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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 June 1957Ellen Fairclough is sworn in as Canada's first female Cabinet Minister.

    Ellen Fairclough

    Ellen Louks Fairclough, PC CC OOnt (January 28, 1905 – November 13, 2004) was a Canadian politician. A member of the House of Commons of Canada from 1950 to 1963, she was the first woman ever to serve in the Canadian Cabinet.[1]

    Born Ellen Louks Cook[2] in Hamilton, Ontario to Norman Ellsworth Cook and Nellie Bell (Loucks) Cook, Fairclough was a chartered accountant by training, and ran an accounting firm prior to entering politics. She was a member of Hamilton, Ontario City Council from 1945 to 1950.[1]

     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 June 1942 – The Pledge of Allegiance is formally adopted by US Congress.

    Pledge of Allegiance (United States)

    The Pledge of Allegiance of the United States is an expression of allegiance to the Flag of the United States and the republic of the United States of America. It was originally composed by Captain George Thatcher Balch, a Union Army Officer during the Civil War and later a teacher of patriotism in New York City schools.[6][7] The form of the pledge used today was largely devised by Francis Bellamy in 1892, and formally adopted by Congress as the pledge in 1942.[8] The official name of The Pledge of Allegiance was adopted in 1945. The most recent alteration of its wording came on Flag Day in 1954, when the words "under God" were added.[9]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference ushistory was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Jones, Jeffrey Owen. "The Man Who Wrote the Pledge of Allegiance," Smithsonian Magazine, Nov. 2003. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    3. ^ "The Pledge of Allegiance," Celebrating America's Freedoms. n.d. U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    4. ^ "The Pledge of Allegiance," Celebrating America's Freedoms. n.d. U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pledge was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Kirkpatrick, Melanie. "One Nation, Indivisible". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2015-11-01. 
    7. ^ "Captain and Brevet Lieutenant Colonel George T. Balch, Ordnance Corps Hall of Fame Inductee 2001, U.S. Army Ordnance Corps". www.goordnance.army.mil. Retrieved 2015-11-01. 
    8. ^ "Society & Community. Faith in America: The Legal Dilemma". NOW with Bill Moyers. PBS. June 29, 2002. 
    9. ^ "The Pledge of Allegiance and Our Flag of the United States". Their History and Meaning. Archived from the original on 2006-09-23. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 June 1913Second Balkan War: The Greeks defeat the Bulgarians in the Battle of Doiran.

    Battle of Doiran (1913)

    The Battle of Doiran was a battle of the Second Balkan War, fought between the Bulgarian and the Greek army. The battle took place in June 1913.

    The Greek armed forces, after the victory at Kilkis-Lachanas, continued their advance north and successfully engaged the Bulgarians at Lake Doiran. As a result of their subsequent defeat, the Bulgarian forces retreated further north.

    1. ^ A concice history of the Balkan Wars 1912-1913, Hellenic Army General Staff Army History Directorate, Athens 1998, Table 6: "Commands and Headquarters of the Large Units (Formations) during the Balkan Wars, 1912-13"
    2. ^ A concice history of the Balkan Wars 1912-1913, Hellenic Army General Staff Army History Directorate, Athens 1998, paragraph 290
    3. ^ A concice history of the Balkan Wars 1912-1913, Hellenic Army General Staff Army History Directorate, Athens 1998, paragraph 291
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 June 1813Battle of Beaver Dams: A British and Indian combined force defeats the United States Army.

    Battle of Beaver Dams

    Coordinates: 43°07′03″N 79°11′08″W / 43.117600°N 79.185419°W / 43.117600; -79.185419

    The Battle of Beaver Dams took place on 24 June 1813, during the War of 1812. An American column marched from Fort George and attempted to surprise a British outpost at Beaver Dams, billeting themselves overnight in the village of Queenston, Ontario. Laura Secord, a resident of Queenston, had earlier learned of the American plans, and had struck out on a long and difficult trek to warn the British at Decou's stone house near present-day Brock University. When the Americans resumed their march, they were ambushed by Native warriors and eventually surrendered to a small British detachment led by Lieutenant James FitzGibbon. About 500 Americans, including their wounded commander, were taken prisoner.

    1. ^ Benn, p.115
    2. ^ Stanley, George F.G. The Indians in the War of 1812, in Zaslow (ed) p. 182
    3. ^ Elting, p.134
    4. ^ Eaton, p. 10
    5. ^ Cruikshank, p. 141
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 June 1940World War II: The French armistice with Germany comes into effect.

    Armistice of 22 June 1940

    Coordinates: 49°25′38″N 2°54′23″E / 49.42736111°N 2.90641944°E / 49.42736111; 2.90641944

    Adolf Hitler (hand on hip) looking at the statue of Ferdinand Foch before starting the negotiations for the armistice at Compiègne, France (21 June 1940)
    Ferdinand Fochs Railway Car, at the same location as after World War One, prepared by the Germans for the second armistice at Compiègne, June 1940

    The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36[1] near Compiègne, France, by officials of Nazi Germany and the French Third Republic. It did not come into effect until after midnight on 25 June.

    Signatories for Germany included senior military officers like Wilhelm Keitel,[1] the commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht (the German armed forces), while those on the French side were more junior, such as General Charles Huntziger. Following the decisive German victory in the Battle of France (10 May–21 June 1940), this armistice established a German occupation zone in Northern and Western France that encompassed all English Channel and Atlantic Ocean ports and left the remainder "free" to be governed by the French. Adolf Hitler deliberately chose Compiègne Forest as the site to sign the armistice due to its symbolic role as the site of the 1918 Armistice with Germany that signaled the end of World War I with Germany's surrender.

     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 June 1927The Cyclone roller coaster opens on Coney Island.

    Coney Island Cyclone

    The Coney Island Cyclone (better known as simply the Cyclone) is a historic wooden roller coaster in the Coney Island section of Brooklyn, New York City. It opened on June 26, 1927, and was originally part of the Astroland theme park. The Cyclone is now part of Luna Park. The coaster was declared a New York City landmark on July 12, 1988, and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 26, 1991.

    The Cyclone operated for more than four decades before it started to deteriorate. By the early 1970s, the city planned to scrap the ride. However,

    on June 18, 1975, Dewey and Jerome Albert, owners of Astroland, entered into an agreement with New York City to operate the ride. The roller coaster was refurbished in the 1974 off-season and reopened on July 3, 1975. Astroland Park continued to invest millions over the years in the upkeep of the Cyclone. After Astroland closed in 2008, Carol Hill Albert, president of Cyclone Coasters, continued to operate it under a lease agreement with the city. In 2011, Luna Park took over operation of the Cyclone.

     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 June 1977 – France grants independence to Djibouti.

    Djibouti

    Djibouti (/ɪˈbti/ jih-BOO-tee; Arabic: جيبوتيJībūtī, French: Djibouti, Somali: Jabuuti, Afar: Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east. Djibouti occupies a total area of just 23,200 km2 (8,958 sq mi).[2]

    In antiquity, the territory was part of the Land of Punt and then the Kingdom of Aksum. Nearby Zeila (now in Somalia) was the seat of the medieval Adal and Ifat Sultanates. In the late 19th century, the colony of French Somaliland was established following treaties signed by the ruling Somali and Afar sultans with the French[6][7][8] and its railroad to Dire Dawa (and later Addis Ababa) allowed it to quickly supersede Zeila as the port for southern Ethiopia and the Ogaden.[9] It was subsequently renamed to the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas in 1967. A decade later, the Djiboutian people voted for independence. This officially marked the establishment of the Republic of Djibouti, named after its capital city. Djibouti joined the United Nations the same year, on 20 September 1977.[10][11] In the early 1990s, tensions over government representation led to armed conflict, which ended in a power-sharing agreement in 2000 between the ruling party and the opposition.[2]

    Djibouti is a multi-ethnic nation with a population of over 942,333 inhabitants. Somali, Arabic and French are the country's three official languages. About 94% of residents adhere to Islam,[2] which is the official religion and has been predominant in the region for more than a thousand years. The Somali (Issa clan) and Afar make up the two largest ethnic groups. Both speak Afroasiatic languages.[2]

    Djibouti is strategically located near some of the world's busiest shipping lanes, controlling access to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. It serves as a key refuelling and transshipment center, and is the principal maritime port for imports from and exports to neighboring Ethiopia. A burgeoning commercial hub, the nation is the site of various foreign military bases, including Camp Lemonnier. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) regional body also has its headquarters in Djibouti City.[2]

    1. ^ "Djibouti's Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2010" (PDF). Government of DJibouti. p. 3. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Djibouti". The World Factbook. CIA. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2013. 
    3. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
    4. ^ a b c d "Djibouti". International Monetary Fund. 
    5. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
    6. ^ Raph Uwechue, Africa year book and who's who, (Africa Journal Ltd.: 1977), p.209.
    7. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Somaliland: History of French Somaliland". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 383. 
    8. ^ A Political Chronology of Africa, (Taylor & Francis), p.132.
    9. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Zaila". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 950. 
    10. ^ "Today in Djibouti History". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
    11. ^ "United Nations member states". United Nations. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 June 1846Adolphe Sax patents the saxophone.

    Adolphe Sax

    Saxophone produced by Sax

    Antoine-Joseph "Adolphe" Sax (French pronunciation: ​[ɑ̃twan.ʒozɛf adɔlf saks]; 6 November 1814 – 7 February 1894)[1] was a Belgian inventor and musician who invented the saxophone in the early 1840s (patented in 1846). He played the flute and clarinet. He also invented the saxotromba, saxhorn and saxtuba.

    1. ^ Many sources give alternative dates for Sax's death, mainly 3 and 7 February. A sign at Sax's grave in Montmartre says 7 February, for example. However, 4 February appears in Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (8th ed., Nicolas Slonimsky); and in both the first and second editions of the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 June 1987Vincent Van Gogh’s painting, the Le Pont de Trinquetaille, was bought for $20.4 million at an auction in London, England.

    Vincent van Gogh

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox artist with unknown parameter "death_cause" (this message is shown only in preview).
    A ceramic vase with sunflowers on a yellow surface against a bright yellow background.
    Sunflowers (F.458), repetition of the 4th version (yellow background), August 1889.[1] Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
     An expansive painting of a wheatfield, with a footpath going through the centre underneath dark and forbidding skies, through which a flock of black crows fly.
    Wheatfield with Crows, 1890. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

    Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch: [ˈvɪnsɛnt ˈʋɪləm vɑŋ ˈɣɔx] (About this sound listen);[note 1] 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2,100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings, most of them in the last two years of his life. They include landscapes, still lifes, portraits and self-portraits, and are characterised by bold colours and dramatic, impulsive and expressive brushwork that contributed to the foundations of modern art. His suicide at 37 followed years of mental illness and poverty.

    Born into an upper-middle-class family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious, quiet and thoughtful. As a young man he worked as an art dealer, often travelling, but became depressed after he was transferred to London. He turned to religion, and spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium. He drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881, having moved back home with his parents. His younger brother Theo supported him financially, and the two kept up a long correspondence by letter. His early works, mostly still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, contain few signs of the vivid colour that distinguished his later work. In 1886, he moved to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and local landscapes. His paintings grew brighter in colour as he developed a style that became fully realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888. During this period he broadened his subject matter to include series of olive trees, wheat fields and sunflowers.

    Van Gogh suffered from psychotic episodes and delusions and though he worried about his mental stability, he often neglected his physical health, did not eat properly and drank heavily. His friendship with Gauguin ended after a confrontation with a razor, when in a rage, he severed part of his own left ear. He spent time in psychiatric hospitals, including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he discharged himself and moved to the Auberge Ravoux in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris, he came under the care of the homoeopathic doctor Paul Gachet. His depression continued and on 27 July 1890, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a revolver. He died from his injuries two days later.

    Van Gogh was unsuccessful during his lifetime, and was considered a madman and a failure. He became famous after his suicide, and exists in the public imagination as the quintessential misunderstood genius, the artist "where discourses on madness and creativity converge".[6] His reputation began to grow in the early 20th century as elements of his painting style came to be incorporated by the Fauves and German Expressionists. He attained widespread critical, commercial and popular success over the ensuing decades, and is remembered as an important but tragic painter, whose troubled personality typifies the romantic ideal of the tortured artist.

    1. ^ "Sunflowers - Van Gogh Museum". vangoghmuseum.nl. 
    2. ^ "BBC – Magazine Monitor: How to Say: Van Gogh". BBC. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
    3. ^ Sweetman (1990), 7.
    4. ^ Davies (2007), p. 83.
    5. ^ Veltkamp, Paul. "Pronunciation of the Name 'Van Gogh'". vggallery.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015. 
    6. ^ McQuillan (1989), 9.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 June 1953 – The first Chevrolet Corvette rolls off the assembly line in Flint, Michigan.

    Chevrolet Corvette

    The Chevrolet Corvette, known colloquially as the Vette[1] or Chevy Corvette, is a sports car manufactured by Chevrolet. The car has been produced through seven generations.[2][3] The first model, a convertible, was introduced at the GM Motorama in 1953 as a concept show car. Myron Scott is credited for naming the car after the type of small, maneuverable warship called a corvette.[4] Originally built in Flint, Michigan and St. Louis, Missouri, since 1981, the Corvette has been manufactured in Bowling Green, Kentucky and is the official sports car of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. While always being an automobile known for speed and performance throughout its history, the Corvette has evolved throughout the generations into becoming the widely regarded—although never officially declared—flagship model of the Chevrolet car brand.

    1. ^ "Vette magazine - Super Chevy". 
    2. ^ "2017 Corvette Stingray: Sports Cars - Chevrolet". 
    3. ^ Book: "The Real Corvette:An Illustrated History Of Chevrolet's Sports Car", Authors: Ray Miller + Glenn Embree, ISBN 0913056065
    4. ^ Falconer, Tom (2003). The Complete Corvette. Crestline. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7603-1474-6. Retrieved Sep 30, 2012. 
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 July 1903 – Start of first Tour de France bicycle race.

    1903 Tour de France

    The 1903 Tour de France was the first cycling race set up and sponsored by the newspaper L'Auto, ancestor of the current daily, L'Équipe. It ran from 1 to 19 July in six stages over 2,428 km (1,509 mi), and was won by Maurice Garin.[1]

    The race was invented to boost the circulation of L'Auto, after its circulation started to plummet from competition with the long-standing Le Vélo. Originally scheduled to start in June, the race was postponed one month, and the prize money was increased, after a disappointing level of applications from competitors. The 1903 Tour de France was the first stage road race, and compared to modern Grand Tours, it had relatively few stages, but each was much longer than those raced today. The cyclists did not have to compete in all six stages, although this was necessary to qualify for the general classification.

    The pre-race favourite, Maurice Garin, won the first stage, and retained the lead throughout. He also won the last two stages, and had a margin of almost three hours over the next cyclist. The circulation of L'Auto increased more than sixfold during and after the race, so the race was considered successful enough to be rerun in 1904, by which time Le Vélo had been forced out of business.

    1. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 108.
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 July 1494 – The Treaty of Tordesillas is ratified by Spain.

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas [tɾɐˈtaðu ðɨ toɾðeˈziʎɐʃ],[3] Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas [tɾaˈtaðo ðe toɾðeˈsiʎas]), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues[note 1] west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa. This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde islands (already Portuguese) and the islands entered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Castile and León), named in the treaty as Cipangu and Antilia (Cuba and Hispaniola).

    The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Castile. The treaty was signed by Spain, 2 July 1494, and by Portugal, 5 September 1494. The other side of the world was divided a few decades later by the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 22 April 1529, which specified the antimeridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Originals of both treaties are kept at the Archivo General de Indias in Spain and at the Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo in Portugal.[8]

    This treaty would be observed fairly well by Spain and Portugal, despite considerable ignorance as to the geography of the New World; however, it omitted all of the other European powers. Those countries generally ignored the treaty, particularly those that became Protestant after the Protestant Reformation.

    The treaty was included by UNESCO in 2007 in its Memory of the World Programme.

    1. ^ [1]
    2. ^ Emma Helen Blair, ed., The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803 (Cleveland, Ohio: 1903). Frances Gardiner Davenport, ed., European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648 (Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1917), 100.
    3. ^ In the European Portuguese pronunciation. Brazilians might variously pronounce it as [tɾɐˈtadʊ dʑɪ toɾdeˈziʎəs] in São Paulo, [tɾəˈtadu dʑi to̞ʀde̞ˈziʎəɕ] in Rio de Janeiro and [tɾaˈtadu dʑi tɔʁdɛˈziʎəs] in Salvador, Bahia and [tɾɐˈtadu di tɔɦde̞ˈziʎəs] in Recife.
    4. ^ Chardon, Roland (1980). "The linear league in North America". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 70: 129–153 [pp. 142, 144, 151]. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1980.tb01304.x. JSTOR 2562946. 
    5. ^ Harrisse, pp. 85–97, 176–190.
    6. ^ Newlyn Walkup, Eratosthenes and the mystery of the stades
    7. ^ Engels, Donald (1985). "The length of Eratosthenes' stade". American Journal of Philology. 106: 298–311. doi:10.2307/295030. JSTOR 295030. 
    8. ^ Davenport, 85, 171.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 July 1844 – The last pair of great auks is killed.

    Great auk

    The great auk (Pinguinus impennis) is a species of flightless alcid that became extinct in the mid-19th century. It was the only modern species in the genus Pinguinus. It is unrelated to the birds now known as penguins, which were discovered later and so named by sailors because of their physical resemblance to the great auk.

    It bred on rocky, isolated islands with easy access to the ocean and a plentiful food supply, a rarity in nature that provided only a few breeding sites for the great auks. When not breeding, they spent their time foraging in the waters of the North Atlantic, ranging as far south as northern Spain and along the coastlines of Canada, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway, Ireland, and Great Britain.

    The great auk was 75 to 85 cm (30 to 33 in) tall and weighed about 5 kg (11 lb), making it the second-largest member of the alcid family (Miomancalla was larger).[5] It had a black back and a white belly. The black beak was heavy and hooked, with grooves on its surface. During summer, great auk plumage showed a white patch over each eye. During winter, the great auk lost these patches, instead developing a white band stretching between the eyes. The wings were only 15 cm (5.9 in) long, rendering the bird flightless. Instead, the great auk was a powerful swimmer, a trait that it used in hunting. Its favourite prey were fish, including Atlantic menhaden and capelin, and crustaceans. Although agile in the water, it was clumsy on land. Great auk pairs mated for life. They nested in extremely dense and social colonies, laying one egg on bare rock. The egg was white with variable brown marbling. Both parents participated in the incubation of the egg for around 6 weeks before the young hatched. The young left the nest site after 2–3 weeks, although the parents continued to care for it.

    The great auk was an important part of many Native American cultures, both as a food source and as a symbolic item. Many Maritime Archaic people were buried with great auk bones. One burial discovered included someone covered by more than 200 great auk beaks, which are presumed to be the remnants of a cloak made of great auk skins. Early European explorers to the Americas used the great auk as a convenient food source or as fishing bait, reducing its numbers. The bird's down was in high demand in Europe, a factor that largely eliminated the European populations by the mid-16th century. Scientists soon began to realize that the great auk was disappearing and it became the beneficiary of many early environmental laws, but this proved ineffectual.

    Its growing rarity increased interest from European museums and private collectors in obtaining skins and eggs of the bird. On 3 June 1844, the last two confirmed specimens were killed on Eldey, off the coast of Iceland, ending the last known breeding attempt. Later reports of roaming individuals being seen or caught are unconfirmed. A record of one great auk in 1852 is considered by some to be the last sighting of a member of the species. The great auk is mentioned in several novels and the scientific journal of the American Ornithologists' Union is named The Auk in honour of this bird.

    1. ^ "Pinguinus impennis (great auk) PBDB". 
    2. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pinguinus impennis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
    3. ^ Grieve, Symington (1885). The Great Auk, or Garefowl: Its history, archaeology, and remains. Thomas C. Jack, London. 
    4. ^ Parkin, Thomas (1894). The Great Auk, or Garefowl. J.E. Budd, Printer. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
    5. ^ Smith, N. 2015. Evolution of body mass in the Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): the effects of combining neontological and paleontological data. Paleobiology. doi: 10.1017/pab.2015.24
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 July 1976 – The U.S. celebrates its Bicentennial.

    United States Bicentennial

    Bicentennial logo commissioned by the American Revolution Bicentennial Commission.

    The United States Bicentennial was a series of celebrations and observances during the mid-1970s that paid tribute to historical events leading up to the creation of the United States of America as an independent republic. It was a central event in the memory of the American Revolution. The Bicentennial culminated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, with the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.

     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 July 1946 – The bikini goes on sale after debuting during an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris, France.

    Bikini

    A woman wearing a bikini at a beach.

    Bikini typically describes a women's simple two-piece swimsuit featuring two triangles of fabric on top, similar to a bra and covering the woman's breasts, and two triangles of fabric on the bottom, the front covering the pelvis but exposing the navel, and the back covering the buttocks.[1][2][1] The size of the top and bottom can vary from full coverage of the breasts, pelvis, and buttocks, to very skimpy designs like a thong or G-string that cover only the areola and mons pubis, but expose the buttocks.

    Fashion designer Jacques Heim from Paris released a two-piece swimsuit design in 1946 that he named the Atome. Like swimsuits of the era, it covered the wearer's navel, and it failed to attract much attention. Parisian automotive engineer and designer Louis Réard introduced his design soon after.[3] His skimpy design was risque, exposing the wearer's navel and much of her buttocks. No runway model would wear it, so he hired a nude dancer from the Casino de Paris to model it at a review of swimsuit fashions. He named the swimsuit after the Bikini Atoll, where the first public test of a nuclear bomb had taken place only four days before.[4]

    Due to its controversial and revealing design, the bikini was accepted very slowly by the public. It gained increased exposure and acceptance as film stars like Brigitte Bardot, Raquel Welch, and Ursula Andress wore them and were photographed on public beaches and seen in film. In many countries the design was banned from beaches and other public places.[5]

    The minimalist bikini design became common in most Western countries by the mid-1960s as both swimwear and underwear. By the late 20th century it was widely used as sportswear in beach volleyball and bodybuilding. There are a number of modern stylistic variations of the design used for marketing purposes and as industry classifications, including monokini, microkini, tankini, trikini, pubikini, and skirtini. A man's single-piece brief swimsuit may also be referred to as a bikini.[2] Similarly, a variety of men's and women's underwear types are described as bikini underwear.

    The bikini has gradually grown to gain wide acceptance in Western society. By the early 2000s, bikinis had become a US$811 million business annually, and boosted spin-off services such as bikini waxing and sun tanning.[6]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference MMOA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b "Bikini". Merriam-Webster. February 13, 2014. 
    3. ^ "Le Bikini souffle ses 60 bougies !". www.journaldesfemmes.com (in French). Retrieved 17 May 2018. 
    4. ^ "Operation Crossroads: Fact Sheet". Department of the Navy—Naval History and Heritage Command. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
    5. ^ Alac, Patrik (2012). Bikini Story (first ed.). Parkstone International. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-78042-951-9. 
    6. ^ Lorna Edwards, "You've still got it, babe, The Age, June 3, 2006
     
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    5 July 1946 – The bikini goes on sale after debuting during an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris, France.

    Bikini

    A woman wearing a bikini at a beach.

    Bikini typically describes a women's simple two-piece swimsuit featuring two triangles of fabric on top, similar to a bra and covering the woman's breasts, and two triangles of fabric on the bottom, the front covering the pelvis but exposing the navel, and the back covering the buttocks.[1][2][1] The size of the top and bottom can vary from full coverage of the breasts, pelvis, and buttocks, to very skimpy designs like a thong or G-string that cover only the areola and mons pubis, but expose the buttocks.

    Fashion designer Jacques Heim from Paris released a two-piece swimsuit design in 1946 that he named the Atome. Like swimsuits of the era, it covered the wearer's navel, and it failed to attract much attention. Parisian automotive engineer and designer Louis Réard introduced his design soon after.[3] His skimpy design was risque, exposing the wearer's navel and much of her buttocks. No runway model would wear it, so he hired a nude dancer from the Casino de Paris to model it at a review of swimsuit fashions. He named the swimsuit after the Bikini Atoll, where the first public test of a nuclear bomb had taken place only four days before.[4]

    Due to its controversial and revealing design, the bikini was accepted very slowly by the public. It gained increased exposure and acceptance as film stars like Brigitte Bardot, Raquel Welch, and Ursula Andress wore them and were photographed on public beaches and seen in film. In many countries the design was banned from beaches and other public places.[5]

    The minimalist bikini design became common in most Western countries by the mid-1960s as both swimwear and underwear. By the late 20th century it was widely used as sportswear in beach volleyball and bodybuilding. There are a number of modern stylistic variations of the design used for marketing purposes and as industry classifications, including monokini, microkini, tankini, trikini, pubikini, and skirtini. A man's single-piece brief swimsuit may also be referred to as a bikini.[2] Similarly, a variety of men's and women's underwear types are described as bikini underwear.

    The bikini has gradually grown to gain wide acceptance in Western society. By the early 2000s, bikinis had become a US$811 million business annually, and boosted spin-off services such as bikini waxing and sun tanning.[6]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference MMOA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b "Bikini". Merriam-Webster. February 13, 2014. 
    3. ^ "Le Bikini souffle ses 60 bougies !". www.journaldesfemmes.com (in French). Retrieved 17 May 2018. 
    4. ^ "Operation Crossroads: Fact Sheet". Department of the Navy—Naval History and Heritage Command. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
    5. ^ Alac, Patrik (2012). Bikini Story (first ed.). Parkstone International. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-78042-951-9. 
    6. ^ Lorna Edwards, "You've still got it, babe, The Age, June 3, 2006
     
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    6 July 1415Jan Hus is condemned as a heretic and then burned at the stake.

    Jan Hus

    Jan Hus (/hʊs/;[1] Czech: [ˈjan ˈɦus] (About this sound listen); c. 1369 – 6 July 1415[2]), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rector[3] of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation.

    After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself.[4] He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics.

    After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars.[5] Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Catholicism.

    1. ^ "Hus". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    2. ^ Fudge, Thomas (1998). "Infoelix Hus: The Rehabilitation of a Medieval Heretic". Fides et Historia. 1 (30): 57–73. Retrieved 2016-05-09. 
    3. ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus
    4. ^ Heiko Augustinus Oberman; Eileen Walliser-Schwarzbart (2006). Luther: Man Between God and the Devil. Yale University Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 0-300-10313-1. 
    5. ^ "Sigismund of Luxembourg". Radio Prague
     
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    7 July 1915 – The First Battle of the Isonzo comes to an end.

    First Battle of the Isonzo

    The First Battle of the Isonzo was fought between the Armies of Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front in World War I, between 23 June and 7 July 1915.

    The aim of the Italian Army was to drive the Austrians away from its defensive positions along the Soča (Isonzo) and on the nearby mountains.

    Although the Italians enjoyed a 2:1 numeric superiority, their offensive failed because the Italian commander, Luigi Cadorna, employed frontal assaults after impressive (but short) artillery barrages. The Austrians had the advantage of fighting from uphill positions barricaded with barbed wire which were able to easily resist the Italian assault.

    The Italians had some early successes. They partially took Monte Nero (Monte Krn), took Monte Colowrat, and captured the heights around Plezzo. However, they were unable to dislodge the Austro-Hungarian troops from the high ground between Tolmino and the Isonzo, which would later form a launching off point for the Caporetto Offensive. The heaviest fighting occurred around Gorizia. In addition to the natural defenses of the river and mountains, bastions were created at Oslavia and Podgora. The fighting at Gorizia consisted of street-by-street urban combat interspersed with artillery fire. Italian troops, such as the Italian Re and Casale Brigades, were able to advance as far as the suburbs but could get no further and were driven back. They made small footholds at Adgrado and Redipuglia on the Karst Plateau south of Gorizia but were unable to do much else.

    On the Austrian-Hungarian side two commanders distinguished themselves: Major General Géza Lukachich von Somorja, commander of the 5th Mountain Brigade, who retook Redipuglia, and Major General Novak von Arienti who retook Hill 383 with his 1st Mountain Brigade.

    Early in July the commander of the Austrian Fifth Army, General Svetozar Boroević, received two reinforcement divisions, which put an end to the Italian efforts at breaking through the Austrian lines.

    The final Italian gains were minimal: in the northern sector, they conquered the heights over Bovec (Mount Kanin); in the southern sector, they conquered the westernmost ridges of the Kras plateau near Fogliano Redipuglia and Monfalcone.

     
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    8 July 1716 – The Battle of Dynekilen forces Sweden to abandon its invasion of Norway.

    Battle of Dynekilen

    The naval Battle of Dynekilen (Slaget ved Dynekilen) took place on 8 July 1716 during the Great Northern War.

    1. ^ Dan H. Andersen. Mandsmod og kongegunst: en biografi om Peter Wessel Tordenskiold. Aschehoug, 2004. p. 207
    2. ^ a b c d e Nils Modig. Strömstad: Gränsstad i ofred och krig. Warne förlag, 2013. pp. 74–86
    3. ^ a b Olav Bergersen. Tordenskiolds brev. Facsimile, 1963. pp. 229–230
    4. ^ Knut Lundblad. Georg Friedrich Jenssen-Tusch: Geschichte Karl des Zwölften, Königs von Schweden, Band 2. Hamburg (1835). p. 491
    5. ^ William Coucheron–Aamot. Det norske folk paa land og sjø. Det norske aktieforlag, 1901. p. 233
    6. ^ a b Lars Ericson Wolke. Sjöslag och rysshärjningar : kampen om Östersjön under stora nordiska kriget 1700-1721. Norstedts, 2012. pp. 229–234
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Feldborg was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    9 July 1877 – The inaugural Wimbledon Championships begins.

    The Championships, Wimbledon

    The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly known simply as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is widely regarded as the most prestigious.[2][3][4][5][6] It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, London, since 1877 and is played on outdoor grass courts.

    Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open, the French Open and the US Open. Since the Australian Open shifted to hardcourt in 1988, Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass.

    The tournament traditionally took place over two weeks in late June and early July, starting on the third Monday in June[7] and culminating with the Ladies' and Gentlemen's Singles Finals, scheduled for the Saturday and Sunday at the end of the second week. However recent changes to the tennis calendar have seen the event moved back by two weeks cumulatively to begin in early July.[8][9] Five major events are held each year, with additional junior and invitational competitions also taking place.

    Wimbledon traditions include a strict dress code for competitors and Royal patronage. Strawberries and cream is traditionally consumed at the tournament.[10] In 2017, fans consumed 34,000 kg of English strawberries and 10,000 litres of cream.[11] The tournament is also notable for the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts. In 2009, Wimbledon's Centre Court was fitted with a retractable roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "Prize Money and Finance". Wimbledon. Retrieved 2 July 2018. 
    2. ^ Clarey, Christopher (7 May 2008). "Traditional Final: It's Nadal and Federer". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 July 2008. Federer said[:] 'I love playing with him, especially here at Wimbledon, the most prestigious tournament we have.' 
    3. ^ Will Kaufman & Heidi Slettedahl Macpherson, ed. (2005). "Tennis". Britain and the Americas. 1 : Culture, Politics, and History. ABC-CLIO. p. 958. ISBN 1-85109-431-8. this first tennis championship, which later evolved into the Wimbledon Tournament ... continues as the world's most prestigious event. 
    4. ^ "Djokovic describes Wimbledon as "the most prestigious event"". BBC News. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2010. 
    5. ^ Ryan Rudnansky (24 June 2013). "Wimbledon Tennis 2013: Why Historic Tournament Is Most Prestigious Grand Slam". bleacherreport. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
    6. ^ Monte Burke (30 May 2012). "What Is The Most Prestigious Grand Slam Tennis Tournament?". Forbes. Retrieved 25 June 2013. It seems pretty clear that of the four tennis Grand Slam events—Wimbledon and the French, Australian and U.S. Opens—the former is by far the most prestigious one. 
    7. ^ Ben Sanders (18 May 2015). "Wimbledon breaks 115-year tradition: dates changed to avoid French Open". The Oxford Student. Retrieved 26 June 2017. 
    8. ^ "Wimbledon Championships moved back a week from 2015". BBC Sport. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2017. 
    9. ^ "Enhanced UK grass court season announced for 2017". Wimbledon. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2017. 
    10. ^ "Wimbledon's strawberries and cream has Tudor roots". BBC. 9 June 2015. 
    11. ^ "Wimbledon 2018 Packages from Australia: Tickets, Hotels, & Flights". Keith Prowse Travel. 2017-06-28. Retrieved 2018-02-01. 
     
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    10 July 1553Lady Jane Grey takes the throne of England.

    Lady Jane Grey

    Lady Jane Grey (c. 1537[3] – 12 February 1554), known also as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage[4]) and as "the Nine Days' Queen",[5] was an English noblewoman and de facto Queen of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553.

    Jane was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII through his younger daughter Mary, and was a first cousin once removed of Edward VI. She had an excellent humanist education and a reputation as one of the most learned young women of her day.[6] In May 1553, she married Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of Edward's chief minister John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. In June 1553, Edward VI wrote his will, nominating Jane and her male heirs as successors to the Crown, in part because his half-sister Mary was Roman Catholic, while Jane was a committed Protestant and would support the reformed Church of England, whose foundation Edward claimed to have laid. The will named his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth illegitimate and removed them from the succession, subverting their claims under the Third Succession Act.

    After Edward's death, Jane was proclaimed queen on 10 July 1553 and awaited coronation in the Tower of London. Support for Mary grew very quickly, and most of Jane's supporters abandoned her. The Privy Council of England suddenly changed sides and proclaimed Mary as queen on 19 July 1553, deposing Jane. Her primary supporter, the Duke of Northumberland, was accused of treason and executed less than a month later. Jane was held as a prisoner at the Tower and was convicted of high treason in November 1553, which carried a sentence of death—though Mary initially spared her life. However, Jane's father, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, became part of Wyatt's rebellion against Queen Mary's intention to marry Philip II of Spain, and Jane was viewed as a threat to the Crown. Both she and her husband were executed on 12 February 1554.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference guardian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Williamson, David (2010). Kings & Queens. National Portrait Gallery Publications. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-85514-432-3
    3. ^ a b Her exact date of birth is uncertain; many historians agree on the long-held estimate of 1537, while others set it in the latter half of 1536 based on newer research.[1][2]
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference odnbJane was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Ives 2009, p. 2
    6. ^ Ascham 1863, p. 213
     
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    11 July 1576Martin Frobisher sights Greenland.

    Martin Frobisher

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    Sir Martin Frobisher (/ˈfrbɪʃər/; c. 1535 – 22 November 1594[1]) was an English seaman and privateer who made three voyages to the New World looking for the North-west Passage. He landed in north-eastern Canada, around today's Resolution Island and Frobisher Bay.[2]

    On his second voyage, Frobisher found what he thought was gold ore and carried 200 tons of it home on three ships, where initial assaying determined it to be worth a profit of £5.2 per ton. Encouraged, Frobisher returned to Canada with an even larger fleet and dug several mines around Frobisher Bay. He carried 1,350 tons of the ore back to England, where, after years of smelting, it was realised that the ore was worthless iron pyrite. As an English privateer, he plundered riches from French ships. He was later knighted for his service in repelling the Spanish Armada in 1588.

    1. ^ McDermott 2001a, pp. 7, 478.
    2. ^ Marsh, James H.; Panneton, Daniel (18 December 2015). "Sir Martin Frobisher". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. 
     
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    13 July 1814 – The Carabinieri, the national gendarmerie of Italy, is established.

    Carabinieri

    The Carabinieri (formally Arma dei Carabinieri, "Carabinieri Force" or previously Corpo dei Carabinieri Reali, "Royal Carabinieri Corps";[1][2][3][4] Italian pronunciation: [karabiˈnjɛːri]) is the fourth Italian military force charged with police duties under the authority of the Ministry of Defense. Carabinieri are the national gendarmerie of Italy, policing both military and civilian populations. Carabinieri (similar to Polizia di Stato and Guardia di Finanza) are always "on duty" throughout the national territory including out of service hours, during leave and whilst on vacation, and they are always permitted to carry their assigned weapon as personal equipment (Beretta 92FS pistol). It was originally founded as the police force of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the forerunner of the Kingdom of Italy. During the process of Italian unification, it was appointed the "First Force" of the new national military organisation. Although the Carabinieri assisted in the suppression of opposition during the rule of Benito Mussolini, they were also responsible for his downfall and many units were disbanded during World War II by Nazi Germany, which resulted in large numbers of Carabinieri joining the Italian resistance movement. Since 2001, it has been one of the four Italian Armed Forces.

    1. ^ Paoletti, Ciro (2008). A Military History of Italy. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-98505-9. 
    2. ^ Peter G. Stone, Joanne Farchakh Bajjaly, Robert Fisk. The destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq. Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2008
    3. ^ Richard Heber Wrightson, A History of Modern Italy, from the First French Revolution to the Year 1850. Elibron.com, 2005
    4. ^ A new survey of universal knowledge. 4. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1952. 
     
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    14 July 1881Billy the Kid is shot and killed by Pat Garrett outside Fort Sumner.

    Billy the Kid

    Billy the Kid (born Henry McCarty September 17 or November 23, 1859 – July 14, 1881, also known as William H. Bonney) was an American Old West outlaw and gunfighter who killed eight men before he was shot and killed at age 21.[2][3] He took part in New Mexico's Lincoln County War, during which he allegedly took part in three murders.

    McCarty was orphaned at age 13. The owner of a boarding house gave him a room in exchange for work. His first arrest was for stealing food at age 16 in late 1875. Ten days later, he robbed a Chinese laundry and was arrested, but he escaped only two days later. He tried to stay with his stepfather, and then fled from New Mexico Territory into neighboring Arizona Territory, making him both an outlaw and a federal fugitive.

    After murdering a blacksmith during an altercation in August 1877, Bonney became a wanted man in Arizona Territory and returned to New Mexico, where he joined a group of cattle rustlers. He became a well-known figure in the region when he joined the Regulators and took part in the Lincoln County War. In April 1878, the Regulators killed three men, including Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady and one of his deputies. Bonney and two other Regulators were later charged with killing all three men.

    Bonney's notoriety grew in December 1880 when the Las Vegas Gazette in Las Vegas, New Mexico, and The Sun in New York City carried stories about his crimes.[4] Sheriff Pat Garrett captured Bonney later that month. In April 1881, Bonney was tried and convicted of the murder of Brady, and was sentenced to hang in May of that year. He escaped from jail on April 28, 1881, killing two sheriff's deputies in the process and evading capture for more than two months. Garrett shot and killed Bonney—aged 21—in Fort Sumner on July 14, 1881. During the following decades, legends that Bonney had survived that night grew, and a number of men claimed to be him.[5]

    1. ^ a b Utley 1989, p. 15.
    2. ^ Rasch 1995, pp. 23–35.
    3. ^ Wallis 2007, pp. 244–245.
    4. ^ Utley 1989, pp. 145–146.
    5. ^ "The Old Man Who Claimed to Be Billy the Kid". Atlas Obscura. March 30, 2017. Archived from the original on July 8, 2017. Retrieved July 19, 2017. 
     
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    15 July 1823 – A fire destroys the ancient Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome, Italy.

    Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

    The Papal Basilica of St. Paul outside the Walls (Italian: Basilica Papale di San Paolo fuori le Mura), commonly known as St. Paul's outside the Walls, is one of Rome's four ancient, Papal, major basilicas,[a] along with the Basilicas of St. John in the Lateran, St. Peter's, and St. Mary Major.

    The Basilica is within Italian territory and not the territory of the Vatican City State,[1] but the Holy See owns the Basilica, and Italy is legally obligated to recognize its full ownership[2] and to concede to it "the immunity granted by International Law to the headquarters of the diplomatic agents of foreign States".[3]

    James Michael Harvey was named Archpriest of the Basilica in 2012.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Lateran Treaty of 1929, Article 15 (The Treaty of the Lateran by Benedict Williamson (London: Burns, Oates, and Washbourne Limited, 1929), pages 42-66)
    2. ^ Lateran Treaty of 1929, Article 13 (Ibidem)
    3. ^ Lateran Treaty of 1929, Article 15 (Ibidem)
     
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    16 July 1965 – The Mont Blanc Tunnel linking France and Italy opens.

    Mont Blanc Tunnel

    Mont Blanc Tunnel in Italy
    Mont Blanc Tunnel in France
    Mont Blanc Tunnel in 2008

    The Mont Blanc Tunnel is a highway tunnel in Europe, under the Mont Blanc mountain in the Alps. It links Chamonix, Haute-Savoie, France with Courmayeur, Aosta Valley, Italy, via European route E25, in particular the motorway from Geneva (A40 of France) to Turin (A5 of Italy). The passageway is one of the major trans-Alpine transport routes, particularly for Italy, which relies on this tunnel for transporting as much as one-third of its freight to northern Europe. It reduces the route from France to Turin by 50 kilometres (30 miles) and to Milan by 100 km (60 mi). Northeast of Mont Blanc's summit, the tunnel is about 15 km (10 mi) southwest of the tripoint with Switzerland, near Mont Dolent.

    Begun in 1957 and completed in 1965, the tunnel is 11.611 km (7.215 mi) in length, 8.6 m (28 ft) in width, and 4.35 m (14.3 ft) in height. The passageway is not horizontal, but in a slightly inverted "V", which assists ventilation. The entrance elevation on the French side (45°54′05″N 006°51′39″E / 45.90139°N 6.86083°E / 45.90139; 6.86083) is 1,274 m (4,180 ft) and 1,381 m (4,531 ft) in Italy (45°49′04″N 006°57′07″E / 45.81778°N 6.95194°E / 45.81778; 6.95194), with a maximum of 1,395 m (4,577 ft) near the center, a maximum difference of 121 m (397 ft). The tunnel consists of a single gallery with a two-lane dual direction road. At the time of its construction, it tripled the length of any existing highway tunnel.[1]

    The tunnel passes almost exactly under the summit of the Aiguille du Midi. At this spot, it lies 2480m beneath the surface, making it the world's second deepest operational tunnel [2] after the Gotthard Base Tunnel, which is slightly deeper.

    Plans to widen the tunnel were never implemented because of lack of financing and fierce opposition of local residents who objected to the harmful effects of increased heavy traffic.

    The Mont Blanc Tunnel was originally managed by two public companies, each managing half of the tunnel:

    • French side: ATMB (Autoroutes et tunnels du Mont-Blanc),[3] founded 30 April 1958
    • Italian side: SITMB (Società italiana per azioni per il Traforo del Monte Bianco),[3] founded 1 September 1957

    After the 1999 fire, which showed how lack of coordination could hamper the safety of the tunnel, all the operations are managed by a single entity: MBT-EEIG, controlled by both ATMB and SITMB together, through a 50–50 shares distribution.[4]

    1. ^ Soule, Gardner (December 1959). "World's longest auto tunnel to pierce the Alps". Popular Science. pp. 121–123/236–238. 
    2. ^ "Today in Science History". Retrieved November 22, 2014. 
    3. ^ a b "July 16, 1965: Mont Blanc Tunnel Opens". Wired. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
    4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
     
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    17 July 1902Willis Carrier creates the first air conditioner in Buffalo, New York.

    Willis Carrier

    Willis Haviland Carrier (November 26, 1876 – October 7, 1950) was an American engineer, best known for inventing modern air conditioning. Carrier invented the first electrical air conditioning unit in 1902. In 1915, he founded Carrier Corporation, a company specializing in the manufacture and distribution of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    1. ^ Margaret Ingels, Willis Haviland Carrier: father of air conditioning, Country Life Press, 1952, p. 101: "Willis Haviland Carrier died in New York on October 7, 1950, shortly before his seventy-fourth birthday."
     
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    18 July 1870 – The First Vatican Council decrees the dogma of papal infallibility.

    Papal infallibility

    Pope Pius IX (1846–1878), during whose pontificate the doctrine of papal infallibility was dogmatically defined by the First Vatican Council.

    Papal infallibility is a dogma of the Catholic Church that states that, in virtue of the promise of Jesus to Peter, the Pope is preserved from the possibility of error "when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church."[1][2]

    This doctrine was defined dogmatically at the First Ecumenical Council of the Vatican of 1869–1870 in the document Pastor aeternus,[3] but had been defended before that, existing already in medieval theology and being the majority opinion at the time of the Counter-Reformation.[4]

    According to Catholic theology, there are several concepts important to the understanding of infallible, divine revelation: Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition, and the Sacred Magisterium (Teaching Authority). The infallible teachings of the Pope are part of the Sacred Magisterium, which also consists of ecumenical councils and the "ordinary and universal magisterium". In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is one of the channels of the infallibility of the Church. The infallible teachings of the Pope must be based on, or at least not contradict, Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture.

    The doctrine of infallibility relies on one of the cornerstones of Catholic dogma: that of Petrine supremacy of the pope, and his authority as the ruling agent who decides what are accepted as formal beliefs in the Roman Catholic Church.[5] The use of this power is referred to as speaking ex cathedra.[6]

    The solemn declaration of papal infallibility by Vatican I took place on 18 July 1870. Since that time, the only example of an ex cathedra decree took place in 1950, when Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary as an article of faith.[7] Prior to the solemn definition of 1870, there were other decrees which fit the definition of ex cathedra, for example, Pope Boniface VIII in the bull Unam Sanctam of 1302,[8][9][10] and Pope Pius IX in the Papal constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 1854.[11][12]

    1. ^ "Infallibility means more than exemption from actual error; it means exemption from the possibility of error," P. J. Toner, Infallibility, Catholic Encyclopedia, 1910
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference DogmConst was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Pastor aeternus". 
    4. ^ Brian Gogan. "The Common Corps of Christendom: Ecclesiological Themes in the Writings of ..." Books.google.com. p. 33. Retrieved 2016-12-22. 
    5. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch et al. The encyclopedia of Christianity Eradman Books ISBN 0-8028-2416-1
    6. ^ Wilhelm, Joseph and Thomas Scannell. Manual of Catholic Theology. Volume 1, Part 1. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Ltd. 1906. pp. 94–100
    7. ^ Encyclopedia of Catholicism by Frank K. Flinn, J. Gordon Melton 207 ISBN 0-8160-5455-X p. 267
    8. ^ "We declare, say, define, and pronounce that it is absolutely necessary for the salvation of every human creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff."
    9. ^ Manning, Henry Cardinal. Vatican Decrees in their Bearing on Civil Allegiance. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1875. pp. 57, et. seq.: "But it is also true that these relations have been declared by the Church in acts and decrees of infallible authority. Such, for instance, is the bull of Boniface VIII., Unam Sanctam. As this has become the text and centre of the whole controversy at this moment, we will fully treat of it. This bull, then, was beyond all doubt an act ex cathedra... Whatever definition, therefore, is to be found in this bull is to be received as of faith."
    10. ^ Fisher, George Parker. History of Christian Doctrine. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. 1896. p. 543
    11. ^ "We declare, pronounce, and define that the doctrine which holds that the most Blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instance of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege granted by Almighty God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Savior of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of original sin, is a doctrine revealed by God and therefore to be believed firmly and constantly by all the faithful."
    12. ^ MacArthur, John F., Jr. Charismatic Chaos. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. 1992. p. 90
     
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 July 1903Maurice Garin wins the first Tour de France.

    Maurice Garin

    Maurice Garin

    Maurice-Francois Garin[2] (pronounced [mo.ʁis.fʁɑ̃.swa ɡa.ʁɛ̃]; 3 March 1871 – 19 February 1957)[3] was an Italian-born French road bicycle racer best known for winning the inaugural Tour de France in 1903, and for being stripped of his title in the second Tour in 1904 along with eight others, for cheating.[4][5][6]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Ethno62 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Wikipedia". 
    3. ^ "memoire-du-cyclisme.net". Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. 
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Unknown TdF was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chany p54 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chany p60 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     

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