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Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 February 1594Henry IV is crowned King of France.

    Henry IV of France

    Henry IV (French: Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre [ɑ̃ʁi katʁ]; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet "Good King Henry", was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, another branch of the Capetian dynasty (through Louis IX, as the previous House of Valois had been through Philip II). He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.[1]

    Baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre, Henry inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. He later led Protestant forces against the royal army.

    As Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was a direct male-line descendant of Louis IX of France, and "first prince of the blood". Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law.

    He initially kept the Protestant faith (the only French king to do so) and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith. As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion.

    Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts.[2] An unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henry gained more status after his death.[3] He was admired for his repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The "Good King Henry" (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" and in Voltaire's Henriade.

    1. ^ Baird, Henry M., The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, Vol. 2, (Charles Scribner's Sons:New York, 1886), [1] p. 486
    2. ^ Pierre Miquel, Les Guerres de religion, Paris, Club France Loisirs (1980) ISBN 2-7242-0785-8, p. 399
    3. ^ Le Figaro, "Henri IV, Dès sa mort, il entre dans la légende", 1 August 2009 [2]
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 February 1991 – The first Gulf War ends.

    Gulf War

    The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

    The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War, First Iraq War or Iraq War,[29][30][31][a] before the term "Iraq War" became identified instead with the 2003 Iraq War (also referred to in the US as "Operation Iraqi Freedom").[32] The Iraqi Army's occupation of Kuwait that began 2 August 1990 was met with international condemnation and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. Together with the UK's prime minister Margaret Thatcher (who had fiercely resisted the invasion by Argentina of the Falkland Islands a decade earlier[33]), George Bush deployed US forces into Saudi Arabia, and urged other countries to send their own forces to the scene. An array of nations joined the coalition, forming the largest military alliance since World War II. The great majority of the coalition's military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and Egypt as leading contributors, in that order. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost.[34]

    The war was marked by the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN.[35][36][37] The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm.[38][39]

    The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991, continuing for five weeks. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition ceased its advance and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the ground campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on Saudi Arabia's border. Iraq launched Scud missiles against coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt-syria-double was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Den 1. Golfkrig". Forsvaret.dk. 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
    3. ^ Persian Gulf War, the Sandhurst-trained Prince
      Khaled bin Sultan al-Saud was co-commander with General Norman Schwarzkopf
    4. ^ General Khaled was Co-Commander, with US General Norman Schwarzkopf, of the allied coalition that liberated Kuwait www.thefreelibrary.com
    5. ^ Gulf War coalition forces (latest available) by country "www.nationmaster.com". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
    6. ^ Hersh, Seymour (2005). Chain of Command. Penguin Books. p. 181. 
    7. ^ a b "Persian Gulf War". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. 
    8. ^ 18 M1 Abrams, 11 M60, 2 AMX-30
    9. ^ CheckPoint, Ludovic Monnerat -. "Guerre du Golfe : le dernier combat de la division Tawakalna". 
    10. ^ Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 279.
    11. ^ Halberstadt 1991. p. 35
    12. ^ Atkinson, Rick. Crusade, The untold story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. pp. 332–3
    13. ^ Captain Todd A. Buchs, B. Co. Commander, Knights In the Desert. Publisher/Editor Unknown. p. 111.
    14. ^ Malory, Marcia. "Tanks During the First Gulf War – Tank History". Retrieved 5 July 2016. 
    15. ^ M60 vs T-62 Cold War Combatants 1956–92 by Lon Nordeen & David Isby
    16. ^ "TAB H – Friendly-fire Incidents". Retrieved 5 July 2016. 
    17. ^ NSIAD-92-94, "Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams". US General Accounting Office, 10 January 1992. Quote: "According to information provided by the Army's Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 20 Bradleys were destroyed during the Gulf war. Another 12 Bradleys were damaged, but four of these were quickly repaired. Friendly fire accounted for 17 of the destroyed Bradleys and three of the damaged ones
    18. ^ a b c d Pike, John. "Operation Desert Storm". Retrieved 5 July 2016. 
    19. ^ Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990 (Air War). Acig.org. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
    20. ^ Bourque P.455
    21. ^ Bourque P.455
    22. ^ Bourque P.455
    23. ^ Bourque P.455
    24. ^ Bourque P.455
    25. ^ "The Use of Terror during Iraq's invasion of Kuwait". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 24 January 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
    26. ^ "Kuwait: missing people: a step in the right direction". Red Cross. 
    27. ^ "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict". Project on Defense Alternatives. Retrieved 9 May 2009. 
    28. ^ Fetter, Steve; Lewis, George N.; Gronlund, Lisbeth (28 January 1993). "Why were Casualties so low?" (PDF). Nature. London. 361 (6410): 293–296. doi:10.1038/361293a0. 
    29. ^ "Frontline Chronology" (PDF). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 20 March 2007. 
    30. ^ "Tenth anniversary of the Gulf War: A look back". CNN. 17 January 2001. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. 
    31. ^ Kenneth Estes. "ISN: The Second Gulf War (1990–1991) – Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
    32. ^ Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2014-05-24.
    33. ^ http://www.margaretthatcher.org/archive/us-bush.asp
    34. ^ Peters, John E; Deshong, Howard (1995). Out of Area or Out of Reach? European Military Support for Operations in Southwest Asia (PDF). RAND Corporation. ISBN 0-8330-2329-2. 
    35. ^ "Memória Globo". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 2017-03-26.  , access on 29 March 2011.
    36. ^ "Livraria da Folha – Livro conta como Guerra do Golfo colocou a CNN no foco internacional – 08/09/2010". .folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
    37. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, accessed on 29 March 2011
    38. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, os Estados Unidos e as Relações Internacionais accessed on 29 March 2011.
    39. ^ Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história, access on 27 November 2011.

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 March 1998Titanic became the first film to gross over $1 billion worldwide.

    Titanic (1997 film)

    Titanic is a 1997 American epic romance-disaster film directed, written, co-produced and co-edited by James Cameron. A fictionalized account of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, it stars Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet as members of different social classes who fall in love aboard the ship during its ill-fated maiden voyage.

    Cameron's inspiration for the film came from his fascination with shipwrecks; he felt a love story interspersed with the human loss would be essential to convey the emotional impact of the disaster. Production began in 1995, when Cameron shot footage of the actual Titanic wreck. The modern scenes on the research vessel were shot on board the Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, which Cameron had used as a base when filming the wreck. Scale models, computer-generated imagery, and a reconstruction of the Titanic built at Baja Studios, at Playas de Rosarito in Baja California were used to re-create the sinking. The film was partially funded by Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox. It was the most expensive film ever made at the time, with a production budget of $200 million.

    Upon its release on December 19, 1997, Titanic achieved critical and commercial success. Nominated for 14 Academy Awards, it tied All About Eve (1950) for the most Oscar nominations, and won 11, including the awards for Best Picture and Best Director, tying Ben Hur (1959) for the most Oscars won by a single film. With an initial worldwide gross of over $1.84 billion, Titanic was the first film to reach the billion-dollar mark. It remained the highest-grossing film of all time until Cameron's Avatar surpassed it in 2010. A 3D version of Titanic, released on April 4, 2012 to commemorate the centennial of the sinking, earned it an additional $343.6 million worldwide, pushing the film's worldwide total to $2.18 billion and making it the second film to gross more than $2 billion worldwide (after Avatar). In 2017, the film was re-released for its 20th anniversary and was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.

    1. ^ a b c "Titanic (1997)". Film & TV Database. British Film Institute. Retrieved July 29, 2011. 
    2. ^ a b "Titanic". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved February 2, 2018. 
    3. ^ "TITANIC (12)". British Board of Film Classification. November 14, 1997. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Garrett (2007) was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sandler & Studlar 1999 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Welkos (1998) was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference bom was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 March 1956Morocco gains its independence from France.


    Coordinates: 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6

    Morocco (/məˈrɒk/ (About this sound listen); Arabic: المَغرِب‎, translit. al-maġrib, lit. 'place the sun sets; the west'; Berber languages: ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, translit. Lmeɣrib; French: Maroc), officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco (Berber languages: ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, translit. Tageldit n Lmaɣrib, Arabic: المملكة المغربية‎, translit. al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyah, lit. "The Western Kingdom"); is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is the one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people.[14][15] Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

    Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of 446,550 km2 (172,410 sq mi). Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, and Meknes. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and Northwestern Africa. Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African, and European influences.

    Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a guerrilla war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock.

    Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the Constitutional court.

    Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber. With Berber being the native language of Morocco before Arab colonisation.[16][17] The Moroccan dialect, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=Notes> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=Notes}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIApop was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Morocco". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 
    3. ^ "Morocco in CIA World Factbook". CIA.gov. 
    4. ^ "Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco, I-1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
    5. ^ "Note sur les premiers résultats du Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat 2014". HCP. 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
    6. ^ "Morocco – GDP (PPP based)". Knoema. 
    7. ^ "Morocco – GDP per capita (PPP based)". Knoema. 
    8. ^ "Morocco – GDP". Knoema. 
    9. ^ "Morocco – GDP per capita". Knoema. 
    10. ^ "World Bank GINI index". 
    11. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 
    12. ^ L'horaire d'été (GMT+1) maintenu jusqu'au 27 octobre 2013, Ministère de la Fonction Publique et de la Modernisation de l'Administration. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
    13. ^ https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/4023136/2017-morocco-ramadan-dst-changes
    14. ^ Books Llc (September 2010). Ethnic Groups in Morocco: Berber People. General Books LLC. ISBN 978-1-156-46273-7. 
    15. ^ Jamil M. Abun-Nasr (20 August 1987). A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-33767-0. 
    16. ^ Rodd, Francis. "Kahena, Queen of the Berbers: "A Sketch of the Arab Invasion of Ifriqiya in the First Century of the Hijra" Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, Vol. 3, No. 4, (1925)
    17. ^ Source Wikipedia; LLC Books (June 2010). Languages of Morocco: Spanish Language, Arabic Language, Berber Languages, Central Morocco Tamazight, Moroccan Arabic, Tashelhiyt Language. General Books LLC. ISBN 978-1-157-60671-0. 
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 March 1882 – Britain's first electric trams run in east London.

    Trams in London

    Dismantled London tramway network (pre 1952) (interactive version)

    There have been two separate generations of trams in London, from 1860 to 1952 and from 2000 to the present. There were no trams at all in London between 1952 and 2000.

  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 March 1943 – First Flight of the Gloster Meteor, Britain's first combat jet aircraft.

    Gloster Meteor

    The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only jet aircraft to achieve combat operations during the Second World War. The Meteor's development was heavily reliant on its ground-breaking turbojet engines, pioneered by Sir Frank Whittle and his company, Power Jets Ltd. Development of the aircraft began in 1940, although work on the engines had been under way since 1936. The Meteor first flew in 1943 and commenced operations on 27 July 1944 with No. 616 Squadron RAF. The Meteor was not a sophisticated aircraft in its aerodynamics, but proved to be a successful combat fighter. Gloster's 1946 civil Meteor F.4 demonstrator G-AIDC was the first civilian-registered jet aircraft in the world.[1]

    Several major variants of the Meteor incorporated technological advances during the 1940s and 1950s. Thousands of Meteors were built to fly with the RAF and other air forces and remained in use for several decades. The Meteor saw limited action in the Second World War. Meteors of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) fought in the Korean War. Several other operators such as Argentina, Egypt and Israel flew Meteors in later regional conflicts. Specialised variants of the Meteor were developed for use in photographic aerial reconnaissance and as night fighters.

    The Meteor was also used for research and development purposes and to break several aviation records. On 7 November 1945, the first official airspeed record by a jet aircraft was set by a Meteor F.3 at 606 miles per hour (975 km/h). In 1946, this record was broken when a Meteor F.4 reached a speed of 616 miles per hour (991 km/h). Other performance-related records were broken in categories including flight time endurance, rate of climb, and speed. On 20 September 1945, a heavily modified Meteor I, powered by two Rolls-Royce Trent turbine engines driving propellers, became the first turboprop aircraft to fly.[2] On 10 February 1954, a specially adapted Meteor F.8, the "Meteor Prone Pilot", which placed the pilot into a prone position to counteract inertial forces, took its first flight.[3]

    In the 1950s, the Meteor became increasingly obsolete as more nations introduced jet fighters, many of these newcomers having adopted a swept wing instead of the Meteor's conventional straight wing; in RAF service, the Meteor was replaced by newer types such as the Hawker Hunter and Gloster Javelin. As of 2013, two Meteors, WL419 and WA638, remain in active service with the Martin-Baker company as ejection seat testbeds. Two further aircraft in the UK remain airworthy, as does another in Australia.

    1. ^ "gloster meteor – 1974 – 0497 – Flight Archive". 
    2. ^ King Flight 27 May 1955, p. 727.
    3. ^ Young 1985, p. 83.
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 March 1899Bayer registers "Aspirin" as a trademark.


    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.[4] Specific inflammatory conditions in which aspirin is used include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever.[4] Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death.[4] Aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, and blood clots in people at high risk.[4] It may also decrease the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer.[5] For pain or fever, effects typically begin within 30 minutes.[4] Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and works similar to other NSAIDs but also suppresses the normal functioning of platelets.[4]

    One common adverse effect is an upset stomach.[4] More significant side effects include stomach ulcers, stomach bleeding, and worsening asthma.[4] Bleeding risk is greater among those who are older, drink alcohol, take other NSAIDs, or are on other blood thinners.[4] Aspirin is not recommended in the last part of pregnancy.[4] It is not generally recommended in children with infections because of the risk of Reye syndrome.[4] High doses may result in ringing in the ears.[4]

    A precursor to aspirin in the form of leaves from the willow tree has been used for its health effects for at least 2,400 years.[6][7] In 1853, chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt treated the medicine sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride to produce acetylsalicylic acid for the first time.[8] For the next fifty years, other chemists established the chemical structure and came up with more efficient methods to make it.[8]:69–75 In 1897, scientists at the Bayer company began studying acetylsalicylic acid as a less-irritating replacement medication for common salicylate medicines.[8]:69–75 By 1899, Bayer had named it "Aspirin" and sold it around the world.[9] Aspirin's popularity grew over the first half of the twentieth century leading to competition between many brands and formulations.[10] The word Aspirin was Bayer's brand name, however their rights to the trademark were lost or sold in many countries.[10]

    Aspirin is one of the most widely used medications globally, with an estimated 40,000 tonnes (44,000 tons) (50 to 120 billion pills) consumed each year.[6][11] It is on the World Health Organization's (WHO's) List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[12] As of 2014 the wholesale cost in the developing world is $0.002 to $0.025 USD per dose.[13] As of 2015 the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is less than $25.00 USD.[14] It is available as a generic medication.[4]

    1. ^ a b c Brayfield, A, ed. (14 January 2014). "Aspirin". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
    2. ^ a b "Zorprin, Bayer Buffered Aspirin (aspirin) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". Medscape Reference. WebMD. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
    3. ^ a b Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 3.8. ISBN 1439855110. 
    4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Aspirin". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
    5. ^ Patrignani, P; Patrono, C (30 August 2016). "Aspirin and Cancer". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 68 (9): 967–76. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.05.083. PMID 27561771. 
    6. ^ a b Jones, Alan (2015). Chemistry: An Introduction for Medical and Health Sciences. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5–6. ISBN 9780470092903. 
    7. ^ Ravina, Enrique (2011). The Evolution of Drug Discovery: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Drugs. John Wiley & Sons. p. 24. ISBN 9783527326693. 
    8. ^ a b c Jeffreys, Diarmuid (2008). Aspirin the remarkable story of a wonder drug. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 9781596918160. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017. :46–48
    9. ^ Mann, Charles C.; Plummer, Mark L. (1991). The aspirin wars : money, medicine, and 100 years of rampant competition (1st ed.). New York: Knopf. p. 27. ISBN 0-394-57894-5. 
    10. ^ a b "Aspirin". Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
    11. ^ Warner, T D; Warner TD, Mitchell JA (2002). "Cyclooxygenase-3 (COX-3): filling in the gaps toward a COX continuum?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (21): 13371–3. Bibcode:2002PNAS...9913371W. doi:10.1073/pnas.222543099. PMC 129677Freely accessible. PMID 12374850. 
    12. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
    13. ^ "Acetylsalicylic Acid". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
    14. ^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon pocket pharmacopoeia (2015 deluxe lab-coat ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 5. ISBN 9781284057560. 
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 March 1965Bloody Sunday: a group of 600 civil rights marchers is brutally attacked by state and local police in Selma, Alabama.

    Selma to Montgomery marches

    The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma, Alabama to the state capital of Montgomery. The marches were organized by nonviolent activists to demonstrate the desire of African-American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in defiance of segregationist repression, and were part of a broader voting rights movement underway in Selma and throughout the American South. By highlighting racial injustice, they contributed to passage that year of the Voting Rights Act, a landmark federal achievement of the Civil Rights Movement.

    Southern state legislatures had passed and maintained a series of discriminatory requirements and practices that had disenfranchised most of the millions of African Americans across the South throughout the 20th century. The African-American group known as the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL) launched a voter registration campaign in Selma in 1963. Joined by organizers from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), they began working that year in a renewed effort to register black voters.

    Finding resistance by white officials to be intractable, even after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended legal segregation, the DCVL invited Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the activists of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to join them. SCLC brought many prominent civil rights and civic leaders to Selma in January 1965. Local and regional protests began, with 3,000 people arrested by the end of February. According to Joseph A. Califano Jr., who served as head of domestic affairs for U.S. President Lyndon Johnson between the years 1965 and 1969, the President viewed King as an essential partner in getting the Voting Rights Act enacted.[2] Califano, whom the President also assigned to monitor the final march to Montgomery,[3] said that Johnson and King talked by telephone on January 15 to plan a strategy for drawing attention to the injustice of using literacy tests and other barriers to stop black Southerners from voting, and that King later informed the President on February 9 of his decision to use Selma to achieve this objective.[2]

    On February 26, 1965, activist and deacon Jimmie Lee Jackson died after being mortally shot several days earlier by a state trooper, James Bonard Fowler, during a peaceful march in nearby Marion, Alabama. To defuse and refocus the community's outrage, SCLC Director of Direct Action James Bevel, who was directing SCLC's Selma voting rights movement, called for a march of dramatic length, from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery.[4][5] Bevel had been working on his Alabama Project for voting rights since late 1963.

    The first march took place on March 7, 1965, organized locally by Bevel, Amelia Boynton, and others. State troopers and county possemen attacked the unarmed marchers with billy clubs and tear gas after they passed over the county line, and the event became known as Bloody Sunday.[6][7] Law enforcement beat Boynton unconscious, and the media publicized worldwide a picture of her lying wounded on the Edmund Pettus Bridge.[8]

    The second march took place March 9. Troopers, police, and marchers confronted each other at the county end of the bridge, but when the troopers stepped aside to let them pass, King led the marchers back to the church.[9] He was obeying a federal injunction while seeking protection from federal court for the march. That night, a white group beat and murdered civil rights activist James Reeb, a Unitarian Universalist minister from Boston, who had come to Selma to march with the second group.[10] Many other clergy and sympathizers from across the country also gathered for the second march.

    The violence of "Bloody Sunday" and Reeb's murder resulted in a national outcry and some acts of civil disobedience, targeting both the Alabama and federal governments. The protesters demanded protection for the Selma marchers and a new federal voting rights law to enable African Americans to register and vote without harassment. President Lyndon Johnson, whose administration had been working on a voting rights law, held a historic, nationally televised joint session of Congress on March 15 to ask for the bill's introduction and passage.

    With Governor Wallace refusing to protect the marchers, President Johnson committed to do so. The third march started March 21. Protected by 1,900 members of the Alabama National Guard under federal command, and many FBI agents and Federal Marshals, the marchers averaged 10 miles (16 km) a day along U.S. Route 80, known in Alabama as the "Jefferson Davis Highway". The marchers arrived in Montgomery on March 24 and at the Alabama State Capitol on March 25.[11] With thousands having joined the campaign, 25,000 people entered the capital city that day in support of voting rights.

    The route is memorialized as the "Selma To Montgomery Voting Rights Trail," and is designated as a U.S. National Historic Trail.

    1. ^ Taylor Branch, At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years 1965-1968 (Simon & Schuster, 2007), p. 198
    2. ^ a b Joseph A. Califano Jr. (December 26, 2014). "The movie 'Selma' has a glaring flaw". Washington Post. Retrieved April 19, 2015. 
    3. ^ From Selma to Montgomery Archived April 23, 2015, at Archive.is LBJ Presidential Library, Accessed April 23, 2015
    4. ^ Randall Kryn, "James L. Bevel The Strategist of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement," In David Garrow's 1989 book We Shall Overcome, Volume II, New York: Carlson Publishing Company, 1989
    5. ^ Randy Kryn, "Movement Revision Research Summary Regarding James Bevel", October 2005, Middlebury College
    6. ^ "Student March at Nyack". The New York Times. New York, New York. March 11, 1965. p. 19. Retrieved March 9, 2015. 
    7. ^ Reed, Roy (March 6, 1966). "'Bloody Sunday' Was Year Ago". The New York Times. New York, New York. p. 76. Retrieved March 9, 2015. 
    8. ^ Sheila Jackson Hardy; P. Stephen Hardy (August 11, 2008). Extraordinary People of the Civil Rights Movement. Paw Prints. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-4395-2357-5. Retrieved March 6, 2011. 
    9. ^ Branch, Taylor (2013). The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement. Simon & Schuster. 
    10. ^ http://uudb.org/articles/jamesjosephreeb.html
    11. ^ Davis, Townsend (1998). Weary Feet, Rested Souls. W.W. Norton. 
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 March 1974Charles de Gaulle Airport opens in Paris, France.

    Charles de Gaulle Airport

    Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport (French: Aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle, IATA: CDGICAO: LFPG), also known as Roissy Airport (name of the local district), is the largest international airport in France. It is named after Charles de Gaulle (1890–1970), leader of the Free French Forces during the Second World War, founder of the French Fifth Republic and President of France from 1959 to 1969. Charles de Gaulle Airport is located within portions of several communes 25 km (16 mi)[1] to the northeast of Paris. Charles de Gaulle Airport serves as the principal hub for Air France as well as a focus city for low-cost carriers Vueling and Norwegian Air Shuttle.

    In 2017, the airport handled 69,471,442 passengers and 475,654 aircraft movements,[3] thus making it the world's tenth-busiest airport, Europe's second-busiest airport (after London Heathrow) in terms of passenger numbers. It is also the world's tenth-busiest and Europe's busiest airport (ahead of London Heathrow) in aircraft movements. In terms of cargo traffic, the airport is the twelfth-busiest in the world and the second-busiest in Europe (after Frankfurt Airport), handling 2,150,950 metric tonnes of cargo in 2012.[3]

    The incumbent director of the airport, Franck Goldnadel, was appointed to his position on 1 March 2011.[4][5]

    1. ^ a b LFPG – PARIS CHARLES DE GAULLE. AIP from French Service d'information aéronautique, effective 1 March 2018.
    2. ^ "Trafic de Paris Aéroport en hausse de 1,8 % en 2016, à 97,2 millions de passagers" (PDF) (in French). Aéroports de Paris SA. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
    3. ^ a b "Statistiques annuelles". Union des aéroports Français. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012. 
    4. ^ "Franck Goldnadel - Who's Who". Whoswho.fr. Retrieved 16 October 2017. 
    5. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 March 2011Space Shuttle Discovery makes its final landing after 39 flights.

    Space Shuttle Discovery

    Discovery rollout ceremony in October 1983'

    Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the orbiters from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the third of five fully operational orbiters to be built.[4] Its first mission, STS-41-D, flew from August 30 to September 5, 1984. Over 27 years of service it launched and landed 39 times, gathering more spaceflights than any other spacecraft to date.[5]

    Discovery became the third operational orbiter to enter service, preceded by Columbia and Challenger.[6] It embarked on its last mission, STS-133, on February 24, 2011 and touched down for the final time at Kennedy Space Center on March 9,[7] having spent a cumulative total of almost a full year in space. Discovery performed both research and International Space Station (ISS) assembly missions. It also carried the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit. Discovery was the first operational shuttle to be retired, followed by Endeavour and then Atlantis.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference nasm was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference FT facts was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b c NASA (October 2010). "NASAfacts Discovery (OV-103)" (PDF). Retrieved October 21, 2010. 
    4. ^ NASA (2007). "Space Shuttle Overview: Discovery (OV-103)". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved November 6, 2007. 
    5. ^ "10 Cool Facts About NASA's Space Shuttle Discovery | Space Shuttle Retirement". Space.com. Retrieved 2013-08-30. 
    6. ^ "Discovery's last mission flight to space begun". February 24, 2011. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
    7. ^ "Discovery's Final Touchdown A Success". redOrbit.com. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 March 1977 – Astronomers discover the rings of Uranus.

    Rings of Uranus

    The scheme of Uranus's ring-moon system. Solid lines denote rings; dashed lines denote orbits of moons.

    The rings of Uranus are a system of rings around the planet Uranus, intermediate in complexity between the more extensive set around Saturn and the simpler systems around Jupiter and Neptune. The rings of Uranus were discovered on March 10, 1977, by James L. Elliot, Edward W. Dunham, and Jessica Mink. William Herschel had also reported observing rings in 1789; modern astronomers are divided on whether he could have seen them, as they are very dark and faint.[1]

    By 1978, nine distinct rings were identified. Two additional rings were discovered in 1986 in images taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, and two outer rings were found in 2003–2005 in Hubble Space Telescope photos. In the order of increasing distance from the planet the 13 known rings are designated 1986U2R/ζ, 6, 5, 4, α, β, η, γ, δ, λ, ε, ν and μ. Their radii range from about 38,000 km for the 1986U2R/ζ ring to about 98,000 km for the μ ring. Additional faint dust bands and incomplete arcs may exist between the main rings. The rings are extremely dark—the Bond albedo of the rings' particles does not exceed 2%. They are probably composed of water ice with the addition of some dark radiation-processed organics.

    The majority of Uranus's rings are opaque and only a few kilometers wide. The ring system contains little dust overall; it consists mostly of large bodies 0.2–20 m in diameter. Some rings are optically thin: the broad and faint 1986U2R/ζ, μ and ν rings are made of small dust particles, while the narrow and faint λ ring also contains larger bodies. The relative lack of dust in the ring system may be due to aerodynamic drag from the extended Uranian exosphere.

    The rings of Uranus are thought to be relatively young, and not more than 600 million years old. The Uranian ring system probably originated from the collisional fragmentation of several moons that once existed around the planet. After colliding, the moons probably broke up into many particles, which survived as narrow and optically dense rings only in strictly confined zones of maximum stability.

    The mechanism that confines the narrow rings is not well understood. Initially it was assumed that every narrow ring had a pair of nearby shepherd moons corralling them into shape. In 1986 Voyager 2 discovered only one such shepherd pair (Cordelia and Ophelia) around the brightest ring (ε).

    1. ^ Rincon, Paul (Apr 18, 2007). "Uranus rings 'were seen in 1700s'". BBC News. Retrieved 23 January 2012. (re study by Stuart Eves)
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 March 2006Michelle Bachelet is inaugurated as first female president of Chile.

    Michelle Bachelet

    Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (Spanish: [beˈɾonika miˈtʃel βatʃeˈle ˈxeɾja]; born 29 September 1951) is a Chilean politician who was the President of Chile twice, from 2006 to 2010 and from 2014 to 2018, the first woman in her country to do so. After leaving the presidency and while not immediately reelectable, she was appointed the first executive director of the newly created United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women). In December 2013, Bachelet was reelected president with over 62% of the vote, bettering the 53.5% she obtained in 2006. She is the first person since 1932 to win the presidency of Chile twice in competitive elections.[1]

    Bachelet, a physician with studies in military strategy, was Health Minister and Defense Minister under her predecessor, Ricardo Lagos. She is a separated mother of three and describes herself as an agnostic.[2] Aside from her native Spanish, she also speaks, with varying levels of fluency, English, German, Portuguese, French and Italian.[3][4] She is a member of the Socialist Party of Chile.

    1. ^ "Michelle Bachelet: primera mujer presidenta y primer presidente reelecto desde 1932". Facebook. Retrieved 11 March 2016. 
    2. ^ "Bachelet critica a la derecha por descalificarla por ser agnóstica" [Bachelet criticises the political right for discounting her because of her agnosticism] (in Spanish). El Mercurio. 30 December 2005. Retrieved 25 November 2014. 
    3. ^ "Biografía Michelle Bachelet". Gobierno de Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 12 March 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2007. 
    4. ^ "Biographical Sketch: Michelle Bachelet". UN Women. Archived from the original on April 28, 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 March 1994 – The Church of England ordains its first female priests.

    Ordination of women

    Katharine Jefferts Schori was elected in 2006 as the first female Presiding Bishop in the history of the Episcopal Church and also the first female primate in the Anglican Communion.[1]

    The ordination of women to ministerial or priestly office is an increasingly common practice among some major religious groups of the present time, as it was of several pagan religions of antiquity and, some scholars argue, in early Christian practice. (Torjesen 1995).

    It remains a controversial issue in certain Christian denominations where "ordination" (the process by which a person is understood to be consecrated and set apart by God for the administration of various religious rites) has for almost 2000 years been limited only to men.

    In some cases women have been permitted to be ordained, but not to hold higher positions, such as (until July 2014) that of bishop in the Church of England.[2] Where laws prohibit sex discrimination in employment, exceptions are often made for clergy (for example, in the United States).

    1. ^ "US Episcopal Church installs first female presiding bishop". Australia: Journeyonline.com.au. 2006-11-07. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2010-11-19. 
    2. ^ "Women bishops vote: Church of England 'resembles sect'". BBC News - UK Politics. BBC. 2012-11-22. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 March 2013Pope Francis is elected, in the papal conclave, as the 266th Pope of the Catholic Church.

    Pope Francis

    Pope Francis (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco; Spanish: Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio;[b] 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as Bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, and the first pope from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory III, who reigned in the 8th century.

    Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist and nightclub bouncer before beginning seminary studies. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's provincial superior of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March.

    Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, concern for the poor and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by his predecessors. In addition, due to both his Jesuit and Ignatian aesthetic, he is known for favoring simpler vestments void of ornamentation, including refusing the traditional papal mozzetta cape upon his election, choosing silver instead of gold for his piscatory ring, and keeping the same pectoral cross he had as cardinal. He maintains that the Church should be more open and welcoming. He does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortion, marriage, ordination of women, and clerical celibacy. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, and supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si'. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba. Since the publication of Amoris Laetitia in 2016, Francis has faced increasingly open criticism from theological conservatives, particularly on the question of admitting civilly divorced and remarried Catholics to Communion.

    1. ^ Scarisbrick, Veronica (18 March 2013). "Pope Francis: "Miserando atque eligendo"..." Vatican Radio. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 March 2013Pope Francis is elected, in the papal conclave, as the 266th Pope of the Catholic Church.

    Pope Francis

    Pope Francis (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco; Spanish: Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio;[b] 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as Bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, and the first pope from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory III, who reigned in the 8th century.

    Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist and nightclub bouncer before beginning seminary studies. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's provincial superior of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March.

    Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, concern for the poor and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by his predecessors. In addition, due to both his Jesuit and Ignatian aesthetic, he is known for favoring simpler vestments void of ornamentation, including refusing the traditional papal mozzetta cape upon his election, choosing silver instead of gold for his piscatory ring, and keeping the same pectoral cross he had as cardinal. He maintains that the Church should be more open and welcoming. He does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortion, marriage, ordination of women, and clerical celibacy. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, and supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si'. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba. Since the publication of Amoris Laetitia in 2016, Francis has faced increasingly open criticism from theological conservatives, particularly on the question of admitting civilly divorced and remarried Catholics to Communion.

    1. ^ Scarisbrick, Veronica (18 March 2013). "Pope Francis: "Miserando atque eligendo"..." Vatican Radio. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  17. Admin2

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    14 March 1964 – A jury in Dallas finds Jack Ruby guilty of killing Lee Harvey Oswald, the assumed assassin of John F. Kennedy.

    Jack Ruby

    Jack Leon Ruby (born Jacob Leon Rubenstein; March 25, 1911[1] – January 3, 1967) was the Dallas, Texas nightclub owner who fatally shot Lee Harvey Oswald on November 24, 1963, while Oswald was in police custody after being charged with assassinating U.S. President John F. Kennedy and the murder of Dallas policeman J. D. Tippit two days earlier. A Dallas jury found him guilty of murdering Oswald, and he was sentenced to death. Ruby's conviction was later appealed, and he was granted a new trial. However, on January 3, 1967, as the date for his new trial was being set,[2] Ruby became ill in his prison cell and died of a pulmonary embolism from lung cancer.[3][4]

    In September 1964 the Warren Commission concluded that Ruby acted alone in killing Oswald.[5] Various groups believed Ruby was involved with major figures in organized crime and that he killed Oswald as part of an overall plot surrounding the assassination of Kennedy.

    1. ^ The Warren Commission found that various dates were given in the records for Ruby's birth; the one most used by Ruby himself was March 25, 1911 (The Warren Report: Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, 1964). His tombstone at Westlawn Cemetery, Chicago has April 25, 1911 as his birthdate
    2. ^ Waldron, Martin (December 10, 1966). "Ruby Seriously Ill In Dallas Hospital". New York Times. p. 1. 
    3. ^ New York Times Retrieved September 19, 2015
    4. ^ www.history.co.uk Retrieved September 19, 2015
    5. ^ Pomfret, John D. (September 28, 1964). "Commission Says Ruby Acted Alone in Slaying". The New York Times. p. 17. 
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 March 1888 – Start of the Anglo-Tibetan War of 1888.

    Sikkim expedition

    The Sikkim expedition was an 1888 British military expedition to expel Tibetan forces from Sikkim in present-day north east India. The roots of the conflict lay in British-Tibetan competition for sovereignty over Sikkim.

  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 March 1988Iran–Contra affair: Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North and Vice Admiral John Poindexter are indicted on charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States.

    Iran–Contra affair

    The Iran–Contra affair (Persian: ماجرای ایران-کنترا‎, Spanish: caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate,[1] Contragate[2] or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration. Senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, which was the subject of an arms embargo.[3] They hoped, thereby, to fund the Contras in Nicaragua while at the same time negotiating the release of several U.S. hostages. Under the Boland Amendment, further funding of the Contras by the government had been prohibited by Congress.

    The scandal began as an operation to free seven American hostages being held in Lebanon by Hezbollah, a paramilitary group with Iranian ties connected to the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution. It was planned that Israel would ship weapons to Iran, and then the United States would resupply Israel and receive the Israeli payment. The Iranian recipients promised to do everything in their power to achieve the release of the hostages.[4][5] Large modifications to the plan were devised by Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North of the National Security Council in late 1985, in which a portion of the proceeds from the weapon sales was diverted to fund anti-Sandinista fighters, known as Contras, against the socialist government of Nicaragua.[4]

    While President Ronald Reagan was a supporter of the Contra cause,[6] the evidence is disputed as to whether he authorized the diversion of the money to the Contras, raised by the arms sales.[4][5][7] Handwritten notes taken by Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger on December 7, 1985, indicate that Reagan was aware of potential hostage transfers with Iran, as well as the sale of Hawk and TOW missiles to "moderate elements" within that country.[8] Weinberger wrote that Reagan said "he could answer to charges of illegality but couldn't answer to the charge that 'big strong President Reagan passed up a chance to free the hostages'".[8] After the weapon sales were revealed in November 1986, Reagan appeared on national television and stated that the weapons transfers had indeed occurred, but that the United States did not trade arms for hostages.[9] The investigation was impeded when large volumes of documents relating to the scandal were destroyed or withheld from investigators by Reagan administration officials.[10] On March 4, 1987, Reagan returned to the airwaves in a nationally televised address, taking full responsibility, and saying that "what began as a strategic opening to Iran deteriorated, in its implementation, into trading arms for hostages".[11]

    Several investigations ensued, including by the U.S. Congress and the three-person, Reagan-appointed Tower Commission. Neither found any evidence that President Reagan himself knew of the extent of the multiple programs.[4][5][7] Ultimately the sale of weapons to Iran was not deemed a criminal offense but charges were brought against five individuals for their support of the Contras. Those charges, however, were later dropped because the administration refused to declassify certain documents. The indicted conspirators faced various lesser charges instead. In the end, fourteen administration officials were indicted, including then-Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. Eleven convictions resulted, some of which were vacated on appeal.[12] The rest of those indicted or convicted were all pardoned in the final days of the presidency of George H. W. Bush, who had been Vice President at the time of the affair.[13] The Iran–Contra affair and the ensuing deception to protect senior administration officials including President Reagan has been cast as an example of post-truth politics.[14]

    1. ^ Sharpe, Kenneth E. (1987). "The Real Cause of Irangate". Foreign Policy. Washingtonpost.Newsweek Interactive, LLC. 68: 19–41. JSTOR 1148729. 
    2. ^ "'Never Had an Inkling' : Reagan Testifies He Doubts Contragate Ever Happened : Videotape Transcript Released". LA Times. Associated Press. February 22, 1990. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
    3. ^ The Iran-Contra Affair 20 Years On. The National Security Archive (George Washington University), 2006-11-24
    4. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference tce was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b c "Reagan's mixed White House legacy". BBC. June 6, 2004. Retrieved 22 April 2008. 
    6. ^ Reagan, Ronald (1990), p. 542
    7. ^ a b "The Iran-Contra Report". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
    8. ^ a b http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB210/14-Weinberger%20Diaries%20Dec%207%20handwritten.pdf
    9. ^ Reagan, Ronald (November 13, 1986). "Address to the Nation on the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
    10. ^ "Excerpts From the Iran-Contra Report: A Secret Foreign Policy". New York Times. 1994. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
    11. ^ Reagan, Ronald (1987-03-04). "Address to the Nation on the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
    12. ^ Dwyer, Paula. "Pointing a Finger at Reagan". Business Week. Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2008. 
    13. ^ "Pardons and Commutations Granted by President George H. W. Bush". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 April 2008. 
    14. ^ The Iran-Contra Affair 30 Years Later: A Milestone in Post-Truth Politics:Declassified Records Recall Official Deception in the Name of Protecting a Presidency November 25, 2016; National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 567; Edited by Malcolm Byrne, Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 March 1958 – The United States launches the Vanguard 1 satellite.

    Vanguard 1

    Universal newsreel about the launch of Vanguard 1

    Vanguard 1 (ID: 1958-Beta 2

    [2]) was the fourth artificial Earth orbital satellite to be successfully launched (following Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, and Explorer 1). Vanguard 1 was the first satellite to have solar electric power.[3] Although communication with the satellite was lost in 1964, it remains the oldest man-made object still in orbit, together with the upper stage of its launch vehicle. It was designed to test the launch capabilities of a three-stage launch vehicle as a part of Project Vanguard, and the effects of the space environment on a satellite and its systems in Earth orbit. It also was used to obtain geodetic measurements through orbit analysis. Vanguard 1 was described by the Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev, as "the grapefruit satellite".[4]

    1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Vanguard 1 Satellite details 1958-002B NORAD 00005". N2YO. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015. 
    2. ^ "U.S. Space Objects Registry". Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
    3. ^ Vanguard I the World's Oldest Satellite Still in Orbit, accessed September 24, 2007
    4. ^ "Vanguard I - the World's Oldest Satellite Still in Orbit". Spacecraft Engineering Department, U.S. Navy. Archived from the original on 2008-09-19. 
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 March 1996 – A nightclub fire in Quezon City, Philippines kills 162 people.

    Ozone Disco Club fire

    The Ozone Disco Club fire in Quezon City, Philippines broke out shortly before midnight at 11:35 pm Philippine Standard Time, March 18, 1996 (03:35 PM, March 17, 1996, UTC) leaving at least 162 people dead. It is officially acknowledged as the worst fire in Philippine history,[1][2] and among the 10 worst nightclub fires in the world.[3][4]

    1. ^ Associated Press (1996-03-20). "Disco in Manila, for 35 People, Held 400". New York Times Online. New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
    2. ^ Esteban, P/Supt. Romulo; Col. Danilo Fabian (June 3–4, 2004). "THE PHILIPPINE DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM". Philippine Center on Transnational Crime. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
    3. ^ Press, Associated. "A look at deadly nightclub fires." Washington Times. 27 January 2013
    4. ^ "What went before : Ozone disco is No.6 in deadliest nightclub fires." Philippine Daily Inquirer. 29 January 2013
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 March 1962 – Algerian War of Independence ends.

    Algerian War

    The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution (Arabic: الثورة الجزائريةAl-thawra Al-Jazaa'iriyya;, Berber languages: Tagrawla Tadzayrit;, French: Guerre d'Algérie or Révolution algérienne) was a war between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (French: Front de Libération Nationale – FLN) from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture by both sides. The conflict also became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities.[20] The war took place mainly on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France.

    Effectively started by members of the National Liberation Front (FLN) on November 1, 1954, during the Toussaint Rouge ("Red All Saints' Day"), the conflict led to serious political crises in France, causing the fall of the Fourth French Republic (1946–58) replaced by the Fifth Republic with a strengthened Presidency. The brutality of the methods employed by the French forces failed to win hearts and minds in Algeria, alienated support in metropolitan France and discredited French prestige abroad.[21][22]

    After major demonstrations in Algiers and several other cities in favor of independence (1960) [23][24] and a United Nations resolution recognizing the right to independence,[25] De Gaulle decided to open a series of negotiations with the FLN. These concluded with the signing of the Évian Accords in March 1962. A referendum took place on 8 April 1962 and the French electorate approved the Évian Accords. The final result was 91% in favor of the ratification of this agreement [26] and on 1 July, the Accords were subject to a second referendum in Algeria, where 99.72% voted for independence and just 0.28% against.[27]

    The planned French withdrawal led to a state crisis. This included various assassination attempts on de Gaulle as well as some attempts at military coups. Most of the former were carried out by the Organisation armée secrète (OAS), an underground organization formed mainly from French military personnel supporting a French Algeria, which committed a large number of bombings and murders both in Algeria and in the homeland to stop the planned independence.

    Upon independence in 1962, 900,000 European-Algerians (Pieds-noirs) fled to France within a few months in fear of the FLN's revenge. The French government was totally unprepared for the vast number of refugees, which caused turmoil in France. The majority of Algerian Muslims who had worked for the French were disarmed and left behind as the treaty between French and Algerian authorities declared that no actions could be taken against them.[28] However, the Harkis in particular, having served as auxiliaries with the French army, were regarded as traitors by the FLN and between 50,000 and 150,000 Harkis and family members were murdered by the FLN or by lynch-mobs, often after being abducted and tortured[dubious ]. About 91,000 managed to flee to France[citation needed], some with help from their French officers acting against orders, and as of 2016 they and their descendants form a significant part of the Algerian-French population.

    1. ^ The Algerian War 1954–62, By Martin Windrow, Mike Chappell, page 11
    2. ^ Introduction to Comparative Politics, By Mark Kesselman, Joel Krieger, William Joseph, page 108
    3. ^ Contracting States: Sovereign Transfers in International Relations, By Alexander Cooley, Hendrik Spruyt, page 63
    4. ^ Christian A. Herter: The American Secretaries of State and Their Diplomacy By George Bernard Noble, page 155
    5. ^ Alec G. Hargreaves (2005). Memory, Empire, and Postcolonialism: Legacies of French Colonialism. Lexington Books. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7391-0821-5. The death knell of the French empire was sounded by the bitterly fought Algerian war of independence, which ended in 1962. 
    6. ^ "The French defeat in the war effectively signaled the end of the French Empire" Collective Memory: France and the Algerian War (1954–1962) Jo McCormack – 2010 [1]

      Paul Allatson; Jo McCormack (2008). Exile Cultures, Misplaced Identities. Rodopi. p. 117. ISBN 90-420-2406-2. The Algerian War came to an end in 1962, and with it closed some 130 years of French colonial presence in Algeria (and North Africa). With this outcome, the French Empire, celebrated in pomp in Paris in the Exposition coloniale of 1931 and exalted in de Gaulle's description of “la France de Dunkerque à Tlemcen” [Greater France stretching from Dunkerque to Tlemcen], received its decisive death blow. 
    7. ^ Yves Beigbeder (2006). Judging War Crimes And Torture: French Justice And International Criminal Tribunals And Commissions (1940-2005). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 90-04-15329-2. The independence of Algeria in 1962, after a long and bitter war, marked the end of the French Empire. 
    8. ^ France’s Colonial Legacies: Memory, Identity and Narrative. University of Wales Press. 15 October 2013. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-78316-585-8. The difficult relationship which France has with the period of history dominated by the Algerian war has been well documented. The reluctance, which ended only in 1999, to acknowledge 'les évenements' as a war, the shame over the fate of the harki detachments, the amnesty covering many of the deeds committed during the war and the humiliation of a colonial defeat which marked the end of the French empire are just some of the reasons why France has preferred to look towards a Eurocentric future, rather than confront the painful aspects of its colonial past. 
    9. ^ Martin Windrow, The Algerian War 1954–62. p. 17
    10. ^ http://www.lefigaro.fr/mon-figaro/2012/03/19/10001-20120319ARTFIG00743-algerie-une-guerre-d-appeles.php
    11. ^ Travis, Hannibal (2013). Genocide, Ethnonationalism, and the United Nations: Exploring the Causes of Mass Killing Since 1945. Routledge. p. 137. 
    12. ^ [2] Page 6 "The Algerian Ministry of War Veterans gives the figure of 152,863 FLN killed"
    13. ^ [3] "The Algerian Ministry of War Veterans calculates 152,863 Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) deaths(french sources), and although the death toll among Algerian civilians may never be accurately known estimate of 1500000 to 2000000 were killed Page 576
    14. ^ A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–1962 – Alistair Horne – P358 (4,300 Algerian from the FLN and MNA killed in metropolitan France)
    15. ^ Stapleton, T.J. (2013). A Military History of Africa [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1–272. ISBN 9780313395703. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
    16. ^ From "Algeria: War of independence". Mass Atrocity Endings. :

      He also argues that the least controversial of all the numbers put forward by various groups are those concerning the French soldiers, where government numbers are largely accepted as sound. Most controversial are the numbers of civilians killed. On this subject, he turns to the work of Meynier, who, citing French army documents (not the official number) posits the range of 55,000 – 60,000 deaths. Meynier further argues that the best number to capture the harkis deaths is 30,000. If we add to this, the number of European civilians, which government figures posit as 2,788.-[

      Meynier's work cited was: Meynier,, Gilbert. "Histoire intérieure du FLN. 1954–1962". 

    17. ^ Cutts, M.; Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2000). The State of the World's Refugees, 2000: Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action. Oxford University Press. p. 38. ISBN 9780199241040. Retrieved 2017-01-13.  Referring to Evans, Martin. 2012. Algeria: France’s Undeclared War. New York: Oxford University Press.
    18. ^ "Algeria – The Revolution and Social Change". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
    19. ^ Windrow, Martin. The Algerian War 1954–62. p. 13. ISBN 1 85532 658 2. 
    20. ^ (Pervillé 2002, pp. 132–139) (chap. « Une double guerre civile »).
    21. ^ Keith Brannum, University of North Carolina Asheville, The Victory Without Laurels: The French Military Tragedy in Algeria(1954–1962) [4]
    22. ^ Irwin M. Wall, France, the United States, and the Algerian War, pp, 68–69. [5]
    23. ^ https://books.google.fr/books?hl=fr&id=x_-5XTVKW08C&q=79#v=snippet&q=79&f=false
    24. ^ Pervillé, G. (2012). Les accords d'Evian (1962): Succès ou échec de la réconciliation franco-algérienne (1954–2012). Armand Colin. ISBN 9782200281977. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
    25. ^ "Document officiel des Nations Unies". un.org. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
    26. ^ "référendum 1962 Algérie". france-politique.fr. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
    27. ^ "Proclamation des résultats du référendum d'autodétermination du 1er juillet 1962" (PDF). Journal Officiel de l'État Algérien. 6 July 1962. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
    28. ^ Évian accords, Chapitre II, partie A, article 2
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 March 1987 – The Food and Drug Administration approves the anti-AIDS drug, AZT.


    Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.[2] It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals.[2] It may be used to prevent mother-to-child spread during birth or after a needlestick injury or other potential exposure.[2] It is sold both by itself and together as lamivudine/zidovudine and abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine.[2] It can be used by mouth or by slow injection into a vein.[2]

    Common side effects include headaches, fever, and nausea.[2] Serious side effects include liver problems, muscle damage, and high blood lactate levels.[2] It is commonly used in pregnancy and appears to be safe for the baby.[2] ZDV is of the nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) class.[2] It works by inhibiting the enzyme reverse transcriptase that HIV uses to make DNA and therefore decreases replication of the virus.[2]

    Zidovudine was first described in 1964.[3] It was approved in the United States in 1986 and was the first treatment for HIV.[4] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[5] It is available as a generic medication.[2] The wholesale cost in the developing world is 5.10 to 25.60 USD per month.[6] As of 2015, the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States was more than 200 USD.[7]

    1. ^ "Zidovudine". PubChem Public Chemical Database. NCBI. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2011. 
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Zidovudine". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016. 
    3. ^ Fischer, Janos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 505. ISBN 9783527607495. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. 
    4. ^ Therapy of Viral Infections Volume 15 of Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. Springer. 2015. p. 6. ISBN 9783662467596. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. 
    5. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 13, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
    6. ^ "Zidovudine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved November 28, 2016. 
    7. ^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 67. ISBN 9781284057560. 
  24. Admin2

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    21 March 1963Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary (in California) closes

    Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary

    The Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary or United States Penitentiary, Alcatraz Island (often just referred to as Alcatraz) was a maximum high-security federal prison on Alcatraz Island, 1.25 miles (2.01 km) off the coast of San Francisco, California, which operated from August 11, 1934, until March 21, 1963.

    The main prison building was built in 1910–1912 during its time as a United States Army military prison; Alcatraz had been the site of a citadel since the 1860s. The United States Disciplinary Barracks, Pacific Branch on Alcatraz was acquired by the United States Department of Justice on October 12, 1933, and the island became a prison of the Federal Bureau of Prisons in August 1934 after the buildings were modernized to meet the requirements of a top-notch security prison. Given this high security and the location of Alcatraz in the cold waters and strong currents of San Francisco Bay, the prison operators believed Alcatraz to be escape-proof and America's strongest prison.

    Alcatraz was designed to hold prisoners who continuously caused trouble at other federal prisons. One of the world's most notorious and best known prisons over the years, Alcatraz housed some 1,576 of America's most ruthless criminals including Al Capone, Robert Franklin Stroud (the "Birdman of Alcatraz"), George "Machine Gun" Kelly, Bumpy Johnson, Rafael Cancel Miranda,[3] Mickey Cohen, Arthur R. "Doc" Barker, Whitey Bulger, and Alvin "Creepy" Karpis (who served more time at Alcatraz than any other inmate). It also provided housing for the Bureau of Prisons' staff and their families. A total of 36 prisoners made 14 escape attempts during the 29 years of the prison's existence, the most notable of which were the violent escape attempt of May 1946 known as the "Battle of Alcatraz", and the arguably successful "Escape from Alcatraz" by Frank Morris, John Anglin, and Clarence Anglin in June 1962 in one of the most intricate escapes ever devised. Faced with high maintenance costs and a poor reputation, Alcatraz closed on March 21, 1963.

    The three-story cellhouse included the main four blocks of the jail, A-block, B-block, C-block, and D-block, the warden's office, visitation room, the library, and the barber shop. The prison cells typically measured 9 feet (2.7 m) by 5 feet (1.5 m) and 7 feet (2.1 m) high. The cells were primitive and lacked privacy, with a bed, a desk and a washbasin and toilet on the back wall, with few furnishings except a blanket. African-Americans were segregated from the rest in cell designation due to racial abuse being prevalent. D-Block housed the worst inmates and five cells at the end of it were designated as "The Hole", where badly behaving prisoners would be sent for periods of punishment, often brutally so. The dining hall and kitchen lay off the main building in an extended part where both prisoners and staff would eat three meals a day together. The Alcatraz Hospital was above the dining hall.

    Corridors of the prison were named after major American streets such as Broadway and Michigan Avenue. Working at the prison was considered a privilege for inmates and many of the better inmates were employed in the Model Industries Building and New Industries Building during the day, actively involved in providing for the military in jobs such as sewing and woodwork and performing various maintenance and laundry chores.

    Today the penitentiary is a public museum and one of San Francisco's major tourist attractions, attracting some 1.5 million visitors annually. The former prison is now operated by the National Park Service's Golden Gate National Recreation Area, and the badly eroded buildings of the former prison have been subject to restoration works in recent times and maintained.

    1. ^ "Alcatraz Island". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 
    2. ^ Filion, Ron; Storm, Pamela (22 January 2006). "Escapes from Alcatraz Image Gallery: Federal Penitentiary Wardens:". San Francisco History. SF Genealogy. Retrieved 10 December 2013. 
    3. ^ "Former Alcatraz inmate speaks about his time", San Francisco Examiner, by D. Morita; October 9, 2009
  25. Admin2

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    22 March 1995Cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov returns to earth after setting a record of 438 days in space.

    Valeri Polyakov

    Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov (Russian: Валерий Владимирович Поляков, born Valeri Ivanovich Korshunov on April 27, 1942) is a Russian former cosmonaut. He is the holder of the record for the longest single stay in space in human history, staying aboard the Mir space station for more than 14 months (437 days 18 hours) during one trip.[1] His combined space experience is more than 22 months.[2]

    Selected as a cosmonaut in 1972, Polyakov made his first flight into space aboard Soyuz TM-6 in 1988. He returned to Earth 240 days later aboard TM-7. Polyakov completed his second flight into space in 1994–1995, spending 437 days in space between launching on Soyuz TM-18 and landing on TM-20, setting the record for the longest time continuously spent in space by an individual in human history.[2]

    1. ^ Schwirtz, Michael (30 March 2009). "Staying Put on Earth, Taking a Step to Mars". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2010. 
    2. ^ a b "Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov". New Mexico Museum of Space History. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  26. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 March 1933 – The Reichstag passes the Enabling Act of 1933, making Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany.

    Enabling Act of 1933

    Hitler's Reichstag speech promoting the bill was delivered at the Kroll Opera House, following the Reichstag fire.

    The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet – in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler – the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag. It passed in both the Reichstag and Reichsrat on 24 March 1933,[1][2][3] and was signed by President Paul von Hindenburg later that day. The act stated that it was to last four years unless renewed by the Reichstag, which occurred twice. The Enabling Act gave Hitler plenary powers. It followed on the heels of the Reichstag Fire Decree, which abolished most civil liberties and transferred state powers to the Reich government. The combined effect of the two laws was to transform Hitler's government into a legal dictatorship.

    The formal name of the Enabling Act was Gesetz zur Behebung der Not von Volk und Reich ("Law to Remedy the Distress of People and Reich").[4] It was enacted by the Reichstag (meeting at the Kroll Opera House), where non-Nazi members were surrounded and threatened by members of SA and SS. The Communists had already been repressed and were not able to vote, and some Social Democrats were kept away as well. In the end, most of those present voted for the act, except for the Social Democrats, who voted against it.[5]

    1. ^ "The Reichstag Fire and the Enabling Act of March 23, 1933 | Britannica Blog". blogs.britannica.com. Retrieved 2017-03-30. 
    2. ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "The law that 'enabled' Hitler's dictatorship | Germany | DW.COM | 23.03.2013". DW.COM. Retrieved 2017-03-30. 
    3. ^ Mason, K. J. Republic to Reich: A History of Germany 1918-1945. McGraw-Hill. 
    4. ^ Rabinbach, Anson; Gilman, Sander L. (2013). The Third Reich Sourcebook. p. 52. ISBN 0520276833. 
    5. ^ Kitson, Alison. Germany, 1858-1990: Hope, Terror, and Revival, pages 153-154 (Oxford U. Press 2001).
  27. Admin2

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    24 March 1921 – The 1921 Women's Olympiad begins in Monte Carlo, first international women's sports event

    1921 Women's Olympiad

    Mary Lines
    Lucie Bréard
    Germaine Delapierre
    Frédérique Kussel
    Violette Morris

    The 1921 Women's Olympiad (Olympiades Féminines and Jeux Olympiques Féminins[1]) was the first international women's sports event, a 5-day multi-sport event organised by Alice Milliat and held on 24–31 March[2][3][4] 1921 in Monte Carlo[5][6] at the International Sporting Club of Monaco.[7][8] The tournament was formally called "1er Meeting International d'Education Physique Féminine de Sports Athlétiques"[9][10] It was the first of three Women's Olympiads or "Monte Carlo Games" held annually at the venue, and the forerunner of the quadrennial Women's World Games, organised in 1922–34 by the International Women's Sports Federation founded by Milliat later in 1921.[1][7][11][12][13][14][15][16]

    1. ^ a b "Plaque commemorating first Women's Olympics unveiled in Monte Carlo" (Press release). IAAF. 23 November 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
    2. ^ "Les Olympiades Féminines de Monte Carlo" (in French). L'Éclaireur de Nice, 31 March 1921, page 3. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
    3. ^ "Les Olympiades Féminines de Monte Carlo" (in French). Le Petit Niçois, 31 March 1921, page 3. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
    4. ^ "Jeux Mondiaux Féminins" (in French). Commission Documentation et Histoire, cdm.athle.com, chapter 7. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
    5. ^ The Women's Olympic Games Comité Olympique Monégasque. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
    6. ^ Le parcours d’obstacles de l'athlétisme féminin Granville Athletic Club . Retrieved 24 November 2016)
    7. ^ a b Pfister, Gertrude; IOC Medical Commission; International Federation of Sports Medicine (15 April 2008). "Women and the Olympic Games". In Barbara L. Drinkwater. Women in Sport. The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine. VIII. Blackwell Science. pp. 5–6. ISBN 9780470756850. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
    8. ^ Bernett, Hajo. "Die ersten olympischen Wettbewerbe in internationalen Frauensport (1988)" (in German). Sozial- und Zeitgeschichte des Sports, Heft 2/1988 (Jg 2). pp. 66–86. ISSN 0931-7031. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
    9. ^ Martin, Paul (10 May 2011). "Hace 90 años: los inicios del atletismo femenino". Atletismo e Historia (Athletics in History) (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
    10. ^ "Beatrice Look Papers". University of Greenwich. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
    11. ^ Prudhomme-Poncet, Laurence (1 June 2003). "3-3 Les Olympiades féminines". Histoire du football féminin au XXème siècle (in French). Editions L'Harmattan. pp. 96–100. ISBN 9782296327481. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
    12. ^ Miragaya, Ana; DaCosta, Lamartine. "Olympic entrepreneurs – Alice Milliat: the 1st woman Olympic entrepreneur" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Autonomous University of Barcelona Centre for Olympic Studies: 105. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
    13. ^ Watman, Mel (January 2013). "Women athletes between the world wars (act. 1919–1939)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/103699. (Subscription required (help)). 
    14. ^ Charlet, Sylvain (3 November 2008). "L'athlétisme féminin". Féchain Athlétique Club (in French). Nordnet. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
    15. ^ "Women and sports at The Polytechnic". University of Westminster. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
    16. ^ Charlet, Sylvain. "Rétrospective de l'athlétisme féminin" (PDF). Amicale des Entraineurs d'Ile de France d'Athlétisme. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 

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