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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 August 1978Papal conclave: Albino Luciani is elected as Pope John Paul I.

    Pope John Paul I

    Pope John Paul I (Latin: Ioannes Paulus I; Italian: Giovanni Paolo I; born Albino Luciani;[a]Italian: [alˈbiːno luˈtʃaːni]; 17 October 1912 – 28 September 1978) served as Pope from 26 August 1978 to his sudden death 33 days later. His reign is among the shortest in papal history, resulting in the most recent Year of Three Popes, the first to occur since 1605. John Paul I remains the most recent Italian-born pope, the last in a succession of such popes that started with Clement VII in 1523. He was declared a Servant of God by his successor, Pope John Paul II, on 23 November 2003, the first step on the road to sainthood.

    Before the papal conclave that elected him, he expressed his desire not to be elected, telling those close to him that he would decline the papacy if elected, but, upon the cardinals electing him, he felt an obligation to say "yes".[2] He was the first pontiff to have a double name, choosing "John Paul" in honour of his two immediate predecessors, John XXIII and Paul VI. He explained that he was indebted to John XXIII and to Paul VI for naming him a bishop and then a cardinal respectively. Furthermore, he was the first pope to add the regnal number "I", designating himself "the First".

    His two immediate successors, John Paul II and Benedict XVI, later recalled the warm qualities of the late pontiff in several addresses. In Italy, he is remembered with the appellatives of "Il Papa del Sorriso" (The Smiling Pope)[3] and "Il Sorriso di Dio" (The smile of God).[4]Time magazine and other publications referred to him as The September Pope.[5] He is also known in Italy as "Papa Luciani". In his town of birth, Canale d'Agordo, there is a museum that has been made and named in his honour that is dedicated to his life and his brief papacy.

    1. ^ "The prayer for Pope Luciani". Corriere delle Alpi. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
    2. ^ Allen, John (2 November 2012). "Debunking four myths about John Paul I, the 'Smiling Pope'". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
    3. ^ Raymond and Lauretta, The Smiling Pope, The Life & Teaching of John Paul I. Our Sunday Visitor Press, 2004.
    4. ^ Papa Luciani: Il sorriso di Dio (Pope Luciani: The Smile of God). Radiotelevisione Italia 2006 documentary.
    5. ^ The September Pope, cover story in Time, Monday, 9 Oct. 1978, webpage found 3 April 2010.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 August 1978Papal conclave: Albino Luciani is elected as Pope John Paul I.

    Pope John Paul I

    Pope John Paul I (Latin: Ioannes Paulus I; Italian: Giovanni Paolo I; born Albino Luciani;[a]Italian: [alˈbiːno luˈtʃaːni]; 17 October 1912 – 28 September 1978) served as Pope from 26 August 1978 to his sudden death 33 days later. His reign is among the shortest in papal history, resulting in the most recent Year of Three Popes, the first to occur since 1605. John Paul I remains the most recent Italian-born pope, the last in a succession of such popes that started with Clement VII in 1523. He was declared a Servant of God by his successor, Pope John Paul II, on 23 November 2003, the first step on the road to sainthood.

    Before the papal conclave that elected him, he expressed his desire not to be elected, telling those close to him that he would decline the papacy if elected, but, upon the cardinals electing him, he felt an obligation to say "yes".[2] He was the first pontiff to have a double name, choosing "John Paul" in honour of his two immediate predecessors, John XXIII and Paul VI. He explained that he was indebted to John XXIII and to Paul VI for naming him a bishop and then a cardinal respectively. Furthermore, he was the first pope to add the regnal number "I", designating himself "the First".

    His two immediate successors, John Paul II and Benedict XVI, later recalled the warm qualities of the late pontiff in several addresses. In Italy, he is remembered with the appellatives of "Il Papa del Sorriso" (The Smiling Pope)[3] and "Il Sorriso di Dio" (The smile of God).[4]Time magazine and other publications referred to him as The September Pope.[5] He is also known in Italy as "Papa Luciani". In his town of birth, Canale d'Agordo, there is a museum that has been made and named in his honour that is dedicated to his life and his brief papacy.

    1. ^ "The prayer for Pope Luciani". Corriere delle Alpi. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
    2. ^ Allen, John (2 November 2012). "Debunking four myths about John Paul I, the 'Smiling Pope'". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
    3. ^ Raymond and Lauretta, The Smiling Pope, The Life & Teaching of John Paul I. Our Sunday Visitor Press, 2004.
    4. ^ Papa Luciani: Il sorriso di Dio (Pope Luciani: The Smile of God). Radiotelevisione Italia 2006 documentary.
    5. ^ The September Pope, cover story in Time, Monday, 9 Oct. 1978, webpage found 3 April 2010.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 August 2011Hurricane Irene strikes the United States east coast, killing 47 and causing an estimated $15.6 billion in damage.

    Hurricane Irene

    Hurricane Irene was a large and destructive tropical cyclone, which affected much of the Caribbean and East Coast of the United States during late August 2011. Irene is ranked as the eighth-costliest hurricane in United States history.[2] The ninth named storm, first hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season, Irene originated from a well-defined Atlantic tropical wave that began showing signs of organization east of the Lesser Antilles. Due to development of atmospheric convection and a closed center of circulation, the system was designated as Tropical Storm Irene on August 20, 2011. After intensifying, Irene made landfall in St. Croix as a strong tropical storm later that day. Early on August 21, the storm made a second landfall in Puerto Rico. While crossing the island, Irene strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane. The storm paralleled offshore of Hispaniola, continuing to slowly intensify in the process. Shortly before making four landfalls in the Bahamas, Irene peaked as a 120 mph (190 km/h) Category 3 hurricane.

    Thereafter, the storm slowly leveled off in intensity as it struck the Bahamas and then curved northward after passing east of Grand Bahama. Continuing to weaken, Irene was downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane before making landfall on the Outer Banks of North Carolina on August 27, becoming the first hurricane to make landfall in the United States since Hurricane Ike in 2008. Early on the following day, the storm re-emerged into the Atlantic from southeastern Virginia. Although Irene remained a hurricane over water, it weakened to a tropical storm while making yet another landfall in the Little Egg Inlet in southeastern New Jersey on August 27. A few hours later, Irene made its ninth and final landfall in Brooklyn, New York City. Early on August 29, Irene transitioned into an extratropical cyclone hitting Vermont after remaining inland as a tropical cyclone for less than 12 hours.

    Throughout its path, Irene caused widespread destruction and at least 56 deaths. Damage estimates throughout the United States are estimated near $15.6 billion,[3] which made it the eighth-costliest hurricane in United States history, only behind Hurricane Andrew of 1992, Hurricane Ivan of 2004, Hurricanes Wilma and Katrina of 2005, Hurricane Ike of 2008, Hurricane Sandy in 2012, and Hurricane Harvey in 2017. In addition, monetary losses in the Caribbean and Canada were $830 million and $130 million respectively for a total of nearly $16.6 billion in damage.[4][5]

    1. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Information Statement for Post-Tropical Storm Irene". Canadian Hurricane Centre. August 29, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2011. 
    2. ^ Costliest U.S. Hurricanes | Weather Underground. Wunderground.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
    3. ^ Avila, Lixion A; Cangialosi, John (December 14, 2011). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Irene: August 21 – 28, 2011 (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2015. 
    4. ^ Fieser, Erza (August 25, 2011). "Hurricane Irene barrels toward US as Caribbean islands take stock of damage". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved September 20, 2011. 
    5. ^ Telling the Weather Story (PDF) (Report). Insurance Bureau of Canada. June 4, 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015. 
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 August 1810Battle of Grand Port: The French accept the surrender of a British Navy fleet.

    Battle of Grand Port

    Coordinates: 20°23′25″S 57°44′02″E / 20.39028°S 57.73389°E / -20.39028; 57.73389

    The Battle of Grand Port was a naval battle between squadrons of frigates from the French Navy and the British Royal Navy. The battle was fought during 20–27 August 1810 over possession of the harbour of Grand Port on Isle de France (now Mauritius) during the Napoleonic Wars. The British squadron of four frigates sought to blockade the port to prevent its use by the French through the capture of the fortified Île de la Passe at its entrance. This position was seized by a British landing party on 13 August, and when a French squadron under Captain Guy-Victor Duperré approached the bay nine days later the British commander, Captain Samuel Pym, decided to lure them into coastal waters where his superior numbers could be brought to bear against the French ships.

    Four of the five French ships managed to break past the British blockade, taking shelter in the protected anchorage, which was only accessible through a series of complicated reefs and sandbanks that were impassable without an experienced harbour pilot. When Pym ordered his frigates to attack the anchored French on August 22 and 23, his ships became trapped in the narrow channels of the bay: two were irretrievably grounded; a third, outnumbered by the combined French squadron, was defeated; and a fourth was unable to close to within effective gun range. Although the French ships were also badly damaged, the battle was a disaster for the British: one ship was captured after suffering irreparable damage, the grounded ships were set on fire to prevent their capture by French boarding parties and the remaining vessel was seized as it left the harbour by the main French squadron from Port Napoleon under Commodore Jacques Hamelin.

    The British defeat was the worst the Royal Navy suffered during the entire war, and it left the Indian Ocean and its vital trade convoys exposed to attack from Hamelin's frigates. In response, the British authorities sought to reinforce the squadron on Île Bourbon under Josias Rowley by ordering all available ships to the region, but this piecemeal reinforcement resulted in a series of desperate actions as individual British ships were attacked by the more powerful and confident French squadron. In December 1810 an adequate reinforcement was collected, with the provision of a strong battle squadron under Admiral Albemarle Bertie, that rapidly invaded and subdued Isle de France.

     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 August 1966The Beatles perform their last concert before paying fans at Candlestick Park in San Francisco.

    The Beatles

    The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. With members John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, they became widely regarded as the foremost and most influential act of the rock era.[1] Rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the Beatles later experimented with several musical styles, ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock, often incorporating classical elements and unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways. In 1963 their enormous popularity first emerged as "Beatlemania", and as the group's music grew in sophistication in subsequent years, led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, they came to be perceived as an embodiment of the ideals shared by the counterculture of the 1960s.

    The Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960, with Stuart Sutcliffe initially serving as bass player. The core of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, and producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings, greatly expanding their popularity in the United Kingdom after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962. They acquired the nickname "the Fab Four" as Beatlemania grew in Britain the next year, and by early 1964 became international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market. From 1965 onwards, the Beatles produced increasingly innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul (1965), Revolver (1966), Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), The Beatles (commonly known as the White Album, 1968) and Abbey Road (1969). After their break-up in 1970, they each enjoyed successful musical careers of varying lengths. McCartney and Starr, the surviving members, remain musically active. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980, and Harrison died of lung cancer in November 2001.

    The Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million physical and digital albums worldwide. They have had more number-one albums on the British charts and sold more singles in the UK than any other act. They are also the best-selling music artists in the United States, with 178 million certified units. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; as of 2017, they hold the record for most number-one hits on the Hot 100 chart with twenty. They have received seven Grammy Awards, an Academy Award for Best Original Song Score and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. The group was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, and all four main members were inducted individually from 1994 to 2015. They were also collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people.

    1. ^ Unterberger, Richie. The Beatles at AllMusic. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 August 1945 – Hong Kong is liberated from Japan by British Armed Forces.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 August 1897Thomas Edison patents the Kinetoscope, the first movie projector.

    Kinetoscope

    Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet

    The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device. The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector, but introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video, by creating the illusion of movement by conveying a strip of perforated film bearing sequential images over a light source with a high-speed shutter. A process using roll film first described in a patent application submitted in France and the U.S. by French inventor Louis Le Prince, the concept was also used by U.S. inventor Thomas Edison in 1889, and subsequently developed by his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson between 1889 and 1892.[1] Dickson and his team at the Edison lab also devised the Kinetograph, an innovative motion picture camera with rapid intermittent, or stop-and-go, film movement, to photograph movies for in-house experiments and, eventually, commercial Kinetoscope presentations.

    A prototype for the Kinetoscope was shown to a convention of the National Federation of Women's Clubs on May 20, 1891.[2] The first public demonstration of the Kinetoscope was held at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893.[2] Instrumental to the birth of American movie culture, the Kinetoscope also had a major impact in Europe; its influence abroad was magnified by Edison's decision not to seek international patents on the device, facilitating numerous imitations of and improvements on the technology. In 1895, Edison introduced the Kinetophone, which joined the Kinetoscope with a cylinder phonograph. Film projection, which Edison initially disdained as financially nonviable, soon superseded the Kinetoscope's individual exhibition model. Many of the projection systems developed by Edison's firm in later years would use the Kinetoscope name.

     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 September 1969 – A coup in Libya brings Muammar Gaddafi to power.

    Muammar Gaddafi

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox officeholder with unknown parameter "religion" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi[b] (/ˈm.əmɑːr ɡəˈdɑːfi/; About this sound audio ; c. 1942 – 20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He governed Libya as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977, then as the "Brotherly Leader" of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011. He was initially ideologically committed to Arab nationalism and Arab socialism, but later came to rule under his own Third International Theory.

    Born near Sirte to an impoverished Bedouin family, he became an Arab nationalist while at school in Sabha, later enrolling in the Royal Military Academy, Benghazi. Within the military he founded a revolutionary cell which deposed the Western-backed Senussi monarchy of Idris in a 1969 coup. Having taken power, Gaddafi converted Libya into a republic governed by his Revolutionary Command Council. Ruling by decree, he ejected both Italian colonists and Western military bases from Libya while strengthening ties to Arab nationalist governments—particularly Gamal Abdel Nasser's Egypt—and unsuccessfully advocating Pan-Arab political union. An Islamic modernist, he introduced sharia as the basis for the legal system and promoted "Islamic socialism". He nationalised the oil industry and used the increasing state revenues to bolster the military, fund foreign revolutionaries, and implement social programs emphasising house-building, healthcare, and education projects. In 1973, he initiated a "Popular Revolution" with the formation of General People's Committees, purported to be a system of direct democracy, but retained personal control over major decisions. He outlined his Third International Theory that year, publishing these ideas in The Green Book.

    Gaddafi transformed Libya into a new socialist state called a Jamahiriya ("state of the masses") in 1977. He officially adopted a symbolic role in governance but remained head of both the military and the Revolutionary Committees responsible for policing and suppressing dissent. During the 1970s and 1980s, Libya's unsuccessful border conflicts with Egypt and Chad, support for foreign militants, and alleged responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing left it increasingly isolated on the international stage. A particularly hostile relationship developed with the United States, United Kingdom, and Israel, resulting in the 1986 U.S. bombing of Libya and United Nations-imposed economic sanctions. From 1999, Gaddafi rejected Arab socialism and encouraged economic privatisation, rapprochement with Western nations, and Pan-Africanism; he was Chairperson of the African Union from 2009–10. Amid the 2011 Arab Spring, protests against widespread corruption and unemployment broke out in eastern Libya. The situation descended into civil war, in which NATO intervened militarily on the side of the anti-Gaddafist National Transitional Council (NTC). The government was overthrown and Gaddafi retreated to Sirte, only to be captured and killed by NTC militants.

    A highly divisive figure, Gaddafi dominated Libya's politics for four decades and was the subject of a pervasive cult of personality. He was decorated with various awards and lauded for his anti-imperialist stance, support for Arab and then African unity, and for significant improvements that his government brought to the Libyan people's quality of life. Conversely, Islamic fundamentalists strongly opposed his social and economic reforms. He was internationally condemned as a dictator whose authoritarian administration violated the human rights of Libyan citizens and financed global terrorism.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference INDtncofficialgov was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Staff (23 August 2011). "Libya Live Blog: Tuesday, 23 August 2011 – 16:19". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference taipeitimmes20110826 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Muammar Gaddafi: How he died". BBC. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
    5. ^ Saleh, Yasmine (23 October 2011). "UPDATE 4-Libya declares nation liberated after Gaddafi death". Reuters. 
    6. ^ "How are you supposed to spell Muammar Gaddafi/Khadafy/Qadhafi?". The Straight Dope. 1986. Retrieved 5 March 2006. 
    7. ^ "How many different ways can you spell 'Gaddafi'". ABC News. September 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
    8. ^ Chris Matthews (21 October 2011). Hardball With Chris Matthews. MSNBC. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
    9. ^ "Saif Gaddafi on How to Spell His Last Name". The Daily Beast. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
    10. ^ "Rebel Discovers Qaddafi Passport, Real Spelling of Leader's Name". The Atlantic. 
    11. ^ Anil Kandangath (25 February 2011). "How do you spell Gaddafi’s name?". Doublespeak Blog. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011. 
    12. ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 September 1998Swissair Flight 111 crashes near Peggy's Cove, Nova Scotia; all 229 people onboard are killed.

    Swissair Flight 111

    Swissair Flight 111 (ICAO: SWR111) was a scheduled international passenger flight from New York City, United States, to Geneva, Switzerland. This flight was also a codeshare flight with Delta Air Lines. On 2 September 1998, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 performing this flight, registration HB-IWF, crashed into the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Halifax International Airport at the entrance to St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia. The crash site was 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from shore, roughly equidistant from the tiny fishing and tourist communities of Peggy's Cove and Bayswater. All 229 passengers and crew aboard the MD-11 died—the highest death toll of any McDonnell Douglas MD-11 accident in aviation history,[2] and the second-highest of any air disaster to occur in Canada, after Arrow Air Flight 1285, which crashed in 1985 with 256 fatalities. This is one of the three MD-11 accidents with passenger fatalities along with China Eastern Airlines Flight 583 and another hull loss of China Airlines Flight 642.

    The search and rescue response, crash recovery operation, and investigation by the Government of Canada took over four years and cost CAD 57 million (at that time approximately US$38 million).[3] The Transportation Safety Board of Canada's (TSB) report of their investigation stated that flammable material used in the aircraft's structure allowed a fire to spread beyond the control of the crew, resulting in a loss of control and the crash of the aircraft.[1]:253

    Swissair Flight 111 was known as the "UN shuttle" because of its popularity with United Nations officials; the flight also carried business executives, scientists, and researchers.[4]

     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 September 1976Viking program: The American Viking 2 spacecraft lands at Utopia Planitia on Mars.

    Viking 2

    The Viking 2 mission was part of the American Viking program to Mars, and consisted of an orbiter and a lander essentially identical to that of the Viking 1 mission.[1] The Viking 2 lander operated on the surface for 1316 days, or 1281 sols, and was turned off on April 11, 1980 when its batteries failed. The orbiter worked until July 25, 1978,[1] returning almost 16,000 images in 706 orbits around Mars.[3]

    1. ^ a b c d e f g h Williams, David R. Dr. (December 18, 2006). "Viking Mission to Mars". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
    2. ^ a b Nelson, Jon. "Viking 2". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
    3. ^ [1]
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 September 1970Salvador Allende is elected President of Chile.

    Salvador Allende

    Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (American Spanish: [salβaˈðoɾ aˈʝende ˈɣosens]; 26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.[1]

    Allende's involvement in Chilean political life spanned a period of nearly forty years. As a member of the Socialist Party, he was a senator, deputy and cabinet minister. He unsuccessfully ran for the presidency in the 1952, 1958, and 1964 elections. In 1970, he won the presidency in a close three-way race. He was elected in a run-off by Congress as no candidate had gained a majority.

    As president, Allende adopted a policy of nationalization of industries and collectivisation; due to these and other factors, increasingly strained relations between him and the legislative and judicial branches of the Chilean government culminated in a declaration by Congress of a "constitutional breakdown". A centre-right majority including the Christian Democrats, whose support had enabled Allende's election, denounced his rule as unconstitutional and called for his overthrow by force.[citation needed] On 11 September 1973, the military moved to oust Allende in a coup d'état supported by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[2][3][4] As troops surrounded La Moneda Palace, he gave his last speech vowing not to resign.[5] Later that day, Allende committed suicide with an assault rifle,[6] according to an investigation conducted by a Chilean court with the assistance of international experts in 2011.[7]

    Following Allende's death, General Augusto Pinochet refused to return authority to a civilian government, and Chile was later ruled by a military junta that was in power up until 1990, ending almost four decades of uninterrupted democratic rule. The military junta that took over dissolved the Congress of Chile, suspended the Constitution, and began a persecution of alleged dissidents, in which thousands of Allende's supporters were kidnapped, tortured, and murdered.

    1. ^ "Profile of Salvador Allende". BBC. 8 September 2003. 
    2. ^ Pipes, Richard (2003). Communism: A History. The Modern Library. p. 138. ISBN 0-8129-6864-6. 
    3. ^ "Chile: The Bloody End of a Marxist Dream.". Time Magazine.  24 September 1973. "Allende's downfall had implications that reached far beyond the borders of Chile. His had been the first democratically elected Marxist government in Latin America..."
    4. ^ Winn, Peter (2010). "Furies of the Andes". In Grandin & Joseph, Greg & Gilbert. A Century of Revolution. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 239–275. 
    5. ^ Salvador Allende's Last Speech
    6. ^ "Chilean president Salvador Allende committed suicide, autopsy confirms". The Guardian. United Kingdom. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2015. 
    7. ^ "Chile inquiry confirms President Allende killed himself". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 September 1970Salvador Allende is elected President of Chile.

    Salvador Allende

    Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (American Spanish: [salβaˈðoɾ aˈʝende ˈɣosens]; 26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.[1]

    Allende's involvement in Chilean political life spanned a period of nearly forty years. As a member of the Socialist Party, he was a senator, deputy and cabinet minister. He unsuccessfully ran for the presidency in the 1952, 1958, and 1964 elections. In 1970, he won the presidency in a close three-way race. He was elected in a run-off by Congress as no candidate had gained a majority.

    As president, Allende adopted a policy of nationalization of industries and collectivisation; due to these and other factors, increasingly strained relations between him and the legislative and judicial branches of the Chilean government culminated in a declaration by Congress of a "constitutional breakdown". A centre-right majority including the Christian Democrats, whose support had enabled Allende's election, denounced his rule as unconstitutional and called for his overthrow by force.[citation needed] On 11 September 1973, the military moved to oust Allende in a coup d'état supported by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[2][3][4] As troops surrounded La Moneda Palace, he gave his last speech vowing not to resign.[5] Later that day, Allende committed suicide with an assault rifle,[6] according to an investigation conducted by a Chilean court with the assistance of international experts in 2011.[7]

    Following Allende's death, General Augusto Pinochet refused to return authority to a civilian government, and Chile was later ruled by a military junta that was in power up until 1990, ending almost four decades of uninterrupted democratic rule. The military junta that took over dissolved the Congress of Chile, suspended the Constitution, and began a persecution of alleged dissidents, in which thousands of Allende's supporters were kidnapped, tortured, and murdered.

    1. ^ "Profile of Salvador Allende". BBC. 8 September 2003. 
    2. ^ Pipes, Richard (2003). Communism: A History. The Modern Library. p. 138. ISBN 0-8129-6864-6. 
    3. ^ "Chile: The Bloody End of a Marxist Dream.". Time Magazine.  24 September 1973. "Allende's downfall had implications that reached far beyond the borders of Chile. His had been the first democratically elected Marxist government in Latin America..."
    4. ^ Winn, Peter (2010). "Furies of the Andes". In Grandin & Joseph, Greg & Gilbert. A Century of Revolution. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 239–275. 
    5. ^ Salvador Allende's Last Speech
    6. ^ "Chilean president Salvador Allende committed suicide, autopsy confirms". The Guardian. United Kingdom. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2015. 
    7. ^ "Chile inquiry confirms President Allende killed himself". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 September 1882 – The first United States Labor Day parade is held in New York City.

    Labor Day

    Labor Day in the United States is a public holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September. It honors the American labor movement and the contributions that workers have made to the strength, prosperity, laws and well-being of the country. It is the Monday of the long weekend known as Labor Day Weekend and it is considered the unofficial end of summer in the United States. It is recognized as a federal holiday.

    Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, trade unionists proposed that a day be set aside to celebrate labor. "Labor Day" was promoted by the Central Labor Union and the Knights of Labor, which organized the first parade in New York City. In 1887, Oregon was the first state of the United States to make it an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty U.S. states officially celebrated Labor Day.[1]

    Canada's Labour Day is also celebrated on the first Monday of September. More than 80 countries celebrate International Workers' Day on May 1 – the ancient European holiday of May Day – and several countries have chosen their own dates for Labour Day.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bridgemens1921 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 September 1968Swaziland becomes independent

    Swaziland

    Coordinates: 26°30′S 31°30′E / 26.500°S 31.500°E / -26.500; 31.500

    Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini (/ˈswɑːzɪlænd/ or /-lənd/; Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini; sometimes called kaNgwane or Eswatini),[5] is a sovereign state in Southern Africa. It is neighboured by Mozambique to its northeast and by South Africa to its north, west and south; it is a landlocked country. The country and its people take their names from Mswati II, the 19th-century king under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified.[6]

    At no more than 200 kilometres (120 mi) north to south and 130 kilometres (81 mi) east to west, Swaziland is one of the smallest countries in Africa; despite this, its climate and topography are diverse, ranging from a cool and mountainous highveld to a hot and dry lowveld. The population is primarily ethnic Swazis whose language is Swati. They established their kingdom in the mid-18th century under the leadership of Ngwane III; the present boundaries were drawn up in 1881 in the midst of the scramble for Africa.[7] After the Anglo-Boer War, Swaziland was a British protectorate from 1903 until 1967. It regained its independence on 6 September 1968.[8]

    The country is an absolute monarchy, ruled by Ngwenyama ("King") Mswati III since 1986.[9][10] He is head of state and appoints the country's prime ministers and a number of representatives of both chambers (Senate and House of Assembly) in the country's parliament. Elections are held every five years to determine the House of Assembly and the Senate majority. The current constitution was adopted in 2005.

    Swaziland is a developing country with a small economy. With a GDP per capita of $9,714, it is classified as a country with a lower-middle income.[2] As a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), its main local trading partner is South Africa; in order to ensure economic stability, Swaziland's currency, the lilangeni, is pegged to the South African rand. Swaziland's major overseas trading partners are the United States[11] and the European Union.[12] The majority of the country's employment is provided by its agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Swaziland is a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations.

    The Swazi population faces major health issues: HIV/AIDS and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis are serious challenges.[13][14] As of 2013, Swaziland has the lowest estimated life expectancy in the world, at 49.18 years.[15] The population of Swaziland is fairly young with a median age of 20.5 years and people aged 14 years or younger constituting 37.4% of the country's total population.[16] The present population growth rate is 1.195%.

    Umhlanga, held in August/September[17] and incwala, the kingship dance held in December/January, are the nation's most important events.[18]

    1. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
    2. ^ a b c d e "Swaziland". International Monetary Fund. 
    3. ^ "Swaziland – Country partnership strategy FY2015-2018". World Bank. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 
    4. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
    5. ^ H.M. Mswati III. Speech from the throne 2014 (PDF). Government of Swaziland. 
    6. ^ Kuper, Hilda (1986). The Swazi: A South African Kingdom. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. 9–10. 
    7. ^ Bonner, Philip (1982). Kings, Commoners and Concessionaires. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press. pp. 9–27. ISBN 0521242703. 
    8. ^ Gillis, Hugh (1999). The Kingdom of Swaziland: Studies in Political History. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313306702. 
    9. ^ Tofa, Moses (16 May 2013). "Swaziland: Wither absolute monarchism?". Pambazuka News (630). Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
    10. ^ "Swaziland: Africa′s last absolute monarchy". Deutsche Welle. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
    11. ^ "Swaziland | Office of the United States Trade Representative". Ustr.gov. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
    12. ^ "Swaziland". Comesaria.org. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
    13. ^ "Projects : Swaziland Health, HIV/AIDS and TB Project". The World Bank. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
    14. ^ Swaziland: Dual HIV and Tuberculosis Epidemic Demands Urgent Action updated 18 November 2010
    15. ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Retrieved 5 May 2015. 
    16. ^ "Swaziland Demographics Profile 2013". Indexmundi.com. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
    17. ^ kbraun@africaonline.co.sz. "Swaziland National Trust Commission – Cultural Resources – Swazi Culture – The Umhlanga or Reed Dance". Sntc.org.sz. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
    18. ^ kbraun@africaonline.co.sz. "Swaziland National Trust Commission – Cultural Resources – Swazi Culture – The Incwala or Kingship Ceremony". Sntc.org.sz. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 September 1921 – In Atlantic City, New Jersey, the first Miss America Pageant, a two-day event, is held.

    Miss America

    Miss America is a scholarship pageant that is held annually and is open to women from the United States between the ages of 17 and 24. Originating in 1921 as a "bathing beauty revue", the contest is now judged on competitors' talent performances and interviews in addition to their physical appearance. Miss America travels about 20,000 miles a month, changing her location every 24 to 48 hours, touring the nation and promoting her particular platform of interest.[1] The winner is crowned by the previous year's titleholder.

    The current titleholder, Miss America 2018, is Miss North Dakota 2017, Cara Mund, who was crowned on September 10, 2017, by her predecessor Savvy Shields (Miss America 2017).

    1. ^ Watson, Ellwood; Martin, Darcy (2000). "The Miss America Pageant: Pluralism, Femininity, and Cinderella All in One". Journal of Popular Culture. Wiley. 1 (34): 105–126. 
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 September 1946 – A 95.6% vote in favor of abolishing the monarchy in Bulgaria.

    Bulgaria

    Coordinates: 42°45′N 25°30′E / 42.750°N 25.500°E / 42.750; 25.500

    Bulgaria (/bʌlˈɡɛəriə, bʊl-/; Bulgarian: България, tr. Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България, tr. Republika Bǎlgariya, pronounced [rɛˈpublikɐ bɐɫˈɡarijɐ]), is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country.

    Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on current Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period. Its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians, Greeks, Persians, Celts, Romans, Goths, Alans and Huns. The emergence of a unified Bulgarian state dates back to the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 AD, which dominated most of the Balkans and functioned as a cultural hub for Slavs during the Middle Ages. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State. The following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a one-party socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. In December 1989 the ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led to Bulgaria's transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.

    Bulgaria's population of 7.2 million people is predominantly urbanised and mainly concentrated in the administrative centres of its 28 provinces. Most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are heavy industry, power engineering, and agriculture, all of which rely on local natural resources.

    The country's current political structure dates to the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); and has taken a seat at the UN Security Council three times.

    1. ^ NSI Census data 2011, p. 4.
    2. ^ NSI Census data 2015.
    3. ^ a b "Bulgaria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 April 2017. 
    4. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 31 March 2016. 
    5. ^ "Human Development Report 2015" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 September 1946 – A 95.6% vote in favor of abolishing the monarchy in Bulgaria.

    Bulgaria

    Coordinates: 42°45′N 25°30′E / 42.750°N 25.500°E / 42.750; 25.500

    Bulgaria (/bʌlˈɡɛəriə, bʊl-/; Bulgarian: България, tr. Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България, tr. Republika Bǎlgariya, pronounced [rɛˈpublikɐ bɐɫˈɡarijɐ]), is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country.

    Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on current Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period. Its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians, Greeks, Persians, Celts, Romans, Goths, Alans and Huns. The emergence of a unified Bulgarian state dates back to the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 AD, which dominated most of the Balkans and functioned as a cultural hub for Slavs during the Middle Ages. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State. The following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a one-party socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. In December 1989 the ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led to Bulgaria's transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.

    Bulgaria's population of 7.2 million people is predominantly urbanised and mainly concentrated in the administrative centres of its 28 provinces. Most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are heavy industry, power engineering, and agriculture, all of which rely on local natural resources.

    The country's current political structure dates to the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); and has taken a seat at the UN Security Council three times.

    1. ^ NSI Census data 2011, p. 4.
    2. ^ NSI Census data 2015.
    3. ^ a b "Bulgaria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 April 2017. 
    4. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 31 March 2016. 
    5. ^ "Human Development Report 2015" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 September 1990 Massacre of 184 Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in Batticaloa District.

    1990 Batticaloa massacre

    The 1990 Batticaloa massacre, also known as the Sathurukondan massacre (Tamil: சத்துருக்கொண்டான் படுகொலை), was a massacre of at least 184 minority Sri Lankan Tamil refugees, including infants, from three villages in the Batticaloa District by the Sri Lankan Army on September 9, 1990.[1][2][3][4][5] Although the government instituted two investigations, no one was ever charged.

    1. ^ "The massacre at Sathurukondan: 9th September 1990 – Report 8". UTHR. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
    2. ^ "Chapter 45: War continues with brutality". Asia Times. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
    3. ^ "Batticaloa massacre victims remembered". Tamilnet. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
    4. ^ "Towards reconciliation". Dailynews. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
    5. ^ "World Report 2000: Sri Lanka". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 September 846Elias Howe is granted a patent for the sewing machine.

    Sewing machine

    Diagram of a modern sewing machine

    A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. Since the invention of the first working sewing machine, generally considered to have been the work of Englishman Thomas Saint in 1790,[1] the sewing machine has greatly improved the efficiency and productivity of the clothing industry.

    Home sewing machines are designed for one person to sew individual items while using a single stitch type. In a modern sewing machine the fabric easily glides in and out of the machine without the inconvenience of needles and thimbles and other such tools used in hand sewing, automating the process of stitching and saving time.

    Industrial sewing machines, by contrast to domestic machines, are larger, faster, and more varied in their size, cost, appearance, and task.

     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 September 2008 – A major Channel Tunnel fire broke out on a freight train, resulting in the closure of part of the tunnel for 6 months.

    2008 Channel Tunnel fire

    The 2008 Channel Tunnel fire occurred on 11 September 2008 in the Channel Tunnel. The incident involved a France-bound Eurotunnel Shuttle train carrying heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and their drivers.

    The fire lasted for sixteen hours and reached temperatures of up to 1000 °C.[1] Of the thirty-two people on board the train, fourteen people suffered minor injuries, including smoke inhalation and were taken to the hospital. When the fire was reported, the tunnel was immediately shut to all services except emergency traffic. The undamaged south tunnel was reopened 13 September with a freight train entering the tunnel at Folkestone at 00:08 BST and a limited service provided with trains travelling in turn in alternating directions in the one tunnel. By the end of September, two thirds of the north tunnel had reopened. Full service resumed in February 2009 after repairs costing €60 million.

    This fire was the third to close the tunnel since it opened in 1994,[2] the first being the 1996 Channel Tunnel fire and, in August 2006, the tunnel was closed for several hours after fire broke out on a truck loaded onto a HGV Shuttle.

    1. ^ Rayner, Gordon; Millward, David; Simpson, Aislinn (11 September 2008). "Channel Tunnel closed after freight train fire". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2008. 
    2. ^ "How the 2008 fire changed Channel Tunnel history". KentOnline. 5 May 2009. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009. 
     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 September 490 BCBattle of Marathon: The conventionally accepted date for the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians and their Plataean allies, defeat the first Persian invasion force of Greece

    Battle of Marathon

    The Battle of Marathon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece. It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes. The battle was the culmination of the first attempt by Persia, under King Darius I, to subjugate Greece. The Greek army decisively defeated the more numerous Persians, marking a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars.

    The first Persian invasion was a response to Athenian involvement in the Ionian Revolt, when Athens and Eretria had sent a force to support the cities of Ionia in their attempt to overthrow Persian rule. The Athenians and Eretrians had succeeded in capturing and burning Sardis, but they were then forced to retreat with heavy losses. In response to this raid, Darius swore to burn down Athens and Eretria. According to Herodotus, Darius had his bow brought to him and then shot an arrow "upwards towards heaven", saying as he did so: "Zeus, that it may be granted me to take vengeance upon the Athenians!". Herodotus further writes that Darius charged one of his servants to say "Master, remember the Athenians" three times before dinner each day.[4]

    At the time of the battle, Sparta and Athens were the two largest city-states in Greece. Once the Ionian revolt was finally crushed by the Persian victory at the Battle of Lade in 494 BC, Darius began plans to subjugate Greece. In 490 BC, he sent a naval task force under Datis and Artaphernes across the Aegean, to subjugate the Cyclades, and then to make punitive attacks on Athens and Eretria. Reaching Euboea in mid-summer after a successful campaign in the Aegean, the Persians proceeded to besiege and capture Eretria. The Persian force then sailed for Attica, landing in the bay near the town of Marathon. The Athenians, joined by a small force from Plataea, marched to Marathon, and succeeded in blocking the two exits from the plain of Marathon. The Athenians also sent a message asking for support to the Spartans. When the messenger arrived in Sparta, the Spartans were involved in a religious festival and gave this as a reason for not coming to aid of the Athenians.

    The Athenians and their allies chose a location for the battle, with marshes and mountainous terrain, that prevented the Persian cavalry from joining the main Persian army. Miltiades, the Athenian general, ordered a general attack against the Persian infantry-bowmen. He reinforced his flanks, luring the Persians' best fighters into his center. The inward wheeling flanks enveloped the Persians, routing them. The Persian army broke in panic towards their ships, and large numbers were slaughtered. The defeat at Marathon marked the end of the first Persian invasion of Greece, and the Persian force retreated to Asia. Darius then began raising a huge new army with which he meant to completely subjugate Greece; however, in 486 BC, his Egyptian subjects revolted, indefinitely postponing any Greek expedition. After Darius died, his son Xerxes I restarted the preparations for a second invasion of Greece, which finally began in 480 BC.

    The Battle of Marathon was a watershed in the Greco-Persian wars, showing the Greeks that the Persians could be beaten; the eventual Greek triumph in these wars can be seen to begin at Marathon. The battle also showed the Greeks that they were able to win battles without the Spartans, as they had heavily relied on Sparta previously. This win was largely due to the Athenians, and Marathon raised Greek esteem of them. Since the following two hundred years saw the rise of the Classical Greek civilization, which has been enduringly influential in western society, the Battle of Marathon is often seen as a pivotal moment in Mediterranean and European history.

    1. ^ a b 100 Battles, Decisive Battles that Shaped the World, Dougherty, Martin, J., Parragon, p. 12
    2. ^ http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160%3Abook%3D9%3Achapter%3D4%3Asection%3D2
    3. ^ a b Krentz, Peter, The Battle of Marathon (Yale Library of Military History), Yale Univ Press, (2010) p. 98
    4. ^ Herodotus Book 5: Terpsichore, 105 "...he inquired into who the Athenians were; and when he had been informed, he asked for his bow, and having received it and placed an arrow upon the string, he discharged it upwards towards heaven, and as he shot into the air he said: "Zeus, that it may be granted me to take vengeance upon the Athenians!" Having so said he charged one of his attendants, that when dinner was set before the king he should say always three times: "Master, remember the Athenians.""
     
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 September 1906 – First flight of a fixed-wing aircraft in Europe.

    Fixed-wing aircraft

    A Boeing 737 aeroplane – an example of a fixed-wing aircraft
    A delta-shaped kite

    A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane (See Spelling Differences), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings. Fixed-wing aircraft are distinct from rotary-wing aircraft, in which the wings form a rotor mounted on a spinning shaft, and ornithopters, in which the wings flap in similar manner to a bird.

    Glider fixed-wing aircraft, including free-flying gliders of various kinds and tethered kites, can use moving air to gain height. Powered fixed-wing aircraft that gain forward thrust from an engine (aeroplanes) include powered paragliders, powered hang gliders and some ground effect vehicles.

    The wings of a fixed-wing aircraft are not necessarily rigid; kites, hang-gliders, variable-sweep wing aircraft and aeroplanes using wing-warping are all fixed-wing aircraft. Most fixed-wing aircraft are flown by a pilot on board the aircraft, but some are designed to be remotely or computer-controlled.

     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 September 1975 – The first American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton, is canonized by Pope Paul VI.

    Elizabeth Ann Seton

    Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton, S.C., (August 28, 1774 – January 4, 1821) was the first native-born citizen[1] of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church (September 14, 1975).[2] She established the first Catholic girls' school in the nation in Emmitsburg, Maryland, where she also founded the first American congregation of religious sisters, the Sisters of Charity.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference PaulVI was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Frances Xavier Cabrini was the first American citizen to be canonized; she was born in Sant'Angelo Lodigiano, in the Lombard Province of Lodi, Italy (then part of the Austrian Empire).
     
  24. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 September 2008Lehman Brothers files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, the largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history.

    Lehman Brothers

    Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (former NYSE ticker symbol LEH) /ˈlmən/ was a global financial services firm. Before declaring bankruptcy in 2008, Lehman was the fourth-largest investment bank in the United States (behind Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, and Merrill Lynch), doing business in investment banking, equity and fixed-income sales and trading (especially U.S. Treasury securities), research, investment management, private equity, and private banking. Lehman was operational for 158 years from its founding in 1850 until 2008.[2]

    On September 15, 2008, the firm filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection following the massive exodus of most of its clients, drastic losses in its stock, and devaluation of assets by credit rating agencies, largely sparked by Lehman's involvement in the subprime mortgage crisis, excessive risk taking and subsequent allegations of negligence and malfeasance.[3][4][5]Lehman's bankruptcy filing is the largest in US history,[6] and is thought to have played a major role in the unfolding of the late-2000s global financial crisis. On September 16, 2008, Lehman filed for bankruptcy. Global markets immediately plummeted, and systemic risk was uncorked. This market collapse also gave support to the "Too Big To Fail" doctrine.[7] The following day, Barclays announced its agreement to purchase, subject to regulatory approval, Lehman's North American investment-banking and trading divisions along with its New York headquarters building.[8][9] On September 20, 2008, a revised version of that agreement was approved by U.S. Bankruptcy Judge James M. Peck.[10] The next week, Nomura Holdings announced that it would acquire Lehman Brothers' franchise in the Asia-Pacific region, including Japan, Hong Kong and Australia,[11] as well as Lehman Brothers' investment banking and equities businesses in Europe and the Middle East. The deal became effective on October 13, 2008.[12]

    1. ^ "History of the Lehman Brothers". Harvard University Library-Lehman Brothers Collection. Retrieved 2010-12-01. 
    2. ^ Melvyn Dubofsky (2013). The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History. Oxford University Press. pp. 470–. ISBN 978-0-19-973881-6. 
    3. ^ Michael P. Malloy (2010). Anatomy of a Meltdown: A Dual Financial Biography of the Subprime Mortgage Crisis. Wolters Kluwer Law & Business. ISBN 978-0-7355-9458-6. 
    4. ^ Asli Yüksel Mermod; Samuel O. Idowu (29 August 2013). Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Business World. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-3-642-37620-7. 
    5. ^ Williams, Mark (April 12, 2010). Uncontrolled Risk. McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0071638296. 
    6. ^ Mamudi, Sam (September 15, 2005). "Lehman folds with record $613 billion debt". Marketwatch. 
    7. ^ Williams, Mark (April 12, 2010). Uncontrolled Risk. McGraw-Hill Education. p. 178. ISBN 978-0071638296. 
    8. ^ "Barclays announces agreement to acquire Lehman Brothers North American investment banking and capital markets businesses" (Press release). Barclays PLC. September 17, 2008. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
    9. ^ "Barclays buys core Lehman assets". BBC News. September 17, 2008. 
    10. ^ "Judge approves $1.3 billion Lehman deal". BBC News. September 20, 2008. 
    11. ^ "Nomura to acquire Lehman Brothers' Asia Pacific franchise" (Press release). Nomura Holdings. September 22, 2008. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
    12. ^ "Nomura to close acquisition of Lehman Brothers' Europe and Middle East investment banking and equities businesses on October 13" (Press release). Nomura Holdings. October 6, 2008. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
     
  25. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 September 1620Pilgrims set sail from England on the Mayflower.

    Mayflower

    The Mayflower was an English ship that famously transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England to the New World in 1620.[1] There were 102 passengers, and the crew is estimated to have been about 30, but the exact number is unknown.[2] This voyage has become an iconic story in some of the earliest annals of American history, with its story of death and of survival in the harsh New England winter environment. The culmination of the voyage in the signing of the Mayflower Compact was an event which established a rudimentary form of democracy, with each member contributing to the welfare of the community.[3] There was a second ship named Mayflower that made the London to Plymouth, Massachusetts voyage several times.

    1. ^ Folsom, George. et al. Historical Magazine: and Notes and Queries Concerning the Antiquities, History, and Biography of America. (C. B. Richardson, 1867) page 277
    2. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers (Indiana: Xlibris Corp., 2006), p. 33
    3. ^ Bertrand Brown, 'To Celebrate the 300th Anniversary of America's Origin', The Journal of Education", Vol. 92, No. 6 (Trustees of Boston University, August 1920), p. 151
     
  26. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17th September 1794 – The Battle of Sprimont is fought.

    Battle of Sprimont

    The Battle of Sprimont, Battle of Esneux or Battle of the Ourthe was a battle between French Republican and Austrian troops on the plateau between the valleys of the Vesdre, the Ourthe and the Amblève, 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Liège. It occurred on 17 and 18 September 1794 and was a French Republican victory. The battle put a final end to the Ancien Régime in what is now Belgium, then essentially the Austrian Netherlands, Principality of Liège and the Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy. French troops dislodged Austrian troops occupying the plateau, though the French suffered heavy losses. Associated with the battle are the villages of Sprimont, Esneux, Fontin and the site of the La Redoute, whose name originates in a redoubt involved in the battle.


     
  27. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 September 1809 – The Royal Opera House in London opens.

    Royal Opera House

    The Royal Opera House is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is often referred to as simply "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732. It is the home of The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet, and the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. Originally called the Theatre Royal, it served primarily as a playhouse for the first hundred years of its history. In 1734, the first ballet was presented. A year later, Handel's first season of operas began. Many of his operas and oratorios were specifically written for Covent Garden and had their premieres there.

    The current building is the third theatre on the site following disastrous fires in 1808 and 1856. The façade, foyer, and auditorium date from 1858, but almost every other element of the present complex dates from an extensive reconstruction in the 1990s. The main auditorium seats 2,256 people, making it the third largest in London, and consists of four tiers of boxes and balconies and the amphitheatre gallery. The proscenium is 12.20 m wide and 14.80 m high. The main auditorium is a Grade I listed building.[2]

    1. ^ Historic England (9 January 1970). "The Royal Opera House (1066392)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
    2. ^ "Royal Opera House (London)" description on theatrestrust.org.uk Retrieved 10 May 2013
     
  28. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 September 1952 – The United States bars Charlie Chaplin from re-entering the country after a trip to England.

    Charlie Chaplin

    Sir Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin, KBE (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. Chaplin became a worldwide icon through his screen persona "the Tramp" and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry.[1] His career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, and encompassed both adulation and controversy.

    Chaplin's childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship. As his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine. When he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an early age, touring music halls and later working as a stage actor and comedian. At 19, he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, which took him to America. Chaplin was scouted for the film industry and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon developed the Tramp persona and formed a large fan base. Chaplin directed his own films from an early stage and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay, Mutual, and First National corporations. By 1918, he was one of the best-known figures in the world.

    In 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists, which gave him complete control over his films. His first feature-length was The Kid (1921), followed by A Woman of Paris (1923), The Gold Rush (1925), and The Circus (1928). He refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936) without dialogue. Chaplin became increasingly political, and his next film, The Great Dictator (1940), satirised Adolf Hitler. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, and his popularity declined rapidly. He was accused of communist sympathies, while his involvement in a paternity suit and marriages to much younger women caused scandal. An FBI investigation was opened, and Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and settle in Switzerland. He abandoned the Tramp in his later films, which include Monsieur Verdoux (1947), Limelight (1952), A King in New York (1957), and A Countess from Hong Kong (1967).

    Chaplin wrote, directed, produced, edited, starred in, and composed the music for most of his films. He was a perfectionist, and his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture. His films are characterised by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramp's struggles against adversity. Many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. In 1972, as part of a renewed appreciation for his work, Chaplin received an Honorary Academy Award for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century". He continues to be held in high regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, and The Great Dictator often ranked on industry lists of the greatest films of all time.

    1. ^ Cousins, p. 72; Kemp, pp. 8, 22; Gunning, p. 41; Sarris, p. 139; Hansmeyer, p. 3.
     
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 September 1854Battle of Alma: British and French troops defeat Russians in Crimea.

    Battle of Alma

    The Battle of the Alma (20 September 1854), which is usually considered the first battle of the Crimean War (1853–1856), took place just south of the River Alma in the Crimea. An Anglo-French force under Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud and FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan defeated General Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menshikov's Russian army suffering around 6,000 casualties.

    1. ^ William Howard Russell, The British Expedition to the Crimea, Routledge & co. 1858. p. 154 "The English army present at the Alma, in round numbers as stated in the official returns, consisted of 27,000 men; the French, of 25,000; the Turks, of 6,000 men."
     

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