbering 120 men, under the command of Odysseas Androutsos, who had barricaded themselves inside an old inn. The Ottoman army surrounded the area and attacked the inn but was driven back with heavy losses. At night, while the Ottoman army paused their attacks to bring up some cannons in order to bombard the inn, the Greeks escaped the inn and found safety in the mountains before the cannons arrived.[2]

    This battle is considered important to the outcome of the Greek revolution because it forced Omer Vrioni to retreat to Euboea, leaving the Greeks to consolidate their gains in the Peloponnese and capture the Ottoman capital of the Peloponnese, Tripoli.

    1. ^ Deligiannis 2009.
    2. ^ a b Deligiannis 2009, p. 21.
    3. ^ a b c d Paroulakis, p. 71.
    4. ^ a b Deligiannis 2009, pp. 17–22.
    5. ^ Deligiannis 2009, p. 19.
     
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    9 May 1992Westray Mine disaster kills 26 workers in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Westray Mine

    The Westray Mine was a coal mine in Plymouth, Nova Scotia, Canada. Westray was owned and operated by Curragh Resources Incorporated (Curragh Inc.), which obtained both provincial and federal government money to open the mine, and supply the local electric power utility with coal.

    The mine opened in September 1991, but closed eight months later when it was the site of an underground methane explosion on May 9, 1992, killing all 26 miners working underground at the time. The week-long attempts to rescue the miners were widely followed by national media until it was obvious there would be no survivors.

    About a week later, the Nova Scotia government ordered a public inquiry to look into what caused one of Canada's deadliest mining disasters, and published its findings in late 1997. The report stated that the mine was mismanaged, miners' safety was ignored, and poor oversight by government regulators led to the disaster. A criminal case against two mine managers went to trial in the mid-1990s, but ultimately was dropped by the crown in 1998, as it seemed unlikely that a conviction could be attained. Curragh Resources went bankrupt in 1993, partially due to the disaster.

    117 miners became unemployed almost immediately after the explosion; they were paid 12 weeks' severance six years after the mine's closure, but only when the provincial government was pressured to intervene. The mine was dismantled and permanently sealed in November 1998.

     
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    10 May 1975Sony introduces the Betamax videocassette recorder.

    Videocassette recorder

    A typical late-model Philips Magnavox VCR
    A close-up process of how the magnetic tape in a VHS cassette is being pulled from the cassette shell to the head drum of the VCR.
    Not all video tape recorders use a cassette to contain the videotape. Early models of consumer video tape recorders (VTRs), and most professional broadcast analog videotape machines (e.g. 1-inch Type C) use reel to reel tape spools.

    A videocassette recorder (VCR) or video recorder is an electromechanical device that records analog audio and analog video from broadcast television or other source on a removable, magnetic tape videocassette, and can play back the recording. Use of a VCR to record a television program to play back at a more convenient time is commonly referred to as timeshifting. VCRs can also play back prerecorded tapes. In the 1980s and 1990s, prerecorded videotapes were widely available for purchase and rental, and blank tapes were sold to make recordings.

    Most domestic VCRs are equipped with a television broadcast receiver (tuner) for TV reception, and a programmable clock (timer) for unattended recording of a television channel from a start time to an end time specified by the user. These features began as simple mechanical counter-based single-event timers, but were later replaced by more flexible multiple-event digital clock timers. In later models, the multiple timer events could be programmed through a menu interface displayed on the playback TV screen ("on-screen display" or OSD). This feature allowed several programs to be recorded at different times without further user intervention, and became a major selling point.

    VCRs declined in popularity during the early 2000s and are no longer manufactured.

     
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    11 May 1998 – India conducts three underground atomic tests in Pokhran

    Pokhran-II

    The Pokhran-II tests were a series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998.[3] It was the second instance of nuclear testing conducted by India; the first test, code-named Smiling Buddha, was conducted in May 1974.[4]

    The tests achieved their main objective of giving India the capability to build fission and thermonuclear weapons with yields up to 200 kilotons.[1] The then-Chairman of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission described each one of the explosions of Pokhran-II to be "equivalent to several tests carried out by other nuclear weapon states over decades".[5] Subsequently, India established computer simulation capability to predict the yields of nuclear explosives whose designs are related to the designs of explosives used in this test.[1]

    Pokhran-II consisted of five detonations, the first of which was a fusion bomb while the remaining four were fission bombs.[3] The tests were initiated on 11 May 1998, under the assigned code name Operation Shakti, with the detonation of one fusion and two fission bombs.[3] On 13 May 1998, two additional fission devices were detonated,[6] and the Indian government led by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee shortly convened a press conference to declare India as a full-fledged nuclear state.[6] The tests resulted in a variety of sanctions against India by a number of major countries including Japan and the United States.

    Many names have been assigned to these tests; originally these were collectively called Operation Shakti–98, and the five nuclear bombs were designated Shakti-I through to Shakti-V. More recently, the operation as a whole has come to be known as Pokhran II, and the 1974 explosion as Pokhran-I.[7]

    1. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Ganguly, Sumit (1999). "India's Pathway to Pokhran II: The Prospects and Sources of New Delhi's Nuclear Weapons Program". International Security. 23 (4): 148–177. ISSN 0162-2889.
    3. ^ a b c CNN India Bureau (17 May 1998). "India releases pictures of nuclear tests". CNN India Bureau. CNN India Bureau. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
    4. ^ "Official press release by India". meadev.gov.in/. Ministry of External Affairs, 1998. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
    5. ^ "We have an adequate scientific database for designing ... a credible nuclear deterrent". Frontline. 16. 2–15 January 1999. Archived from the original on 28 October 2019.
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Nuclear politics was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Why May 11 be celebrated as National Technology Day? Things you should know". Times of India.
     
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    12 May 2015 – A train derailment in Philadelphia kills eight people and injures more than 200.

    2015 Philadelphia train derailment

    On May 12, 2015, an Amtrak Northeast Regional train from Washington, D.C. bound for New York City derailed and wrecked on the Northeast Corridor near the Kensington neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Of 238 passengers and 5 crew on board, 8 were killed and over 200 injured, 11 critically. The train was traveling at 102 mph (164 km/h) in a 50 mph (80 km/h) zone of curved tracks when it derailed.[4]

    Some of the passengers had to be extricated from the wrecked cars. Many of the passengers and local residents helped first responders during the rescue operation. Five local hospitals treated the injured. The derailment disrupted train service for several days.[5]

    The National Transportation Safety Board determined that the derailment was caused by the train's engineer (driver) becoming distracted by other radio transmissions and losing situational awareness, and said that it would have been prevented by positive train control, a computerized speed-limiting system that was operational elsewhere on the Northeast Corridor, but whose activation at the wreck site had been delayed due to regulatory requirements. The track in question was also not equipped with ATC (automatic train control), an older and simpler system that had been operational for years on the southbound track of the curve at which the derailment occurred, and that also would have limited the train's speed entering the curve.[6] Shortly after the derailment, Amtrak completed ATC installation on the northbound track.[7]

    The 2015 wreck was the deadliest on the Northeast Corridor since 1987, when 16 people died in a wreck near Baltimore.[1][8]

    The train engineer, 32-year old Brandon Bostian, was arrested and charged with one count of causing a catastrophe, eight counts of involuntary manslaughter, and 238 counts of reckless endangerment. On March 4, 2022, a jury acquitted Bostian on all counts.[9]

    1. ^ a b Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Flegenheimer, Matt; Pérez-Peña, Richard (May 14, 2015). "Brandon Bostian Agrees to Talk About Amtrak Derailment but May Recall Little". The New York Times. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
    2. ^ "7 killed in Philadelphia Amtrak crash; engineer ID'd". 6abc.com. Philadelphia, PA: WPVI-TV. May 13, 2015. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
    3. ^ "Former Amtrak Engineer Brandon Bostian Found Not Guilty On All Counts In Deadly 2015 Train Derailment".
    4. ^ Renshaw, Jarrett (May 13, 2015). "Amtrak train in Philadelphia wreck was traveling at twice speed limit". Reuters. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
    5. ^ Santora, Marc; Surico, John (May 14, 2015). "Travelers Struggle to Change Plans After Amtrak Derailment". The New York Times. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
    6. ^ "The century-old tech that ensures train safety". Fortune.com. July 24, 2015. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
    7. ^ Gray, Melissa (May 17, 2015). "Amtrak installs speed controls at fatal crash site". CNN.
    8. ^ Gambardello, Joseph A. (May 13, 2015). "Investigators Headed to Port Richmond to Probe Deadly Derailment". The Philadelphia Inquirer.
    9. ^ "Former Amtrak Engineer Brandon Bostian Found Not Guilty On All Counts In Deadly 2015 Train Derailment".
     
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    13 May 1950 – The inaugural Formula One World Championship race takes place at Silverstone Circuit.

    1950 British Grand Prix

    The 1950 British Grand Prix, formally known as The Royal Automobile Club Grand Prix d'Europe Incorporating The British Grand Prix,[4] was a Formula One motor race held on 13 May 1950 at the Silverstone Circuit in Silverstone, England. It was the first World Championship Formula One race, as well as the fifth British Grand Prix, and the third to be held at Silverstone after motor racing resumed after World War II. It was the first race of seven in the 1950 World Championship of Drivers.

    The 70-lap race was won by Nino Farina for the Alfa Romeo team, after starting from pole position, with a race time of 2:13:23.6 and an average speed of 146.378 km/h. Luigi Fagioli finished second in another Alfa Romeo, and Reg Parnell third in a third Alfa Romeo.

    The race followed the non-championship Pau Grand Prix and San Remo Grand Prix (both won by Juan Manuel Fangio), the Richmond Trophy (won by Reg Parnell) and the Paris Grand Prix (won by Georges Grignard).

    1. ^ "World's Premier Motor Race". Dundeee Evening Telegraph. 13 May 1950. Retrieved 18 July 2020 – via British Newspaper Archive.
    2. ^ Lang, Mike (1981). Grand Prix! Vol 1. Haynes Publishing Group. p. 14. ISBN 0-85429-276-4.
    3. ^ Lang, Mike (1981). Grand Prix! Vol 1. Haynes Publishing Group. p. 15. ISBN 0-85429-276-4.
    4. ^ The Royal Automobile Club Grand Prix d'Europe. Royal Automobile Club. 1950.
     
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    14 May 1955Cold War: Eight Communist bloc countries, including the Soviet Union, sign a mutual defense treaty called the Warsaw Pact.

    Warsaw Pact

    The Warsaw Pact (WP)[3] or Treaty of Warsaw, formally the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance,[4] was a collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland, between the Soviet Union and seven other Eastern Bloc socialist republics of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War. The term "Warsaw Pact" commonly refers to both the treaty itself and its resultant defensive alliance, the Warsaw Treaty Organization[5] (WTO). The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)[6][7][8][9] in 1955 as per the London and Paris Conferences of 1954.[10][11][12][13][14]

    Dominated by the Soviet Union, the Warsaw Pact was established as a balance of power or counterweight to NATO.[15][16] There was no direct military confrontation between the two organizations; instead, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis and through proxy wars. Both NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of military forces and their integration into the respective blocs.[16] Its largest military engagement was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 (with the participation of all Pact nations except Albania and Romania),[15] which, in part, resulted in Albania withdrawing from the Pact less than a month later. The Pact began to unravel with the spread of the Revolutions of 1989 through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland,[17] its electoral success in June 1989 and the Pan-European Picnic in August 1989.[18]

    East Germany withdrew from the Pact following German reunification in 1990. On 25 February 1991, at a meeting in Hungary, the Pact was declared at an end by the defense and foreign ministers of the six remaining member states. The USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization shortly thereafter. In the following 20 years, the Warsaw Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO (East Germany through its reunification with West Germany; and the Czech Republic and Slovakia as separate countries), as did the Baltic states which had been part of the Soviet Union.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Tismaneanu, Vladimir; Stan, Marius (17 May 2018). Vladimir Tismaneanu, Marius Stan, Cambridge University Press, 17 May, 2018, Romania Confronts Its Communist Past: Democracy, Memory, and Moral Justice, p. 132. ISBN 9781107025929.
    2. ^ Cook, Bernard A.; Cook, Bernard Anthony (2001). Bernard A. Cook, Bernard Anthony Cook, Taylor & Francis, 2001, Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia, Volume 2, p. 1075. ISBN 9780815340584.
    3. ^ "Introduction". www.php.isn.ethz.ch.
    4. ^ "Text of Warsaw Pact" (PDF). United Nations Treaty Collection. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
    5. ^ "Milestones: 1953–1960 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference NATO Transformed: The Alliance's New Roles in International Security was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference History Channel 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference History Channel 2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "In reaction to West Germany's NATO accession, the Soviet Union and its Eastern European client states formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955." Citation from: NATO website. "A short history of NATO". nato.int. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference The Future of European Alliance Systems was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference christopher was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference enclopedia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, p. 21–22, 11 February 2015
    14. ^ The Oder-Neisse Line: The United States, Poland, and Germany in the Cold War Debra J. Allen page 158 "Treaties approving Bonn's participation in NATO were ratified in May 1955...shortly thereafter Soviet Union...created the Warsaw Pact to counter the perceived threat of NATO"
    15. ^ a b Amos Yoder (1993). Communism in Transition: The End of the Soviet Empires. Taylor & Francis. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8448-1738-5. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
    16. ^ a b Bob Reinalda (11 September 2009). Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day. Routledge. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-134-02405-6. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
    17. ^ [1] Archived 23 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine Cover Story: The Holy Alliance By Carl Bernstein Sunday, 24 June 2001
    18. ^ Thomas Roser: DDR-Massenflucht: Ein Picknick hebt die Welt aus den Angeln (German – Mass exodus of the GDR: A picnic clears the world) in: Die Presse 16 August 2018
     
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    15 May 1252Pope Innocent IV issues the papal bull ad extirpanda, which authorizes, but also limits, the torture of heretics in the Medieval Inquisition.

    Ad extirpanda

    Ad extirpanda ("To eradicate"; named for its Latin incipit) was a papal bull promulgated on Wednesday, May 15, 1252 by Pope Innocent IV which authorized in limited and defined circumstances the use of torture by the Inquisition as a tool for interrogation.[1]

    1. ^ Bishop, J (2006). Aquinas on Torture New Blackfriars, 87:229.
     
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    16 May 1832Juan Godoy discovers the rich silver outcrops of Chañarcillo sparking the Chilean silver rush.

    Chilean silver rush

    Location of Chañarcillo and Tres Puntas and the cities of northern Chile as of 1830. Modern boundaries of Chile are shown.

    Between 1830 and 1850 Chilean silver mining grew at an unprecedented pace which transformed mining into one of the country's principal sources of wealth. The rush caused rapid demographic, infrastructural, and economic expansion in the semi-arid Norte Chico mountains where the silver deposits lay. A number of Chileans made large fortunes in the rush and made investments in other areas of the economy of Chile. By the 1850s the rush was in decline and lucrative silver mining definitively ended in the 1870s. At the same time mining activity in Chile reoriented to saltpetre operations.

    Exports of Chilean silver alongside copper and wheat were instrumental to allow Chile cure the default of its independence debt in London.[1]

    1. ^ Pérez Herrero, Pedro (2015). "El orden portaliano (1830-1840)". In Pérez Herrero, Pedro; Sanz, Eva (eds.). Fiscalidad, integración social y política exterior en el pensamiento liberal atlántico (1810-1930) (in Spanish). pp. 237–238. ISBN 978-84-9123-174-5.
     
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    17 May 1536 – Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn's marriage is annulled.

    Anne Boleyn

    Anne Boleyn (/ˈbʊlɪn, bʊˈlɪn/;[7][8][9] c. 1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536, as the second wife of King Henry VIII. The circumstances of her marriage and of her execution by beheading for treason and other charges made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that marked the start of the English Reformation. Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, and was educated in the Netherlands and France, largely as a maid of honour to Queen Claude of France. Anne returned to England in early 1522, to marry her Irish cousin James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond; the marriage plans were broken off, and instead she secured a post at court as maid of honour to Henry VIII's wife, Catherine of Aragon.

    Early in 1523, Anne was secretly betrothed to Henry Percy, son of Henry Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland, but the betrothal was broken off when the Earl refused to support their engagement. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey refused the match in January 1524 and Anne was sent home to Hever Castle. In February or March 1526, Henry VIII began his pursuit of Anne. She resisted his attempts to seduce her, refusing to become his mistress, as her sister Mary had previously been. Henry soon focused his desires on annulling his marriage to Catherine so he would be free to marry Anne. Wolsey failed to obtain an annulment of Henry's marriage from Pope Clement VII, and when it became clear that Clement would not annul the marriage, Henry and his advisers, such as Thomas Cromwell, began the breaking of the Catholic Church's power in England and closing the monasteries and the nunneries. In 1532, Henry made Anne the Marquess of Pembroke.

    Henry and Anne formally married on 25 January 1533, after a secret wedding on 14 November 1532. On 23 May 1533, the newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer declared Henry and Catherine's marriage null and void; five days later, he declared Henry and Anne's marriage valid. Shortly afterwards, Clement excommunicated Henry and Cranmer. As a result of this marriage and these excommunications, the first break between the Church of England and the Catholic Church took place, and the king took control of the Church of England. Anne was crowned Queen of England on 1 June 1533. On 7 September, she gave birth to the future Queen Elizabeth I. Henry was disappointed to have a daughter rather than a son but hoped a son would follow and professed to love Elizabeth. Anne subsequently had three miscarriages and by March 1536, Henry was courting Jane Seymour. In order to marry Seymour, Henry had to find reasons to end the marriage to Anne.

    Henry VIII had Anne investigated for high treason in April 1536. On 2 May, she was arrested and sent to the Tower of London, where she was tried before a jury of peers, including Henry Percy, her former betrothed, and her uncle Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk; she was convicted on 15 May and beheaded four days later. Modern historians view the charges against her, which included adultery, incest and plotting to kill the king, as unconvincing.[10][11]

    After her daughter, Elizabeth, was crowned as Queen in 1558, Anne became venerated as a martyr and heroine of the English Reformation, particularly through the written works of John Foxe.[12] She has inspired, or been mentioned in, many artistic and cultural works and retained her hold on the popular imagination. She has been called "the most influential and important queen consort England has ever had",[13] as she provided the occasion for Henry VIII to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and declare the English church's independence from the Vatican.

    1. ^ "Doubts raised over Anne Boleyn portraits". Hever Castle. 24 February 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
    2. ^ Spender, Anna. "The many faces of Anne Boleyn" (PDF). Hever Castle. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
    3. ^ "The Offspring of Thomas and Elizabeth Boleyn". The Tudor Society. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
    4. ^ "Letters and papers, foreign and domestic, of the reign of Henry VIII". Internet Archive. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
    5. ^ Ives, pg. 3.
    6. ^ Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3683-4.
    7. ^ Pronunciations with stress on the second syllable were rare until recently and were not mentioned by reference works until the 1960s; see The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations (2006) by Charles Harrington Elster
    8. ^ Jones, Daniel Everyman's English Pronouncing Dictionary 12th edition (1963)
    9. ^ Wells, John C. (1990). Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 83. ISBN 0-582-05383-8. entry "Boleyn"
    10. ^ Gairdner, James, ed. (1887). Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 10, January–June 1536. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. pp. 349–371.
    11. ^ Wriothesley, Charles (1875). A Chronicle of England During the Reigns of the Tudors, From A.D. 1485 to 1559. Vol. 1. Camden Society. pp. 189–226.
    12. ^ "Review: The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn". Copperfieldreview.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
    13. ^ Ives, p. xv.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    18 May 1565 – The Great Siege of Malta begins, in which Ottoman forces attempt and fail to conquer Malta.

    Great Siege of Malta

    The Great Siege of Malta (Maltese: L-Assedju l-Kbir) occurred in 1565 when the Ottoman Empire attempted to conquer the island of Malta, then held by the Knights Hospitaller. The siege lasted nearly four months, from 18 May to 11 September 1565.

    The Knights Hospitaller had been headquartered in Malta since 1530, after being driven out of Rhodes, also by the Ottomans, in 1522, following the siege of Rhodes. The Ottomans first attempted to take Malta in 1551 but failed. In 1565, Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Sultan, made a second attempt to take Malta. The Knights, who numbered around 500 together with approximately 6,000 footsoldiers, withstood the siege and repelled the invaders. This victory became one of the most celebrated events of sixteenth-century Europe, to the point that Voltaire said: "Nothing is better known than the siege of Malta." It undoubtedly contributed to the eventual erosion of the European perception of Ottoman invincibility, although the Mediterranean continued to be contested between Christian coalitions and the Muslim Turks for many years.[6]

    The siege was the climax of an escalating contest between the Christian alliances and the Islamic Ottoman Empire for control of the Mediterranean, a contest that included the Turkish attack on Malta in 1551, the Ottoman destruction of an allied Christian fleet at the Battle of Djerba in 1560, and the decisive Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

    1. ^ At least two companies of Spanish Tercios took part in the defence of Fort St Elmo. Cañete, Hugo A. (3 July 2020). "La leyenda negra del fuerte de San Telmo y los tres capitanes españoles del Tercio Viejo de Sicilia que lo defendieron (Malta 1565) | Grupo de Estudios de Historia Militar". Grupo de Estudios de Historia Militar (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 July 2020.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference paoletti2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Arnold Cassola, The 1565 Great Siege of Malta and Hipolito Sans's La Maltea (Publishers Enterprise Group: Malta, 1999).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference SOM was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Giacomo Bosio 1643 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. II (University of California Press: Berkeley, 1995).
     
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    19 May 1743Jean-Pierre Christin developed the centigrade temperature scale.

    Jean-Pierre Christin

    Thermometer of Lyon in the Science Museum in London

    Jean-Pierre Christin (31 May 1683 – 19 January 1755) was a French physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and musician. His proposal in 1743 to reverse the Celsius thermometer scale (from water boiling at 0 degrees and ice melting at 100 degrees, to where zero represented the freezing point of water and 100 represented the boiling point of water) was widely accepted and is still in use today.[1][2][3]

    Christin was born in Lyon. He was a founding member of the Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Lyon and served as its Permanent Secretary from 1713 until 1755. His thermometer was known in France before the Revolution as the thermometer of Lyon. One of these thermometers was kept at the Science Museum in London.[4]

    1. ^ Arthur Sigurssen (10 May 2003). "History of the Thermometer". Newsfinder e-magazine. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
    2. ^ "Celsius Temperature Scale". DiracDelta.co.uk science and engineering encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 10 June 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
    3. ^ Henry Carrington Bolton (1800): Evolution of the thermometer 1592–1743. The Chemical pub. co., Easton, Pennsylvania. pp. 85–91.
    4. ^ "Mercury-in-glass thermometer, 1743–1799". Science Museum. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
     
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    20 May 1980 – In a referendum in Quebec, the population rejects, by 60% of the vote, a government proposal to move towards independence from Canada.

    1980 Quebec referendum

    The 1980 Quebec independence referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the place of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. The referendum was called by Quebec's Parti Québécois (PQ) government, which advocated secession from Canada.

    The province-wide referendum took place on May 20, and the proposal to pursue secession was defeated by a 59.56 percent to 40.44 percent margin.[1]

    A second referendum on sovereignty, which was held in 1995, also rejected pursuing secession, albeit by a much smaller margin (50.58% to 49.42%).

    1. ^ Fitzmaurice, John (1985). Québec and Canada; Past, Present, and Future. C. Hurst & Co. Ltd. p. 47. ISBN 0-905838-94-7.
     
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    20 May 1980 – In a referendum in Quebec, the population rejects, by 60% of the vote, a government proposal to move towards independence from Canada.

    1980 Quebec referendum

    The 1980 Quebec independence referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the place of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. The referendum was called by Quebec's Parti Québécois (PQ) government, which advocated secession from Canada.

    The province-wide referendum took place on May 20, and the proposal to pursue secession was defeated by a 59.56 percent to 40.44 percent margin.[1]

    A second referendum on sovereignty, which was held in 1995, also rejected pursuing secession, albeit by a much smaller margin (50.58% to 49.42%).

    1. ^ Fitzmaurice, John (1985). Québec and Canada; Past, Present, and Future. C. Hurst & Co. Ltd. p. 47. ISBN 0-905838-94-7.
     
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    21 May 1904 – The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) is founded in Paris.

    FIFA

    FIFA[a] (/ˈffə/) is an international governing body of association football, beach soccer and futsal. It was founded in 1904[3] to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, Switzerland, its membership now comprises 211 national associations; Russia was suspended in 2022. These national associations must each also be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Asia, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean, Oceania and South America.

    It outlines a number of objectives in the organizational Statutes, including growing association football internationally, providing efforts to ensure it is accessible to everyone, and advocating for integrity and fair play.[4] It is responsible for the organization and promotion of association football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991. Although FIFA does not solely set the laws of the game, that being the responsibility of the International Football Association Board of which FIFA is a member, it applies and enforces the rules across all FIFA competitions.[5] All FIFA tournaments generate revenue from sponsorship; in 2018, FIFA had revenues of over US $4.6 billion, ending the 2015–2018 cycle with a net positive of US$1.2 billion, and had cash reserves of over US$2.7 billion.[6]

    Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption, bribery, and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA president Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively. These allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U.S. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, and money laundering. On 27 May 2015, several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the 2018 and 2022 World Cups. Those among these officials who were also indicted in the U.S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well.[7][8][9] Many officials were suspended by FIFA's ethics committee including Sepp Blatter[10] and Michel Platini.[11] In early 2017, reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections[12] of both chairmen of the ethics committee, Cornel Borbély and Hans-Joachim Eckert, during the FIFA congress in May 2017.[13][14] On 9 May 2017, following Infantino's proposal,[15] FIFA Council decided not to renew the mandates of Borbély and Eckert.[15] Together with the chairmen, 11 of 13 committee members were removed.[16]

    1. ^ "Fédération Internationale de Football Association". Filmcircle.com. 11 June 2014. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
    2. ^ FIFA.com. "FIFA Committees - FIFA Council - FIFA.com". Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
    3. ^ FIFA.com. "History of FIFA - Foundation - FIFA.com". FIFA.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
    4. ^ FIFA.com. "FIFA Statutes". FIFA.com. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
    5. ^ FIFA.com. "About FIFA: Organisation". FIFA.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
    6. ^ FIFA Financial Report 2018 (PDF) (Report). 31 December 2018.
    7. ^ "FIFA officials arrested on corruption charges; Sepp Blatter isn't among them". 27 May 2015.
    8. ^ "Nine FIFA Officials and Five Corporate Executives Indicted for Racketeering Conspiracy and Corruption". U.S. DOJ Office of Public Affairs. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
    9. ^ Collett, Mike; Homewood, Brian (27 May 2015). "World soccer rocked as top officials held in U.S., Swiss graft cases". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
    10. ^ "Sepp Blatter and Michel Platini banned for eight years by Fifa". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
    11. ^ "Rise and fall of Michel Platini – the self-proclaimed 'football man' who forgot the meaning of integrity". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
    12. ^ Conn, David (2 March 2017). "Trust in Fifa has improved only slightly under Gianni Infantino, survey finds". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
    13. ^ Reuters (15 March 2017). "FIFA Ethics Chiefs Facing Uncertain Future". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
    14. ^ "Infantino at 1. Are the Ethics bigwigs the next stop on his personal 'reform' agenda?". Inside World Football. 27 February 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
    15. ^ a b "FIFA Ethics Committee still investigating 'hundreds' of cases: Borbely". Reuters. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
    16. ^ Conn, David. "Fifa's ousted ethics heads were investigating 'hundreds' of cases". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 May 2017.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    22 May 1939World War II: Germany and Italy sign the Pact of Steel.

    Pact of Steel

    Events leading to World War II
    1. Treaty of Versailles 1919
    2. Polish–Soviet War 1919
    3. Treaty of Trianon 1920
    4. Treaty of Rapallo 1920
    5. Franco-Polish alliance 1921
    6. March on Rome 1922
    7. Corfu incident 1923
    8. Occupation of the Ruhr 1923–1925
    9. Mein Kampf 1925
    10. Second Italo-Senussi War 1923–1932
    11. Dawes Plan 1924
    12. Locarno Treaties 1925
    13. Young Plan 1929
    14. Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1931
    15. Pacification of Manchukuo 1931–1942
    16. January 28 incident 1932
    17. Geneva Conference 1932–1934
    18. Defense of the Great Wall 1933
    19. Battle of Rehe 1933
    20. Nazis' rise to power in Germany 1933
    21. Tanggu Truce 1933
    22. Italo-Soviet Pact 1933
    23. Inner Mongolian Campaign 1933–1936
    24. German–Polish declaration of non-aggression 1934
    25. Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance 1935
    26. Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance 1935
    27. He–Umezu Agreement 1935
    28. Anglo-German Naval Agreement 1935
    29. December 9th Movement
    30. Second Italo-Ethiopian War 1935–1936
    31. Remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936
    32. Spanish Civil War 1936–1939
    33. Italo-German "Axis" protocol 1936
    34. Anti-Comintern Pact 1936
    35. Suiyuan campaign 1936
    36. Xi'an Incident 1936
    37. Second Sino-Japanese War 1937–1945
    38. USS Panay incident 1937
    39. Anschluss Mar. 1938
    40. May Crisis May 1938
    41. Battle of Lake Khasan July–Aug. 1938
    42. Bled Agreement Aug. 1938
    43. Undeclared German–Czechoslovak War Sep. 1938
    44. Munich Agreement Sep. 1938
    45. First Vienna Award Nov. 1938
    46. German occupation of Czechoslovakia Mar. 1939
    47. Hungarian invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine Mar. 1939
    48. German ultimatum to Lithuania Mar. 1939
    49. Slovak–Hungarian War Mar. 1939
    50. Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War Mar.–Apr. 1939
    51. Danzig Crisis Mar.–Aug. 1939
    52. British guarantee to Poland Mar. 1939
    53. Italian invasion of Albania Apr. 1939
    54. Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations Apr.–Aug. 1939
    55. Pact of Steel May 1939
    56. Battles of Khalkhin Gol May–Sep. 1939
    57. Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Aug. 1939
    58. Invasion of Poland Sep. 1939

    The Pact of Steel (German: Stahlpakt, Italian: Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military and political alliance between Italy and Germany.

    The pact was initially drafted as a tripartite military alliance between Japan, Italy and Germany. While Japan wanted the focus of the pact to be aimed at the Soviet Union, Italy and Germany wanted it aimed at the British Empire and France. Due to this disagreement, the pact was signed without Japan and became an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, signed on 22 May 1939 by foreign ministers Galeazzo Ciano of Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop of Germany.

    The pact consisted of two parts. The first section was an open declaration of continuing trust and co-operation between Germany and Italy. The second section, the "Secret Supplementary Protocol", encouraged a union of policies concerning the military and the economy.[1]

    1. ^ Gibler, Douglas M. 2008. International Military Alliances, 1648-2008. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. pp. 326-327.
     
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    23 May 1998 – The Good Friday Agreement is accepted in a referendum in Northern Ireland with roughly 75% voting yes

    Good Friday Agreement

    The Good Friday Agreement (GFA), or Belfast Agreement (Irish: Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance),[1] is a pair of agreements signed on 10 April 1998 that ended most of the violence of the Troubles, a political conflict in Northern Ireland that had ensued since the late 1960s. It was a major development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s. It is made up of the Multi-Party Agreement between most of Northern Ireland's political parties, and the British–Irish Agreement between the British and Irish governments. Northern Ireland's present devolved system of government is based on the agreement.

    Issues relating to sovereignty, governance, discrimination, military and paramilitary groups, justice and policing were central to the agreement. It restored self-government to Northern Ireland on the basis of "power-sharing" and it included acceptance of the principle of consent, commitment to civil and political rights, cultural parity of esteem, police reform, paramilitary disarmament and early release of paramilitary prisoners, followed by demilitarisation. The agreement also created a number of institutions between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland ("North–South"), and between the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom ("East–West").

    The agreement was approved by voters across the island of Ireland in two referendums held on 22 May 1998. In Northern Ireland, voters were asked in the 1998 Northern Ireland Good Friday Agreement referendum whether they supported the multi-party agreement. In the Republic of Ireland, voters were asked whether they would allow the state to sign the agreement and allow necessary constitutional changes (Nineteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland) to facilitate it. The people of both jurisdictions needed to approve the agreement in order to give effect to it.

    The British–Irish Agreement came into force on 2 December 1999. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) was the only major political group in Northern Ireland to oppose the Good Friday Agreement.[2]

    1. ^ "North-South Ministerial Council: Annual Report (2001) in Ulster Scots" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 December 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
    2. ^ "BBC - History - The Good Friday Agreement". Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
     
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    23 May 1998 – The Good Friday Agreement is accepted in a referendum in Northern Ireland with roughly 75% voting yes

    Good Friday Agreement

    The Good Friday Agreement (GFA), or Belfast Agreement (Irish: Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance),[1] is a pair of agreements signed on 10 April 1998 that ended most of the violence of the Troubles, a political conflict in Northern Ireland that had ensued since the late 1960s. It was a major development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s. It is made up of the Multi-Party Agreement between most of Northern Ireland's political parties, and the British–Irish Agreement between the British and Irish governments. Northern Ireland's present devolved system of government is based on the agreement.

    Issues relating to sovereignty, governance, discrimination, military and paramilitary groups, justice and policing were central to the agreement. It restored self-government to Northern Ireland on the basis of "power-sharing" and it included acceptance of the principle of consent, commitment to civil and political rights, cultural parity of esteem, police reform, paramilitary disarmament and early release of paramilitary prisoners, followed by demilitarisation. The agreement also created a number of institutions between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland ("North–South"), and between the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom ("East–West").

    The agreement was approved by voters across the island of Ireland in two referendums held on 22 May 1998. In Northern Ireland, voters were asked in the 1998 Northern Ireland Good Friday Agreement referendum whether they supported the multi-party agreement. In the Republic of Ireland, voters were asked whether they would allow the state to sign the agreement and allow necessary constitutional changes (Nineteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland) to facilitate it. The people of both jurisdictions needed to approve the agreement in order to give effect to it.

    The British–Irish Agreement came into force on 2 December 1999. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) was the only major political group in Northern Ireland to oppose the Good Friday Agreement.[2]

    1. ^ "North-South Ministerial Council: Annual Report (2001) in Ulster Scots" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 December 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
    2. ^ "BBC - History - The Good Friday Agreement". Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
     
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    24 May 1993Eritrea gains its independence from Ethiopia.

    Eritrea

    Coordinates: 15°N 39°E / 15°N 39°E / 15; 39

    Eritrea,[b] officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa region of Eastern Africa, with its capital and largest city at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands.

    Human remains found in Eritrea have been dated to 1 million years old and anthropological research indicates that the area may contain significant records related to the evolution of humans. Contemporary Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country with nine recognised ethnic groups. Nine different languages are spoken by the nine recognised ethnic groups, the most widely spoken language being Tigrinya, the others being Tigre, Saho, Kunama, Nara, Afar, Beja, Bilen and Arabic.[17] Tigrinya, Arabic, and English serve as the three working languages.[2][18][19][20] Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinyas make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are several Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic groups. Most people in the territory adhere to Christianity or Islam, with a small minority adhering to traditional faiths.[21]

    The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, was established during the first or second century AD.[22][23] It adopted Christianity around the middle of the fourth century.[24] In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri kingdom, with a smaller region being part of Hamasien. The creation of modern-day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent, distinct kingdoms (for example, Medri Bahri and the Sultanate of Aussa) eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. After the defeat of the Italian colonial army in 1942, Eritrea was administered by the British Military Administration until 1952. Following the UN General Assembly decision in 1952, Eritrea would govern itself with a local Eritrean parliament, but for foreign affairs and defense, it would enter into a federal status with Ethiopia for ten years. However, in 1962, the government of Ethiopia annulled the Eritrean parliament and formally annexed Eritrea. The Eritrean secessionist movement organised the Eritrean Liberation Front in 1961 and fought the Eritrean War of Independence until Eritrea gained de facto independence in 1991. Eritrea gained de jure independence in 1993 after an independence referendum.

    Eritrea is a unitary one-party presidential republic in which national legislative and presidential elections have never been held.[25][7] Isaias Afwerki has served as president since its official independence in 1993. According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean government's human rights record is among the worst in the world.[26] The Eritrean government has dismissed these allegations as politically motivated.[27] Freedom of the press in Eritrea is extremely limited; the Press Freedom Index consistently ranks it as one of the least free countries. As of 2021 Reporters Without Borders considers the country to have the overall worst press freedom in the world, even lower than North Korea, as all media publications and access are heavily controlled by the government.[28]

    Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and is an observer state in the Arab League alongside Brazil and Venezuela.[29]

    1. ^ "Constitution of the State of Eritrea". Shaebia.org. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
    2. ^ a b "Eritrea at a Glance". Eritrea Ministry of Information. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
    3. ^ "Eritrea" (PDF). The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
    4. ^ "Religions in Eritrea | PEW-GRF". Globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
    5. ^ "Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in Eritrea". UNHRC website. 8 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
    6. ^ "Eritrea: Events of 2016". World Report 2017: Rights Trends in Eritrea. Human Rights Watch. 12 January 2017.
    7. ^ a b Saad, Asma (21 February 2018). "Eritrea's Silent Totalitarianism".
    8. ^ Keane, Fergal (10 July 2018). "Making peace with 'Africa's North Korea'". BBC News.
    9. ^ Taylor, Adam (12 June 2015). "The brutal dictatorship the world keeps ignoring". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
    10. ^ "World Population Prospects 2019". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
    11. ^ "Eritrea – Indicators – Population (million people), 2018". Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. 2019. Archived from the original on 28 February 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
    12. ^ "Eritrea – Population and Health Survey 2010" (PDF). National Statistics Office, Fafo Institute for Applied International Studies. 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
    13. ^ a b c d "The State of Eritrea". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
    14. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
    15. ^ "Eritrea". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
    16. ^ ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-13 International Organization for Standardization
    17. ^ "EASO Country of Origin Information Report: Eritrea Country Focus" (PDF). European Asylum Support Office. May 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
    18. ^ "National Unity: Eritrea's core value for peace and stability".
    19. ^ "Eritrea at a Glance".
    20. ^ "Eritrea Constitution" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
    21. ^ "Eritrea". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 22 September 2021.
    22. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart (1991). Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity (PDF). Edinburgh: University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6.
    23. ^ Henze, Paul B. (2005) Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, ISBN 1-85065-522-7.
    24. ^ Aksumite Ethiopia. Workmall.com (24 March 2007). Retrieved 3 March 2012.
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference gi was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference hrw was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ "Human Rights and Eritrea's Reality" (PDF). E Smart. E Smart Campaign. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
    28. ^ "Eritrea: A dictatorship in which the media have no rights". rsf.org. Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
    29. ^ "Arab League Fast Facts". CNN. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    25 May 2011Oprah Winfrey airs her last show, ending her 25-year run of The Oprah Winfrey Show.

    The Oprah Winfrey Show

    The Oprah Winfrey Show, often referred to as The Oprah Show or simply Oprah, is an American daytime syndicated talk show that aired nationally for 25 seasons from September 8, 1986, to May 25, 2011, in Chicago, Illinois. Produced and hosted by its namesake, Oprah Winfrey, it remains the highest-rated daytime talk show in American television history.[2]

    The show was highly influential to many young stars, and many of its themes have penetrated into the American pop-cultural consciousness. Winfrey used the show as an educational platform, featuring book clubs, interviews, self-improvement segments, and philanthropic forays into world events. The show did not attempt to profit off the products it endorses; it had no licensing agreement with retailers when products were promoted, nor did the show make any money from endorsing books for its book club.[3]

    Oprah was one of the longest-running daytime television talk shows in history. The show received 47 Daytime Emmy Awards before Winfrey chose to stop submitting it for consideration in 2000.[4] In 2002, TV Guide ranked it at No. 49 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time.[5] In 2013, they ranked it as the 19th greatest TV show of all time.[6]

    In November 2009, Winfrey announced that the show would conclude in 2011 following its 25th and final season. The series finale aired on May 25, 2011.

    1. ^ Hollingshead, Iain (May 20, 2011). "Oprah Winfrey retires: Those in the spotlight can't bear the final curtain". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
    2. ^ Rose, Lacey (January 29, 2009). "America's Top-Earning Black Stars". Forbes. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
    3. ^ Carr, David (November 22, 2009). "The Media Equation – Oprah Winfrey's Success Owes to Decisions That Avoided Common Traps". The New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
    4. ^ "'The Oprah Winfrey Show': Trivia". Web. Oprah.com. January 1, 2006. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
    5. ^ "TV Guide Names Top 50 Shows". CBS News.
    6. ^ Fretts, Bruce; Roush, Matt. "The Greatest Shows on Earth". TV Guide Magazine. 61 (3194–3195): 16–19.
     
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    26 May 1998 – The first "National Sorry Day" is held in Australia. Reconciliation events are held nationally, and attended by over a million people.

    National Sorry Day

    National Sorry Day, or the National Day of Healing, is an annual event that has been held in Australia on 26 May since 1998. The event remembers and commemorates the mistreatment of the country's Indigenous peoples as part of an ongoing process of reconciliation between the Indigenous peoples of Australia and the settler population.

    The first National Sorry Day was held on the one-year anniversary of the 1997 Bringing Them Home report.[1] A key recommendation of the Report was a formal apology to the Stolen Generations. John Howard, who was prime minister at the time, refused to issue an apology, but Kevin Rudd on 13 February 2008 issued a formal apology on behalf of the government and Australian people.

    1. ^ "National Sorry Day 2020". Reconciliation Australia. 25 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
     
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    27 May 1813War of 1812: In Canada, American forces capture Fort George.

    War of 1812

    The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida. It began when the US declared war on 18 June 1812 and, although peace terms were agreed upon in the December 1814 Treaty of Ghent, did not officially end until the peace treaty was ratified by Congress on 17 February 1815.[11][12]

    Tensions originated in long-standing differences over territorial expansion in North America and British support for Native American tribes who opposed US colonial settlement in the Northwest Territory. These escalated in 1807 after the Royal Navy began enforcing tighter restrictions on American trade with France, exacerbated by the impressment of men claimed as British subjects, even those with American citizenship certificates.[13] Opinion was split on how to respond, and although majorities in both the House and Senate voted for war, they divided along strict party lines, with the Democratic-Republican Party in favour and the Federalist Party against.[d][14] News of British concessions made in an attempt to avoid war did not reach the US until late July, by which time the conflict was already underway.

    At sea, the far larger Royal Navy imposed an effective blockade on US maritime trade, while between 1812 to 1814 British regulars and colonial militia defeated a series of American attacks on Upper Canada.[15] This was balanced by the US winning control of the Northwest Territory with victories at Lake Erie and the Thames in 1813. The abdication of Napoleon in early 1814 allowed the British to send additional troops to North America and the Royal Navy to reinforce their blockade, crippling the American economy.[16] In August 1814, negotiations began in Ghent, with both sides wanting peace; the British economy had been severely impacted by the trade embargo, while the Federalists convened the Hartford Convention in December to formalise their opposition to the war.

    In August 1814, British troops burned Washington, before American victories at Baltimore and Plattsburgh in September ended fighting in the north. It continued in the Southeastern United States, where in late 1813 a civil war had broken out between a Creek faction supported by Spanish and British traders and those backed by the US. Supported by American militia under General Andrew Jackson, they won a series of victories, culminating in the capture of Pensacola in November 1814.[17] In early 1815, Jackson defeated a British attack on New Orleans, catapulting him to national celebrity and later victory in the 1828 United States presidential election.[18] News of this success arrived in Washington at the same time as that of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which essentially restored the position to that prevailing before the war. While Britain insisted this included lands belonging to their Native American allies prior to 1811, Congress did not recognize them as independent nations and neither side sought to enforce this requirement.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ a b c d Clodfelter 2017, p. 245.
    2. ^ Upton 2003.
    3. ^ Allen 1996, p. 121.
    4. ^ a b Clodfelter 2017, p. 244.
    5. ^ a b c Stagg 2012, p. 156.
    6. ^ Hickey 2006, p. 297.
    7. ^ Leland 2010, p. 2.
    8. ^ Tucker et al. 2012, p. 311.
    9. ^ Hickey 2012n.
    10. ^ Weiss 2013.
    11. ^ Order of the Senate of the United States 1828, pp. 619–620.
    12. ^ Carr 1979, p. 276.
    13. ^ Hickey 1989, p. 44.
    14. ^ Hickey 1989, pp. 32, 42–43.
    15. ^ Greenspan 2018.
    16. ^ Benn 2002, pp. 56–57.
    17. ^ Heidler & Heidler 2002, p. 45.
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference army.mil was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    28 May 1999 – In Milan, Italy, after 22 years of restoration work, Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece The Last Supper is put back on display.

    The Last Supper (Leonardo)

    The Last Supper (Italian: Il Cenacolo [il tʃeˈnaːkolo] or L'Ultima Cena [ˈlultima ˈtʃeːna]) is a mural painting by the Italian High Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci, dated to c. 1495–1498. The painting represents the scene of the Last Supper of Jesus with the Twelve Apostles, as it is told in the Gospel of John – specifically the moment after Jesus announces that one of his apostles will betray him.[1] Its handling of space, mastery of perspective, treatment of motion and complex display of human emotion has made it one of the Western world's most recognizable paintings and among Leonardo's most celebrated works.[2] Some commentators consider it pivotal in inaugurating the transition into what is now termed the High Renaissance.[3][4]

    The work was commissioned as part of a plan of renovations to the church and its convent buildings by Leonardo's patron Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan. In order to permit his inconsistent painting schedule and frequent revisions, it is painted with materials that allowed for regular alterations: tempera on gesso, pitch, and mastic. Due to the methods used, a variety of environmental factors, and intentional damage, little of the original painting remains today despite numerous restoration attempts, the last being completed in 1999. Housed in the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy, The Last Supper is his largest work, aside from the Sala delle Asse.

    1. ^ Bianchini, Riccardo (24 March 2021). "The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci – Santa Maria delle Grazie – Milan". Inexhibit. Retrieved 19 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    2. ^ "Leonardo Da Vinci's 'The Last Supper' reveals more secrets". sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
    3. ^ Frederick Hartt, A History of Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture; Harry N. Abrams Incorporated, New York, 1985, p. 601
    4. ^ Christoph Luitpold Frommel, "Bramante and the Origins of the High Renaissance" in Rethinking the High Renaissance: The Culture of the Visual Arts in Early Sixteenth-Century Rome, Jill Burke, ed. Ashgate Publishing, Oxan, UK, 2002, p. 172.
     
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    29 May 1914 – The Ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland sinks in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence with the loss of 1,012 lives

    RMS Empress of Ireland

    RMS Empress of Ireland was a Scottish built ocean liner that sank near the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River in Canada following a collision in thick fog with the Norwegian collier Storstad in the early hours of 29 May 1914. Although the ship was equipped with watertight compartments and, in the aftermath of the Titanic disaster two years earlier, carried more than enough lifeboats for all onboard, she foundered in only fourteen minutes. Of the 1,477 people on board, 1,012 died, making it the worst peacetime marine disaster in Canadian history.[1][2][3][a]

    Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering built both Empress of Ireland and her sister ship, Empress of Britain, at Govan on the Clyde in Scotland.[1] The liners were commissioned by Canadian Pacific Steamships or CPR for the North Atlantic route between Liverpool and Quebec City. The transcontinental CPR and its fleet of ocean liners constituted the company's self-proclaimed "World's Greatest Transportation System". Empress of Ireland had just begun her 96th voyage when she was lost.[4]

    The wreck of Empress of Ireland lies in 40 m (130 ft) of water, making it accessible to advanced divers.[5] Many artifacts from the wreckage have been retrieved, some of which are on display in the Empress of Ireland Pavilion at the Site historique maritime de la Pointe-au-Père in Rimouski, Quebec, and at the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The Canadian government has passed legislation to protect the site.[6]

    RMS Empress of Ireland
    1. ^ a b "Investigating the Empress of Ireland". Shipwreck Investigations at Library and Archives Canada. Library and Archives Canada. 14 February 2006. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
    2. ^ Cd. 7609, p. 25.
    3. ^ "The Empress of Ireland". Lost Ship Recovered Voyages. Royal Alberta Museum. Archived from the original on 13 March 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
    4. ^ "The Empress of Ireland: Survivors". Lost Ship Recovered Voyages. Royal Alberta Museum. Archived from the original on 13 March 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
    5. ^ "The Empress of Ireland: Respecting the Wreck". Lost Ship Recovered Voyages. Royal Alberta Museum. 6 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
    6. ^ "The Empress of Ireland: Protecting the Empress". Lost Ship Recovered Voyages. Royal Alberta Museum. 6 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2018.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    30 May 1806 – Future U.S. President Andrew Jackson kills Charles Dickinson in a duel.

    Charles Dickinson (historical figure)

    Charles Dickinson (December 20, 1780 – May 30, 1806) was an American attorney, and a famous duelist. An expert marksman, Dickinson died from injuries sustained in a duel with Andrew Jackson, who later became President of the United States.

    Dickinson was born at Wiltshire Manor in Caroline County, Maryland, the son of Elizabeth Walker and Henry Dickinson, the grandson of Sophia Richardson and Charles Dickinson (1695–1795), and the great-grandson of Rebecca Wynne (daughter of Dr. Thomas Wynne) and John Dickinson. He studied law under U.S. Chief Justice John Marshall, who wrote formal letters of introduction and recommendation for his student. Dickinson owned a house in Maryland for 3 years before moving to Tennessee, where he became a successful horse breeder and plantation owner. Within two years of his arrival in Tennessee, he courted and married the daughter of Captain Joseph Erwin. Unfortunately for Dickinson, he also ran afoul of fellow plantation owner and horse breeder, Andrew Jackson.

     
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    31 May 2008Usain Bolt breaks the world record in the 100m sprint, with a wind-legal (+1.7 m/s) 9.72 seconds

    Usain Bolt

    Usain St. Leo Bolt, OJ, CD, OLY (/ˈjuːsn/;[12] born 21 August 1986) is a retired Jamaican sprinter, widely considered to be the greatest sprinter of all time.[13][14][15] He is the world record holder in the 100 metres, 200 metres, and 4 × 100 metres relay.

    An eight-time Olympic gold medallist, Bolt is the only sprinter to win Olympic 100 m and 200 m titles at three consecutive Olympics (2008, 2012, and 2016). He also won two 4 × 100 relay gold medals. He gained worldwide fame for his double sprint victory in world record times at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, which made him the first person to hold both records since fully automatic time became mandatory.

    An eleven-time World Champion, he won consecutive World Championship 100 m, 200 m and 4 × 100 metres relay gold medals from 2009 to 2015, with the exception of a 100 m false start in 2011. He is the most successful male athlete of the World Championships. Bolt is the first athlete to win four World Championship titles in the 200 m and is one of the most successful in the 100 m with three titles.

    Bolt improved upon his second 100 m world record of 9.69 with 9.58 seconds in 2009 – the biggest improvement since the start of electronic timing. He has twice broken the 200 metres world record, setting 19.30 in 2008 and 19.19 in 2009. He has helped Jamaica to three 4 × 100 metres relay world records, with the current record being 36.84 seconds set in 2012. Bolt's most successful event is the 200 m, with three Olympic and four World titles. The 2008 Olympics was his international debut over 100 m; he had earlier won numerous 200 m medals (including 2007 World Championship silver) and held the world under-20 and world under-18 records for the event until being surpassed by Erriyon Knighton in 2021.

    His achievements as a sprinter have earned him the media nickname "Lightning Bolt", and his awards include the IAAF World Athlete of the Year, Track & Field Athlete of the Year, BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year (three times), and Laureus World Sportsman of the Year (four times). Bolt was included in Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People of 2016.[16] Bolt retired after the 2017 World Championships, when he finished third in his last solo 100 m race, opted out of the 200 m, and pulled up injured in the 4×100 m relay final.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Focus was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Thomas, Claire (26 July 2016). "Built for speed: what makes Usain Bolt so fast?". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
    3. ^ "Usain BOLT". usainbolt.com. Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
    4. ^ Thomas, Claire (25 July 2016). "Glen Mills: the man behind Usain Bolt's record-shattering career". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
    5. ^ Wile, Rob (11 August 2017). "Usain Bolt Is Retiring. Here's How He Made Over $100 Million in 10 Years". Money. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
    6. ^ Clark, Nate (2 February 2019). "Usain Bolt having fun at Super Bowl, 'ties' NFL Combine 40-yard dash record". NBC. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference NY was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference IAAF was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference TTG was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference IAAFProfile was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ "Usain Bolt to run an 800m". Canadian Running Magazine. 8 July 2021. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
    12. ^ Ellington, Barbara (31 August 2008). He is a happy person, says Usain's mother. Jamaica Gleaner. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
    13. ^ "Usain BOLT - Olympic Athletics | Jamaica". International Olympic Committee. 27 November 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
    14. ^ "Bolt by Numbers". World Athletics. 5 July 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
    15. ^ "Usain Bolt". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
    16. ^ "Usain Bolt". Time. 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2021.{{cite magazine}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    1 June 1974 – The Heimlich maneuver for rescuing choking victims is published in the journal Emergency Medicine

    Abdominal thrusts

    Abdominal thrusts, also known as the Heimlich maneuver or Heimlich manoeuvre, is a first aid procedure used to treat upper airway obstructions (or choking) by foreign objects. American doctor Henry Heimlich is often credited for its creation. Performing abdominal thrusts involves a rescuer standing behind a patient and using their hands to exert pressure on the bottom of the diaphragm. This compresses the lungs and exerts pressure on any object lodged in the trachea, hopefully expelling it.

    Most modern protocols, including those of the American Heart Association, American Red Cross and the European Resuscitation Council, recommend several stages for airway obstructions, designed to apply increasingly more pressure. Most protocols recommend encouraging the victim to cough, followed by hard back slaps, and finally abdominal thrusts or chest thrusts as a last resort. Some guidelines also recommend alternating between abdominal thrusts and back slaps.[1][2]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference ERC2010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Foreign object inhaled: First aid, Mayo Clinic staff, November 1, 2011.
     
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    2 June 1835P. T. Barnum and his circus start their first tour of the United States.

    P. T. Barnum

    Phineas Taylor Barnum (/ˈbɑːrnəm/; July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891) was an American showman, businessman, and politician, remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus (1871–2017)[1] with James Anthony Bailey. He was also an author, publisher, and philanthropist, though he said of himself: "I am a showman by profession ... and all the gilding shall make nothing else of me".[2] According to his critics, his personal aim was "to put money in his own coffers."[2] He is widely credited with coining the adage "There's a sucker born every minute",[3] although no evidence has been collected of him saying this.

    Barnum became a small business owner in his early twenties and founded a weekly newspaper before moving to New York City in 1834. He embarked on an entertainment career, first with a variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", and soon after by purchasing Scudder's American Museum which he renamed after himself. He used the museum as a platform to promote hoaxes and human curiosities such as the Fiji mermaid and General Tom Thumb.[4] In 1850, he promoted the American tour of Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind, paying her an unprecedented $1,000 a night for 150 nights. He suffered economic reversals in the 1850s due to bad investments, as well as years of litigation and public humiliation, but he used a lecture tour as a temperance speaker to emerge from debt. His museum added America's first aquarium and expanded the wax-figure department.

    Barnum served two terms in the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as a Republican for Fairfield, Connecticut. He spoke before the legislature concerning the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which abolished slavery and involuntary servitude: "A human soul, 'that God has created and Christ died for,' is not to be trifled with. It may tenant the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab, or a Hottentot—it is still an immortal spirit".[5] He was elected in 1875 as mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut where he worked to improve the water supply, bring gas lighting to streets, and enforce liquor and prostitution laws. He was also instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital in 1878 and was its first president.[6] Nevertheless, the circus business, begun when he was 60 years old, was the source of much of his enduring fame. He established "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan & Hippodrome" in 1870, a traveling circus, menagerie, and museum of "freaks" which adopted many names over the years.

    Barnum was married to Charity Hallett from 1829 until her death in 1873, and they had four children. In 1874, a few months after his wife's death, he married Nancy Fish, his friend's daughter who was 40 years his junior. They were married until 1891 when Barnum died of a stroke at his home. He was buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport, which he designed himself.[7]

    1. ^ North American Theatre Online: Phineas T. Barnum
    2. ^ a b Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. vi
    3. ^ Shapiro, Fred R. The Yale Book of Quotations. New Haven: Yale UP, 2006. p. 44
    4. ^ Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. 73
    5. ^ Barnum, Phineas (1888). The life of P. T. Barnum. Buffalo, N.Y.: The Courier Company. p. 237 – via Ebook and Texts Archive – American Libraries.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference kunhardt2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Rogak, Lisa (2004). Stones and Bones of New England: A guide to unusual, historic, and otherwise notable cemeteries. Globe Pequat. ISBN 978-0-7627-3000-1.
     
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    2 June 1835P. T. Barnum and his circus start their first tour of the United States.

    P. T. Barnum

    Phineas Taylor Barnum (/ˈbɑːrnəm/; July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891) was an American showman, businessman, and politician, remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus (1871–2017)[1] with James Anthony Bailey. He was also an author, publisher, and philanthropist, though he said of himself: "I am a showman by profession ... and all the gilding shall make nothing else of me".[2] According to his critics, his personal aim was "to put money in his own coffers."[2] He is widely credited with coining the adage "There's a sucker born every minute",[3] although no evidence has been collected of him saying this.

    Barnum became a small business owner in his early twenties and founded a weekly newspaper before moving to New York City in 1834. He embarked on an entertainment career, first with a variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", and soon after by purchasing Scudder's American Museum which he renamed after himself. He used the museum as a platform to promote hoaxes and human curiosities such as the Fiji mermaid and General Tom Thumb.[4] In 1850, he promoted the American tour of Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind, paying her an unprecedented $1,000 a night for 150 nights. He suffered economic reversals in the 1850s due to bad investments, as well as years of litigation and public humiliation, but he used a lecture tour as a temperance speaker to emerge from debt. His museum added America's first aquarium and expanded the wax-figure department.

    Barnum served two terms in the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as a Republican for Fairfield, Connecticut. He spoke before the legislature concerning the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which abolished slavery and involuntary servitude: "A human soul, 'that God has created and Christ died for,' is not to be trifled with. It may tenant the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab, or a Hottentot—it is still an immortal spirit".[5] He was elected in 1875 as mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut where he worked to improve the water supply, bring gas lighting to streets, and enforce liquor and prostitution laws. He was also instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital in 1878 and was its first president.[6] Nevertheless, the circus business, begun when he was 60 years old, was the source of much of his enduring fame. He established "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan & Hippodrome" in 1870, a traveling circus, menagerie, and museum of "freaks" which adopted many names over the years.

    Barnum was married to Charity Hallett from 1829 until her death in 1873, and they had four children. In 1874, a few months after his wife's death, he married Nancy Fish, his friend's daughter who was 40 years his junior. They were married until 1891 when Barnum died of a stroke at his home. He was buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport, which he designed himself.[7]

    1. ^ North American Theatre Online: Phineas T. Barnum
    2. ^ a b Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. vi
    3. ^ Shapiro, Fred R. The Yale Book of Quotations. New Haven: Yale UP, 2006. p. 44
    4. ^ Kunhardt, Kunhardt & Kunhardt 1995, p. 73
    5. ^ Barnum, Phineas (1888). The life of P. T. Barnum. Buffalo, N.Y.: The Courier Company. p. 237 – via Ebook and Texts Archive – American Libraries.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference kunhardt2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Rogak, Lisa (2004). Stones and Bones of New England: A guide to unusual, historic, and otherwise notable cemeteries. Globe Pequat. ISBN 978-0-7627-3000-1.
     
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    3 June 1844 – The last pair of great auks is killed

    Great auk

    The great auk (Pinguinus impennis) is a species of flightless alcid that became extinct in the mid-19th century. It was the only modern species in the genus Pinguinus. It is not closely related to the birds now known as penguins, which were discovered later by Europeans and so named by sailors because of their physical resemblance to the great auk.

    It bred on rocky, remote islands with easy access to the ocean and a plentiful food supply, a rarity in nature that provided only a few breeding sites for the great auks. When not breeding, they spent their time foraging in the waters of the North Atlantic, ranging as far south as northern Spain and along the coastlines of Canada, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway, Ireland, and Great Britain.

    The great auk was 75 to 85 centimetres (30 to 33 inches) tall and weighed about 5 kilograms (11 pounds), making it the largest alcid to survive into the modern era, and the second-largest member of the alcid family overall (the prehistoric Miomancalla was larger).[6] It had a black back and a white belly. The black beak was heavy and hooked, with grooves on its surface. During summer, great auk plumage showed a white patch over each eye. During winter, the great auk lost these patches, instead developing a white band stretching between the eyes. The wings were only 15 cm (6 in) long, rendering the bird flightless. Instead, the great auk was a powerful swimmer, a trait that it used in hunting. Its favourite prey were fish, including Atlantic menhaden and capelin, and crustaceans. Although agile in the water, it was clumsy on land. Great auk pairs mated for life. They nested in extremely dense and social colonies, laying one egg on bare rock. The egg was white with variable brown marbling. Both parents participated in the incubation of the egg for around 6 weeks before the young hatched. The young left the nest site after 2–3 weeks, although the parents continued to care for it.

    The great auk was an important part of many Native American cultures, both as a food source and as a symbolic item. Many Maritime Archaic people were buried with great auk bones. One burial discovered included someone covered by more than 200 great auk beaks, which are presumed to be the remnants of a cloak made of great auks' skins. Early European explorers to the Americas used the great auk as a convenient food source or as fishing bait, reducing its numbers. The bird's down was in high demand in Europe, a factor that largely eliminated the European populations by the mid-16th century. Scientists soon began to realize that the great auk was disappearing and it became the beneficiary of many early environmental laws, but this proved ineffectual.

    Its growing rarity increased interest from European museums and private collectors in obtaining skins and eggs of the bird. On 3 June 1844, the last two confirmed specimens were killed on Eldey, off the coast of Iceland, ending the last known breeding attempt. Later reports of roaming individuals being seen or caught are unconfirmed. A record of one great auk in 1852 is considered by some to be the last sighting of a member of the species. The great auk is mentioned in several novels, and the scientific journal of the American Ornithological Society was named The Auk (now Ornithology) in honour of the bird until 2021.

    1. ^ Finlayson, Clive (18 December 2011). Avian survivors: The History and Biogeography of Palearctic Birds. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 157. ISBN 9781408137314.
    2. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Pinguinus impennis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22694856A93472944. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22694856A93472944.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
    3. ^ "NatureServe Explorer 2.0". explorer.natureserve.org. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
    4. ^ Grieve, Symington (1885). The Great Auk, or Garefowl: Its history, archaeology, and remains. Thomas C. Jack, London.
    5. ^ Parkin, Thomas (1894). The Great Auk, or Garefowl. J.E. Budd, Printer. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
    6. ^ Smith, N (2015). "Evolution of body mass in the Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): the effects of combining neontological and paleontological data". Paleobiology. 42: 8–26. doi:10.1017/pab.2015.24. S2CID 83934750.
     
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    4 June 1942 – World War II: The Battle of Midway begins. The Japanese Admiral Chūichi Nagumo orders a strike on Midway Island by much of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

    Battle of Midway

    The Battle of Midway was a major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II that took place on 4–7 June 1942, six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea.[6][7][8] The U.S. Navy under Admirals Chester W. Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, and Raymond A. Spruance defeated an attacking fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy under Admirals Isoroku Yamamoto, Chūichi Nagumo, and Nobutake Kondō north of Midway Atoll, inflicting devastating damage on the Japanese fleet. Military historian John Keegan called it "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare",[9] while naval historian Craig Symonds called it "one of the most consequential naval engagements in world history, ranking alongside Salamis, Trafalgar, and Tsushima Strait, as both tactically decisive and strategically influential".[10]

    Luring the American aircraft carriers into a trap and occupying Midway was part of an overall "barrier" strategy to extend Japan's defensive perimeter, in response to the Doolittle air raid on Tokyo. This operation was also considered preparatory for further attacks against Fiji, Samoa, and Hawaii itself. The plan was undermined by faulty Japanese assumptions of the American reaction and poor initial dispositions. Most significantly, American cryptographers were able to determine the date and location of the planned attack, enabling the forewarned U.S. Navy to prepare its own ambush.

    Four Japanese and three American aircraft carriers participated in the battle. The four Japanese fleet carriersAkagi, Kaga, Sōryū, and Hiryū, part of the six-carrier force that had attacked Pearl Harbor six months earlier—were sunk, as was the heavy cruiser Mikuma. The U.S. lost the carrier Yorktown and the destroyer Hammann, while the carriers USS Enterprise and USS Hornet survived the battle fully intact.

    After Midway and the exhausting attrition of the Solomon Islands campaign, Japan's capacity to replace its losses in materiel (particularly aircraft carriers) and men (especially well-trained pilots and maintenance crewmen) rapidly became insufficient to cope with mounting casualties, while the United States' massive industrial and training capabilities made losses far easier to replace. The Battle of Midway, along with the Guadalcanal campaign, is widely considered a turning point in the Pacific War.

    1. ^ Blair 1975, p. 240 map
    2. ^ Parshall & Tully 2005, pp. 90–91
    3. ^ "The Battle of Midway". Office of Naval Intelligence. Archived from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
    4. ^ Parshall & Tully 2005, p. 524
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference ParTulcas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ a b "Battle of Midway: June 4–7, 1942". Naval History & Heritage Command. 26 March 2015. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
    7. ^ Dull 1978, p. 166
    8. ^ "A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers: Battle of Midway". U.S. Navy. 2007. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
    9. ^ Keegan 2005, p. 275
    10. ^ Symonds 2018, p. 293
     

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