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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

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    2 October 2006 – Five Amish girls are murdered in a shooting at a school in Pennsylvania, United States

    West Nickel Mines School shooting

    Coordinates: 39°57′37″N 76°05′04″W / 39.96021°N 76.084393°W / 39.96021; -76.084393

    On October 2, 2006, a shooting occurred at the West Nickel Mines School, an Amish one-room schoolhouse in the Old Order Amish community of Nickel Mines, a village in Bart Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.[1][2][3] Gunman Charles Carl Roberts IV took hostages and shot ten girls (aged 6–13), killing five, before committing suicide in the schoolhouse.[1][2][3][4] The emphasis on forgiveness and reconciliation in the Amish community's response was widely discussed by the national media. The West Nickel Mines School was later demolished, and a new one-room schoolhouse, the New Hope School, was built at another location.

    1. ^ a b "Six killed in Pennsylvania school attack". SignOnSanDiego.com. October 2, 2006. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2006.
    2. ^ a b "Gunman Opens Fire In Amish School 'Revenge'". CBS. October 3, 2006. Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved October 3, 2006.
    3. ^ a b "Police: School killer told wife he molested family members". CNN. October 3, 2006. Retrieved October 3, 2006.
    4. ^ "Fifth girl dies after Amish school shooting". CNN. October 3, 2006. Retrieved October 3, 2006.
     
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    3 October 1789 – George Washington proclaims a Thanksgiving Day for that year.

    Thanksgiving (United States)

    Thanksgiving at Plymouth, oil on canvas by Jennie Augusta Brownscombe, 1925 National Museum of Women in the Arts

    Thanksgiving is a federal holiday in the United States, celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November.[2] It is sometimes called American Thanksgiving (outside the United States) to distinguish it from the Canadian holiday of the same name and related celebrations in other regions. It originated as a day of thanksgiving and harvest festival, with the theme of the holiday revolving around giving thanks and the centerpiece of Thanksgiving celebrations remaining a Thanksgiving dinner.[3] The dinner traditionally consists of foods and dishes indigenous to the Americas, namely turkey, potatoes (usually mashed or sweet), stuffing, squash, corn (maize), green beans, cranberries (typically in sauce form), and pumpkin pie. Other Thanksgiving customs include charitable organizations offering Thanksgiving dinner for the poor, attending religious services, watching parades, and viewing football games.[1] In American culture Thanksgiving is regarded as the beginning of the fall–winter holiday season, which includes Christmas and the New Year.

    New England and Virginia colonists originally celebrated days of fasting, as well as days of thanksgiving, thanking God for blessings such as harvests, ship landings, military victories, or the end of a drought.[4] These were observed through church services, accompanied with feasts and other communal gatherings.[3] The event that Americans commonly call the "First Thanksgiving" was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World in October 1621.[5] This feast lasted three days and was attended by 90 Wampanoag Native American people[6] and 53 Pilgrims (survivors of the Mayflower).[7] Less widely known is an earlier Thanksgiving celebration in Virginia in 1619 by English settlers who had just landed at Berkeley Hundred aboard the ship Margaret.[8]

    Thanksgiving has been celebrated nationally on and off since 1789, with a proclamation by President George Washington after a request by Congress.[9] President Thomas Jefferson chose not to observe the holiday, and its celebration was intermittent until President Abraham Lincoln, in 1863, proclaimed a national day of "Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the Heavens", calling on the American people to also, "with humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience .. fervently implore the interposition of the Almighty hand to heal the wounds of the nation...". Lincoln declared it for the last Thursday in November.[10][11] On June 28, 1870, President Ulysses S. Grant signed into law the Holidays Act that made Thanksgiving a yearly appointed federal holiday in Washington D.C.[12][13][14] On January 6, 1885, an act by Congress made Thanksgiving, and other federal holidays, a paid holiday for all federal workers throughout the United States.[15] Under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the date was moved to one week earlier, observed between 1939 and 1941 amid significant controversy. From 1942 onwards, Thanksgiving, by an act of Congress received a permanent observation date, the fourth Thursday in November, no longer at the discretion of the President.[16][17]

    1. ^ a b Counihan, Carole (October 18, 2013). Food in the USA: A Reader. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-135-32359-2. Football games are scheduled and televised throughout the nation; an elaborately constructed, now traditional Macy's parade may be viewed. There are special services, which some attend, and turkeys and other foods are given by churches and other charitable organizations to the poor.
    2. ^ Brown, Tanya Ballard (November 21, 2012). "How Did Thanksgiving End Up On The Fourth Thursday?". NPR.
    3. ^ a b Forbes, Bruce David (October 27, 2015). America's Favorite Holidays: Candid Histories. University of California Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-520-28472-2. However, Puritans did participate in occasional days of fasting and days of thanksgiving, sometimes declared by the Church of England but developed even further by the Puritans. ... A day of thanksgiving might be declared to celebrate and thank God for particular military victory, or good health following a wave of disease, or an especially bountiful harvest that saved people from starvation. ... The annual days of thanksgiving consisted mainly of worship services and family dinners, and this was repeated over the years.
    4. ^ "Thanksgiving Day". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
    5. ^ Bradford 1952, pp. 85–92.
    6. ^ Winslow, Edward (1622), Mourt's Relation (PDF), p. 133, retrieved November 20, 2013, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and amongst the rest their greatest king Massasoyt, with some ninetie men, whom for three dayes we entertained and feasted
    7. ^ "Primary Sources for 'The First Thanksgiving' at Plymouth" (PDF). Pilgrim Hall Museum. Retrieved November 26, 2009. The 53 Pilgrims at the First Thanksgiving
    8. ^ "The First Thanksgiving". National Geographic. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
    9. ^ Frank, Priscilla (November 28, 2013). "Christie's Is Selling The Proclamation That Established Thanksgiving, Signed By George Washington". HuffPost. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference NetINS Showcase-AB was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ President Abraham Lincoln's Thanksgiving Day Proclamation of October 3, 1863 (Presidential Proclamation 106). Series: Presidential Proclamations, 1778–2006. National Archives and Records Administration (United States). Retrieved January 10, 2017.
    12. ^ Statutes at Large 1871.
    13. ^ Stathis 1999, pp. 6–7.
    14. ^ Belz 2017.
    15. ^ Straus 2014, pp. 1–2.
    16. ^ "The Year We Had Two Thanksgivings". Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Marist College. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
    17. ^ Straus 2014, pp. 4–5.
     
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    4 October 1883 – First run of the Orient Express.

    Orient Express

    The Orient Express was a long-distance passenger train service created in 1883 by the Belgian company Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits (CIWL) that operated until 2009. The train traveled the length of continental Europe and into western Asia, with terminal stations in Paris and London in the northwest and Athens or Istanbul in the southeast.

    The route and rolling stock of the Orient Express changed many times. Several routes in the past concurrently used the Orient Express name, or slight variations. Although the original Orient Express was simply a normal international railway service, the name became synonymous with intrigue and luxury rail travel. The two city names most prominently served and associated with the Orient Express are Paris and Istanbul,[1][2] the original endpoints of the timetabled service.[3] The Orient Express was a showcase of luxury and comfort at a time when travelling was still rough and dangerous.[citation needed]

    In 1977, the Orient Express stopped serving Istanbul. Its immediate successor, a through overnight service from Paris to Bucharest, was later cut back in 1991 to Budapest, and in 2001 was again shortened to Vienna, before departing for the last time from Paris on Friday 8 June 2007.[4][5] After this, the route, still called the "Orient Express", was shortened to start from Strasbourg instead,[6] occasioned by the inauguration of the LGV Est which afforded much shorter travel times from Paris to Strasbourg. The new curtailed service left Strasbourg at 22:20 daily, shortly after the arrival of a TGV from Paris, and was attached at Karlsruhe to the overnight sleeper service from Amsterdam to Vienna.

    On 14 December 2009, the Orient Express ceased to operate and the route disappeared from European railway timetables, reportedly a "victim of high-speed trains and cut-rate airlines".[7] Since 13 December 2021, an ÖBB Nightjet again runs three times per week on the Paris-Vienna route, although not branded as Orient Express.[8] The Venice-Simplon Orient Express train, a private venture by Belmond[9] using original CIWL carriages from the 1920s and 1930s, continues to run to and from various destinations in Europe, including the original route from Paris to Istanbul.[10]

    1. ^ "Orient-Express – train".
    2. ^ "Orient-Express". www.orient-express.eu.
    3. ^ Zax, David (1 March 2007). "A Brief History of the Orient Express". Smithsonian. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
    4. ^ Calder, Simon (22 August 2009). "Murder of the Orient Express – End of the line for celebrated train service". The Independent. London. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
    5. ^ "A History of the Orient Express". Agatha Christie Limited. 17 May 2011. Archived from the original on 24 April 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
    6. ^ "'hidden europe' magazine e-news Issue 2007/15". 7 June 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
    7. ^ "The Orient Express Takes Its Final Trip". NPR. 12 December 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
    8. ^ "France". ÖBB. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
    9. ^ "The Curious Rebranding of Orient-Express Hotels Into the Belmond Brand". Skift. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
    10. ^ "Venice Simplon-Orient-Express – Luxury Train from London to Venice". www.vsoe.com.
     
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    5 October 1974 – Bombs planted by the PIRA in pubs in Guildford kill four British soldiers and one civilian.

    Guildford pub bombings

    The Guildford pub bombings occurred on 5 October 1974 when the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated two 6-pound (2.7-kilogram) gelignite bombs at two pubs in Guildford, Surrey, England. The pubs were targeted because they were popular with British Army personnel stationed at Pirbright barracks. Four soldiers and one civilian were killed. Sixty-five people were wounded.

    1. ^ Sutton, Malcolm. "CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths".
    2. ^ Steven P. Moysey - The Road To Balcombe Street: The IRA Reign of Terror in London p. 87
     
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    6 October 1683 – Immigrant families found Germantown, Pennsylvania in the first major immigration of German people to America.

    German Americans

    German Americans (German: Deutschamerikaner, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃʔameʁɪˌkaːnɐ]) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry. With an estimated size of approximately 43 million in 2019, German Americans are the largest of the self-reported ancestry groups by the United States Census Bureau in its American Community Survey.[1] German Americans account for about one third of the total population of people of German ancestry in the world.[6][7]

    Very few of the German states had colonies in the new world. In the 1670s, the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the British colonies, settling primarily in Pennsylvania, New York and Virginia.

    The Mississippi Company of France moved thousands of Germans from Europe to Louisiana and to the German Coast, Orleans Territory between 1718 and 1750.[8]

    Immigration ramped up sharply, with eight million Germans arriving during the 19th century, seven and a half million just between 1820 and 1870.

    There is a "German belt" that extends all the way across the United States, from eastern Pennsylvania to the Oregon coast. Pennsylvania, with 3.5 million people of German ancestry, has the largest population of German-Americans in the U.S. and is home to one of the group's original settlements, Germantown (Philadelphia), founded in 1683 and the birthplace of the American antislavery movement in 1688, as well as the revolutionary Battle of Germantown.

    They were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, and pushed out of Germany by shortages of land and religious or political oppression.[9] Many arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, and others for the chance to start fresh in the New World. The arrivals before 1850 were mostly farmers who sought out the most productive land, where their intensive farming techniques would pay off. After 1840, many came to cities, where "Germania"—German-speaking districts—soon emerged.[10][11][12]

    German Americans established the first kindergartens in the United States,[13] introduced the Christmas tree tradition,[14][15] and introduced popular foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers to America.[16]

    The great majority of people with some German ancestry have become Americanized; fewer than 5% speak German. German-American societies abound, as do celebrations that are held throughout the country to celebrate German heritage of which the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City is one of the most well-known and is held every third Saturday in September. Oktoberfest celebrations and the German-American Day are popular festivities. There are major annual events in cities with German heritage including Chicago, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, San Antonio and St. Louis.

    Around 180,000 German citizens are living in the United States in 2020. [17]

    1. ^ a b "Table B04006 - People Reporting Ancestry - 2020 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
    2. ^ "6 Maps That Show How Ethnic Groups Are Divided Across America". Business Insider. September 8, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
    3. ^ "The Germans in America". Library of Congress. April 24, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
    4. ^ "Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 - Table 3" (PDF). Retrieved November 11, 2012.
    5. ^ One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society, p. 120.
    6. ^ "Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background". The Federal Ministry of the Interior of the Federal Republic of Germany. 2006. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009: 156 is the estimate which counts all people claiming ethnic German ancestry in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, and elsewhere.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
    7. ^ "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia" by Jeffrey Cole (2011), page 171.
    8. ^ Cuevas, John (January 10, 2014). Cat Island: The History of a Mississippi Gulf Coast Barrier Island. ISBN 9780786485789.
    9. ^ Robert C. Nesbit (2004). Wisconsin: A History. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 155–57. ISBN 9780299108045.
    10. ^ Zane L. Miller, "Cincinnati Germans and the Invention of an Ethnic Group", Queen City Heritage: The Journal of the Cincinnati Historical Society 42 (Fall 1984): 13-22
    11. ^ Bayrd Still, Milwaukee, the History of a City (1948) pp. 260–63, 299
    12. ^ On Illinois see, Raymond Lohne, "Team of Friends: A New Lincoln Theory and Legacy", Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society Fall/Winter2008, Vol. 101 Issue 3/4, pp 285–314
    13. ^ "Schurz, Margarethe [Meyer] (Mrs. Carl Schurz) 1833 - 1876". June 11, 2011. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
    14. ^ "The History of Christmas", Gareth Marples, archived from the original on June 28, 2006, retrieved December 2, 2006
    15. ^ Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs. "Professor Brought Christmas Tree to New England". News.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on August 23, 1999. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
    16. ^ "The Home of the Hamburger: History". Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
    17. ^ "Auswandern in die USA - das Land der unbegrenzten Möglichkeiten". Wohin-Auswandern.de (in German). January 13, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2022.
     
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    7 October 1996Fox News Channel begins broadcasting.

    Fox News

    The Fox News Channel, abbreviated FNC, commonly known as Fox News, and stylized in all caps, is an American multinational conservative cable news television channel based in New York City.[3][4] It is owned by Fox News Media, which itself is owned by the Fox Corporation.[5] The channel broadcasts primarily from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in Midtown Manhattan. Fox News provides service to 86 countries and overseas territories worldwide,[6] with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks.[7]

    The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch in 1996 to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO.[8][9] It launched on October 7, 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers.[10] Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant United States cable news subscription network.[11] As of September 2018, approximately 87,118,000 U.S. households (90.8% of television subscribers) received Fox News.[12] In 2019, Fox News was the top-rated cable network, averaging 2.5 million viewers.[13][14][15] As of April 2022, Murdoch is the executive chairman since 2016,[16][17] and Suzanne Scott has been the CEO since 2018.[18]

    Fox News controversies have included, among others, practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, its politicians, and conservative causes,[19][20][21] while portraying the Democratic Party in a negative light.[22][23] Critics have argued that the channel is damaging to the integrity of news overall.[24][25] Fox News has denied bias in its news reporting and the channel's official position is that its news reporting operates independently of its opinion journalism.[26][needs update] According to Pew Research Center, in 2019, 65 percent of Republicans and people who lean Republican trusted Fox News.[27]

    1. ^ "HD Channels | HD Report".
    2. ^ "Corporate Information". Press.FoxNews.com. Fox News Network, LLC. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
    3. ^ Nie, Norman H.; Miller, Darwin W., III; Golde, Saar; Butler, Daniel M.; Winneg, Kenneth (2010). "The World Wide Web and the U.S. Political News Market". American Journal of Political Science. 54 (2): 428–439. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2010.00439.x. ISSN 1540-5907.
    4. ^ Meyers, Christopher (July 2, 2020). "Partisan News, the Myth of Objectivity, and the Standards of Responsible Journalism". Journal of Media Ethics. 35 (3): 180–194. doi:10.1080/23736992.2020.1780131. ISSN 2373-6992. S2CID 221538960.
    5. ^ "Media Relations". Fox News. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
    6. ^ "Where in the World is FOX?". Fox News. March 1, 2011. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
    7. ^ "Fox plans to run sponsored stories during ad breaks this fall". FierceVideo. June 18, 2018. Archived from the original on October 21, 2020. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
    8. ^ Mifflin, Lawrie (October 7, 1996). "At the new Fox News Channel, the buzzword is fairness, separating news from bias". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
    9. ^ Richwine, Lisa; Gibson, Ginger (July 21, 2016). "Divisive Ailes gave conservatives a TV home at Fox News". Reuters. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference King was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Gillette, Felix (October 1, 2008). "Viewers Continuing to Flock to Cable News Networks". The New York Observer. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
    12. ^ Bucholtz, Andrew (September 10, 2018). "Nielsen coverage estimates for September see gains at ESPN networks, NBCSN, and NBA TV, drops at MLBN and NFLN". Awful Announcing. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
    13. ^ Joyella, Mark (December 11, 2019). "Fox News Ends 2019 With Biggest Prime Time Ratings Ever". Forbes. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
    14. ^ Andreeva, Nellie; Johnson, Ted (December 27, 2019). "Cable Ratings 2019: Fox News Tops Total Viewers, ESPN Wins 18–49 Demo As Entertainment Networks Slide". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
    15. ^ Schneider, Michael (December 26, 2019). "Most-Watched Television Networks: Ranking 2019's Winners and Losers". Variety. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
    16. ^ Reilly, Katie (July 21, 2016). "Roger Ailes Resigns From Fox News Amid Sexual Harassment Accusations". Time. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
    17. ^ Redden, Molly (July 21, 2016). "Roger Ailes leaves Fox News in wake of sexual harassment claims". The Guardian. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
    18. ^ Steinberg, Brian (May 17, 2018). "Suzanne Scott Named CEO of Fox News". Variety. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
    19. ^ Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Cappella, Joseph N. (February 4, 2010). Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19539-860-1. We do this to illustrate the ways Fox News, Limbaugh, and the print and web editorial pages of the Wall Street Journal play both offense and defense in service of conservative objectives. As these case studies will suggest, the big three reinforce each other's conservative messages in ways that distinguish them from the other major broadcast media, CBS News, NBC News, ABC News, CNN, MSNBC, CNBC and major print outlets such as the Washington Post and New York Times.
    20. ^ Skocpol, Theda; Williamson, Vanessa (September 1, 2016). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 5, 8, 86, 123, 125, 130–140. ISBN 978-0-19063-366-0. ... the challenge of spreading and germinating the Tea Party idea was surmounted with impressive ease because a major sector of the U.S. media today is openly partisan—including Fox News Channel, the right-wing 'blogosphere,' and a nationwide network of right- wing talk radio programs. This aptly named conservative media 'echo chamber' reaches into the homes of many Americans ... Towering above all others is the Fox News empire, the loudest voice in conservative media. Despite its claim to be "fair and balanced," multiple studies have documented FNC's conservative stance ... Fox News's conservative slant encourages a particular worldview.
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference :34 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Grossman, Matt; Hopkins, David A. (October 13, 2016). Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-19062-660-0.
    23. ^ Bard, Mitchell T. (June 2017). "Propaganda, Persuasion, or Journalism?: Fox News' Prime-Time Coverage of Health-Care Reform in 2009 and 2014". Electronic News. 11 (2): 100–118. doi:10.1177/1931243117710278. S2CID 148586375.
    24. ^ Collings, Anthony (2010). Capturing the News: Three Decades of Reporting Crisis and Conflict. University of Missouri Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-8262-7211-9.
    25. ^ McCollum, Jonathan; Hebert, David G. (2014). Theory and Method in Historical Ethnomusicology. Lexington Books. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-4985-0705-9.
    26. ^ "White House Escalates War of Words With Fox News". Fox News. October 12, 2009. Archived from the original on October 17, 2009. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
    27. ^ Jurkowitz, Mark; Mitchell, Amy; Shearer, Elisa; Walker, Mason (January 24, 2020). "U.S. Media Polarization and the 2020 Election: A Nation Divided". Pew Research Center's Journalism Project. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
     
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    8 October 2016 – In the wake of Hurricane Matthew, the death toll rises to nearly 900.

    Hurricane Matthew

    Hurricane Matthew was an extremely powerful Atlantic hurricane which caused catastrophic damage and a humanitarian crisis in Haiti, as well as widespread devastation in the southeastern United States. The deadliest Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Stan in 2005, and the first Category 5 Atlantic hurricane since Felix in 2007, Matthew was the thirteenth named storm, fifth hurricane and second major hurricane of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season. It caused extensive damage to landmasses in the Greater Antilles, and severe damage in several islands of the Bahamas which were still recovering from Joaquin, which had pounded the archipelago nearly a year earlier. Matthew also approached the southeastern United States, but stayed just offshore, paralleling the Florida coastline.

    Originating from a tropical wave that emerged off Africa on September 22, Matthew developed into a tropical storm just east of the Lesser Antilles on September 28. It became a hurricane north of Venezuela and Colombia on September 29, before undergoing explosive intensification, ultimately reaching Category 5 intensity on October 1 with peak 1-minute sustained winds of 165 mph. This strength was attained at just 13.4°N latitude – the lowest latitude ever recorded for a storm of this intensity in the Atlantic basin, breaking the record set by Hurricane Ivan in 2004.[1] Matthew weakened slightly and fluctuated in intensity while making a northward turn toward the Greater Antilles, remaining a strong Category 4 hurricane as it made its first landfall over Haiti's Tiburon Peninsula early on October 4, and then a second one in Cuba later that day. Matthew weakened somewhat but re-intensified as it tracked northwest, making landfall in the northern Bahamas. The storm then paralleled the coast of the southeastern United States over the next 36 hours, gradually weakening while remaining just offshore before making its fourth and final landfall over the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge near McClellanville, South Carolina as a Category 1 hurricane on the morning of October 8. Matthew re-emerged into the Atlantic shortly afterward, eventually completing its transition into an extratropical cyclone as it turned away from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina on October 9. The remnants of Matthew continued to accelerate towards Canada where it was absorbed by a cold front.[2]

    Widespread effects were felt from Matthew across its destructive path, however, the most significant impacts were felt in Haiti, with US$2.8 billion in damage and 546 deaths, making Matthew the worst disaster to affect the nation since the 2010 earthquake. The combination of flooding and high winds disrupted telecommunications and destroyed extensive swaths of land; around 80% of Jérémie sustained significant damage. Four people were killed in Cuba due to a bridge collapse, and total losses in the country amounted to US$2.58 billion, most of which occurred in the Guantánamo Province. Passing through the Bahamas as a major hurricane, Matthew spread damage across several islands. Grand Bahama was hit directly, where most homes sustained damage in the townships of Eight Mile Rock and Holmes Rock. Preparations began in earnest across the southeastern United States as Matthew approached, with several states declaring states of emergencies for either entire states or coastal counties; widespread evacuations were ordered for extensive areas of the coast because of predicted high wind speeds and flooding, especially in the Jacksonville Metropolitan Area. In Florida, over 1 million lost power as the storm passed to the east, with 478,000 losing power in Georgia and South Carolina. While damage was primarily confined to the coast in Florida and Georgia, torrential rains spread inland in the Carolinas and Virginia, causing widespread flooding.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference TCR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Matthew Storm History". The Weather Channel. October 3, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
     
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    9 October 2006 – North Korea conducts its first nuclear test.

    2006 North Korean nuclear test

    Location of North Korea's Nuclear tests[5][6]
    12006; 22009; 32013; 42016-01; 52016-09; 62017;

    The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted by North Korea on October 9, 2006.

    On October 3, 2006, North Korea announced its intention to conduct a nuclear test.[7] The blast is generally estimated to have had an explosive force of less than one kiloton, and some radioactive output was detected.[8][9] United States officials suggested the device may have been a nuclear explosive that misfired.[8]

    An anonymous official at the North Korean Embassy in Beijing told a South Korean newspaper that the explosive output was smaller than expected.[10] Because of the secretive nature of North Korea and small yield of the test, there remains some question as to whether it was a successful test of an unusually small device (which would have required sophisticated technology), or a partially failed "fizzle" or dud. A scientific paper later estimated the yield as 0.48 kilotons.[1]

    Reportedly the Government of the People's Republic of China was given a 20-minute advance notification that the test was about to occur.[11] China sent an emergency alert to Washington, D.C., through the U.S. embassy in Beijing at which time President George W. Bush was told by National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley "shortly after" 10 p.m. (UTC-5) that a test was imminent.[12]

    1. ^ a b Lian-Feng Zhao, Xiao-Bi Xie, Wei-Min Wang, and Zhen-Xing Yao, "Regional Seismic Characteristics of the 9 October 2006 North Korean Nuclear Test Archived September 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, December 2008 98:2571–2589; doi:10.1785/0120080128
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference JaneWeekly was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Russia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference BGR2006 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ "Search Results". USGS.
    6. ^ "North Korea's Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site: Analysis Reveals Its Potential for Additional Testing with Significantly Higher Yields". 38North. March 10, 2017.
    7. ^ Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments, September 1, 2016, Wikidata Q59596578. See also Medalia, Jonathan. "Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments." Congressional Research Service. November 23, 2009. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4379-2746-7.
    8. ^ a b "U.S.: Test Points to N. Korea Nuke Blast". The Washington Post. October 13, 2006.
    9. ^ "North Korea Nuclear Test Confirmed by U.S. Intelligence Agency". Bloomberg. October 16, 2006. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2006.
    10. ^ "Dud or deception? Experts examine N. Korea claims". CNN. October 10, 2006. Archived from the original on October 28, 2006.
    11. ^ "North Korea says conducted nuclear test". Reuters. Retrieved October 9, 2006.[dead link]
    12. ^ "Test follows warning from U.N." International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on October 9, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2006.
     
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    10 October 1967 – The Outer Space Treaty comes into force.

    Outer Space Treaty

    The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a multilateral treaty that forms the basis of international space law. Negotiated and drafted under the auspices of the United Nations, it was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, entering into force on 10 October 1967. As of February 2022, 112 countries are parties to the treaty—including all major spacefaring nations—and another 23 are signatories.[1][5][6]

    The Outer Space Treaty was spurred by the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) in the 1950s, which could reach targets through outer space.[7] The Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, in October 1957, followed by a subsequent arms race with the United States, hastened proposals to prohibit the use of outer space for military purposes. On 17 October 1963, the U.N. General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution prohibiting the introduction of weapons of mass destruction in outer space. Various proposals for an arms control treaty governing outer space were debated during a General Assembly session in December 1966, culminating in the drafting and adoption of the Outer Space Treaty the following January.[8]

    Key provisions of the Outer Space Treaty include prohibiting nuclear weapons in space; limiting the use of the Moon and all other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes; establishing that space shall be freely explored and used by all nations; and precluding any country from claiming sovereignty over outer space or any celestial body. Although it forbids establishing military bases, testing weapons and conducting military maneuvers on celestial bodies, the treaty does not expressly ban all military activities in space, nor the establishment of military space forces or the placement of conventional weapons in space.[9][10] From 1968 to 1984, the OST birthed four additional agreements: rules for activities on the Moon; liability for damages caused by spacecraft; the safe return of fallen astronauts; and the registration of space vehicles.[11]

    OST provided many practical uses and was the most important link in the chain of international legal arrangements for space from the late 1950s to the mid-1980s. OST was at the heart of a 'network' of inter-state treaties and strategic power negotiations to achieve the best available conditions for nuclear weapons world security. The OST also declares that space is an area for free use and exploration by all and "shall be the province of all mankind". Drawing heavily from the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the Outer Space Treaty likewise focuses on regulating certain activities and preventing unrestricted competition that could lead to conflict.[12] Consequently, it is largely silent or ambiguous on newly developed space activities such as lunar and asteroid mining.[13][14][15] Nevertheless, the Outer Space Treaty is the first and most foundational legal instrument of space law,[16] and its broader principles of promoting the civil and peaceful use of space continue to underpin multilateral initiatives in space, such as the International Space Station and the Artemis Program.[17][18]

    1. ^ a b "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference UK was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference US was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference RU was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference unodacn was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ In addition, the Republic of China in Taiwan, which is currently recognized by 13 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971.
    7. ^ "Outer Space Treaty". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
    8. ^ "Outer Space Treaty". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
    9. ^ Shakouri Hassanabadi, Babak (30 July 2018). "Space Force and international space law". The Space Review. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
    10. ^ Irish, Adam (13 September 2018). "The Legality of a U.S. Space Force". OpinioJuris. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
    11. ^ Buono, Stephen (2 April 2020). "Merely a 'Scrap of Paper'? The Outer Space Treaty in Historical Perspective". Diplomacy and Statecraft. 31 (2): 350-372. doi:10.1080/09592296.2020.1760038. S2CID 221060714.
    12. ^ "Outer Space Treaty". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
    13. ^ If space is ‘the province of mankind’, who owns its resources? Senjuti Mallick and Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan. The Observer Research Foundation. 24 January 2019. Quote 1: "The Outer Space Treaty (OST) of 1967, considered the global foundation of the outer space legal regime, […] has been insufficient and ambiguous in providing clear regulations to newer space activities such as asteroid mining." *Quote2: "Although the OST does not explicitly mention "mining" activities, under Article II, outer space including the Moon and other celestial bodies are "not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty" through use, occupation or any other means."
    14. ^ Szoka, Berin; Dunstan, James (1 May 2012). "Law: Is Asteroid Mining Illegal?". Wired. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012.
    15. ^ Who Owns Space? US Asteroid-Mining Act Is Dangerous And Potentially Illegal. IFL. Accessed on 9 November 2019. Quote 1: "The act represents a full-frontal attack on settled principles of space law which are based on two basic principles: the right of states to scientific exploration of outer space and its celestial bodies and the prevention of unilateral and unbriddled commercial exploitation of outer-space resources. These principles are found in agreements including the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and the Moon Agreement of 1979." *Quote 2: "Understanding the legality of asteroid mining starts with the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. Some might argue the treaty bans all space property rights, citing Article II."
    16. ^ "Space Law". www.unoosa.org. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
    17. ^ "International Space Station legal framework". www.esa.int. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
    18. ^ "NASA: Artemis Accords". NASA. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
     
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    11 October 1987 – The AIDS Memorial Quilt is first displayed during the Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights.

    NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt

    The AIDS Quilt

    The NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt, often abbreviated to AIDS Memorial Quilt or AIDS Quilt, is an enormous memorial to celebrate the lives of people who have died of AIDS-related causes. Weighing an estimated 54 tons, it is the largest piece of community folk art in the world as of 2020.[1] It was conceived in 1985, during the early years of the AIDS pandemic, when social stigma prevented many AIDS victims from receiving funerals. It has been displayed on the Mall in Washington, D.C. several times.

    1. ^ "About- The Names Project". The Aids Memorial Quilt. The Names Project Foundation. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
     
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    12 October 1928 – An iron lung respirator is used for the first time at Boston Children's Hospital.

    Iron lung

    An iron lung is a type of negative pressure ventilator (NPV), a mechanical respirator which encloses most of a person's body, and varies the air pressure in the enclosed space, to stimulate breathing.[1][2][3][4] It assists breathing when muscle control is lost, or the work of breathing exceeds the person's ability.[1] Need for this treatment may result from diseases including polio and botulism and certain poisons (for example, barbiturates, tubocurarine).

    The use of iron lungs is largely obsolete in modern medicine, as more modern breathing therapies have been developed,[5] and due to the eradication of polio in most of the world.[6] However, in 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic revived some interest in the device as a cheap, readily-producible substitute for positive-pressure ventilators, which were feared to be outnumbered by patients potentially needing temporary artificially assisted respiration.[7][8][9][10]

    1. ^ a b Shneerson, Dr. John M., Newmarket General Hospital, (Newmarket, Suffolk, U.K.), "Non-invasive and domiciliary ventilation: negative pressure techniques," #5 of series "Assisted ventilation" in Thorax, 1991;46:131–35, retrieved April 12, 2020
    2. ^ Rockoff, Mark, M.D., "The Iron Lung and Polio,", video (8 minutes), January 11, 2016, OPENPediatrics and Boston Children's Hospital on YouTube, retrieved April 11, 2020 (historical background and images, explanatory diagrams, and live demonstrations)
    3. ^ Jackson, Christopher D., MD, Dept. of Internal Medicine, and Muthiah P Muthiah, MD, FCCP, D-ABSM, Assoc. Prof. of Medicine, Div. of Pulmonary / Critical Care / Sleep Medicine, Univ. of Tennessee College of Medicine-Memphis, et.al., "What is the background of the iron lung form of mechanical ventilation?," April 11, 2019, Medscape, retrieved April 12, 2020 (short summary of iron history and technology, with photo)
    4. ^ Grum, Cyril M., MD, and Melvin L. Morganroth, MD, "Initiating Mechanical Ventilation," in Intensive Care Medicine 1988;3:6–20, retrieved April 12, 2020
    5. ^ Corrado, A.; Ginanni, R.; Villella, G.; Gorini, M.; Augustynen, A.; Tozzi, D.; Peris, A.; Grifoni, S.; Messori, A.; Nozzoli, C.; Berni, G. (March 2004). "Iron lung versus conventional mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbation of COPD". The European Respiratory Journal. 23 (3): 419–24. doi:10.1183/09031936.04.00029304. ISSN 0903-1936. PMID 15065832.
    6. ^ Buncombe, Andrew (November 22, 2017). "America's last iron lung users on their lives spent inside obsolete ventilators". The Independent.
    7. ^ "Modern iron lung designed to address ventilator shortage,", April 6, 2020, New Atlas, retrieved April 11, 2020
    8. ^ Laderas, Crystal, reporter: "Alberta team building modern 'iron lung' for COVID-19 in dire environments,", (video & text), March 25, 2020, as updated March 26, 2020, City News / Citytv, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada – also broadcast as "Bioengineers build modern 'iron lung' for COVID-19 in dire environments: Scientists build a prototype 'iron lung' for COVID-19 patients in crisis environments. The machine is a last resort for patients when hospital ventilators are not available," (video only), March 25, 2020, 660 News / CityNews / Citytv, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, retrieved April 23, 2020
    9. ^ "One Kansas company is switching gears to make iron lung ventilators," (video & text), April 10, 2020, KSNW-TV, retrieved April 11, 2020
    10. ^ Allen, Margaret, "Hess offers iron lung for COVID-19," April 9, 2020, Hays Daily News, retrieved April 11, 2020
     
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    13 October 1977 – Hijacking of Lufthansa Flight 181 by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.

    Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine

    The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين, romanizedal-Jabhah al-Sha`biyyah li-Taḥrīr Filasṭīn, PFLP) is a secular Palestinian Marxist–Leninist and revolutionary socialist organization founded in 1967 by George Habash. It has consistently been the second-largest of the groups forming the Palestine Liberation Organization (the PLO, founded in 1964), the largest being Fatah (founded in 1959).

    Ahmad Sa'adat has served as General Secretary of the PFLP since 2001. He was sentenced in December 2006 to 30 years in an Israeli prison. The PFLP currently considers both the Fatah-led government in the West Bank and the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip illegal because elections to the Palestinian National Authority have not been held since 2006.[3] As of 2015, the PFLP boycotts participation in the PLO Executive Committee[4][5][6] and the Palestinian National Council.[7]

    The PFLP has generally taken a hard line on Palestinian national aspirations, opposing the more moderate stance of Fatah. It does not recognise the State of Israel, it opposes negotiations with the Israeli government, and favours a one-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The military wing of the PFLP is called the Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades. The PFLP is well known for pioneering armed aircraft-hijackings in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[8] According to PFLP Politburo member[9] and former aircraft-hijacker Leila Khaled, the PFLP does not see suicide bombing as a form of resistance to occupation or as a strategic action or policy and no longer carries out such attacks.[citation needed] The PFLP has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United States,[10] Japan,[11] Canada,[12] Australia[13] and the European Union.[14]

    From its foundation the PFLP sought both superpower and regional patrons, early on developing ties with the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, North Korea[15] and, at various times, with regional powers such as Syria, South Yemen, Libya and Iraq, as well as with left-wing groups around the world, including the FARC and the Japanese Red Army.[16] When that support diminished or stopped, in the late 1980s and 1990s, the PFLP sought new allies and developed contacts with Islamist groups linked to Iran, despite the PFLP's strong adherence to secularism and anti-clericalism. The relationship between the PFLP and the Islamic Republic of Iran has fluctuated – it strengthened as a result of Hamas moving away from Iran due to differing positions on the Syrian Civil War. Iran rewarded the PFLP for its pro-Assad stance with an increase in financial and military assistance.[17] The PFLP has been accused by Israel of diverting European humanitarian aid from Palestinian NGOs to itself.[18]

    1. ^ Profile: Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine BBC News, 18 November 2014
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference One-state solution was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Fatah slams Hamas' intention to reshuffle its deposed government". People's Daily Online. 26 December 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
    4. ^ Ibrahim, Arwa (13 February 2015). "PROFILE: The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine". Middle East Eye.
    5. ^ "Bringing the PFLP back into PLO fold?". Ma'an News Agency. 2 October 2010.
    6. ^ "Profile: Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)". BBC News. 18 November 2014.
    7. ^ Sawafta, Ali (30 April 2018). "Palestinian forum convenes after 22 years, beset by division". reuters.com.
    8. ^ "Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine". BBC News. 26 January 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
    9. ^ "Ms. Khaled is a member of the Politburo of the PFLP [...]". Archived from the original on 11 July 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
    10. ^ "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". U.S. Department of State.
    11. ^ "MOFA: Implementation of the Measures including the Freezing of Assets against Terrorists and the Like". Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
    12. ^ "About the listing process". Retrieved 17 July 2015.
    13. ^ "Israeli legal group threatens to sue Australian charity for funding terror group". Times of Israel. 14 October 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
    14. ^ "EUR-Lex - Official Journal of the European Union".
    15. ^ "How North Korea supports Palestine and aided Hamas | NK News". 20 May 2021. Archived from the original on 20 May 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
    16. ^ United States; Department of State; Office for Combatting Terrorism; United States; Department of State; Office of the Ambassador at Large for Counter-Terrorism; United States; Department of State; Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (1983). "Patterns of global terrorism". Patterns of Global Terrorism.: 20 – via WorldCat.
    17. ^ "Iran Increases Aid to PFLP Thanks to Syria Stance". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
    18. ^ "Four Palestinians to be charged with diverting European aid to terrorism". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com.
     
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    14 October 1962 – The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when an American reconnaissance aircraft takes photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles being installed in Cuba.

    Cuban Missile Crisis

    Universal Newsreel about the Cuban Missile Crisis

    The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis [of 1962] (Spanish: Crisis de Octubre) in Cuba, the Caribbean Crisis (Russian: Карибский кризис, tr. Karibsky krizis, IPA: [kɐˈrʲipskʲɪj ˈkrʲizʲɪs]) in Russia, or the Missile Scare, was a 35-day (16 October – 20 November 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union, which escalated into an international crisis when American deployments of missiles in Italy and Turkey were matched by Soviet deployments of similar ballistic missiles in Cuba. Despite the short time frame, the Cuban Missile Crisis remains a defining moment in national security and nuclear war preparation. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.[3]

    In response to the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey, the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961, and Soviet fears of a Cuban drift towards China, Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev agreed to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island to deter a future invasion. An agreement was reached during a secret meeting between Khrushchev and Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro in July 1962, and construction of a number of missile launch facilities started later that summer.

    Meanwhile, campaigning for the 1962 United States elections was underway, and the White House denied charges for months that it was ignoring dangerous Soviet missiles 90 mi (140 km) from Florida. The missile preparations were confirmed when a US Air Force U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of medium-range R-12 (NATO code name SS-4) and intermediate-range R-14 (NATO code name SS-5) ballistic missile facilities.

    When this was reported to President John F. Kennedy, he then convened a meeting of the nine members of the National Security Council and five other key advisers, in a group that became known as the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (EXCOMM). During this meeting, President Kennedy was originally advised to carry out an air strike on Cuban soil in order to compromise Soviet missile supplies, followed by an invasion of the Cuban mainland. After careful consideration, President Kennedy chose a less aggressive course of action, in order to avoid a declaration of war. After consultation with EXCOMM, Kennedy ordered a naval "quarantine" on October 22 to prevent further missiles from reaching Cuba.[4] By using the term "quarantine", rather than "blockade" (an act of war by legal definition), the United States was able to avoid the implications of a state of war.[5] The US announced it would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba and demanded that the weapons already in Cuba be dismantled and returned to the Soviet Union.

    After several days of tense negotiations, an agreement was reached between Kennedy and Khrushchev: publicly, the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in exchange for a US public declaration and agreement to not invade Cuba again. Secretly, the United States agreed with the Soviets that it would dismantle all of the Jupiter MRBMs which had been deployed to Turkey against the Soviet Union. There has been debate on whether or not Italy was included in the agreement as well. While the Soviets dismantled their missiles, some Soviet bombers remained in Cuba, and the United States kept the naval quarantine in place until November 20, 1962.[5]

    When all offensive missiles and the Ilyushin Il-28 light bombers had been withdrawn from Cuba, the blockade was formally ended on November 20. The negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union pointed out the necessity of a quick, clear, and direct communication line between the two superpowers. As a result, the Moscow–Washington hotline was established. A series of agreements later reduced US–Soviet tensions for several years, until both parties eventually resumed expanding their nuclear arsenals.

    1. ^ Holtsmark, Sven G.; Neumann, Iver B.; Westad, Odd Arne (July 27, 2016). Sven G. Holtsmark, Iver B. Neumann, Odd Arne Westad, Springer, 27 iul. 2016, The Soviet Union in Eastern Europe, 1945–89, p. 99. ISBN 9781349232345.
    2. ^ "Milestones: 1961–1968 – The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962". history.state.gov. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019.
    3. ^ Scott, Len; Hughes, R. Gerald (2015). The Cuban Missile Crisis: A Critical Reappraisal. Taylor & Francis. p. 17. ISBN 9781317555414. Archived from the original on July 29, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
    4. ^ Society, National Geographic (April 21, 2021). "Kennedy 'Quarantines' Cuba". National Geographic Society. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
    5. ^ a b Jonathan, Colman (April 1, 2019). "The U.S. Legal Case for the Blockade of Cuba during the Missile Crisis, October-November 1962". Journal of Cold War Studies.
     
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    15 October 1793 – Queen Marie Antoinette of France is tried and convicted of treason

    Marie Antoinette

    Marie Antoinette Josèphe Jeanne (/ˌæntwəˈnɛt, ˌɒ̃t-/;[1] French: [maʁi ɑ̃twanɛt] (listen); née Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last queen of France before the French Revolution. She was born an archduchess of Austria, and was the penultimate child and youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I. She became dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne. On 10 May 1774, her husband ascended the throne as Louis XVI and she became queen.

    Marie Antoinette's position at court improved when, after eight years of marriage, she started having children. She became increasingly unpopular among the people, however, with the French libelles accusing her of being profligate, promiscuous, allegedly having illegitimate children, and harboring sympathies for France's perceived enemies—particularly her native Austria. The false accusations of the Affair of the Diamond Necklace damaged her reputation further. During the Revolution, she became known as Madame Déficit because the country's financial crisis was blamed on her lavish spending and her opposition to the social and financial reforms of Turgot and Necker.

    Several events were linked to Marie Antoinette during the Revolution after the government had placed the royal family under house arrest in the Tuileries Palace in October 1789. The June 1791 attempted flight to Varennes and her role in the War of the First Coalition had disastrous effects on French popular opinion. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the royal family to take refuge at the Assembly, and they were imprisoned in the Temple Prison on 13 August. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. Louis XVI was executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. Marie Antoinette's trial began on 14 October 1793; she was convicted two days later by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason and executed, also by guillotine, at the Place de la Révolution.

    1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8.
     
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    16 October 1847 – The novel Jane Eyre is published in London

    Jane Eyre

    Jane Eyre (/ɛər/ AIR; originally published as Jane Eyre: An Autobiography) is a novel by the English writer Charlotte Brontë. It was published under her pen name "Currer Bell" on 19 October 1847 by Smith, Elder & Co. of London. The first American edition was published the following year by Harper & Brothers of New York.[2] Jane Eyre is a Bildungsroman which follows the experiences of its eponymous heroine, including her growth to adulthood and her love for Mr Rochester, the brooding master of Thornfield Hall.[3]

    The novel revolutionised prose fiction by being the first to focus on its protagonist's moral and spiritual development through an intimate first-person narrative, where actions and events are coloured by a psychological intensity. Charlotte Brontë has been called the "first historian of the private consciousness", and the literary ancestor of writers like Marcel Proust and James Joyce.[4]

    The book contains elements of social criticism with a strong sense of Christian morality at its core, and it is considered by many to be ahead of its time because of Jane's individualistic character and how the novel approaches the topics of class, sexuality, religion, and feminism.[5][6] It, along with Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, is one of the most famous romance novels.[7]

    1. ^ "On Tuesday next will be published, and may be had at all the libraries, JANE EYRE. An Autobiography. Edited by Currer Bell. 3 vols, post 8vo. London: Smith, Elder, and Co., 65, Cornhill". Daily News (London). 13 October 1847. p. 1.
    2. ^ "The HarperCollins Timeline". HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
    3. ^ Lollar, Cortney. "Jane Eyre: A Bildungsroman". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
    4. ^ Burt, Daniel S. (2008). The Literature 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Novelists, Playwrights, and Poets of All Time. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438127064.
    5. ^ Gilbert, Sandra; Gubar, Susan (1979). The Madwoman in the Attic. Yale University Press.
    6. ^ Martin, Robert B. (1966). Charlotte Brontë's Novels: The Accents of Persuasion. New York: Norton.
    7. ^ Roberts, Timothy (2011). Jane Eyre. p. 8.
     
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    17 October 1979Mother Teresa is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

    Mother Teresa

    Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu, MC (pronounced [bɔjaˈdʒiu]; 26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), better known as Mother Teresa (Albanian: Nënë Tereza), was an Indian-Albanian Catholic nun who, in 1950, founded the Missionaries of Charity. Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (pronounced [aˈɲɛzə ˈɡɔndʒɛ bɔjaˈdʒiu]) was born in Skopje—at the time, part of the Ottoman Empire.[a] After eighteen years, she moved to Ireland and then to India, where she lived most of her life. Saint Teresa of Calcutta[b] was canonised on 4 September 2016. The anniversary of her death is her feast day.

    After Mother Teresa founded her religious congregation, it grew to have over 4,500 nuns and was active in 133 countries as of 2012.[6] The congregation manages homes for people who are dying of HIV/AIDS, leprosy, and tuberculosis. The congregation also runs soup kitchens, dispensaries, mobile clinics, children's and family counselling programmes, as well as orphanages and schools. Members take vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience and also profess a fourth vow: to give "wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor."[7]

    Mother Teresa received several honours, including the 1962 Ramon Magsaysay Peace Prize and the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. A controversial figure during her life and after her death, Mother Teresa was admired by many for her charitable work. She was praised and criticised on various counts, such as for her views on abortion and contraception, and was criticized for poor conditions in her houses for the dying. Her authorized biography was written by Navin Chawla and published in 1992, and she has been the subject of films and other books. On 6 September 2017, Mother Teresa and Saint Francis Xavier were named co-patrons of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Calcutta.

    1. ^ "Canonisation of Mother Teresa – September 4th". Diocese of Killala. September 2016. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
    2. ^ Manik Banerjee (6 September 2017). "Vatican declares Mother Teresa a patron saint of Calcutta". Associated Press, ABC News.com. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
    3. ^ "Mother Teresa to be named co-patron of Calcutta Archdiocese on first canonization anniversary". First Post. 4 September 2017. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Cannon2013 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ shqiptare, bota. "Kur Nënë Tereza vinte në Tiranë/2". Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
    6. ^ Poplin, Mary (2011). Finding Calcutta: What Mother Teresa Taught Me About Meaningful Work and Service. InterVarsity Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-8308-6848-3. Archived from the original on 1 February 2022. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
    7. ^ Muggeridge (1971), chapter 3, "Mother Teresa Speaks", pp. 105, 113


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    18 October 1954Texas Instruments announces the first transistor radio.

    Transistor radio

    A classic Emerson transistor radio, circa 1958

    A transistor radio is a small portable radio receiver that uses transistor-based circuitry. Following the invention of the transistor in 1947—which revolutionized the field of consumer electronics by introducing small but powerful, convenient hand-held devices—the Regency TR-1 was released in 1954 becoming the first commercial transistor radio. The mass-market success of the smaller and cheaper Sony TR-63, released in 1957, led to the transistor radio becoming the most popular electronic communication device of the 1960s and 1970s. Transistor radios are still commonly used as car radios. Billions of transistor radios are estimated to have been sold worldwide between the 1950s and 2012.[citation needed]

    The pocket size of transistor radios sparked a change in popular music listening habits, allowing people to listen to music anywhere they went. Beginning around 1980, however, cheap AM transistor radios were superseded initially by the boombox and the Sony Walkman, and later on by digitally-based devices with higher audio quality such as portable CD players, personal audio players, MP3 players and (eventually) by smartphones, many of which contain FM radios.[1][2]

    1. ^ Petraglia, Dave (5 March 2014). "Why You Owe Your Smartphone To The Transistor Radio". Thought Catalog.
    2. ^ Bray, Hiawatha (6 November 2014). "Is Your Smartphone Ready for Radio?". The Boston Globe.
     
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    19 October 1216King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.

    John, King of England

    John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216) was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. He lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, a document considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

    John was the youngest of the four surviving sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was nicknamed John Lackland because he was not expected to inherit significant lands.[1] He became Henry's favourite child following the failed revolt of 1173–1174 by his brothers Henry the Young King, Richard, and Geoffrey against the King. John was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. He unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against the royal administrators of his brother, King Richard, whilst Richard was participating in the Third Crusade, but he was proclaimed king after Richard died in 1199. He came to an agreement with Philip II of France to recognise John's possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet in 1200.

    When war with France broke out again in 1202, John achieved early victories, but shortages of military resources and his treatment of Norman, Breton, and Anjou nobles resulted in the collapse of his empire in northern France in 1204. He spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances. His judicial reforms had a lasting effect on the English common law system, as well as providing an additional source of revenue. An argument with Pope Innocent III led to John's excommunication in 1209, a dispute he finally settled in 1213. John's attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed because of the French victory over John's allies at the battle of Bouvines. When he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, who were unhappy with his fiscal policies and his treatment of many of England's most powerful nobles. Although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke out shortly afterwards, with the barons aided by Louis VIII of France. It soon descended into a stalemate. John died of dysentery contracted whilst on campaign in eastern England during late 1216; supporters of his son Henry III went on to achieve victory over Louis and the rebel barons the following year.

    Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has since been the subject of significant debate and periodic revision by historians from the 16th century onwards. Historian Jim Bradbury has summarised the current historical opinion of John's positive qualities, observing that John is today usually considered a "hard-working administrator, an able man, an able general".[2] Nonetheless, modern historians agree that he also had many faults as king, including what historian Ralph Turner describes as "distasteful, even dangerous personality traits", such as pettiness, spitefulness, and cruelty.[3] These negative qualities provided extensive material for fiction writers in the Victorian era, and John remains a recurring character within Western popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories depicting the Robin Hood legends.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Norgate (1902), pp. 1–2.
    2. ^ Bradbury (2007), p. 353.
    3. ^ Turner, p. 23.
     
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    20 October 1973Watergate scandal: "Saturday Night Massacre": United States President Richard Nixon fires U.S. Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Solicitor General Robert Bork.

    Saturday Night Massacre

    The Saturday Night Massacre was a series of events that took place in the United States on the evening of Saturday, October 20, 1973, during the Watergate scandal.[1] U.S. President Richard Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox; Richardson refused and resigned effective immediately. Nixon then ordered Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus to fire Cox; Ruckelshaus refused, and also resigned. Nixon then ordered the third-most-senior official at the Justice Department, Solicitor General Robert Bork, to fire Cox. Bork carried out the dismissal as Nixon asked.[2] Bork stated that he intended to resign afterward, but was persuaded by Richardson and Ruckelshaus to stay on for the good of the Justice Department.[3][4]

    The political and public reactions to Nixon's actions were negative and highly damaging to the president. The impeachment process against Nixon began ten days later, on October 30, 1973. Leon Jaworski was appointed as the new special prosecutor on November 1, 1973,[5] and on November 14, 1973, United States District Judge Gerhard Gesell ruled that the dismissal had been illegal.[6][7] The Saturday Night Massacre marked the turning point of the Watergate scandal as the public, while increasingly uncertain about Nixon's actions in Watergate, were incensed by Nixon's seemingly blatant attempt to end the Watergate probe, while Congress, having largely taken a wait-and-see policy regarding Nixon's role in the scandal, quickly turned on Nixon and initiated impeachment proceedings that would end in Nixon's resignation.

    1. ^ Andrews, Evan. "What Was the Saturday Night Massacre?". HISTORY. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
    2. ^ "A Brief History Of Nixon's 'Saturday Night Massacre'". NPR.org. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
    3. ^ "Bork: Nixon Offered Next High Court Vacancy in '73". Yahoo News. ABC News. February 25, 2013. Archived from the original on March 1, 2013.
    4. ^ Noble, Kenneth B.; Times, Special To the New York (July 2, 1987). "Bork Irked by Emphasis on His Role in Watergate". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
    5. ^ "Attorney General, Prosecutor Picked". The Argus-Press. Associated Press. November 1, 1973.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference noble was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Nader v. Bork, 366 F. Supp. 104 (D.D.C. 1973)
     
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    21 October 1983 – The metre is defined as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.

    Metre

    The metre (British spelling) or meter (American spelling; see spelling differences) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure"), symbol m, is the primary unit of length in the International System of Units (SI), though its prefixed forms are also used relatively frequently.

    The metre was originally defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole along a great circle, so the Earth's circumference is approximately 40000 km. In 1799, the metre was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar (the actual bar used was changed in 1889). In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86. The current definition was adopted in 1983 and modified slightly in 2002 to clarify that the metre is a measure of proper length. From 1983 until 2019, the metre was formally defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299792458 of a second. After the 2019 redefinition of the SI base units, this definition was rephrased to include the definition of a second in terms of the caesium frequency ΔνCs; 299792458 m/s.

    1. ^ "Base unit definitions: Meter". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
     
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    22 October 1859 – Spain declares war on Morocco.

    Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–1860)

    The Hispano-Moroccan War, also known as the Spanish–Moroccan War, the First Moroccan War, the Tetuán War, or, in Spain, as the War of Africa, was fought from Spain's declaration of war on Morocco on 22 October 1859 until the Treaty of Wad-Ras on 26 April 1860. It began with a conflict over the borders of the Spanish city of Ceuta and was fought in northern Morocco. Morocco sued for peace after the Spanish victory at the Battle of Tetuán.

    1. ^ Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015, 4th ed., Micheal Clodfelter, p. 199.
    2. ^ Cerda Catalán, Alfonso. La Guerra entre España y las repúblicas del Pacífico, 1864-1866: el bombardeo de Valparaíso y el combate naval del Callao. p. 37.
     
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    23 October 4004 BCJames Ussher's proposed creation date of the world according to the Bible.

    James Ussher

    James Ussher (or Usher; 4 January 1581 – 21 March 1656) was the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625 and 1656. He was a prolific scholar and church leader, who today is most famous for his identification of the genuine letters of the church father, Ignatius of Antioch, and for his chronology that sought to establish the time and date of the creation as "the entrance of the night preceding the 23rd day of October... the year before Christ 4004"; that is, around 6 pm on 22 October 4004 BC, per the proleptic Julian calendar.

     
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    24 October 1926Harry Houdini's last performance takes place at the Garrick Theatre in Detroit.

    Harry Houdini

    Harry Houdini (/hˈdni/, born Erik Weisz; March 24, 1874 – October 31, 1926) was a Hungarian-American escape artist, magic man, and stunt performer, noted for his escape acts.[3] His pseudonym is a reference to his spiritual master, French magician Robert-Houdin (1805–1871).

    He first attracted notice in vaudeville in the United States and then as "Harry 'Handcuff' Houdini" on a tour of Europe, where he challenged police forces to keep him locked up. Soon he extended his repertoire to include chains, ropes slung from skyscrapers, straitjackets under water, and having to escape from and hold his breath inside a sealed milk can with water in it.

    In 1904, thousands watched as he tried to escape from special handcuffs commissioned by London's Daily Mirror, keeping them in suspense for an hour. Another stunt saw him buried alive and only just able to claw himself to the surface, emerging in a state of near-breakdown. While many suspected that these escapes were faked, Houdini presented himself as the scourge of fake spiritualists. As President of the Society of American Magicians, he was keen to uphold professional standards and expose fraudulent artists. He was also quick to sue anyone who imitated his escape stunts.

    Houdini made several movies but quit acting when it failed to bring in money. He was also a keen aviator and aimed to become the first man to fly a powered aircraft in Australia.[4]

    1. ^ Schiller, Gerald. (2010). It Happened in Hollywood: Remarkable Events That Shaped History. Globe Pequot Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0762754496
    2. ^ "Harry Houdini". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
    3. ^ Houdini!, retrieved March 11, 2021
    4. ^ Maksel, Rebecca. "The Hunt for Houdini's Airplane". Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
     
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    25 October 1971 – The People's Republic of China replaces the Republic of China at the United Nations.

    China and the United Nations

    China is one of the charter members of the United Nations and is one of five permanent members of its Security Council.

    One of the victorious Allies of the Second World War (the Chinese theatre of which was the Second Sino-Japanese War), the Republic of China (ROC) joined the UN upon its founding in 1945. The subsequent resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. Nearly all of the Chinese mainland was soon under its control[note 1] and the ROC retreated to the island of Taiwan. The One-China policy advocated by both governments dismantled the solution of dual representation but, amid the Cold War and Korean War, the United States and its allies opposed the replacement of the ROC at the United Nations until 1971, although they were persuaded to pressure the government of the ROC to accept international recognition of Mongolia's independence in 1961. The United Kingdom, France, and other allies of the United States individually shifted their recognitions of China to the PRC and Albania brought annual votes to replace the ROC with the PRC, but these were defeated since—after General Assembly Resolution 1668—a change in recognition required a two-thirds vote.

    Amid the Sino-Soviet split and Vietnam War, United States President Richard Nixon entered into negotiations with Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong, initially through a secret 1971 trip undertaken by Henry Kissinger to visit Zhou Enlai. On 25 October 1971, Albania's motion to recognize the People's Republic of China as the sole legal China was passed as General Assembly Resolution 2758. It was supported by most of the communist states (including the Soviet Union) and non-aligned countries (such as India), but also by some NATO countries such as the United Kingdom and France. After the PRC was seated on 15 November 1971, Nixon then personally visited mainland China the next year, beginning the normalization of PRC-US relations. Since that time, the Republic of China has softened its own One-China Policy and sought international recognition. These moves have been opposed and mostly blocked by the People's Republic of China, forcing the Republic of China to join international organizations under other names, including "Chinese Taipei" at the International Olympic Committee.

    The Republic of China's most recent request for admission was turned down in 2007,[1] but a number of European governments—led by the United States—protested to the UN's Office of Legal Affairs to force the global body and its secretary-general to stop using the reference "Taiwan is a part of China".[2]


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "UN rejects Taiwan application for entry". The New York Times. 24 July 2007. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
    2. ^ "UN told to drop 'Taiwan is part of China': cable". Taipei Times. 2016-10-16. Archived from the original on 2015-03-22. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
     
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    26 October 1985 – The Australian government returns ownership of Uluru to the local Pitjantjatjara Aboriginals.

    Uluru

    Uluru (/ˌləˈr/; Pitjantjatjara: Uluṟu [ˈʊlʊɻʊ]), also known as Ayers Rock (/ˈɛərz/ AIRS) and officially gazetted as Uluru / Ayers Rock,[1] is a large sandstone formation in the centre of Australia. It is in the southern part of the Northern Territory, 335 km (208 mi) southwest of Alice Springs.

    Uluru is sacred to the Pitjantjatjara, the Aboriginal people of the area, known as the Aṉangu. The area around the formation is home to an abundance of springs, waterholes, rock caves, and ancient paintings. Uluru is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Uluru and Kata Tjuta, also known as the Olgas, are the two major features of the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park.

    Uluru is one of Australia's most recognisable natural landmarks and has been a popular destination for tourists since the late 1930s. It is also one of the most important indigenous sites in Australia.

    1. ^ "Place Names Register Extract: Uluru / Ayers Rock". Northern Territory Place Names Register. Northern Territory Government. 6 November 2002. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
     
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    27 October 1991Turkmenistan achieves independence from the Soviet Union.

    Turkmenistan

    Turkmenistan (/tɜːrkˈmɛnɪstæn/ (listen) or /ˌtɜːrkmɛnɪˈstɑːn/ (listen); Turkmen: Türkmenistan/Түркменистан, pronounced [tʏɾkmønʏˈθːɑːn][13]) is a country located in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north, east and northeast, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest and the Caspian Sea to the west. Ashgabat is the capital and largest city. The population is about 6 million, the lowest of the Central Asian republics, and Turkmenistan is one of the most sparsely populated nations in Asia.[5][14][6]

    Turkmenistan has long served as a thoroughfare for other nations and cultures.[15] Merv is one of the oldest oasis-cities in Central Asia,[16] and was once the biggest city in the world.[17] It was also one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1925, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.[5]

    Turkmenistan possesses the world's fifth largest reserves of natural gas.[18] Most of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert. From 1993 to 2017, citizens received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge.[19]

    Turkmenistan is an observer state in the Organisation of Turkic States, the Türksoy community and a member of the United Nations.[20] It is also the only permanent neutral country recognized by the UN General Assembly in Asia.[21]

    The country is widely criticized for its poor human rights,[22][23] its treatment of minorities, press and religious freedoms. Since independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Turkmenistan has been ruled by repressive totalitarian regimes, that of President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (also known as Türkmenbaşy or "Head of the Turkmens") until his death in 2006, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, who became president in 2007 after winning a non-democratic election (he had been vice-president and then acting president previously) and ruled the country until he stepped down in 2022 in favour of his son Serdar, who won a subsequent presidential election described by international observers as neither free nor fair.[24][25] The use of the death penalty was suspended in 1999,[26] before being formally abolished in 2008.[3]

    1. ^ ""Turkmenistan is the motherland of Neutrality" is the motto of 2020 | Chronicles of Turkmenistan". En.hronikatm.com. 28 December 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
    2. ^ "Turkmen parliament places Year 2020 under national motto "Turkmenistan – Homeland of Neutrality" – tpetroleum". Turkmenpetroleum.com. 29 December 2019. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
    3. ^ a b "Turkmenistan's Constitution of 2008" (PDF).
    4. ^ "Turkmenistan". 3 August 2022.
    5. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference World Factbook was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ a b "Dual Citizenship". Ashgabat: U.S. Embassy in Turkmenistan. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
    7. ^
    8. ^ "Turkmenistan approves new constitution to increase president's powers". PravdaReport. 26 September 2008.
    9. ^ Государственный комитет Туркменистана по статистике : Информация о Туркменистане: О Туркменистане Archived 7 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine : Туркменистан — одна из пяти стран Центральной Азии, вторая среди них по площади (491,21 тысяч км2), расположен в юго-западной части региона в зоне пустынь, севернее хребта Копетдаг Туркмено-Хорасанской горной системы, между Каспийским морем на западе и рекой Амударья на востоке.
    10. ^ "Turkmenistan". The World Factbook (2022 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
    11. ^ a b c d "Turkmenistan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
    12. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
    13. ^ Clark, Larry (1998). Turkmen Reference Grammar. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 50.
    14. ^ "Turkmenian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
    15. ^ "Turkmenistan", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 19 October 2021, retrieved 25 October 2021
    16. ^ "State Historical and Cultural Park "Ancient Merv"". UNESCO-WHC.
    17. ^ Tharoor, Kanishk (2016). "LOST CITIES #5: HOW THE MAGNIFICENT CITY OF MERV WAS RAZED – AND NEVER RECOVERED". The Guardian. Once the world's biggest city, the Silk Road metropolis of Merv in modern Turkmenistan destroyed by Genghis Khan's son and the Mongols in AD1221 with an estimated 700,000 deaths.
    18. ^ "BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2019" (PDF). p. 30.
    19. ^ "Turkmen ruler ends free power, gas, water – World News". Hürriyet Daily News.
    20. ^ AA, DAILY SABAH WITH (17 November 2021). "'Turkmenistan's new status in Turkic States significant development'". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
    21. ^ "TURKMENISTAN General information". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan.
    22. ^ Cite error: The named reference flee was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference Kerry was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ "As Expected, Son Of Turkmen Leader Easily Wins Election In Familial Transfer Of Power". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
    25. ^ "Turkmenistan: Autocrat president's son claims landslide win". Deutsche Welle. 15 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
    26. ^ "Asia-Pacific – Turkmenistan suspends death penalty". BBC News.
     
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    28 October 2009 – The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing kills 117 and wounds 213.

    28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing

    The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing occurred in Peshawar, Pakistan, when a car bomb was detonated in a Mina Bazar (Market for women and children) of the city. The bomb killed 137 people and injured more than 200 others, making it the deadliest attack in Peshawar's history. Pakistani government officials believe the Taliban to be responsible, but both Taliban and Al-Qaeda sources have denied involvement in the attack.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference IT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Hazrat Bacha, Ali (30 October 2009). "Death toll from Peshawar blast rises to 117". Dawn. Pakistan. Archived from the original on 3 December 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
     
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    29 October 2005Bombings in Delhi, India kill more than 60.

    2005 Delhi bombings

    India map showing Delhi

    The 2005 Delhi bombings occurred on 29 October 2005 in Delhi, India, killing 62 people and injuring at least 210 others[1] in three explosions. The bombings came only two days before the important festival of Diwali, which is celebrated by Hindus, Sikhs, and Jains. The bombs were triggered in two markets in central and south Delhi and in a bus south of the city. The Pakistani Islamist terrorist group Lashkar-e-Taiba claimed responsibility for the attacks under the pseudonym of Islamic Inquilab Mahaz.[2] The Indian Mujahideen is also suspected of involvement.[3]

    President A P J Abdul Kalam condemned the blasts in Delhi and sent condolences to the bereaved and other victims. Kalam appealed to the people "to maintain calm and help the agencies in relief and rescue work." Parts of India were moved to higher alert following the blasts.

    1. ^ "Delhi blasts death toll at 62". Archived from the original on 5 November 2005.
    2. ^ "Incident Summary for GTDID: 200510290001". Global Terrorism Database. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
    3. ^ Das, Shaswati (19 April 2018). "NIA arrests Indian Mujahideen operative Ariz Khan wanted in 2005 Delhi blasts case". mint. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
     
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    30 October 1983 – The first democratic elections in Argentina, after seven years of military rule, are held.

    1983 Argentine general election

    The Argentine general election of 1983 was held on 30 October and marked the return of constitutional rule following the self-styled National Reorganization Process dictatorship installed in 1976. Voters fully chose the president, governors, mayors, and their respective national, province and town legislators; with a turnout of 85.6%.

     
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    31 October 1941 – After 14 years of work, Mount Rushmore is completed.

    Mount Rushmore

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a national memorial centered on a colossal sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore (Lakota: Tȟuŋkášila Šákpe, or Six Grandfathers[2]) in the Black Hills near Keystone, South Dakota. Sculptor Gutzon Borglum created the sculpture's design and oversaw the project's execution from 1927 to 1941 with the help of his son, Lincoln Borglum.[3][4] The sculpture features the 60-foot-tall (18 m) heads of four United States Presidents recommended by Borglum: George Washington (1732–1799), Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) and Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865).[5] The four presidents were chosen to represent the nation's birth, growth, development and preservation, respectively.[6] The memorial park covers 1,278 acres (2.00 sq mi; 5.17 km2)[7] and the mountain itself has an elevation of 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level.[8]

    The sculptor and tribal representatives settled on Mount Rushmore, which also has the advantage of facing southeast for maximum sun exposure. Doane Robinson wanted it to feature American West heroes, such as Lewis and Clark, their expedition guide Sacagawea, Oglala Lakota chief Red Cloud,[9] Buffalo Bill Cody,[10] and Oglala Lakota chief Crazy Horse.[11] Borglum believed that the sculpture should have broader appeal and chose the four presidents.

    Peter Norbeck, U.S. senator from South Dakota, sponsored the project and secured federal funding.[12] Construction began in 1927; the presidents' faces were completed between 1934 and 1939. After Gutzon Borglum died in March 1941, his son Lincoln took over as leader of the construction project. Each president was originally to be depicted from head to waist, but lack of funding forced construction to end on October 31, 1941.[13]

    Sometimes referred to as the "Shrine of Democracy",[14][15][16] Mount Rushmore attracts more than two million visitors annually.[1]

    1. ^ a b "Park Statistics". National Park Service. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
    2. ^ "The Six Grandfathers Before It Was Known as Mount Rushmore". Native Hope. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
    3. ^ Roberts, Sam (June 28, 2016). "An Immigrant's Contribution to Mount Rushmore Is Recognized, 75 Years Later". The New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
    4. ^ Andrews, John (May 2014). "Slight of Hand". South Dakota Magazine. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
    5. ^ Mount Rushmore National Memorial. December 6, 2005.60 SD Web Traveler, Inc. Retrieved April 7, 2006.
    6. ^ "Why These Four Presidents?". nps.gov. National Park Service. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
    7. ^ McGeveran, William A. Jr. et al. (2004). The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2004. New York: World Almanac Education Group, Inc. ISBN 0-88687-910-8.
    8. ^ Mount Rushmore, South Dakota (November 1, 2004). Peakbagger.com. Retrieved March 13, 2006.
    9. ^ '!, episode 5x08 "Mount Rushmore", May 10, 2007
    10. ^ "Making Mount Rushmore | Mount Rushmore". Oh, Ranger!. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
    11. ^ Pekka Hamalainen, "Lakota America, a New History of Indigenous Power," (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2019), p. 382
    12. ^ "Biography:Senator Peter Norbeck". American Experience: Mount Rushmore. PBS. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
    13. ^ "Mount Rushmore". American Experience – TV's Most Watched History Series. PBS. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
    14. ^ "Thousands Celebrate at the Shrine of Democracy – Mount Rushmore National Memorial (U.S. National Park Service)" (Press release). Mount Rushmore, National Park Service. January 24, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
    15. ^ Scotts United States Stamp catalogue, 1982. Scott's Publishing Company. 1981. ISBN 0-89487-042-4., p. 289.
    16. ^ "Mount Rushmore". Travel South Dakota.
     
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    2 November 1988 – The Morris worm, the first Internet-distributed computer worm to gain significant mainstream media attention, is launched from MIT.

    Morris worm

    The Morris worm or Internet worm of November 2, 1988, is one of the oldest computer worms distributed via the Internet, and the first to gain significant mainstream media attention. It resulted in the first felony conviction in the US under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.[1] It was written by a graduate student at Cornell University, Robert Tappan Morris, and launched on November 2, 1988, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology network.

    1. ^ Dressler, J. (2007). "United States v. Morris". Cases and Materials on Criminal Law. St. Paul, MN: Thomson/West. ISBN 978-0-314-17719-3.
     
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    3 November 1936Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected President of the United States.

    Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt (/ˈdɛlən/;[1][2] /ˈrzəˌvɛlt, -vəlt/[3][4] ROH-zə-velt, -⁠vəlt; January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. As the leader of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. He built the New Deal Coalition, which defined modern liberalism in the United States throughout the middle third of the 20th century. His third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II, which ended in victory shortly after he died in office.

    Born into the prominent Roosevelt family in Hyde Park, New York, he graduated from both Groton School and Harvard College, and attended Columbia Law School, which he left after passing the bar exam to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt. They had six children, of whom five survived into adulthood. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, and then served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Republican Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness diagnosed as polio and his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded a polio rehabilitation center in Warm Springs, Georgia. Although unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office after his election as governor of New York in 1928. He served as governor from 1929 to 1933, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States.

    In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican incumbent Herbert Hoover and began his presidency in the midst of the Great Depression. During the first 100 days of the 73rd U.S. Congress, he spearheaded unprecedented federal legislative productivity. Roosevelt called for the creation of programs designed to produce relief, recovery, and reform. Within his first year, he began implementing these policies through a series of executive orders and federal legislation collectively called the New Deal. Many New Deal programs provided relief to the unemployed such as the National Recovery Administration. Several New Deal programs and federal laws such as the Agricultural Adjustment Act provided relief to farmers. Roosevelt also instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance, communications, and labor. In addition to the economy, Roosevelt sought to find a compromise on Prohibition with the urban and rural wings of the Democratic Party. After campaigning on a platform to repeal it, Roosevelt implemented the Beer Permit Act of 1933 and enforced the 21st amendment. Tax revenue collected from alcohol sales would go to public works as part of the New Deal. Roosevelt frequently used radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and became the first American president to be televised. The economy improved rapidly during Roosevelt's first term and he won re-election in 1936, in one of the most lopsided victories in American history.

    Despite the popularity of the New Deal among supporters of Roosevelt,[5] from 1936 onwards, New Deal legislation was frequently struck down by the US Supreme Court, which maintained a conservative bent. The dispute between Roosevelt and the Court resulted in Roosevelt lobbying for the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 (or "court packing plan"), which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court. The bill was blocked by the newly formed bipartisan Conservative Coalition, which also sought to prevent further New Deal legislation. During the recession of 1937–1938, Roosevelt launched a rhetorical campaign against big business and monopoly power in the United States. Other major 1930s legislation and agencies implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security, and the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940 for his third term, making him the only U.S. president to serve for more than two terms. By 1939 another World War was on the horizon which prompted the United States to respond by passing a series of laws affirming neutrality and rejecting intervention. Despite this, President Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China, the United Kingdom, and eventually the Soviet Union. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a congressional declaration of war against Japan. On December 11 Japan's allies, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy declared war on the United States. In response, the US formally joined the Allies and entered the European theater of war. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with very strong national support, he worked closely with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin, and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U.S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, initiating the Lend-Lease program and making the defeat of Germany first a priority over that of Japan, as well as building the world's first atomic bomb. Taking up the Wilsonian mantle, Roosevelt saw as his highest postwar priority the establishment of the United Nations, to replace the defunct League of Nations. Roosevelt expected the United Nations to be led by Washington, Moscow, London, and Nanjing.[a] These states collectively called the Big Four would work to resolve all major world problems. It was under his wartime leadership that the United States became a superpower on the world stage.

    Roosevelt won re-election in the 1944 presidential election on his post-war recovery platform. His physical health began declining during the later war years, and less than three months into his fourth term, Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. Vice President Harry S. Truman assumed office as president and oversaw the acceptance of surrender by the Axis powers. Since his death, several of Roosevelt's actions have come under substantial criticism, such as the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans in concentration camps. Nevertheless, he is consistently ranked by scholars, political scientists and historians as one of the greatest presidents in American history.

    1. ^ "Franklin Delano Roosevelt – 1945". YouTube. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
    2. ^ "Funeral of President Roosevelt". YouTube. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
    3. ^ "Roosevelt". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins.
    4. ^ "Roosevelt". Dictionary.com Unabridged (Online). n.d.
    5. ^ Shawn Kantor, Price V. Fishback, and John Joseph Wallis, "Did the New Deal solidify the 1932 Democratic realignment?" Explorations in Economic History 50.4 (2013): 620-633. online version


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    4 November 1973 – The Netherlands experiences the first car-free Sunday caused by the 1973 oil crisis. Highways are used only by cyclists and roller skaters.

    1973 oil crisis

    Price of oil adjusted for inflation
    Price of oil (nominal)
    West Texas Intermediate oil price history 1946–2022[1]

    The 1973 oil crisis or first oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), led by Saudi Arabia, proclaimed an oil embargo. The embargo was targeted at nations that had supported Israel during the Yom Kippur War.[2] The initial nations targeted were Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, though the embargo also later extended to Portugal, Rhodesia and South Africa. By the end of the embargo in March 1974,[3] the price of oil had risen nearly 300%, from US$3 per barrel ($19/m3) to nearly $12 per barrel ($75/m3) globally; US prices were significantly higher. The embargo caused an oil crisis, or "shock", with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy.[4] It was later called the "first oil shock", followed by the 1979 oil crisis, termed the "second oil shock".

    1. ^ "Crude Oil Prices – 70 Year Historical Chart".
    2. ^ Smith, Charles D. (2006), Palestine and the Arab–Israeli Conflict, New York: Bedford, p. 329.
    3. ^ "OPEC Oil Embargo 1973–1974". U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference cbc was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    5 November 1968Richard Nixon is elected as 37th President of the United States.

    Richard Nixon

    Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as a representative and senator from California and was the 36th vice president from 1953 to 1961 under President Dwight D. Eisenhower. His five years in the White House saw reduction of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, détente with the Soviet Union and China, the first manned Moon landings, and the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency and Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Nixon's second term ended early, when he became the only president to resign from office, as a result of the Watergate scandal.

    Nixon was born into a poor family of Quakers in a small town in Southern California. He graduated from Duke Law School in 1937, practiced law in California, then moved with his wife Pat to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. After active duty in the Naval Reserve during World War II, he was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946. His work on the Alger Hiss case established his reputation as a leading anti-Communist, which elevated him to national prominence, and in 1950, he was elected to the Senate. Nixon was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party's presidential nominee in the 1952 election, and served for eight years as the vice president. He ran for president in 1960, narrowly lost to John F. Kennedy, then failed again in a 1962 race for governor of California, after which it was widely believed that his political career was over. However, in 1968, he made another run for the presidency and was elected, defeating Hubert Humphrey and George Wallace in a close contest.

    Nixon ended American involvement in Vietnam combat in 1973 and the military draft with it that same year. His visit to China in 1972 eventually led to diplomatic relations between the two nations, and he also then concluded the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union. In step with his conservative beliefs, his administration incrementally transferred power from the federal government to the states. Nixon's domestic policy saw him impose wage and price controls for 90 days, enforce desegregation of Southern schools, establish the Environmental Protection Agency, and begin the War on Cancer. Additionally, his administration pushed for the Controlled Substances Act and began the War on Drugs. He also presided over the Apollo 11 Moon landing, which signaled the end of the Space Race. He was re-elected with a historic electoral landslide in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.

    In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, a conflict which led to the oil crisis at home. By late 1973, the Nixon administration's involvement in Watergate eroded his support in Congress and the country. On August 9, 1974, facing almost certain impeachment and removal from office, Nixon resigned from the presidency. Afterwards, he was issued a pardon by his successor, Gerald Ford. During nearly 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote his memoirs and nine other books. He undertook many foreign trips, rehabilitating his image into that of an elder statesman and leading expert on foreign affairs. He suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994, and died four days later at age 81. Surveys of historians and political scientists have ranked Nixon as a below-average president.[2][3][4] However, evaluations of him have proven complex, with the successes of his presidency contrasted against the circumstances of his departure from office.

    1. ^ "Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum" (PDF). September 21, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2015.
    2. ^ "Lincoln Wins: Honest Abe tops new presidential survey". CNN. February 16, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
    3. ^ "Presidential Historians Survey 2017". C-SPAN. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
    4. ^ "Presidents 2018 Rank by Category" (PDF). Retrieved December 2, 2020.
     
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    6 November 1947Meet the Press, the longest running television program in history, makes its debut on NBC Television.

    Meet the Press

    Meet the Press is a weekly American television news/interview program broadcast on NBC.[6][7] It is the longest-running program on American television, though the current format bears little resemblance to the debut episode on November 6, 1947.[8] Meet the Press specializes in interviews with leaders in Washington, D.C., across the country, and around the world on issues of politics, economics, foreign policy, and other public affairs, along with panel discussions that provide opinions and analysis. In January 2021, production moved to NBC's bureau on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.[5][9]

    The longevity of Meet the Press is attributable in part to the fact that the program debuted during what was only the second official "network television season" for American television. It was the first live television network news program on which a sitting president of the United States appeared; this occurred on its broadcast on November 9, 1975, which featured Gerald Ford. The program has been hosted by 12 different moderators, beginning with creator Martha Rountree. The show's moderator since 2014 is Chuck Todd, who also serves as political director for NBC News.[10]

    Currently, the hour-long program airs in most markets on Sundays at 9:00 a.m. live in the Eastern Time Zone and on tape delay elsewhere. Meet the Press is also occasionally pre-empted due to network coverage of sports events held outside the U.S. The program is also rebroadcast on Mondays at 4:00 a.m. Eastern Time on MSNBC, whose audio feed is also simulcast on Sirius/XM Satellite Radio. The program is also syndicated by Westwood One to various radio stations around the United States, as well as on C-SPAN Radio as part of its replays of the Sunday morning talk shows.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference 60th was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference shemadeit was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Meet the Press - Credits". NBCUniversal. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
    4. ^ "The Sounds of War". Slate. April 2003.
    5. ^ a b Johnson, Ted (25 January 2021). "NBCU Debuts New Washington Bureau And Studios". Deadline. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
    6. ^ "Meet the Press: Cast & Details". TV Guide. Retrieved December 30, 2008.
    7. ^ "About Meet The Press". MSNBC. Archived from the original on February 3, 2004. Retrieved December 30, 2008.
    8. ^ "Meet the Press: U.S. Public Affairs/Interview". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012.
    9. ^ Ball, Rick (1998). Meet the Press: Fifty Years of History in the Making. McGraw Hill. pp. 12 (Farley), 14-15 (Chambers), 15-17 (Bentley), 51-53 (Castro), 67-68 (JFK) 92 (MLK), 167 (satellite). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
    10. ^ "Chuck Todd Takes Helm of 'Meet the Press'". NBC News. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
     
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    7 November 1918 – The 1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.

    Spanish flu

    The 1918–1920 influenza pandemic, commonly known by the misnomer Spanish flu or as the Great Influenza epidemic, was an exceptionally deadly global influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus. The earliest documented case was March 1918 in Kansas, United States, with further cases recorded in France, Germany and the United Kingdom in April. Two years later, nearly a third of the global population, or an estimated 500 million people, had been infected in four successive waves. Estimates of deaths range from 17 million to 50 million,[6] and possibly as high as 100 million, making it the one of the deadliest pandemics in human history after the Black Death bubonic plague of 1346–1353.

    The pandemic broke out near the end of World War I, when wartime censors suppressed bad news in the belligerent countries to maintain morale, but newspapers freely reported the outbreak in neutral Spain, creating a false impression of Spain as the epicenter and leading to the "Spanish flu" misnomer.[7] Limited historical epidemiological data make the pandemic's geographic origin indeterminate, with competing hypotheses on the initial spread.[2]

    Most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill the young and old, with a higher survival rate in-between, but this pandemic had unusually high mortality for young adults.[8] Scientists offer several explanations for the high mortality, including a six-year climate anomaly affecting migration of disease vectors with increased likelihood of spread through bodies of water.[9] The virus was particularly deadly because it triggered a cytokine storm, ravaging the stronger immune system of young adults,[10] although the viral infection was apparently no more aggressive than previous influenza strains.[11][12] Malnourishment, overcrowded medical camps and hospitals, and poor hygiene, exacerbated by the war, promoted bacterial superinfection, killing most of the victims after a typically prolonged death bed.[13][14]

    The 1918 Spanish flu was the first of three flu pandemics caused by H1N1 influenza A virus; the most recent one was the 2009 swine flu pandemic.[15][16] The 1977 Russian flu was also caused by H1N1 virus.[15][17]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference NIH-NYC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b Taubenberger & Morens 2006.
    3. ^ "Pandemic Influenza Risk Management WHO Interim Guidance" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2013. p. 25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference pmid30202996 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Rosenwald MS (7 April 2020). "History's deadliest pandemics, from ancient Rome to modern America". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
    6. ^ CDC (17 December 2019). "The Discovery and Reconstruction of the 1918 Pandemic Virus". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Friday was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Gagnon, Miller & et al 2013, p. e69586.
    9. ^ More AF, Loveluck CP, Clifford H, Handley MJ, Korotkikh EV, Kurbatov AV, et al. (September 2020). "The Impact of a Six-Year Climate Anomaly on the "Spanish Flu" Pandemic and WWI". GeoHealth. 4 (9): e2020GH000277. doi:10.1029/2020GH000277. PMC 7513628. PMID 33005839.
    10. ^ Barry 2004b.
    11. ^ MacCallum WG (1919). "Pathology of the pneumonia following influenza". Journal of the American Medical Association. 72 (10): 720–23. doi:10.1001/jama.1919.02610100028012. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
    12. ^ Hirsch EF, McKinney M (1919). "An epidemic of pneumococcus broncho-pneumonia". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 24 (6): 594–617. doi:10.1093/infdis/24.6.594. JSTOR 30080493. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
    13. ^ Brundage JF, Shanks GD (December 2007). "What really happened during the 1918 influenza pandemic? The importance of bacterial secondary infections". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 196 (11): 1717–18, author reply 1718–19. doi:10.1086/522355. PMID 18008258.
    14. ^ Morens DM, Fauci AS (April 2007). "The 1918 influenza pandemic: insights for the 21st century". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 195 (7): 1018–28. doi:10.1086/511989. PMID 17330793.
    15. ^ a b "Influenza Pandemic Plan. The Role of WHO and Guidelines for National and Regional Planning" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 1999. pp. 38, 41. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 December 2020.
    16. ^ Michaelis M, Doerr HW, Cinatl J (August 2009). "Novel swine-origin influenza A virus in humans: another pandemic knocking at the door". Medical Microbiology and Immunology. 198 (3): 175–83. doi:10.1007/s00430-009-0118-5. PMID 19543913. S2CID 20496301. Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
    17. ^ Mermel LA (June 2009). "Swine-origin influenza virus in young age groups". Lancet. 373 (9681): 2108–09. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61145-4. PMID 19541030. S2CID 27656702. Archived from the original on 27 July 2021. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
     
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    8 November 1901Gospel riots: Bloody clashes take place in Athens following the translation of the Gospels into demotic Greek.

    Gospel riots

    Clashes outside the University on Black Thursday
    The same scene in 2013

    The Gospel riots (Greek: Ευαγγελικά, Evangelika), which took place on the streets of Athens in November 1901, were primarily a protest against the publication in the newspaper Akropolis of a translation into modern spoken Greek of the Gospel of Matthew, although other motives also played a part. The disorder reached a climax on 8 November, "Black Thursday", when eight demonstrators were killed.[a][1]

    In the aftermath of the violence the Greek Orthodox Church reacted by banning any translation of the Bible into any form of modern demotic Greek, and by forbidding the employment of demoticist teachers, not just in Greece but anywhere in the Ottoman Empire.

    The riots marked a turning-point in the history of the Greek language question, and the beginning of a long period of bitter antagonism between the Orthodox Church and the demoticist movement.[2]: 244–52 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Carabott, Philip (1993). "Politics, orthodoxy, and the language question in Greece: the Gospel Riots of 1901" (PDF). Journal of Mediterranean Studies. 3 (1): 117–138. ISSN 1016-3476. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2012.
    2. ^ Mackridge, Peter (2009). Language and National Identity in Greece, 1766–1976. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-921442-6.
     
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    9 November 1887 – The United States receives rights to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor is located in Pacific Ocean
    Pearl Harbor
    Pearl Harbour in Pacific Ocean.
    Seen in 1986 with Ford Island in center. The USS Arizona Memorial is the small white dot on the left side above Ford Island
    Map of Oahu displaying Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor is an American lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. It was often visited by the Naval fleet of the United States, before it was acquired from the Hawaiian Kingdom by the U.S. with the signing of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands are now a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the United States Pacific Fleet. The U.S. government first obtained exclusive use of the inlet and the right to maintain a repair and coaling station for ships here in 1887.[1] The surprise attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy on December 7, 1941, led the United States to declare war on the Empire of Japan, making the attack on Pearl Harbor the immediate cause of the United States' entry into World War II.[2][3][4]

    1. ^ "Pearl Harbor: Its Origin and Administrative History Through World War II". Naval History and Heritage Command. April 23, 2015. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
    2. ^ FDR Pearl Harbor Speech. December 8, 1941. Archived from the original on 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2011-02-05. December 7th, 1941, a day that will live in infamy.
    3. ^ Apple, Russell A.; Benjamin Levy (February 8, 1974). "Pearl Harbor" (pdf). National Register of Historic Places - Nomination and Inventory. National Park Service. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
    4. ^ "Pearl Harbor" (pdf). Photographs. National Park Service. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
     
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    10 November 1983Bill Gates introduces Windows 1.0.

    Windows 1.0x

    Windows 1.0 is the first major release of Microsoft Windows, a family of graphical operating systems for personal computers developed by Microsoft. It was first released to manufacturing in the United States on November 20, 1985, while the European version was released as Windows 1.02 in May 1986.

    Its development began after the Microsoft co-founder and spearhead of Windows 1.0, Bill Gates, saw a demonstration of a similar software suite, Visi On, at COMDEX in 1982. The operating environment was showcased to the public in November 1983, although it ended up being released two years later. Windows 1.0 runs on MS-DOS, as a 16-bit shell program known as MS-DOS Executive, and it provides an environment which can run graphical programs designed for Windows, as well as existing MS-DOS software. It introduced multitasking and the use of the mouse, and various built-in programs such as Calculator, Paint, and Notepad. The operating environment does not allow its windows to overlap, and instead, the windows are tiled. Windows 1.0 also contains four releases, which contain minor updates to the system.

    The system received lukewarm reviews; critics raised concerns about not fulfilling expectations, its compatibility with very little software, and its performance issues, while it has also received positive responses to Microsoft's early presentations and support from a number of hardware- and software-makers. Its last release was 1.04, and it was succeeded by Windows 2.0, which was released in December 1987. Microsoft ended its support for Windows 1.0 on December 31, 2001, making it the longest-supported out of all versions of Windows.

     

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