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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

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    5 June 1963 – The British Secretary of State for War, John Profumo, resigns in a sex scandal known as the "Profumo affair".

    Profumo affair

    John Profumo in 1938

    The Profumo affair was a major scandal in twentieth-century British politics.[1] John Profumo, the Secretary of State for War in Harold Macmillan's Conservative government, had an extramarital affair with 19-year-old model Christine Keeler beginning in 1961. Profumo denied the affair in a statement to the House of Commons, but weeks later a police investigation exposed the truth, proving that Profumo had lied to the House of Commons.[2] The scandal severely damaged the credibility of Macmillan's government, and Macmillan resigned as Prime Minister in October 1963, citing ill health. Ultimately, the fallout contributed to the Conservative government's defeat by the Labour Party in the 1964 general election.

    When the Profumo affair was first revealed, public interest was heightened by reports that Keeler may have been simultaneously involved with Captain Yevgeny Ivanov, a Soviet naval attaché, thereby creating a possible national security risk. Keeler knew both Profumo and Ivanov through her friendship with Stephen Ward, an osteopath and socialite who had taken her under his wing. The exposure of the affair generated rumours of other scandals and drew official attention to the activities of Ward, who was charged with a series of immorality offences. Perceiving himself as a scapegoat for the misdeeds of others, Ward took a fatal overdose during the final stages of his trial, which found him guilty of living off the immoral earnings of Keeler and her friend Mandy Rice-Davies.

    An inquiry into the Profumo affair by a senior judge, Lord Denning, assisted by a senior civil servant, TA Critchley, concluded that there had been no breaches of security arising from the Ivanov connection, although Denning's report was later described as superficial and unsatisfactory. Profumo subsequently worked as a volunteer at Toynbee Hall, an East London charitable trust. By 1975 he had been officially rehabilitated, although he did not return to public life. He died, honoured and respected, in 2006. By contrast, Keeler found it difficult to escape the negative image attached to her by press, law, and parliament throughout the scandal. In various, sometimes contradictory accounts, she challenged Denning's conclusions relating to security issues. Ward's conviction has been described by analysts as an act of establishment revenge, rather than serving justice. In January 2014 his case was under review by the Criminal Cases Review Commission, with the possibility of a later reference to the Court of Appeal. Dramatisations of the Profumo affair have been shown on stage and screen.

    1. ^ Foussianes, Chloe (17 November 2019). "How Prince Philip Was Connected to the Profumo Affair—and How Anthony Blunt May Have Covered For Him". Town & Country. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
    2. ^ "British Secretary of War John Profumo resigns amid sex scandal". history.com. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
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    6 June 1889 – The Great Seattle Fire destroys all of downtown Seattle.

    Great Seattle Fire

    The Great Seattle Fire was a fire that destroyed the entire central business district of Seattle, Washington on June 6, 1889. The conflagration lasted for less than a day, burning through the afternoon and into the night, and during the same summer as the Great Spokane Fire and the Great Ellensburg Fire. Seattle quickly rebuilt using brick buildings that sat 20 feet (6.1 m) above the original street level. Its population swelled during reconstruction, becoming the largest city in the newly admitted state of Washington.

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    7 June 1982Priscilla Presley opens Graceland to the public; the bathroom where Elvis Presley died five years earlier is kept off-limits.


    Graceland is a mansion on a 13.8-acre (5.6-hectare) estate in Memphis, Tennessee, United States, once owned by singer and actor Elvis Presley. His daughter, Lisa Marie Presley, inherited Graceland after his death in 1977. Graceland is located at 3764 Elvis Presley Boulevard in the Whitehaven neighborhood, about nine miles (14 kilometers) south of central Memphis and fewer than four miles (6.4 km) north of the Mississippi border.[5]

    It was opened to the public as a museum on June 7, 1982. The site was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on November 7, 1991, becoming the first site related to rock and roll to be entered therein. Graceland was declared a National Historic Landmark on March 27, 2006, also a first for such a site. Graceland is the most-visited privately owned home in America with over 650,000 visitors a year, rivaling publicly owned houses such as Biltmore Estate, Hearst Castle and the White House.[5][6][7]

    1. ^ Cook, Jody; Henry, Patty (May 27, 2004). "National Historic Landmark Nomination: Graceland" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved June 21, 2009. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help) and Accompanying 12 photos, exterior and interior, from 2001 (3.44 MB)
    2. ^ West, Carroll Van (1995). Tennessees Historic Landscapes: Travelers Guide. University of Tennessee Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-87049-881-7.
    3. ^ "Graceland". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on December 30, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2008.
    4. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
    5. ^ a b Victor 2008, p. 208
    6. ^ "Amazing Graceland wows fans". The National. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
    7. ^ "Elvis Ancestors Wore Kilts". CBS News. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
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    8 June 1783Laki, a volcano in Iceland, begins an eight-month eruption which kills over 9,000 people and starts a seven-year famine.


    Laki (Icelandic pronunciation: ​[ˈlaːcɪ]) or Lakagígar [ˈlaːkaˌciːɣar̥] (Craters of Laki) is a volcanic fissure in the western part of Vatnajökull National Park, Iceland, not far from the volcanic fissure of Eldgjá and the small village of Kirkjubæjarklaustur. The fissure is properly referred to as Lakagígar, while Laki is a mountain that the fissure bisects. Lakagígar is part of a volcanic system centered on the volcano Grímsvötn and including the volcano Þórðarhyrna.[1][2][3] It lies between the glaciers of Mýrdalsjökull and Vatnajökull, in an area of fissures that run in a southwest to northeast direction.

    The system erupted violently over an eight-month period between June 1783 and February 1784 from the Laki fissure and the adjoining volcano Grímsvötn, pouring out an estimated 42 billion tonnes or 14 km3 (18×10^9 cu yd) of basalt lava and clouds of poisonous hydrofluoric acid and sulfur dioxide compounds that contaminated the soil, leading to the death of over 50% of Iceland's livestock population, and the destruction of the vast majority of all crops. This led to a famine which then killed approximately a quarter of the island's human population.[4]

    The Laki eruption and its aftermath caused a drop in global temperatures, as 120 million tonnes of sulfur dioxide was spewed into the Northern Hemisphere. This caused crop failures in Europe and may have caused droughts in North Africa and India.

    1. ^ "Katla". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
    2. ^ "Iceland : Katla Volcano". Iceland on the web. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
    3. ^ Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Thórdís Högnadóttir (January 2007). "Volcanic systems and calderas in the Vatnajökull region, central Iceland: Constraints on crustal structure from gravity data". Journal of Geodynamics. 43 (1): 153–169. Bibcode:2007JGeo...43..153G. doi:10.1016/j.jog.2006.09.015.
    4. ^ Gunnar Karlsson (2000), Iceland's 1100 Years, p. 181
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    9 June 1856 – Five hundred Mormons leave Iowa City, Iowa for the Mormon Trail.

    Mormon handcart pioneers

    The Handcart Pioneer Monument, by Torleif S. Knaphus, located on Temple Square in Salt Lake City, Utah

    The Mormon handcart pioneers were participants in the migration of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) to Salt Lake City, Utah, who used handcarts to transport their belongings.[1] The Mormon handcart movement began in 1856 and continued until 1860.

    Motivated to join their fellow church members in Utah, but lacking funds for full teams of oxen or horses, nearly 3,000 Mormon pioneers from England, Wales, Scotland and Scandinavia made the journey from Iowa or Nebraska to Utah in ten handcart companies. The trek was disastrous for two of the companies, which started their journey dangerously late and were caught by heavy snow and severe temperatures in central Wyoming. Despite a dramatic rescue effort, more than 210 of the 980 pioneers in these two companies died along the way. John Chislett, a survivor, wrote, "Many a father pulled his cart, with his little children on it, until the day preceding his death."[2]

    Although fewer than 10 percent of the 1846–1868 Latter-day Saint emigrants made the journey west using handcarts, the handcart pioneers have become an important symbol in LDS culture, representing the faithfulness and sacrifice of the pioneer generation. They continue to be recognized and honored in events such as Pioneer Day, church pageants, and similar commemorations.

    1. ^ Roberts, David (Fall 2008), "The Awful March of the Saints", American Heritage
    2. ^ Hafen and Hafen (1981), p. 102.
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    10 June 1886Mount Tarawera in New Zealand erupts, killing 153 people and burying the famous Pink and White Terraces. Eruptions continue for three months creating a large, 17 km long fissure across the mountain peak.

    Pink and White Terraces

    The Pink and White Terraces (Māori: Te Otukapuarangi, lit.'the Fountain of the Clouded Sky' and Te Tarata, 'the Tattooed Rock'), were natural wonders of New Zealand.[1] They were reportedly the largest silica sinter deposits on earth.[2] Until recently, they were lost[3] and thought destroyed in the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, while new hydrothermal features formed to the south-west i.e. Waimangu Volcanic Rift Valley.

    The Pink and White Terraces were formed by upwelling geothermal springs containing a cocktail of silica-saturated, near-neutral pH chloride water.[4][2] These two world-famous springs were part of a group of hot springs and geysers, chiefly along an easterly ridge named Pinnacle Ridge (or the Steaming Ranges by Mundy).[5] The main tourist attractions included Ngahapu, Ruakiwi, Te Tekapo, Waikanapanapa, Whatapoho, Ngawana, Koingo and Whakaehu.

    The Pink and the White Terrace springs were around 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) apart.[5] The White Terraces were at the north-east end of Lake Rotomahana and faced west to north west at the entrance to the Kaiwaka Channel. Te Tarata descended to the lake edge around 25 metres (82 ft) below.[2] The Pink Terraces lay four fifths of the way down the lake on the western shore, facing east to south-east. The pink appearance over the mid and upper basins (near the colour of a rainbow trout) was due to antimony and arsenic sulfides, although the Pink Terraces also contained gold in ore-grade concentrations.[6]

    1. ^ "Pink and White Terraces". Rotorua Museum. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
    2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference ReferenceA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Pink and White Terraces: Niwa scientists confirm the location of NZ's lost natural wonder". 28 November 2018.
    4. ^ Ferdinand von Hochstetter (1867). New Zealand: Its Physical Geography, Geology and Natural History. Stuttgart: J. G. Cotta.
    5. ^ a b Keam, Ronald F. (15 March 2016). "The Tarawera eruption, Lake Rotomahana, and the origin of the Pink and White Terraces". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. The Lake Rotomahana Geothermal System and Effects of the 1886 Mt. Tarawera Eruption. 314: 10–38. Bibcode:2016JVGR..314...10K. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.11.009.
    6. ^ Hutching, Hamish Campbell & Gerard (2011). In search of ancient New Zealand. North Shore, N.Z.: Penguin. ISBN 978-0143206170.
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    11 June 1509Henry VIII of England marries Catherine of Aragon.

    Catherine of Aragon

    Catherine of Aragon (Spanish: Catalina; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII from their marriage on 11 June 1509 until their annulment on 23 May 1533. She was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother, Arthur, Prince of Wales.

    The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Prince Arthur, heir apparent to the English throne. They married in 1501, but Arthur died five months later. Catherine held the position of ambassador of the Aragonese crown to England in 1507, the first known female ambassador in European history.[1] She married Arthur's younger brother, the recently ascended Henry VIII, in 1509. For six months in 1513, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English crushed and defeated the Scottish at the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part with an emotional speech about English courage.[2]

    By 1525, Henry VIII was infatuated with Anne Boleyn and dissatisfied that his marriage to Catherine had produced no surviving sons, leaving their daughter Mary as heir presumptive at a time when there was no established precedent for a woman on the throne. He sought to have their marriage annulled, setting in motion a chain of events that led to England's schism with the Catholic Church. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters. In 1533 their marriage was consequently declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgement of clergy in England, without reference to the pope. Catherine refused to accept Henry as supreme head of the Church in England and considered herself the king's rightful wife and queen, attracting much popular sympathy.[3] Despite this, Henry acknowledged her only as dowager princess of Wales. After being banished from court by Henry, Catherine lived out the remainder of her life at Kimbolton Castle, dying there in January 1536 of cancer. The English people held Catherine in high esteem, and her death set off tremendous mourning.[4] Her daughter Mary would become the first undisputed English queen regnant in 1553.

    Catherine commissioned The Education of a Christian Woman by Juan Luis Vives, and Vives dedicated the book, controversial at the time, to the Queen in 1523. Such was Catherine's impression on people that even her enemy Thomas Cromwell said of her, "If not for her sex, she could have defied all the heroes of History."[5] She successfully appealed for the lives of the rebels involved in the Evil May Day, for the sake of their families.[6] Catherine also won widespread admiration by starting an extensive programme for the relief of the poor.[6][7] She was a patron of Renaissance humanism, and a friend of the great scholars Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas More.[7]

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    12 June 1981 – The first of the Indiana Jones film franchise, Raiders of the Lost Ark, is released in theaters.

    Indiana Jones

    Indiana Jones is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film Raiders of the Lost Ark. In 1984, a prequel, The Temple of Doom, was released, and in 1989, a sequel, The Last Crusade. A fourth film followed in 2008, titled The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. A fifth film is in production and is scheduled to be released in 2023. The series was created by George Lucas and stars Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones.

    In 1992, the franchise expanded to a television series with The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, portraying the character in his childhood and youth, and including adventures with his father. Marvel Comics began publishing The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones in 1983, and Dark Horse Comics gained the comic book rights to the character in 1991. Novelizations of the films have been published, as well as many novels with original adventures, including a series of German novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein, twelve novels set before the films published by Bantam Books, and a series set during the character's childhood inspired by the television show. Numerous Indiana Jones video games have been released since 1982.

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    13 June 1971Vietnam War: The New York Times begins publication of the Pentagon Papers.

    Pentagon Papers

    A CIA map of dissident activities in Indochina, published as part of the Pentagon Papers

    The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. Released by Daniel Ellsberg, who had worked on the study, they were first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of The New York Times in 1971.[1][2] A 1996 article in The New York Times said that the Pentagon Papers had demonstrated, among other things, that the Johnson Administration had "systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress."[3]

    The Pentagon Papers revealed that the U.S. had secretly enlarged the scope of its actions in the Vietnam War with coastal raids on North Vietnam and Marine Corps attacks—none of which were reported in the mainstream media. For his disclosure of the Pentagon Papers, Ellsberg was initially charged with conspiracy, espionage, and theft of government property; charges were later dismissed, after prosecutors investigating the Watergate scandal discovered that the staff members in the Nixon White House had ordered the so-called White House Plumbers to engage in unlawful efforts to discredit Ellsberg.[4][5]

    In June 2011, the documents forming the Pentagon Papers were declassified and publicly released.[6][7]

    1. ^ "The Pentagon Papers". United Press International (UPI). 1971. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
    2. ^ Sheehan, Neil (June 13, 1971). "Vietnam Archive: Pentagon Study Traces 3 Decades of Growing U.S. Involvement". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
    3. ^ Apple, R.W. (June 23, 1996). "25 Years Later;Lessons From the Pentagon Papers". The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
    4. ^ "The Watergate Story". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 26, 2013. Watergate prosecutors find a memo addressed to John Ehrlichman describing in detail the plans to burglarize the office of Pentagon Papers defendant Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist, The Post reports.
    5. ^ "Pentagon Papers Charges Are Dismissed; Judge Byrne Frees Ellsberg and Russo, Assails 'Improper Government Conduct'". The New York Times. May 11, 1973. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
    6. ^ "Pentagon Papers". History (U.S. TV channel). Retrieved October 26, 2013.
    7. ^ "After 40 Years, Pentagon Papers Declassified In Full". NPR. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
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    14 June 1982Falklands War: Argentine forces in the capital Stanley conditionally surrender to British forces.

    Falklands War

    The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas) was a ten-week undeclared war between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and its territorial dependency, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

    The conflict began on 2 April, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands, followed by the invasion of South Georgia the next day. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with an Argentine surrender on 14 June, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities.

    The conflict was a major episode in the protracted dispute over the territories' sovereignty. Argentina asserted (and maintains) that the islands are Argentine territory,[4] and the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory. The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory that had been a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, and strongly favour British sovereignty. Neither state officially declared war, although both governments declared the islands a war zone.

    The conflict has had a strong effect in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles, films, and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the unfavourable outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall and the democratisation of the country. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected with an increased majority the following year. The cultural and political effect of the conflict has been less in the UK than in Argentina, where it has remained a common topic for discussion.[5]

    Diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, at which the two governments issued a joint statement.[6] No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina adopted a new constitution,[7] which declared the Falkland Islands as part of one of its provinces by law.[8] However, the islands continue to operate as a self-governing British Overseas Territory.[9]

    1. ^ "Falkland Islands profile". BBC News. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
    2. ^ Burns, John F. (5 January 2013). "Vitriol Over Falklands Resurfaces, as Do Old Arguments". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
    3. ^ a b Historia Marítima Argentina, Volume 10, p. 137. Departamento de Estudios Históricos Navales, Cuántica Editora, Argentina: 1993.
    4. ^ "Argentine to reaffirm Sovereignty Rights over The Falkland Islands". National Turk. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
    5. ^ "Cómo evitar que Londres convierta a las Malvinas en un Estado independiente". Clarin. 1 April 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
    6. ^ "Joint statement of 19 October 1989: Re-establishing Consular Relations Between Britain and Argentina, and Agreeing a Framework on Sovereignty Which Would Allow Further Talks". Falklands info. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
    7. ^ "Constitución Nacional". Argentine Senate (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 June 2004. La Nación Argentina ratifica su legítima e imprescriptible soberanía sobre las Islas Malvinas, Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur y los espacios marítimos e insulares correspondientes, por ser parte integrante del territorio nacional.
    8. ^ "Argentina: Constitución de 1994". pdba.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
    9. ^ Cahill 2010, "Falkland Islands".
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    15 June 1667 – The first human blood transfusion is administered by Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys.

    Jean-Baptiste Denys

    Jean-Baptiste Denys (1643 – 3 October 1704) was a French physician[1] notable for having performed the first fully documented human blood transfusion, a xenotransfusion. He studied in Montpellier and was the personal physician to King Louis XIV.

    1. ^ "This Month in Anesthesia History". Archived from the original on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
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    16 June 1961 – While on tour with the Kirov Ballet in Paris, Rudolf Nureyev defects from the Soviet Union

    Rudolf Nureyev

    Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev (/ˈnjʊəriɛf, njʊˈrɛf/ NURE-ee-ef, nyuurr-AY-ef; Tatar/Bashkir: Рудольф Хәмит улы Нуриев; Russian: Рудо́льф Хаме́тович Нуре́ев, IPA: [rʊˈdolʲf xɐˈmʲetəvʲɪtɕ nʊˈrʲejɪf]; 17 March 1938 – 6 January 1993) was a Soviet-born ballet dancer and choreographer. Nureyev is regarded by some as the greatest male ballet dancer of his generation.[1][2][3][4]

    Nureyev was born on a Trans-Siberian train near Irkutsk, Siberia, Soviet Union, to a Tatar family. He began his early career with the company that in the Soviet era was called the Kirov Ballet (now called by its original name, the Mariinsky Ballet) in Leningrad. He defected from the Soviet Union to the West in 1961, despite KGB efforts to stop him.[5] This was the first defection of a Soviet artist during the Cold War, and it created an international sensation. He went on to dance with The Royal Ballet in London and from 1983 to 1989 served as director of the Paris Opera Ballet. Nureyev was also a choreographer serving as the chief choreographer of the Paris Opera Ballet. He produced his own interpretations of numerous classical works,[6] including Swan Lake, Giselle and La Bayadère.[7]

    1. ^ Lord of the dance – Rudolf Nureyev at the National Film Theatre, London, 1–31 January 2003 Archived 1 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, by John Percival, The Independent, 26 December 2002.
    2. ^ Rudolf Nureyev, Charismatic Dancer Who Gave Fire to Ballet's Image, Dies at 54 Archived 10 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine, by Jack Anderson, The Independent, 7 January 1993.
    3. ^ (in French) Rudolf Noureev exercising at the barre Archived 7 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 21 December 1970, site INA (4 min 13).
    4. ^ Philippe Noisette, (in French) « Que reste-t-il de Noureev ? » Archived 17 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Les Échos, 1 March 2013.
    5. ^ Bridcut, John (17 September 2007). "The KGB's long war against Rudolf Nureyev". London: The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
    6. ^ "Rudolf Nureyev's Choreographies – The Rudolf Nureyev Foundation". Nureyev.org. 10 December 2018. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
    7. ^ Noisette, Philippe (26 January 2013). "Benjamin Millepied, le pari de Stéphane Lissner". Paris Match (in French). Archived from the original on 18 February 2017.
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    17 June 1885 – The Statue of Liberty arrives in New York Harbor.

    Statue of Liberty

    The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886.

    The statue is a figure of Libertas, a robed Roman liberty goddess. She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed JULY IV MDCCLXXVI (July 4, 1776 in Roman numerals), the date of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. A broken shackle and chain lie at her feet as she walks forward, commemorating the recent national abolition of slavery.[8] After its dedication, the statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, seen as a symbol of welcome to immigrants arriving by sea.

    Bartholdi was inspired by a French law professor and politician, Édouard René de Laboulaye, who is said to have commented in 1865 that any monument raised to U.S. independence would properly be a joint project of the French and U.S. peoples. The Franco-Prussian War delayed progress until 1875, when Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the U.S. provide the site and build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions.

    The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from 1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar (equivalent to $30 in 2021). The statue was built in France, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland.

    The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has been maintained by the National Park Service as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, and is a major tourist attraction. Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred since 1916.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference StLi was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Schneiderman was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference monuments was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Liberty Enlightening the World". Washington, D.C.: National Park Service. Archived from the original on January 1, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
    5. ^ Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 9/08/2017 through 9/14/2017, National Park Service, September 14, 2017, archived from the original on December 29, 2018, retrieved July 13, 2019.
    6. ^ "New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places – Hudson County". New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection – Historic Preservation Office. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference neighbor was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "Abolition". Statue of Liberty National Monument. National Park Service. February 26, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
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    18 June 1778American Revolutionary War: The British Army abandons Philadelphia.

    American Revolutionary War

    The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, secured a United States of America independent from Great Britain. Fighting began on April 19, 1775, followed by the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The American Patriots were supported by France and Spain, conflict taking place in North America, the Caribbean, and Atlantic Ocean.

    Established by royal charter in the 17th and 18th centuries, the American colonies were largely autonomous in domestic affairs and commercially prosperous, trading with Britain and its Caribbean colonies, as well as other European powers via their Caribbean entrepôts. After British victory in the Seven Years' War in 1763, tensions arose over trade, colonial policy in the Northwest Territory and taxation measures, including the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts. Colonial opposition led to the 1770 Boston Massacre and 1773 Boston Tea Party, with Parliament responding by imposing the so-called Intolerable Acts.

    On September 5, 1774, the First Continental Congress drafted a Petition to the King and organized a boycott of British goods. Despite attempts to achieve a peaceful solution, fighting began with the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775, and in June Congress authorized George Washington to create a Continental Army, where John Adams nominated Washington as the commander-in-chief. Although the "coercion policy" advocated by the North ministry was opposed by a faction within Parliament, both sides increasingly viewed conflict as inevitable. The Olive Branch Petition sent by Congress to George III in July 1775 was rejected and in August Parliament declared the colonies to be in a state of rebellion.

    Following the loss of Boston in March 1776, Sir William Howe, the new British commander-in-chief, launched the New York and New Jersey campaign. He captured New York City in November, before Washington won small but significant victories at Trenton and Princeton, which restored Patriot confidence. In summer 1777, Howe succeeded in taking Philadelphia, but in October a separate force under John Burgoyne was forced to surrender at Saratoga. This victory was crucial in convincing powers like France and Spain an independent United States was a viable entity. The Continental Army then went into winter quarters in Valley Forge, where General von Steuben drilled it into an organized fighting unit.

    France provided the US informal economic and military support from the beginning of the rebellion, and after Saratoga the two countries signed a commercial agreement and a Treaty of Alliance in February 1778. In return for a guarantee of independence, Congress joined France in its global war with Britain and agreed to defend the French West Indies. Spain also allied with France against Britain in the Treaty of Aranjuez (1779), though it did not formally ally with the Americans. Nevertheless, access to ports in Spanish Louisiana allowed the Patriots to import arms and supplies, while the Spanish Gulf Coast campaign deprived the Royal Navy of key bases in the south.

    This undermined the 1778 strategy devised by Howe's replacement, Sir Henry Clinton, which took the war into the Southern United States. Despite some initial success, by September 1781 Cornwallis was besieged by a Franco-American force in Yorktown. After an attempt to resupply the garrison failed, Cornwallis surrendered in October, and although the British wars with France and Spain continued for another two years, this largely ended fighting in North America. In April 1782, the North ministry was replaced by a new British government which accepted American independence and began negotiating the Treaty of Paris, ratified on September 3, 1783. The war officially ended on September 3, 1783, when Britain accepted American independence in the Treaty of Paris, while the Treaties of Versailles resolved separate conflicts with France and Spain.[41]

    1. ^ Smith 1907, p.86
    2. ^ Everest 1977, p.38
    3. ^ Seineke 1981, p.36, fn
    4. ^ a b Bell 2015, Essay
    5. ^ Axelrod 2014, p. 66
    6. ^ Eelking 1893, p. 66
    7. ^ a b Atwood 2002, pp. 1, 23
    8. ^ Lowell 1884, pp. 14–15
    9. ^ Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 1556-40, 2007
    10. ^ Simms 2009, pp. 615–618
    11. ^ a b Duncan, L. 1931, p. 371
    12. ^ Lanning 2009, pp. 195–196
    13. ^ a b Greene & Pole 2008, p. 328
    14. ^ U.S. Merchant Marine 2012, "Privateers and Mariners"
    15. ^ Simmons 2003
    16. ^ Paullin 1906, pp. 315–316
    17. ^ Keiley 1913, "Rochambeau"
    18. ^ Dic. of Am. Bio., "Rochambeau"
    19. ^ a b c Beerman 1979 , p. 181
    20. ^ Britannica 1911, "C. H. Estaing"
    21. ^ Britannica, "F.J.P. de Grasse"
    22. ^ Dull 1987, p. 110
    23. ^ Gayarré 1867, pp. 125-126
    24. ^ Beerman 1979 , pp. 177-179
    25. ^ Rinaldi, "British Army 1775–1783"
    26. ^ Chartrand 2006, p. 63
    27. ^ a b Winfield 2007
    28. ^ Mackesy 1993 [1964], pp. 6, 176
    29. ^ Savas & Dameron 2006, p. xli
    30. ^ Knesebeck 2017 [1845], p. 9
    31. ^ Cite error: The named reference Greene p. 393 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    32. ^ Burrows 2008a, "Patriots or Terrorists"
    33. ^ Peckham (ed.) 1974
    34. ^ a b c Clodfelter 2017, pp. 133–134
    35. ^ Rignault 2004, pp. 20, 53
    36. ^ Clodfelter 2017, pp. 75, 135
    37. ^ Otfinoski 2008, p. 16
    38. ^ Archuleta 2006, p. 69
    39. ^ Clodfelter 2017, p. 134
    40. ^ Burrows 2008b, "Forgotten Patriots"
    41. ^ Wallace 2015, "American Revolution"

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

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    19 June 1978Garfield's first comic strip, originally published locally as Jon in 1976, goes into nationwide syndication


    Garfield is an American comic strip created by Jim Davis. Originally published locally as Jon in 1976, then in nationwide syndication from 1978 as Garfield, it chronicles the life of the title character Garfield the cat, his human owner Jon Arbuckle, and Odie the dog. As of 2013, it was syndicated in roughly 2,580 newspapers and journals, and held the Guinness World Record for being the world's most widely syndicated comic strip.[1]

    Though this is rarely mentioned in print, Garfield is set in Jim Davis' hometown of Muncie, Indiana, according to the television special Happy Birthday, Garfield. Common themes in the strip include Garfield's laziness, obsessive eating, love of coffee and lasagna, disdain of Mondays, and diets. Garfield is also shown to manipulate people to get whatever he wants. The strip's focus is mostly on the interactions among Garfield, Jon, and Odie, but other recurring characters appear as well.

    Originally created with the intentions to "come up with a good, marketable character",[2] Garfield has spawned merchandise earning $750 million to $1 billion annually. In addition to the various merchandise and commercial tie-ins, the strip has spawned several animated television specials, two animated television series, two theatrical feature-length live-action/CGI animated films, and three fully CGI animated direct-to-video films.

    Part of the strip's broad pop cultural appeal is due to its lack of social or political commentary; though this was Davis's original intention, he also admitted that his "grasp of politics isn't strong", joking that, for many years, he thought "OPEC was a denture adhesive".[3][4]

    On August 6, 2019, New York City-based Paramount Global, at the time ViacomCBS, announced that it would acquire Paws, Inc., including most rights to the Garfield franchise (the comics, merchandise and animated cartoons). The deal did not include the rights to the live-action Garfield films,[5] which are still owned by The Walt Disney Company through its 20th Century Studios label, as well as the upcoming animated Garfield film which is set for worldwide distribution by Sony Pictures except China.[6] Jim Davis will continue to make comics, and a new Garfield animated series is in production for Paramount Global subsidiary Nickelodeon.[7]

    1. ^ "Garfield Named World's Most Syndicated Comic Strip". Business Wire. January 22, 2002. Archived from the original on September 10, 2004. Retrieved July 26, 2008.
    2. ^ Shapiro, Walter (December 12, 1982). "LIVES: The Cat That Rots the Intellect". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
    3. ^ Johnson, Beth (June 19, 1998). "'Garfield' 20 years later". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
    4. ^ "Everybody loves Garfield". The Star. November 5, 2005. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2022.
    5. ^ Mullin, Benjamin (August 6, 2019). "Viacom, Hungry For Hits, Gobbles Garfield". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
    6. ^ Rubin, Rebecca (November 1, 2021). "Chris Pratt to Voice Garfield in Upcoming Animated Movie". Variety. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
    7. ^ Steinberg, Brian (August 6, 2019). "Viacom Acquires Comic-Strip Cat Garfield". Variety. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
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    20 June 1837Queen Victoria succeeds to the British throne

    Queen Victoria

    Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than any previous British monarch. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. In 1876, the British Parliament voted to grant her the additional title of Empress of India.

    Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After the deaths of her father and grandfather in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. A constitutional monarch, Victoria privately attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

    Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, British republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond jubilees were times of public celebration. She died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

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    21 June 1529French forces are driven out of northern Italy by Spain at the Battle of Landriano during the War of the League of Cognac.

    Battle of Landriano

    The Battle of Landriano took place on 21 June 1529, between the French army under Francis de Bourbon, Comte de St. Pol and the Imperial–Spanish army commanded by Don Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova[2] in the context of the War of the League of Cognac. The French army was destroyed and the battle's strategic result was that the struggle between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor for control of northern Italy was temporarily at an end.[3]

    1. ^ M. Galandra: The Italian Wars
    2. ^ a b Arthur Hassall p.105
    3. ^ Cadenas y Vincent p.290
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    22 June 1907 – The London Underground's Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway opens.

    Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway

    Route map of the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway.
    Geographic route map of Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway

    The Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway (CCE&HR), also known as the Hampstead Tube, was a railway company established in 1891 that constructed a deep-level underground "tube" railway in London.[note 1] Construction of the CCE&HR was delayed for more than a decade while funding was sought. In 1900 it became a subsidiary of the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL), controlled by American financier Charles Yerkes. The UERL quickly raised the funds, mainly from foreign investors. Various routes were planned, but a number of these were rejected by Parliament. Plans for tunnels under Hampstead Heath were authorised, despite opposition by many local residents who believed they would damage the ecology of the Heath.

    When opened in 1907, the CCE&HR's line served 16 stations and ran for 7.67 miles (12.34 km)[1] in a pair of tunnels between its southern terminus at Charing Cross and its two northern termini at Archway and Golders Green. Extensions in 1914 and the mid-1920s took the railway to Edgware and under the River Thames to Kennington, serving 23 stations over a distance of 14.19 miles (22.84 km).[1] In the 1920s the route was connected to another of London's deep-level tube railways, the City and South London Railway (C&SLR), and services on the two lines were merged into a single London Underground line, eventually called the Northern line.

    Within the first year of opening, it became apparent to the management and investors that the estimated passenger numbers for the CCE&HR and the other UERL lines had been over-optimistic. Despite improved integration and cooperation with the other tube railways, and the later extensions, the CCE&HR struggled financially. In 1933 the CCE&HR and the rest of the UERL were taken into public ownership. Today, the CCE&HR's tunnels and stations form the Northern line's Charing Cross branch from Kennington to Camden Town, the Edgware branch from Camden Town to Edgware, and the High Barnet branch from Camden Town to Archway.

    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ a b Length of line calculated from distances given at "Clive's Underground Line Guides, Northern line, Layout". Clive D. W. Feather. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
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    23 June 1972 – U.S. President Richard M. Nixon and White House Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman are taped talking about illegally using the Central Intelligence Agency to obstruct the Federal Bureau of Investigation's investigation into the Watergate break-ins.

    Watergate scandal

    The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal in the United States involving the administration of U.S. President Richard Nixon from 1972 to 1974 that led to Nixon's resignation. The scandal stemmed from the Nixon administration's continual attempts to cover up its involvement in the June 17, 1972 break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Washington, D.C., Watergate Office Building. After the five perpetrators were arrested, the press and the U.S. Justice Department connected the cash found on them at the time to the Committee for the Re-Election of the President.[1][2] Further investigations, along with revelations during subsequent trials of the burglars, led the U.S. House of Representatives to grant the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary additional investigation authority to probe into "certain matters within its jurisdiction",[3][4] and the U.S. Senate to create the U.S. Senate Watergate Committee. The resulting Senate Watergate hearings were broadcast "gavel-to-gavel" nationwide by PBS and aroused public interest.[5] Witnesses testified that Nixon had approved plans to cover up administration involvement in the break-in, and that there was a voice-activated taping system in the Oval Office.[6][7] Throughout the investigation, the administration resisted its probes, which led to a constitutional crisis.[8]

    Several major revelations and egregious presidential action against the investigation later in 1973 prompted the House to commence an impeachment process against Nixon.[9] The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had to release the Oval Office tapes to government investigators. The Nixon White House tapes revealed that he had conspired to cover up activities that took place after the break-in and later tried to use federal officials to deflect the investigation.[10][11] The House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment against Nixon for obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of Congress. With his complicity in the cover-up made public and his political support completely eroded, Nixon resigned from office on August 9, 1974. It is believed that, if he had not done so, he would have been impeached by the House and removed from office by a trial in the Senate.[12][13] He is the only U.S. president to have resigned from office. On September 8, 1974, Nixon's successor, Gerald Ford, pardoned him.

    There were 69 people indicted and 48 people—many of them top Nixon administration officials—convicted.[14] The metonym Watergate came to encompass an array of clandestine and often illegal activities undertaken by members of the Nixon administration, including bugging the offices of political opponents and people of whom Nixon or his officials were suspicious; ordering investigations of activist groups and political figures; and using the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Internal Revenue Service as political weapons.[15] The use of the suffix -gate after an identifying term has since become synonymous with public scandal, especially political scandal.[16][17][18][19][20]

    1. ^ Perry, James M. "Watergate Case Study". Class Syllabus for "Critical Issues in Journalism". Columbia School of Journalism, Columbia University. Archived from the original on July 15, 2019. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
    2. ^ Dickinson, William B.; Cross, Mercer; Polsky, Barry (1973). Watergate: chronology of a crisis. Vol. 1. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc. pp. 8, 133, 140, 180, 188. ISBN 0-87187-059-2. OCLC 20974031.
    3. ^ Rybicki, Elizabeth; Greene, Michael (October 10, 2019). "The Impeachment Process in the House of Representatives". CRS Report for Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. pp. 5–7. R45769. Archived from the original on January 22, 2020. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
    4. ^ "H.Res.74 – 93rd Congress, 1st Session". congress.gov. February 28, 1973. Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
    5. ^ ""Gavel-to-Gavel": The Watergate Scandal and Public Television". American Archive of Public Broadcasting. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
    6. ^ "A burglary turns into a constitutional crisis". CNN. June 16, 2004. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
    7. ^ "Senate Hearings: Overview". fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
    8. ^ "A burglary turns into a constitutional crisis". CNN. June 16, 2004. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
    9. ^ Manheim, Karl; Solum, Lawrence B. (Spring 1999). "Nixon Articles of Impeachment". Impeachment Seminar. Archived from the original on March 3, 2017.
    10. ^ "The Smoking Gun Tape" (Transcript of the recording of a meeting between President Nixon and H. R. Haldeman). Watergate.info website. June 23, 1972. Archived from the original on May 1, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
    11. ^ White, Theodore Harold (1975). Breach of Faith: The Fall of Richard Nixon. New York: Atheneum Publishers. p. 7. ISBN 0-689-10658-0. OCLC 1370091.
    12. ^ White (1975), Breach of Faith, p. 29. "And the most punishing blow of all was to come in late afternoon when the President received, in his Oval Office, the Congressional leaders of his party—Barry Goldwater, Hugh Scott and John Rhodes. The accounts of all three coincide. Goldwater averred that there were not more than fifteen votes left in his support in the Senate."
    13. ^ Dash, Samuel (1976). Chief Counsel: Inside the Ervin Committee – The Untold Story of Watergate. New York: Random House. pp. 259–260. ISBN 0-394-40853-5. OCLC 2388043. Soon Alexander Haig and James St. Clair learned of the existence of this tape and they were convinced that it would guarantee Nixon's impeachment in the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate.
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference convictions was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Ervin, Sam, U.S. Senator, et al., Final Report of the Watergate Committee]
    16. ^ Trahair, R.C.S From Aristotelian to Reaganomics: A Dictionary of Eponyms With Biographies in the Social Sciences. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994. ISBN 0-313-27961-6
    17. ^ Smith, Ronald D. and Richter, William Lee. Fascinating People and Astounding Events From American History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1993. ISBN 0-87436-693-3
    18. ^ Lull, James and Hinerman, Stephen. Media Scandals: Morality and Desire in the Popular Culture Marketplace. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-231-11165-7
    19. ^ Hamilton, Dagmar S. "The Nixon Impeachment and the Abuse of Presidential Power", In Watergate and Afterward: The Legacy of Richard M. Nixon. Leon Friedman and William F. Levantrosser, eds. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1992. ISBN 0-313-27781-8
    20. ^ "El 'valijagate' sigue dando disgustos a Cristina Fernández | Internacional". El País. November 4, 2008. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
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    24 June 1793 – The first Republican constitution in France is adopted.

    French Constitution of 1793

    The Constitution of 1793 (French: Acte constitutionnel du 24 juin 1793), also known as the Constitution of the Year I or the Montagnard Constitution, was the second constitution ratified for use during the French Revolution under the First Republic. Designed by the Montagnards, principally Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Saint-Just, it was intended to replace the constitutional monarchy of 1791 and the Girondin constitutional project.[1] With sweeping plans for democratization and wealth redistribution, the new document promised a significant departure from the relatively moderate goals of the Revolution in previous years.

    However, the Constitution's radical provisions were never implemented. The government placed a moratorium upon it, ostensibly because of the need to employ emergency war powers during the French Revolutionary War. Those same emergency powers would permit the Committee of Public Safety to conduct the Reign of Terror, and when that period of violent political combat was over, the constitution was invalidated by its association with the defeated Robespierre. In the Thermidorian Reaction, it was discarded in favor of a more conservative document, the Constitution of 1795.

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    25 June 2017 – The World Health Organization estimates that Yemen has over 200,000 cases of cholera.

    2016–2022 Yemen cholera outbreak

    An outbreak of cholera began in Yemen in October 2016.[2][3][4] The outbreak peaked in 2017 with over 2000 reported deaths in that year alone.[5][6] As of November 2021, there have been more than 2.5 million cases reported, and more than 4,000 people have died in the Yemen cholera outbreak, which the United Nations deemed the worst humanitarian crisis in the world at that time.[7][8] However, the outbreak has substantially decreased by 2021, with a successful vaccination program implemented and only 5,676 suspected cases with two deaths reported between January 1 and March 6 of 2021.[9]

    Vulnerable to water-borne diseases before the conflict, 16 months went by before a program of oral vaccines was started.[7] The cholera outbreak was worsened as a result of the ongoing civil war and the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthi movement that began in March 2015.[7][6] Airstrikes damaged hospital infrastructure,[10] and water supply and sanitation in Yemen were affected by the ongoing conflict.[6][11] The government of Yemen stopped funding public health in 2016;[12] sanitation workers were not paid by the government, causing garbage to accumulate,[10] and healthcare workers either fled the country or were not paid.[6]

    The UNICEF and World Health Organization (WHO) executive directors stated: "This deadly cholera outbreak is the direct consequence of two years of heavy conflict. Collapsing health, water and sanitation systems have cut off 14.5 million people from regular access to clean water and sanitation, increasing the ability of the disease to spread. Rising rates of malnutrition have weakened children's health and made them more vulnerable to disease. An estimated 30,000 dedicated local health workers who play the largest role in ending this outbreak have not been paid their salaries for nearly ten months."[13]

    1. ^ a b "CHOLERA SITUATION IN YEMEN" (PDF). WHO OCHA reliefweb. December 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
    2. ^ Raslan R, El Sayegh S, Chams S, Chams N, Leone A, Hajj Hussein I (2017). "Re-Emerging Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in War-Affected Peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean Region-An Update". Frontiers in Public Health (Review). 5: 283. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2017.00283. PMC 5661270. PMID 29119098.
    3. ^ "Yemen: Health Cluster Bulletin, December 2020 - Yemen". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference :5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ "WHO EMRO Outbreak update - cholera in Yemen, 19 December 2017 Cholera Epidemic and pandemic diseases". www.emro.who.int.
    6. ^ a b c d Qadri F, Islam T, Clemens JD (November 2017). "Cholera in Yemen - An Old Foe Rearing Its Ugly Head". The New England Journal of Medicine. 377 (21): 2005–2007. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1712099. PMID 29091747.
    7. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference Federspiel was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "Humanitarian crisis in Yemen remains the worst in the world, warns UN". UN News. United Nations. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference unicef_2021 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ a b Snyder S (15 May 2017). "Thousands in Yemen get sick in an entirely preventable cholera outbreak". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
    11. ^ "Access to water continues to be jeopardized for millions of children in war-torn Yemen". UNICEF. 24 July 2018. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Guardian12October was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference WHO_UNICEF was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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