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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 October 1972 – An Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-62 crashes outside Moscow killing 174.

    Ilyushin Il-62

    The Ilyushin IL-62 (Russian: Илью́шин Ил-62; NATO reporting name: Classic) is a Soviet long-range narrow-body jet airliner conceived in 1960 by Ilyushin. As successor to the popular turboprop Il-18 and with capacity for almost 200 passengers and crew, the Il-62 was the world's largest jet airliner when first flown in 1963. One of four pioneering long-range designs (the others being Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8, and Vickers VC10), it was the first such type to be operated by the Soviet Union and a number of allied nations.

    The Il-62 entered Aeroflot civilian service on 15 September 1967 with an inaugural passenger flight from Moscow to Montreal, and remained the standard long-range airliner for the Soviet Union (and later, Russia) for several decades. It was the first Soviet pressurised aircraft with non-circular cross-section fuselage and ergonomic passenger doors, and the first Soviet jet with six-abreast seating (the turboprop Tu-114 shared this arrangement) and international-standard position lights.

    Over 30 nations operated the Il-62 with over 80 examples exported and others having been leased by Soviet-sphere and several Western airlines. The Il-62M variant became the longest-serving model in its airliner class (average age of examples in service as of 2016 is over 32 years). Special VIP (salon) and other conversions were also developed and used as head-of-state transport by some 14 countries. However, because it is expensive to operate compared to newer generation airliners, the number in service was greatly reduced after the 2008 Great Recession. The Il-62's successors include the wide-bodied Il-86 and Il-96, both of which were made in much smaller numbers and neither of which was widely exported.

     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 October 1805Battle of Elchingen, France defeats Austria

    Battle of Elchingen

    The Battle of Elchingen, fought on 14 October 1805, saw French forces under Michel Ney rout an Austrian corps led by Johann Sigismund Riesch. This defeat led to a large part of the Austrian army being invested in the fortress of Ulm by the army of Emperor Napoleon I of France while other formations fled to the east. Soon afterward, the Austrians trapped in Ulm surrendered and the French mopped up most of the remaining Austrians forces, bringing the Ulm Campaign to a close.

    In late September and early October 1805, Napoleon carried out a gigantic envelopment of the Austrian army in Bavaria led by Karl Mack von Lieberich. While the Austrian army lay near Ulm, south of the Danube River, the French army marched west on the north side of the river. Then Napoleon's troops crossed the river east of Ulm, cutting the Austrian retreat route to Vienna. Finally waking up to his danger, Mack tried to break out on the north side of the river, but a lone French division blocked his first attempt.

    Realizing that his enemies might escape the trap, Napoleon ordered Ney to cross to the north bank of the river. Ney's larger corps attacked Riesch's corps at Elchingen on the north bank. The French captured the heights and drove the Austrian soldiers west toward Ulm, forcing many of them to surrender. While a body of Austrians remained at large on the north bank, the near destruction of Riesch's command meant that the bulk of Mack's army was hopelessly surrounded in Ulm.

     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 October 1894 – The Dreyfus affair: Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying.

    Dreyfus affair

    The Dreyfus Affair (French: l'affaire Dreyfus, pronounced [la.fɛʁ dʁɛ.fys]) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. 'The Affair', as it is known in French, has come to symbolise modern injustice in the Francophone world,[1] and it remains one of the most notable examples of a complex miscarriage of justice and antisemitism. The role played by the press and public opinion proved influential in the conflict.

    The scandal began in December 1894 when Captain Alfred Dreyfus was convicted of treason. Dreyfus was a 35-year-old Alsatian French artillery officer of Jewish descent. He was sentenced to life imprisonment for allegedly communicating French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, and was imprisoned on Devil's Island in French Guiana, where he spent nearly five years.

    Evidence came to light in 1896—primarily through an investigation instigated by Georges Picquart, head of counter-espionage—which identified a French Army major named Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy as the real culprit. When high-ranking military officials suppressed the new evidence, a military court unanimously acquitted Esterhazy after a trial lasting only two days. The Army laid additional charges against Dreyfus, based on forged documents. Subsequently, Emile Zola's open letter J'Accuse…!, stoked a growing movement of support for Dreyfus, putting pressure on the government to reopen the case.

    In 1899, he was returned to France for another trial. The intense political and judicial scandal that ensued divided French society between those who supported Dreyfus (now called "Dreyfusards"), such as Sarah Bernhardt, Anatole France, Henri Poincaré and Georges Clemenceau, and those who condemned him (the anti-Dreyfusards), such as Édouard Drumont, the director and publisher of the antisemitic newspaper La Libre Parole. The new trial resulted in another conviction and a 10-year sentence, but Dreyfus was pardoned and released. In 1906, Dreyfus was exonerated and reinstated as a major in the French Army. He served during the whole of World War I, ending his service with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He died in 1935.

    The affair from 1894 to 1906 divided France into the pro-Army, mostly Catholic "anti-Dreyfusards" and the anticlerical, pro-republican Dreyfusards. It embittered French politics and encouraged radicalisation.

    1. ^ Guy Canivet, first President of the Supreme Court, Justice from the Dreyfus Affair, p. 15.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 October 1964 – China detonates its first nuclear weapon.

    596 (nuclear test)

    Redirect to:

    • From a page move: This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 October 1814 – Eight people die in the London Beer Flood.

    London Beer Flood

    Horseshoe Brewery, London, c. 1800

    The London Beer Flood was an accident at the Horse Shoe Brewery, London, on 17 October 1814. It took place when one of the 22 feet (6.7 m) tall vats of fermenting porter burst. The pressure destroyed another vessel, and between 128,000 and 323,000 imperial gallons (580,000–1,470,000 l; 154,000–388,000 US gal) of beer were released.

    The resulting tidal wave destroyed the back wall of the brewery and swept into the St Giles rookery, an area of slum-dwellings. Eight people were killed, five of them attendees at the wake being held by an Irish family for a two-year-old boy. The coroner's inquest returned a verdict that the eight had lost their lives "casually, accidentally and by misfortune". The brewery was nearly bankrupted by the event; it avoided collapse after a rebate from HM Excise on the spilled beer. The brewing industry gradually stopped using large wooden vats after the accident. The brewery moved away from the area in 1921, and the Dominion Theatre is now where the brewery used to stand.

     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 October 1648 – Boston Shoemakers form first American labor organization.

    Trade union

    A trade union (or a labor union in the U.S.) is an association of workers forming a legal unit or legal personhood, usually called a "bargaining unit", which acts as bargaining agent and legal representative for a unit of employees in all matters of law or right arising from or in the administration of a collective agreement. Labour unions typically fund the formal organization, head office, and legal team functions of the labour union through regular fees or union dues. The delegate staff of the labour union representation in the workforce are made up of workplace volunteers who are appointed by members in democratic elections.

    Today, unions are usually formed for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, benefits, working conditions, or social and political status through collective bargaining by the increased bargaining power wielded by the banding of the workers.[1] The trade union, through an elected leadership and bargaining committee, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment".[2] This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing status of employees including promotions, just cause conditions for termination, and employment benefits.

    Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism),[3] a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism). The agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and also have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them legally to their negotiations and functioning.

    Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past workers, students, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries.[4][5]

    1. ^ Frost, Daniel (1 April 1967). "Labor's Antitrust Exemption". California Law Review. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.

      ...the United States Supreme Court again undertook the delicate task of defining the antitrust exemption granted labor unions by section six of the Clayton Act.

    2. ^ Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice (1920). History of Trade Unionism. Longmans and Co. London. ch. I
    3. ^ Poole, M., 1986. Industrial Relations: Origins and Patterns of National Diversity. London UK: Routledge.
    4. ^ [1] OECD. Retrieved: 1 December 2017.
    5. ^ "Industrial relations". ILOSTAT. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 October 1648 – Boston Shoemakers form first American labor organization.

    Trade union

    A trade union (or a labor union in the U.S.) is an association of workers forming a legal unit or legal personhood, usually called a "bargaining unit", which acts as bargaining agent and legal representative for a unit of employees in all matters of law or right arising from or in the administration of a collective agreement. Labour unions typically fund the formal organization, head office, and legal team functions of the labour union through regular fees or union dues. The delegate staff of the labour union representation in the workforce are made up of workplace volunteers who are appointed by members in democratic elections.

    Today, unions are usually formed for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, benefits, working conditions, or social and political status through collective bargaining by the increased bargaining power wielded by the banding of the workers.[1] The trade union, through an elected leadership and bargaining committee, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment".[2] This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing status of employees including promotions, just cause conditions for termination, and employment benefits.

    Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism),[3] a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism). The agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and also have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them legally to their negotiations and functioning.

    Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past workers, students, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries.[4][5]

    1. ^ Frost, Daniel (1 April 1967). "Labor's Antitrust Exemption". California Law Review. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.

      ...the United States Supreme Court again undertook the delicate task of defining the antitrust exemption granted labor unions by section six of the Clayton Act.

    2. ^ Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice (1920). History of Trade Unionism. Longmans and Co. London. ch. I
    3. ^ Poole, M., 1986. Industrial Relations: Origins and Patterns of National Diversity. London UK: Routledge.
    4. ^ [1] OECD. Retrieved: 1 December 2017.
    5. ^ "Industrial relations". ILOSTAT. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 October 1914 – The First Battle of Ypres begins.

    First Battle of Ypres

    The First Battle of Ypres (French: Première Bataille des Flandres German: Erste Flandernschlacht, 19 October – 22 November 1914) was a battle of the First World War, fought on the Western Front around Ypres, in West Flanders, Belgium. The battle was part of the First Battle of Flanders, in which German, French, Belgian armies and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) fought from Arras in France to Nieuport on the Belgian coast, from 10 October to mid-November. The battles at Ypres began at the end of the Race to the Sea, reciprocal attempts by the German and Franco-British armies to advance past the northern flank of their opponents. North of Ypres, the fighting continued in the Battle of the Yser (16–31 October), between the German 4th Army, the Belgian army and French marines.

    The fighting has been divided into five stages, an encounter battle from 19 to 21 October, the Battle of Langemarck from 21 to 24 October, the battles at La Bassée and Armentières to 2 November, coincident with more Allied attacks at Ypres and the Battle of Gheluvelt (29–31 October), a fourth phase with the last big German offensive, which culminated at the Battle of Nonne Bosschen on 11 November, then local operations which faded out in late November. Brigadier-General James Edmonds, the British official historian, wrote in the History of the Great War, that the II Corps battle at La Bassée could be taken as separate but that the battles from Armentières to Messines and Ypres, were better understood as one battle in two parts, an offensive by III Corps and the Cavalry Corps from 12 to 18 October against which the Germans retired and an offensive by the German 6th Army and 4th Army from 19 October to 2 November, which from 30 October, took place mainly north of the Lys, when the battles of Armentières and Messines merged with the Battles of Ypres.[a]

    Attacks by the BEF (Field Marshal Sir John French) the Belgians and the French Eighth Army in Belgium made little progress beyond Ypres. The German 4th and 6th Armies took small amounts of ground at great cost to both sides, during the Battle of the Yser and further south at Ypres. General Erich von Falkenhayn, head of the Oberste Heeresleitung (OHL, German General Staff), then tried a limited offensive to capture Ypres and Mont Kemmel, from 19 October to 22 November. Neither side had moved forces to Flanders fast enough to obtain a decisive victory and by November both sides were exhausted. The armies were short of ammunition, suffering from low morale and some infantry units refused orders. The autumn battles in Flanders had become static, attrition operations, unlike the battles of manoeuvre in the summer. French, British and Belgian troops in improvised field defences, repulsed German attacks for four weeks. From 21 to 23 October, German reservists had made mass attacks at Langemarck, with losses of up to 70 percent, to little effect.

    Warfare between mass armies, equipped with the weapons of the Industrial Revolution and its later developments, proved to be indecisive, because field fortifications neutralised many classes of offensive weapon. The defensive use of artillery and machine guns, dominated the battlefield and the ability of the armies to supply themselves and replace casualties prolonged battles for weeks. Thirty-four German divisions fought in the Flanders battles, against twelve French, nine British and six Belgian, along with marines and dismounted cavalry. Falkenhayn reconsidered German strategy over the winter, because Vernichtungsstrategie and a dictated peace against France and Russia had been shown to be beyond German resources. Falkenhayn intended to detach Russia or France from the Allied coalition by diplomatic as well as military action. A strategy of attrition (Ermattungsstrategie) would make the cost of the war too great for the Allies, until one made a separate peace. The remaining belligerents would have to negotiate or face the Germans concentrated on the remaining front, which would be sufficient to obtain a decisive victory.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 October 1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.

    Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane 'Sale of Louisiana') was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from France in 1803. In return for fifteen million dollars, the U.S. acquired a total of 828,000 sq mi (2,140,000 km2; 530,000,000 acres). The treaty was negotiated by French Treasury Minister François Barbé-Marbois (acting on behalf of Napoleon) and American delegates James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston (acting on behalf of President Thomas Jefferson).

    The Kingdom of France had controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded to Spain in 1762. In 1800, Napoleon, then the First Consul of the French Republic, regained ownership of Louisiana as part of a broader project to re-establish a French colonial empire in North America. However, France's failure to put down a revolt in Saint-Domingue, coupled with the prospect of renewed warfare with the United Kingdom, prompted Napoleon to consider selling Louisiana to the United States. Acquisition of Louisiana was a long-term goal of President Jefferson, who was especially eager to gain control of the crucial Mississippi River port of New Orleans. Jefferson tasked Monroe and Livingston with purchasing New Orleans, but the American representatives quickly agreed to negotiate for the purchase of the entire territory of Louisiana after Napoleon offered to sell it. Overcoming the opposition of the Federalist Party, Jefferson and Secretary of State James Madison convinced Congress to ratify and fund the Louisiana Purchase.

    The Louisiana Purchase extended United States sovereignty across the Mississippi River, nearly doubling the size of the country. The purchase included land from fifteen present U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, including the entirety of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska; large portions of North Dakota and South Dakota; the area of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide; the portion of Minnesota west of the Mississippi River; the northeastern section of New Mexico; northern portions of Texas; New Orleans and the portions of the present state of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River; and small portions of land within the present Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. At the time of the purchase, the territory of Louisiana's non-native population was around 60,000 inhabitants, of whom half were African slaves.[1] The western borders of the purchase were later settled by the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty with Spain, while the northern borders of the purchase were adjusted by the Treaty of 1818 with Britain.

    1. ^ "Congressional series of United States public documents". U.S. Government Printing Office. January 1, 1864 – via Google Books.
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 October 1854Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War.

    Florence Nightingale

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox scientist with unknown parameter "research_field" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC, DStJ (/ˈntɪnɡl/; 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing.

    Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers.[3] She gave nursing a favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture, especially in the persona of "The Lady with the Lamp" making rounds of wounded soldiers at night.[4][5]

    Recent commentators have asserted Nightingale's Crimean War achievements were exaggerated by media at the time, but critics agree on the importance of her later work in professionalising nursing roles for women.[6] In 1860, Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London. It was the first secular nursing school in the world, and is now part of King's College London. In recognition of her pioneering work in nursing, the Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses, and the Florence Nightingale Medal, the highest international distinction a nurse can achieve, were named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated on her birthday. Her social reforms included improving healthcare for all sections of British society, advocating better hunger relief in India, helping to abolish prostitution laws that were harsh for women, and expanding the acceptable forms of female participation in the workforce.

    Nightingale was a prodigious and versatile writer. In her lifetime, much of her published work was concerned with spreading medical knowledge. Some of her tracts were written in simple English so that they could easily be understood by those with poor literary skills. She was also a pioneer in the use of infographics, effectively using graphical presentations of statistical data.[6] Much of her writing, including her extensive work on religion and mysticism, has only been published posthumously.

    1. ^ "Florence Nightingale". King's College London. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
    2. ^ "Florence Nightingale 2nd rendition, 1890 – greetings to the dear old comrades of Balaclava". Internet Archive. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
    3. ^ Strachey, Lytton (1918). Eminent Victorians. London: Chatto and Windus.[page needed]
    4. ^ Swenson, Kristine (2005). Medical Women and Victorian Fiction. University of Missouri Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-8262-6431-2.
    5. ^ Aaron Ralby (2013). "The Crimean War 1853–1856". Atlas of Military History. Parragon. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-4723-0963-1.
    6. ^ a b Bostridge, Mark (17 February 2011). "Florence Nightingale: the Lady with the Lamp". BBC.
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 October 1859 – Spain declares war on Morocco.

    Morocco

    Coordinates: 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6

    Morocco (/məˈrɒk/ (About this soundlisten); Arabic: المغرب‎, romanizedal-maġhrib, lit. 'place the sun sets; the west'; Standard Moroccan Tamazight: ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, romanized: Lmeɣrib; French: Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco (Arabic: المملكة المغربية‎, romanizedal-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyah, lit. 'The Western Kingdom'; Standard Moroccan Tamazight: ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, romanized: Tageldit n Lmaɣrib; French: Royaume du Maroc), is a sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction.[10] The capital is Rabat and the largest city Casablanca.[11] Morocco spans an area of 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi) and has a population of over 35 million.

    Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under Almoravid and Almohad rule, when it spanned parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties resisted foreign domination into the 17th century, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. The country's strategic location near the mouth of the Mediterranean attracted Europeans interest, and in 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier. It regained its independence in 1956, and has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards, with the fifth largest economy in Africa.[12]

    Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a ceasefire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock.

    Morocco is a unitary constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The country wields significant influence in both Africa and the Arab world, and is considered a regional power and a middle power. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.

    Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and its official languages are Arabic and Berber, the latter achieving official recognition in 2011,[13] having been the native language of Morocco before the Muslim conquest in the seventh century C.E.[14] The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences.

    Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIApop was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Morocco". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
    3. ^ "Morocco in CIA World Factbook". CIA.gov.
    4. ^ "Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco, I-1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
    5. ^ "Morocco Population, 1960-2017 - knoema.com". HCP. 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
    6. ^ a b c d "Morocco". IMF.
    7. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
    8. ^ "2018 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
    9. ^ "Morocco Keeps Clocks Steady on GMT+1". 28 October 2018.
    10. ^ "Ceuta, Melilla profile". BBC News. 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
    11. ^ Jamil M. Abun-Nasr (20 August 1987). A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-33767-0.
    12. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
    13. ^ Schnelzer, Nadine (10 November 2015). Libya in the Arab Spring: The Constitutional Discourse since the Fall of Gaddafi. Springer. ISBN 9783658113827.
    14. ^ Rodd, Francis. "Kahena, Queen of the Berbers: "A Sketch of the Arab Invasion of Ifriqiya in the First Century of the Hijra" Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, Vol. 3, No. 4, (1925)
     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 October 1707 – The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.

    Parliament of Great Britain

    The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolved the separate English and Scottish parliaments in favour of a single parliament, located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801.

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 October 1931 – The George Washington Bridge opens to public traffic.

    George Washington Bridge

    The George Washington Bridge is a double-decked suspension bridge spanning the Hudson River, connecting the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City with the borough of Fort Lee in New Jersey. The bridge is named after George Washington, the first President of the United States. The George Washington Bridge is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge,[5][6] carrying over 103 million vehicles per year in 2016.[a] It is owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, a bi-state government agency that operates infrastructure in the Port of New York and New Jersey. The George Washington Bridge is also informally known as the GW Bridge, the GWB, the GW, or the George,[7] and was known as the Fort Lee Bridge or Hudson River Bridge during construction.

    The idea of a bridge across the Hudson River was first proposed in 1906, but it was not until 1925 that the state legislatures of New York and New Jersey voted to allow for the planning and construction of such a bridge. Construction on the George Washington Bridge started in October 1927; the bridge was ceremonially dedicated on October 24, 1931, and opened to traffic the next day. The opening of the George Washington Bridge contributed to the development of Bergen County, New Jersey, in which Fort Lee is located. The current upper deck was widened from six to eight lanes in 1946. The six-lane lower deck was constructed beneath the existing span from 1958 to 1962 because of increasing traffic flow.

    The George Washington Bridge is an important travel corridor within the New York metropolitan area. It has an upper level that carries four lanes in each direction and a lower level with three lanes in each direction, for a total of 14 lanes of travel. The speed limit on the bridge is 45 mph (72 km/h). The bridge's upper level also carries pedestrian and bicycle traffic. Interstate 95 (I-95) and U.S. Route 1/9 (US 1/9, composed of US 1 and US 9) cross the river via the bridge. US 46, which lies entirely within New Jersey, terminates halfway across the bridge at the state border with New York. At its eastern terminus in New York City, the bridge continues onto the Trans-Manhattan Expressway (part of I-95, connecting to the Cross Bronx Expressway).

    The George Washington Bridge measures 4,760 feet (1,450 m) long and has a main span of 3,500 feet (1,100 m). It had the longest main bridge span in the world at the time of its opening and held this distinction until the opening of the Golden Gate Bridge in 1937.

    1. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference PANYNJ Facts was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference asce was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference PANYNJ-GWBRestrictions was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b "New York City Bridge Traffic Volumes" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. 2016. p. 11. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Busiest Bridge was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Maag 2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Rose, Lacey (March 2, 2006). "Inside the Booth". Forbes. Retrieved January 15, 2008. Like the PATH trains, which also connect New York to New Jersey, the G.W. Bridge is run by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, a public agency that employees 7,000 workers and has annual revenues of $2.9 billion.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 October 1983Operation Urgent Fury: The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters are executed in a coup d'état.

    United States invasion of Grenada

    The United States invasion of Grenada began on 25 October 1983, led by the United States into the Caribbean island nation of Grenada, 100 miles (160 km) north of Venezuela, codenamed Operation Urgent Fury. It resulted in an American victory within a matter of days. It was triggered by the strife within the People's Revolutionary Government which resulted in the house arrest and execution of the previous leader and second Prime Minister of Grenada Maurice Bishop, and the establishment of the Revolutionary Military Council with Hudson Austin as Chairman. The invasion resulted in the appointment of an interim government, followed by democratic elections in 1984. The country has remained a democratic nation since then.

    Grenada gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1974. The Communist New Jewel Movement seized power in a coup in 1979 under Maurice Bishop, suspending the constitution and detaining a number of political prisoners. In 1983, an internal power struggle began over Bishop's foreign policy, and a military junta captured and executed him and his partner Jacqueline Creft on 19 October, along with three cabinet ministers and two union leaders. The Reagan Administration in the U.S. launched a military intervention following appeals by the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States and Grenada's Governor-General Paul Scoon due to "concerns over the 600 U.S. medical students on the island" and fears of a repeat of the Iran hostage crisis.

    The invasion began on the morning of 25 October 1983, just two days after the bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut. The invading force consisted of the Army's rapid deployment force, Marines, Army Delta Force, Navy SEALs, and ancillary forces totaling 7,600 troops, together with Jamaican forces and troops of the Regional Security System (RSS).[9] The force defeated Grenadian resistance after a low-altitude airborne assault by Rangers on Point Salines Airport at the south end of the island, and a Marine helicopter and amphibious landing on the north end at Pearls Airport. Austin's military government of was deposed and replaced by a government appointed by Scoon.

    The invasion was criticized by many countries including Canada. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher privately disapproved of the mission and the lack of notice that she received, but she publicly supported it.[10] The United Nations General Assembly condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law" on 2 November 1983 with a vote of 108 to 9.[11] Conversely, there was broad public support in the United States[12] and the Grenadian population approved of American intervention, appreciating the fact that there had been relatively few civilian casualties, as well as the return to democratic elections in 1984.[13][14]

    The date of the invasion is now a national holiday in Grenada called Thanksgiving Day, commemorating the freeing of several political prisoners who were subsequently elected to office. A truth and reconciliation commission was launched in 2000 to re-examine some of the controversies of the era; in particular, the commission made an unsuccessful attempt to find Bishop's body, which had been disposed of at Austin's order and never found. The invasion also highlighted issues with communication and coordination between the different branches of the American military when operating together as a joint force, contributing to investigations and sweeping changes in the form of the Goldwater-Nichols Act and other reorganizations.

    1. ^ a b "Operation Urgent Fury"' GlobalSecurity.org
    2. ^ Clarke, Jeffrey J. Operation Urgent Fury: Invasion of Grenada, October (PDF). United States Army.
    3. ^ a b c Cole, Ronald (1997). "Operation Urgent Fury: The Planning and Execution of Joint Operations in Grenada" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2006.
    4. ^ "Medals Outnumber G.I.'S In Grenada Assault". The New York Times. 30 March 1984.
    5. ^ Study Faults U.S. Military Tactics in Grenada Invasion
    6. ^ "PBS.org:The Invasion of Grenada".
    7. ^ Russell, Lee; Mendez, Albert (2012). Grenada 1983. 12-14 Long Acre, London WC2E 9LP: Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 45.
    8. ^ "Soldiers During the Invasion of Grenada". CardCow Vintage Postcards.
    9. ^ "Caribbean Islands – A Regional Security System". country-data.com.
    10. ^ Charles Moore, Margaret Thatcher: At her Zenith (2016) p. 130.
    11. ^ "United Nations General Assembly resolution 38/7". United Nations. 2 November 1983. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
    12. ^ Magnuson, Ed (21 November 1983). "Getting Back to Normal". Time.
    13. ^ Associated Press report in 2012, printed in Fox News
    14. ^ Steven F. Hayward (2009). The Age of Reagan: The Conservative Counterrevolution: 1980–1989. Crown Forum. ISBN 978-1-4000-5357-5.
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 October 1520Charles V is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor.

    Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

    Charles V[b] (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1519, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon, as Charles I) from 1516, and ruling prince of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. Head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe included the Holy Roman Empire extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over Austria and the Low Countries, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. Furthermore, his reign encompassed both the long-lasting Spanish and short-lived German colonizations of the Americas. The personal union of the European and American territories of Charles V was the first collection of realms labelled "the empire on which the sun never sets".[1][2][3][4][5]

    Born in Flanders to Philip the Handsome of the Austrian House of Habsburg (son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Mary of Burgundy) and Joanna the Mad of the Spanish House of Trastámara (daughter of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon), Charles inherited all of his family dominions at a young age due to the premature death of his father and the mental illness of his mother. After the death of Philip in 1506, he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands originally held by his paternal grandmother.[6] As a grandson of the Catholic Monarchs he was crowned King of Spain along with Joanna in 1516 and entered in control of the Castilian West Indies and the Aragonese Two Sicilies. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right and as a result he is often referred to as the first king of Spain.[7] At the death of his paternal grandfather in 1519, he inherited Austria and was elected to succeed him as Holy Roman Emperor. The personal domains of Charles remained mostly loyal to him except for four particularly dangerous rebellions quickly put down: the Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile, the Revolt of the Brotherhoods in Aragon, the revolt of the Arumer Zwarte Hoop in Frisia, and, later in his reign, the Revolt of Ghent.

    Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne[8] and spent most of his life defending the integrity of the Holy Roman Empire from the Protestant Reformation, the expansion of the Ottoman Empire and a series of wars with France. He made 40 journeys, travelling from country to country with no single fixed capital city, and it is estimated that he spent a quarter of his reign on the road.[9] In order to finance the Imperial wars and maintain his armies of Spanish tercios, Italian condottieri, and German landsknecht, Charles V relied on the economic productivity of the Habsburg Netherlands (birthplace of capitalism) and the flows of South American silver to Spain (his chief source of wealth). Charles ratified the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires by the Spanish Conquistadores Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro, the establishment of Klein-Venedig by the German Welser family in search of the legendary El Dorado, and the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan around the globe.

    Crowned King in Germany in 1520 and named defensor ecclesiae by Pope Leo X, Charles declared Martin Luther an outlaw at the Diet of Worms but he did not have him executed as Luther was put under the protection of Protestant princes.[10] The same year Francis I of France, surrounded by the Habsburg possessions, started a conflict over the Duchy of Milan that lasted until the Battle of Pavia (1525) led to his temporary imprisonment. Two years later, the Protestant question re-emerged as Rome was sacked by mutinous Imperial soldiers of Lutheran faith. After ordering the retreat of the troops from the Papal States and taking definitive control of Lombardy from the French, Charles V was crowned in Italy by Pope Clement VII at the Congress of Bologna (1530) and later took the vacant Duchy of Milan. Between 1529 and 1535, Charles V obtained some successes against the Turks as he first defended Vienna and then captured Tunis. Nevertheless, the Algiers expedition and the loss of Budapest in the early 40s frustrated his anti-Ottoman policies. Meanwhile, Charles V had come to an agreement with Pope Paul III for the organisation of the Council of Trent (1545). The refusal of the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League to take part in the Council led to a war, won by Charles V with the imprisonment of the Protestant princes. However, Henry II of France offered support to the Lutheran cause and forged a close alliance with the sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, the most dangerous enemy of Charles since 1520.

    After four decades of incessant warfare and facing the prospect of an alliance between all of his enemies, Charles V conceded the Peace of Augsburg and abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications in 1556 that divided his hereditary and imperial domains between the Spanish Habsburgs headed by his son Philip II of Spain and the Austrian Habsburgs headed by his brother Ferdinand, who was Archduke of Austria under Charles' authority since 1521 and the designated successor as emperor since 1531.[11][12] The Duchy of Milan and the Habsburg Netherlands were left in personal union to the King of Spain, but remained part of the Holy Roman Empire. The two countries remained allies until the extinction of the male line of the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs. In 1557, Charles retired to a monastery in Extremadura and there he died a year later.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Pagden, Anthony (18 December 2007). Peoples and Empires: A Short History of European Migration, Exploration, and Conquest, from Greece to the Present. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 9780307431592.
    2. ^ Chesney, Elizabeth A.; Zegura, Elizabeth Chesney (2004). The Rabelais Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313310348.
    3. ^ H. Micheal Tarver, ed. (2016). The Spanish Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-61069-421-6.
    4. ^ Plain Truth. Ambassador College. 1984.
    5. ^ Ferer, Mary Tiffany (2012). Music and Ceremony at the Court of Charles V: The Capilla Flamenca and the Art of Political Promotion. Boydell Press. ISBN 9781843836995.
    6. ^ Charles Quint, prince des Pays-Bas (in French). La Renaissance du Livre. 1943.
    7. ^ MacCulloch, D. (2 September 2004). Reformation: Europe's House Divided 1490–1700. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-14-192660-5.
    8. ^ Armitage, D. (2000). The Ideological Origins of the British Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-521-78978-3.
    9. ^ Ferer, Mary Tiffany (2012). Music and Ceremony at the Court of Charles V: The Capilla Flamenca and the Art of Political Promotion. Boydell Press. ISBN 9781843836995.
    10. ^ Smedley, Edward (1845). Encyclopædia metropolitana; Volume 17. London.
    11. ^ Kanski, Jack J. (2019). History of the German speaking nations. ISBN 9781789017182.
    12. ^ Wilson, Peter H. (2010). The Thirty Years War, a sourcebook. ISBN 9781137069771.
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 October 1453Ladislaus the Posthumous is crowned king of Bohemia in Prague.

    Ladislaus the Posthumous

    Ladislaus the Posthumous, known also as Ladislas (Hungarian: Utószülött László; Croatian: Ladislav Posmrtni; Czech: Ladislav Pohrobek, 22 February 1440 – 23 November 1457) (in Hungarian: V. László), was Duke of Austria, and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. He was the posthumous son of Albert of Habsburg with Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Albert had bequeathed all his realms to his future son on his deathbed, but only the Estates of Austria accepted his last will. Fearing an Ottoman invasion, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates offered the crown to Vladislaus III of Poland. The Hussite noblemen and towns of Bohemia did not acknowledge the hereditary right of Albert's descendants to the throne, but also did not elect a new king.

    After Ladislaus's birth, his mother seized the Holy Crown of Hungary and had Ladislaus – known as Ladislaus V in Hungary – crowned king in Székesfehérvár on 15 May 1440. However, the Diet of Hungary declared Ladislaus's coronation invalid and elected Vladislaus king. A civil war broke out which lasted for years. Elizabeth appointed her late husband's distant cousin, Frederick III, King of the Romans, Ladislaus' guardian. Ladislaus lived in Frederick's court (mainly in Wiener Neustadt), where Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (the future Pope Pius II) wrote a treatise of his education.

    After his mother died in late 1442, Ladislaus' interests were represented by a Czech condottiere, John Jiskra of Brandýs, in Hungary, and by the Czech Catholic lord, Ulrich II of Rosenberg, in Bohemia. Ladislaus' rival in Hungary, Vladislaus, fell in the Battle of Varna in November 1444. The next year, the Diet of Hungary offered to acknowledge Ladislaus as king if Frederick III renounced his guardianship. After Frederick III rejected the offer, the Diet of Hungary elected John Hunyadi regent in 1446. In Bohemia, the head of the moderate Hussites (or Utraquists), George of Poděbrady, took control of Prague in 1448. The Estates of Austria forced Frederick III to resign the guardianship and hand over Ladislaus to them in September 1452. Royal administration was formally restored in Hungary after Hunyadi resigned the regency in early 1453, but he continued to control most royal castles and revenues.

    Ulrich II, Count of Celje (his mother's cousin) became Ladislaus' main advisor, but an Austrian baron, Ulrich Eytzinger, forced Ladislaus to expel Celje from his court. Although Ladislaus was crowned king of Bohemia on 28 October 1453, Poděbrady remained in full control of the government. During the following years, Eytzinger, Hunyadi and Poděbrady closely cooperated to mutually secure their positions. Ladislaus was reconciled with Ulrich II in early 1455. With the support of the leading Hungarian barons, Ladislaus persuaded Hunyadi to withdraw his troops from most royal castles and renounce the administration of part of the royal revenues.

    After the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II decided to invade Hungary, Ladislaus and Ulrich II left the kingdom. The sultan laid siege to Belgrade. Hunyadi relieved the fortress on 22 July 1456, but he died two weeks later. Ladislaus and Ulrich II returned to Hungary and tried to force Hunyadi's son, Ladislaus, to renounce all royal castles and revenues, but Ladislaus Hunyadi murdered Ulrich II on 9 November, forcing Ladislaus to grant an amnesty to him. However, most Hungarian barons were hostile towards Ladislaus Hunyadi. With their support, Ladislaus captured him and his brother, Matthias. After Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed in March 1457, his relatives stirred up a rebellion against Ladislaus, forcing him to flee from Hungary. Ladislaus died unexpectedly in Prague. He was the last male member of the Albertinian Line of the House of Habsburg.

     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 October 1390 – First trial for witchcraft in Paris leading to the death of three people.

    Witchcraft

    Witches by Hans Baldung (woodcut), 1508

    Witchcraft (or witchery) is the practice of magical skills and abilities.

    Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, and thus can be difficult to define with precision,[1] therefore cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution.

    Historically, and in most traditional cultures worldwide - notably in Africa and in traditional Native American communities - the term is commonly associated with those who use metaphysical means to cause harm to the innocent.[2][3][4][5] In the modern era, especially among younger, urban and white peoples in America and Europe, the word may more commonly refer to benign or positive practices of modern paganism,[6][7] where it may refer to a divinatory or healing role.[8]

    Belief in witchcraft is often present within societies and groups whose cultural framework includes a magical world view.[1]

    1. ^ a b Witchcraft in the Middle Ages, Jeffrey Russell, p.4-10.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Thomas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Wilby was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference PerroneStockel1993 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference HIVwitchcraft was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Huson was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Clifton was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference ReferenceA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 October 1974The Rumble in the Jungle boxing match between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman takes place in Zaire.

    The Rumble in the Jungle

    Kinshasa is located in Africa
    Kinshasa
    Kinshasa
    Location in Africa

    The Rumble in the Jungle was a historic boxing event in Kinshasa, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) on October 30, 1974. Held at the 20th of May Stadium (now the Stade Tata Raphaël), it pitted the undefeated world heavyweight champion George Foreman against challenger Muhammad Ali, the former heavyweight champion. The event had an attendance of 60,000 people. Ali won by knockout, putting Foreman down just before the end of the eighth round.

    It has been called "arguably the greatest sporting event of the 20th century".[3][4] It was a major upset victory,[5] with Ali coming in as a 4–1 underdog against the unbeaten, heavy-hitting Foreman.[6] The fight is famous for Ali's introduction of the rope-a-dope tactic.[7]

    The fight was watched by a record estimated television audience of 1 billion viewers worldwide,[8][9] becoming the world's most-watched live television broadcast at the time.[10] This included a record estimated 50 million viewers watching the fight pay-per-view on closed-circuit theatre TV.[5] The fight grossed an estimated $100 million (inflation-adjusted $510 million) in worldwide revenue.[11][12]

    1. ^ "Foreman heavy favorite over Ali". Milwaukee Sentinel. Associated Press. October 29, 1974. p. 1-part 2.
    2. ^ "Ali KO's Foreman in 8th". Milwaukee Sentinel. UPI. October 30, 1974. p. 1-part 2.
    3. ^ Kang, Jay Caspian (2013-04-04). "The End and Don King". Grantland. ESPN. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
    4. ^ McDougall, Christopher (2014). The Best American Sports Writing 2014. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 149. ISBN 9780544147003.
    5. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Herald was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "Ali Regains Title, Flooring Foreman". The New York Times. October 30, 1974.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference guardian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference usatoday was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference jet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference inquisitr was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Times was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Kabanda was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 October 1922Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy

    Benito Mussolini

    Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (/ˌmʊsəˈlni/, also US: /ˌms-/, Italian: [beˈniːto mussoˈliːni];[1] 29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy from the fascists' takeover of state power in 1922 until 1943, and Duce from 1919 to his execution in 1945 during the Italian civil war. As dictator of Italy and founder of fascism, Mussolini inspired several totalitarian rulers such as Adolf Hitler.[2][3][4]

    A journalist and politician, Mussolini had been a leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) from 1910 to 1914,[5] but was expelled from the PSI for advocating military intervention in World War I, in opposition to the party's stance on neutrality. Mussolini served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism and later founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism[6] and class conflict, instead advocating "revolutionary nationalism" transcending class lines.[7] Following the March on Rome in October 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014. After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes,[8] Mussolini and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. In 1929, Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty with the Vatican, ending decades of struggle between the Italian state and the Papacy, and recognized the independence of Vatican City.

    Mussolini's foreign policy aimed to expand the sphere of influence of Italian fascism. In 1923, he began the "Pacification of Libya" and ordered the bombing of Corfu in retaliation for the murder of an Italian general. In 1936, Mussolini formed Italian East Africa (AOI) by merging Eritrea, Somalia and Ethiopia following the Abyssinian crisis and the Second Italo–Ethiopian War. In 1939, Italian forces occupied Albania. Between 1936 and 1939, Mussolini ordered the successful Italian military intervention in Spain in favor of Francisco Franco during the Spanish civil war. At the same time, Mussolini's Italy tried to avoid the outbreak of a second global war and took part in the Stresa front, the Lytton Report, the Treaty of Lausanne, the Four-Power Pact and the Munich Agreement. However, Italy distanced Britain and France by forming the axis powers with Germany and Japan. Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, resulting in declarations of war by France and the UK and the start of World War II.

    On 10 June 1940—with the Fall of France imminent—Italy officially entered the war and occupied parts of south-east France, Corsica and Tunisia. Mussolini planned to concentrate Italian forces on a major offensive against the British Empire in Africa and the Middle East, while expecting the collapse of the UK in the European theatre. The Italians invaded Egypt, bombed Mandatory Palestine, and occupied British Somaliland with initial success. However, the British government refused to accept proposals for a peace that would involve accepting Axis victories in Eastern and Western Europe; plans for an invasion of the UK did not proceed and the war continued. In October 1940, Mussolini sent Italian forces into Greece, starting the Greco-Italian War. The British air force prevented the Italian invasion and allowed the Greeks to push the Italians back to Albania.[9]

    The Balkan campaign was significantly prolonged until the definition of the Axis occupation of Greece and Yugoslavia. Furthermore, the German invasion of the Soviet Union and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour forced Mussolini to send an Italian army in Russia and declare war on the United States.[10] Mussolini was aware that Italy, whose resources were reduced by the campaigns of the 1930s, was not ready for a long conflict against three superpowers but opted to remain in the conflict to not abandon the fascist imperial ambitions.[11] In 1943, Italy suffered major disasters: by February the Red Army had completely destroyed the Italian Army in Russia; in May the Axis collapsed in North Africa despite previous Italian resistance at the second battle of El Alamein. On 9 July the Anglo-Americans invaded Sicily; and by the 16th it became clear the German summer offensive in the USSR had failed. As a consequence, early on 25 July, the Grand Council of Fascism passed a motion of no confidence for Mussolini; later that day the King dismissed him as head of government and had him placed in custody, appointing Pietro Badoglio to succeed him as Prime Minister.

    After the king agreed the armistice with the allies, on 12 September 1943 Mussolini was rescued from captivity in the Gran Sasso raid by German paratroopers and Waffen-SS commandos led by Major Otto-Harald Mors. Adolf Hitler, after meeting with the rescued former dictator, then put Mussolini in charge of a puppet regime in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic (Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana, RSI),[12] informally known as the Salò Republic. In late April 1945, in the wake of near total defeat, Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci attempted to flee to Switzerland,[13] but both were captured by Italian communist partisans and summarily executed by firing squad on 28 April 1945 near Lake Como. His body was then taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station to publicly confirm his demise.[14]

    1. ^ See Benito and Mussolini in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di pronuncia italiana online
    2. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509514-2.
    3. ^ "Historic Figures: Benito Mussolini (1883–1945)". BBC – History – bbc.co.uk.
    4. ^ "Mussolini founds the Fascist party – Mar 23, 1919". History.com.
    5. ^ Anthony James Gregor (1979). Young Mussolini and the Intellectual Origins of Fascism. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520037991.
    6. ^ Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi (1997). Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. U of California Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0520926158.
    7. ^ Gregor 1979, p. 191.
    8. ^ Haugen, pp. 9, 71
    9. ^ [1]
    10. ^ MacGregor Knox. Mussolini unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. Edition of 1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. 122–27.
    11. ^ MacGregor Knox. Mussolini unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. Edition of 1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. 122–23.
    12. ^ Moseley 2004.
    13. ^ Viganò, Marino (2001), "Un'analisi accurata della presunta fuga in Svizzera", Nuova Storia Contemporanea (in Italian), 3
    14. ^ "1945: Italian partisans kill Mussolini". BBC News. 28 April 1945. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 November 1955 – The Vietnam War begins.

    Vietnam War

    The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War,[63] and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955[A 1] to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.[10] It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China,[22] and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.[64][65] The war, considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some,[66] lasted 19 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist in 1975.

    The conflict emerged from the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh.[67][A 4] Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U.S[68] After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military support for the South Vietnamese state. The Việt Cộng, also known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF (the National Liberation Front), a South Vietnamese common front under the direction of North Vietnam, initiated a guerrilla war in the south. North Vietnam had also entered Laos in the mid-1950s in support of insurgents, setting up the Ho Chi Minh trail to supply and reinforce the Việt Cộng and increased in 1960.[69] U.S. involvement escalated under President John F. Kennedy through the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963.[70][71] By 1963, the North Vietnamese had sent 40,000 soldiers to fight in South Vietnam.[69] Supplies were supported by the People's Republic of China, in both arms and logistics personnel.

    By 1964, there were 23,000 US advisors in South Vietnam during the Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U.S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U.S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000.[70] Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam (known also as the NVA) engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces. Every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara one of the principal architects of the war, expressing doubts of victory by the end of 1966.[72] U.S. and South Vietnam forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes. The U.S. also conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam and Laos. The Tet Offensive of 1968 showed the lack of progress with these doctrines as the NLF mounted large-scale urban offensives throughout 1968, turning US domestic support against the war. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) expanded following a period of neglect after Tet, modeled on US doctrine. The Viet Cong sustained heavy losses and reduced influence but declared itself a Provisional Revolutionary Government, being sidelined as PAVN forces begun more conventional Combined arms warfare. Operations crossed into Laos and Cambodia were used by North Vietnam as supply routes and were heavily bombed by U.S. The deposition of the monarch Norodom Sihanouk by the Cambodian National Assembly resulted in a PAVN invasion of the country at the request of the Khmer Rouge, escalating the Cambodian Civil War and resulting in a U.S.-RVN counterinvasion.

    After 1968, Nixon's policy of "Vietnamization", saw the conflict fought by an expanded ARVN with US forces sidelined and increasingly demoralized by domestic opposition and reduced recruitment. U.S. ground forces withdrew by late 1971, and U.S. involvement became limited to air and artillery support plus military advice. The ARVN, with U.S. air support stopped the largest and first mechanized PAVN offensive to date during the Easter Offensive of 1972, resulting in mutually heavy casualties but failed to recapture all territory, leaving its military situation difficult. The Paris Peace Accords saw all US forces withdrawn and intervention prohibited by the US Congress on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment.[73] The Peace Accords were broken almost immediately, and fighting continued for two years following the US withdrawal, with 1972 to 1974 seeing heavy fighting and constituting the war's bloodiest years for the ARVN. The 1975 Spring Offensive culminated in the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975; this marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year.

    The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties). Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000[29] to 3.8 million.[59] Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians,[60][61][62] 20,000–62,000 Laotians,[59] and 58,220 U.S. service members also died in the conflict, and a further 1,626 remain missing in action.[A 2]

    The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and conflict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, and the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge that erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly invading in the Sino-Vietnamese War and subsequent border conflicts. Insurgencies were fought by the unified Vietnam against insurgencies in all three countries. The end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw millions of refugees leave Indochina (mainly southern Vietnam), an estimated 250,000 of whom perished at sea. Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements,[74] which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s.[75]

    1. ^ Weil, Thomas E. et. al. Area Handbook for Brazil (1975), p. 293
    2. ^ "Chapter Three: 1957–1969 Early Relations between Malaysia and Vietnam" (PDF). University of Malaya Student Repository. p. 72. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
    3. ^ Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (Profiles of Malaysia's Foreign Ministers) (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia). 2008. p. 31. ISBN 978-9832220268. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015. The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February 1962, he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon. These included a total of 45,707 single-barrel shotguns, 611 armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in 1975, he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early 1958. Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5,000 Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of 150 U.S. soldiers in handling Tracker Dogs; a rather impressive list of military equipment and weapons given to Viet-Nam after the end of the Malaysian insurgency (for example, 641 armored personnel carriers, 56,000 shotguns); and a creditable amount of civil assistance (transportation equipment, cholera vaccine, and flood relief)". It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint.
    4. ^ "Why did Sweden support the Viet Cong?". HistoryNet. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
    5. ^ "Sweden announces support to Viet Cong". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016. In Sweden, Foreign Minister Torsten Nilsson reveals that Sweden has been providing assistance to the Viet Cong, including some $550,000 worth of medical supplies. Similar Swedish aid was to go to Cambodian and Laotian civilians affected by the Indochinese fighting. This support was primarily humanitarian in nature and included no military aid.
    6. ^ DoD 1998
    7. ^ Lawrence 2009, p. 20.
    8. ^ Olson & Roberts 2008, p. 67.
    9. ^ Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954–1960, The Pentagon Papers (Gravel Edition), Volume 1, Chapter 5, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Section 3, pp. 314–46; International Relations Department, Mount Holyoke College.
    10. ^ a b The Paris Agreement on Vietnam: Twenty-five Years Later Conference Transcript, The Nixon Center, Washington, DC, April 1998. Reproduced on mtholyoke.edu. Accessed 5 September 2012.
    11. ^ Le Gro, p. 28.
    12. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. xlv. ISBN 978-1851099610.
    13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 December 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    14. ^ Pike, John. "Cambodia Civil War, 1970s". www.globalsecurity.org.
    15. ^ "The rise of Communism". www.footprinttravelguides.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
    16. ^ "Hmong rebellion in Laos".
    17. ^ "Vietnam War Allied Troop Levels 1960–73". Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016., accessed 7 Nov 2017
    18. ^ Pike, John. "Pathet Lao Uprising".
    19. ^ a b The A to Z of the Vietnam War. The Scarecrow Press. 2005. ISBN 978-1461719038.
    20. ^ Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975. Translated by Merle Pribbenow, Lawerence KS: University of Kansas Press, 2002, p. 182: "By the end of 1966 the total strength of our armed forces was 690,000 soldiers.". According to Hanoi's official history, the Viet Cong was a branch of the People's Army of Vietnam.
    21. ^ Doyle, The North, pp. 45–49
    22. ^ a b "China admits 320,000 troops fought in Vietnam". Toledo Blade. Reuters. 16 May 1989. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
    23. ^ Roy, Denny (1998). China's Foreign Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 27. ISBN 978-0847690138.
    24. ^ a b Womack, Brantly (2006). China and Vietnam. ISBN 978-0521618342.
    25. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 376. ISBN 978-1851099603.
    26. ^ [1][dead link]
    27. ^ O'Ballance, Edgar (1982). Tracks of the bear: Soviet imprints in the seventies. Presidio. p. 171. ISBN 9780891411338.
    28. ^ Pham Thi Thu Thuy (1 August 2013). "The colorful history of North Korea-Vietnam relations". NK News. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
    29. ^ a b c d e f Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate", Population and Development Review, December 1995.
    30. ^ a b c Lewy 1978, pp. 450–53.
    31. ^ Thayer 1985, chap. 12.
    32. ^ Clarke, Jeffrey J. (1988), United States Army in Vietnam: Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973, Washington, D.C: Center of Military History, United States Army, p. 275: "The Army of the Republic of Vietnam suffered 254,256 recorded combat deaths between 1960 and 1974, with the highest number of recorded deaths being in 1972, with 39,587 combat deaths"
    33. ^ Rummel, R.J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations" (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System
    34. ^ a b Tucker, Spencer E. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1851099611
    35. ^ Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund (29 May 2017). "3 new names added to Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall" (Press release). Associated Press.
    36. ^ "Vietnam War U.S. Military Fatal Casualty Statistics: HOSTILE OR NON-HOSTILE DEATH INDICATOR." U.S. National Archives. April 29, 2008. Accessed July 13, 2019.
    37. ^ America's Wars (PDF) (Report). Department of Veterans Affairs. May 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2014.
    38. ^ Anne Leland; Mari–Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu (26 February 2010). American War and Military Operations: Casualties: Lists and Statistics (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service.
    39. ^ Lawrence 2009, pp. 65, 107, 154, 217
    40. ^ Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director) (2005, 2006). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software) (Documentary). Koch Vision. Event occurs at 321 minutes. ISBN 1417229209.
    41. ^ Kueter, Dale. Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended. AuthorHouse (21 March 2007). ISBN 978-1425969318
    42. ^ T. Lomperis, From People's War to People's Rule (1996)
    43. ^ "Australian casualties in the Vietnam War, 1962–72". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
    44. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 2nd Edition [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851099610.
    45. ^ "Overview of the war in Vietnam". New Zealand and the Vietnam War. 16 July 1965. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
    46. ^ "America Wasn't the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War". 2 October 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
    47. ^ "Chapter III: The Philippines". History.army.mil. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
    48. ^ "Asian Allies in Vietnam" (PDF). Embassy of South Vietnam. March 1970. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
    49. ^ "Battlefield:Vietnam – Timeline". PBS.
    50. ^ Cite error: The named reference :11 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    51. ^ "Công tác tìm kiếm, quy tập hài cốt liệt sĩ từ nay đến năm 2020 và những năn tiếp theo" [The work of searching and collecting the remains of martyrs from now to 2020 and the next] (in Vietnamese). Ministry of Defence, Government of Vietnam.
    52. ^ Communist Party of Vietnam. "Đời đời nhớ ơn các anh hùng liệt sĩ!" [Eternal gratitude to the heroes and martyrs!] (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    53. ^ a b Lewy, Guenter (1978). America in Vietnam. Oxford University Press. pp. 450–1. ISBN 9780199874231.
    54. ^ Soames, John. A History of the World, Routledge, 2005.
    55. ^ James F. Dunnigan; Albert A. Nofi (2000). Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-25282-3.
    56. ^ "North Korea fought in Vietnam War". BBC News Online. 31 March 2000. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
    57. ^ Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011. The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam.
    58. ^ Obermeyer, Ziad; Murray, Christopher J L; Gakidou, Emmanuela (23 April 2008). "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme". British Medical Journal. 336 (7659): 1482–1486. doi:10.1136/bmj.a137. PMC 2440905. PMID 18566045. Retrieved 5 January 2013. From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths ... 3.8 million in Vietnam
    59. ^ a b c d Obermeyer, Murray & Gakidou 2008.
    60. ^ a b Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970–1979". Forced Migration and Mortality. National Academies Press. pp. 102–04, 120, 124. ISBN 978-0309073349. As best as can now be estimated, over two million Cambodians died during the 1970s because of the political events of the decade, the vast majority of them during the mere four years of the 'Khmer Rouge' regime. ... Subsequent reevaluations of the demographic data situated the death toll for the [civil war] in the order of 300,000 or less.
    61. ^ a b Banister, Judith; Johnson, E. Paige (1993). "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia". Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community. Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. p. 87. ISBN 978-0938692492. An estimated 275,000 excess deaths. We have modeled the highest mortality that we can justify for the early 1970s.
    62. ^ a b Sliwinski, Marek (1995). Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique [The Khmer Rouge genocide: A demographic analysis]. Paris: L'Harmattan. pp. 42–43, 48. ISBN 978-2738435255.
    63. ^ Cite error: The named reference Factasy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    64. ^ "Vietnam War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 March 2008. Meanwhile, the United States, its military demoralized and its civilian electorate deeply divided, began a process of coming to terms with defeat in its longest and most controversial war
    65. ^ Friedman, Herbert. "Allies of the Republic of Vietnam". Retrieved 5/1/19. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
    66. ^ Lind, Michael (1999). "Vietnam, The Necessary War: A Reinterpretation of America's Most Disastrous Military Conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
    67. ^ Major General George S. Eckhardt, Vietnam Studies Command and Control 1950–1969, Department of the Army, Washington, DC (1991), p. 6
    68. ^ "Could Vietnam have been nuked in 1954?". BBC News. 5 May 2014 – via www.bbc.com.
    69. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Ang16 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    70. ^ a b "Vietnam War Allied Troop Levels 1960–73". www.americanwarlibrary.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
    71. ^ Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1, 25th Aviation Battalion website.
    72. ^ "McNamara becomes Vietnam War skeptic, Oct. 14, 1966". Politico. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
    73. ^ Kolko 1985, pp. 457, 461ff.
    74. ^ Kalb, Marvin (22 January 2013). "It's Called the Vietnam Syndrome, and It's Back". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
    75. ^ Horne, Alistair (2010). Kissinger's Year: 1973. Phoenix Press. pp. 370–371. ISBN 978-0-7538-2700-0.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=A> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=A}} template (see the help page).

     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 November 1899 – The Boers begin their 118-day siege of British-held Ladysmith during the Second Boer War.

    Siege of Ladysmith

    The Siege of Ladysmith was a protracted engagement in the Second Boer War, taking place between 2 November 1899 and 28 February 1900 at Ladysmith, Natal.

     
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 November 1911Chevrolet officially enters the automobile market in competition with the Ford Model T.

    Chevrolet

    Chevrolet (/ˌʃɛvrəˈl/ SHEV-rə-LAY), colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile division of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM). Louis Chevrolet and ousted General Motors founder William C. Durant started the company on November 3, 1911[2] as the Chevrolet Motor Car Company. Durant used the Chevrolet Motor Car Company to acquire a controlling stake in General Motors with a reverse merger occurring on May 2, 1918 and propelled himself back to the GM presidency. After Durant's second ousting in 1919, Alfred Sloan, with his maxim "a car for every purse and purpose", would pick the Chevrolet brand to become the volume leader in the General Motors family, selling mainstream vehicles to compete with Henry Ford's Model T in 1919 and overtaking Ford as the best-selling car in the United States by 1929.[3]

    Chevrolet-branded vehicles are sold in most automotive markets worldwide. In Oceania, Chevrolet is represented by GM subsidiary Holden, having returned to the region in 2018 after a 50-year absence with the launching of the Camaro and Silverado pickup truck. In 2005, Chevrolet was relaunched in Europe, primarily selling vehicles built by GM Daewoo of South Korea with the tagline "Daewoo has grown up enough to become Chevrolet", a move rooted in General Motors' attempt to build a global brand around Chevrolet. With the reintroduction of Chevrolet to Europe, GM intended Chevrolet to be a mainstream value brand, while GM's traditional European standard-bearers, Opel of Germany, and Vauxhall of United Kingdom would be moved upmarket.[4] However, GM reversed this move in late 2013, announcing that the brand would be withdrawn from Europe, with the exception of the Camaro and Corvette[5] in 2016. Chevrolet vehicles will continue to be marketed in the CIS states, including Russia. After General Motors fully acquired GM Daewoo in 2011 to create GM Korea, the last usage of the Daewoo automotive brand was discontinued in its native South Korea and succeeded by Chevrolet.

    In North America, Chevrolet produces and sells a wide range of vehicles, from subcompact automobiles to medium-duty commercial trucks. Due to the prominence and name recognition of Chevrolet as one of General Motors' global marques, Chevrolet, Chevy or Chev is used at times as a synonym for General Motors or its products, one example being the GM LS1 engine, commonly known by the name or a variant thereof of its progenitor, the Chevrolet small-block engine.

    1. ^ Corporate Officers (January 15, 2014). "Alan Batey – GM Corporate Officers". GM.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
    2. ^ "Chevrolet 1911–1996". GM Heritage Center. 1996. p. 97. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
    3. ^ 60 years of Chevrolet. Crestline. 1972.
    4. ^ Luft, Alex. "General Motors To Move Opel Upmarket, Position Chevy As "Value" Brand". Retrieved November 17, 2013.
    5. ^ "General Motors to withdraw Chevrolet brand from Europe". BBC News. December 5, 2013.
     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 November 1980Ronald Reagan is elected the 40th President of The United States, defeating incumbent Jimmy Carter.

    Ronald Reagan

    Ronald Wilson Reagan (/ˈrɡən/; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975.

    Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois. He graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman. Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, and was re-elected in 1970. He twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years later in 1980, he won the nomination and then defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have been elected to a first-term, until Donald Trump (aged 70 years, 220 days) in 2017. Reagan is still, however, the oldest president elected, at 73 years, 349 days of age at his second inauguration. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, and defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U.S. president, 525, or 97.6% of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U.S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5% or 523 of the (then-total) 531 electoral votes.[1]

    Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new political and economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, and reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, and fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, and an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, and increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall, even after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, and the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate. He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty, which shrank both countries' nuclear arsenals. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, and the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, and on December 26, 1991 (nearly three years after he left office), the Soviet Union collapsed.

    When Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68%, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and later Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era.[2] He was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent as the disease progressed. He died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, and he is an icon among conservatives. Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents.

    1. ^ Murse, Tom (January 28, 2019). "The Most Lopsided Presidential Elections in U.S. History: How a Landslide is Measured". ThoughtCo. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
    2. ^ "A Look Back At The Polls". CBS News. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
     
  24. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 November 1943 – World War II: Bombing of the Vatican.

    Bombing of the Vatican

    Map of Vatican City showing the buildings of the Governatorate, the Tribunal, and the Archpriest, and the railway station, which were damaged on 5 November 1943. The mosaic workshop, which received a direct hit, is positioned between the railway station and the residence of the archpriest.

    Bombing of Vatican City occurred twice during World War II. The first occasion was on the evening of 5 November 1943, when a plane dropped bombs on the area south-west of Saint Peter's Basilica, causing considerable damage but no casualties. The second bombing, which affected only the outer margin of the city, was at about the same hour on 1 March 1944, and caused the death of one person and the injury of another.[1]

     
  25. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 November 1860Abraham Lincoln is elected as the 16th President of United States.

    Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis.[2][3] He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the U.S. economy.

    Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became a lawyer, Whig Party leader, Illinois state legislator and Congressman. In 1849, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in the 1858 Illinois Senate campaign. He then ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery. They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U.S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to suppress the rebellion and restore the Union.

    As the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South; War Democrats, who rallied a large faction of former opponents into his camp; anti-war Democrats (called Copperheads), who despised him; and irreconcilable secessionists, who plotted his assassination. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by carefully distributing political patronage, and by appealing to the American people.[4]:65–87 His Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, liberty, and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, and he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade. As the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863; ordering the Army to protect escaped slaves, encouraging border states to outlaw slavery, and pushing through Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which outlawed slavery across the country.

    Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign. He sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists. A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, and died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero. He is consistently ranked both by scholars[5] and the public[6] as among the greatest U.S. presidents.

    1. ^ Carpenter, Francis B. (1866). Six Months in the White House: The Story of a Picture. Hurd and Houghton. p. 217.
    2. ^ William A. Pencak (2009). Encyclopedia of the Veteran in America. ABC-CLIO. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-313-08759-2. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
    3. ^ Finkelman, Paul; Gottlieb, Stephen E. Toward a Usable Past: Liberty Under State Constitutions. U of Georgia Press. p. 388.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Randall1947 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Lindgren, James (November 16, 2000). "Ranking Our Presidents for dealing with the American Civil War, and slavery" (PDF). International World History Project. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 31, 2012.
    6. ^ "Americans Say Reagan Is the Greatest U.S. President". Gallup.com. February 28, 2011. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved February 13, 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  26. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 November 1861 – The first Melbourne Cup horse race is held in Melbourne, Australia.

    Melbourne Cup

    The Melbourne Cup is Australia's most famous annual Thoroughbred horse race. It is a 3200-metre race for three-year-olds and over, conducted by the Victoria Racing Club on the Flemington Racecourse in Melbourne, Victoria as part of the Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival. It is the richest "two-mile" handicap in the world, and one of the richest turf races. The event starts at 3pm on the first Tuesday in November and is known locally as "the race that stops a nation".

    The Melbourne Cup has a long tradition, with the first race held in 1861. It was originally over two miles (3.219 km) but was shortened to 3,200 metres (1.988 mi) in 1972 when Australia adopted the metric system. This reduced the distance by 18.688 metres (61.312 ft), and Rain Lover's 1968 race record of 3:19.1 was accordingly adjusted to 3:17.9. The present record holder is the 1990 winner Kingston Rule with a time of 3:16.3.

    Archer, the inaugural winner of the Melbourne Cup
     
  27. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 November 1939 – In Munich, Adolf Hitler narrowly escapes the assassination attempt of Georg Elser while celebrating the 16th anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch.

    Georg Elser

    Johann Georg Elser (4 January 1903 – 9 April 1945) was a German worker who planned and carried out an elaborate assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi leaders on 8 November 1939 at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich. A bomb that Elser constructed and placed near the speaking platform failed to kill Hitler, who left earlier than expected, but killed eight people and injured 63 others. Elser was held as a prisoner for over five years until he was executed at the Dachau concentration camp less than a month before the surrender of Nazi Germany.

     
  28. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 November 1953Cambodia gains independence from France.

    Cambodia

    Cambodia (/kæmˈbdiə/ (About this soundlisten);[9] also Kampuchea /ˌkæmpʊˈə/; Khmer: កម្ពុជា [kam.pu.ciə]; French: Cambodge), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia (Khmer: ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə, IPA: [prĕəh riə.ciə.naː.caʔ kam.pu.ciə]; French: Royaume du Cambodge), is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is 181,035 square kilometres (69,898 square miles) in area, bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.

    The sovereign state of Cambodia has a population of over 15 million. The official religion is Theravada Buddhism, practised by approximately 95 percent of the population. Cambodia's minority groups include Vietnamese, Chinese, Chams and 30 hill tribes.[10] The capital and largest city is Phnom Penh, the political, economic and cultural centre of Cambodia. The kingdom is an elective constitutional monarchy with a monarch, currently Norodom Sihamoni, chosen by the Royal Throne Council as head of state. The head of government is the Prime Minister, currently Hun Sen, the longest serving non-royal leader in Southeast Asia, ruling Cambodia since 1985.

    In 802 AD, Jayavarman II declared himself king, uniting the warring Khmer princes of Chenla under the name "Kambuja".[11] This marked the beginning of the Khmer Empire, which flourished for over 600 years, allowing successive kings to control and exert influence over much of Southeast Asia and accumulate immense power and wealth. The Indianised kingdom facilitated the spread of first Hinduism and then Buddhism to much of Southeast Asia and undertook many religious infrastructural projects throughout the region, including the construction of more than 1,000 temples and monuments in Angkor alone. Angkor Wat is the most famous of these structures and is designated as a World Heritage Site.

    After the fall of Angkor to Ayutthaya in the 15th century, a reduced and weakened Cambodia was then ruled as a vassal state by its neighbours. In 1863, Cambodia became a protectorate of France, which doubled the size of the country by reclaiming the north and west from Thailand.

    Cambodia gained independence in 1953. The Vietnam War extended into the country with the US bombing of Cambodia from 1969 until 1973. Following the Cambodian coup of 1970 which installed the right-wing pro-US Khmer Republic, the deposed king gave his support to his former enemies, the Khmer Rouge. The Khmer Rouge emerged as a major power, taking Phnom Penh in 1975 and later carrying out the Cambodian genocide from 1975 until 1979, when they were ousted by Vietnam and the Vietnamese-backed People's Republic of Kampuchea, supported by the Soviet Union in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War (1979–91).

    Following the 1991 Paris Peace Accords, Cambodia was governed briefly by a United Nations mission (1992–93). The UN withdrew after holding elections in which around 90 percent of the registered voters cast ballots. The 1997 factional fighting resulted in the ousting of the government by Prime Minister Hun Sen and the Cambodian People's Party, who remain in power as of 2019.

    Cambodia is a member of the United Nations since 1955, ASEAN, the East Asia Summit, the WTO, the Non-Aligned Movement and La Francophonie. According to several foreign organisations, the country has widespread poverty,[12] pervasive corruption,[13] lack of political freedoms,[14] low human development[15] and a high rate of hunger.[16][17][18] Cambodia has been described by Human Rights Watch's Southeast Asian Director, David Roberts, as a "relatively authoritarian coalition via a superficial democracy".[19]

    While per capita income remains low compared to most neighboring countries, Cambodia has one of the fastest growing economies in Asia, with growth averaging 7.6 percent over the last decade. Agriculture remains the dominant economic sector, with strong growth in textiles, construction, garments and tourism leading to increased foreign investment and international trade.[20] The US World Justice Project's 2015 Rule of Law Index ranked Cambodia 76 out of 102 countries, similar to other countries in the region.[21]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIACB was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Table: Religious Composition by Country" (PDF). Pew Research Center.
    3. ^ "Cambodian Parliament launches era of one-party rule". The Straits Times. 5 September 2018. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
    4. ^ Boyle, David (30 July 2018). "Cambodia Set to Become One Party State". Voice of America. VOA Cambodia. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
    5. ^ "General Population Census of the Kingdom of Cambodia 2019". National Institute of Statistics. Ministry of Planning. June 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
    6. ^ a b c d "Cambodia". International Monetary Fund.
    7. ^ "GINI Index". Gini Index. World Bank. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
    8. ^ "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical update" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
    9. ^ "Cambodia". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
    10. ^ "Cambodia to celebrate day for indigenous people near Angkor Wat". News.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
    11. ^ Chandler, David P. (1992) History of Cambodia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, ISBN 0813335116.
    12. ^ "Consumerism booms as Cambodia embraces once-forbidden capitalism". Reuters. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
    13. ^ "2013 Freedom House". Freedom House. 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
    14. ^ "2013 Corruption Perceptions Index". Transparency International. 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
    15. ^ "The 2013 Human Development Report – "The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World"". Human Development Report Office United Nations Development Programme. pp. 144–147. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
    16. ^ Welthungerhilfe, IFPRI, and Concern Worldwide: 2013 Global Hunger Index – The challenge of hunger: Building Resilience to Achieve Food and Nutrition Security. Bonn, Washington D. C., Dublin. October 2013.
    17. ^ "Cambodia's opposition leader says Australian asylum seeker deal will fund corruption". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
    18. ^ Chueyprasit, Orapa; Naasiri, Chaite (27 March 2014). "Thailand ranks 2nd in ASEAN for the best quality of life". National News Bureau of Thailand. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
    19. ^ David Roberts (29 April 2016). Political Transition in Cambodia 1991–99: Power, Elitism and Democracy. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-85054-7. (section XI, "Recreating Elite Stability, July 1997 to July 1998")
    20. ^ "Cambodia to outgrow LDC status by 2020". The Phnom Penh Post. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
    21. ^ Cuddy, Alice (2 June 2015). "Rule of law rank near bottom". The Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 7 February 2016. The World Justice Project's Rule of Law Index, which is based on surveys with ordinary people and in-country experts, ranks countries based on eight key indicators including constraints on government powers, an absence of corruption, and regulatory enforcement...In every factor measured, Cambodia scored the worst in the East Asia and Pacific region, where other ranked nations include Myanmar, Vietnam and Mongolia....[w]here the rule of law is weak, medicines fail to reach health facilities, criminal violence goes unchecked, laws are applied unequally across societies, and foreign investments are held back.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 November 1674Third Anglo-Dutch War: As provided in the Treaty of Westminster, Netherlands cedes New Netherland to England.

    Third Anglo-Dutch War

    The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War (Dutch: Derde Engelse Oorlog) was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic that lasted from 6 April 1672 to 19 February 1674. It was part of the Franco-Dutch War between the Dutch Republic and her allies—the Quadruple Alliance—and France, and the third Anglo-Dutch War.[1]

    In 1670, Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France concluded the Secret Treaty of Dover, intending to subjugate the Dutch state. England's Royal Navy joined France in its attack on the Republic in 1672, but was frustrated in its attempts to blockade the Dutch coast by four strategic victories of Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter. An attempt to make the province of Holland an English protectorate rump state likewise failed. The Parliament of England, fearful that the alliance with France was part of a plot to make England Roman Catholic, forced the king to abandon the costly and fruitless war.[2]

    1. ^ Ogg 1934, pp. 357–388.
    2. ^ Boxer 1969, pp. 67–94.
     
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 November 1675Gottfried Leibniz demonstrates integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of y = ƒ(x).

    Integral

    Definite integral example
    A definite integral of a function can be represented as the signed area of the region bounded by its graph.

    In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. Integration is one of the two main operations of calculus, with its inverse operation, differentiation, being the other. Given a function f of a real variable x and an interval [a, b] of the real line, the definite integral

    is defined informally as the signed area of the region in the xy-plane that is bounded by the graph of f, the x-axis and the vertical lines x = a and x = b. The area above the x-axis adds to the total and that below the x-axis subtracts from the total.

    The operation of integration, up to an additive constant, is the inverse of the operation of differentiation. For this reason, the term integral may also refer to the related notion of the antiderivative, a function F whose derivative is the given function f. In this case, it is called an indefinite integral and is written:

    The integrals discussed in this article are those termed definite integrals. It is the fundamental theorem of calculus that connects differentiation with the definite integral: if f is a continuous real-valued function defined on a closed interval [a, b], then, once an antiderivative F of f is known, the definite integral of f over that interval is given by

    The principles of integration were formulated independently by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the late 17th century, who thought of the integral as an infinite sum of rectangles of infinitesimal width. Bernhard Riemann gave a rigorous mathematical definition of integrals. It is based on a limiting procedure that approximates the area of a curvilinear region by breaking the region into thin vertical slabs. Beginning in the 19th century, more sophisticated notions of integrals began to appear, where the type of the function as well as the domain over which the integration is performed has been generalised. A line integral is defined for functions of two or more variables, and the interval of integration [a, b] is replaced by a curve connecting the two endpoints. In a surface integral, the curve is replaced by a piece of a surface in three-dimensional space.

     
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 November 1954Ellis Island ceased operations.

    Ellis Island

    Ellis Island is a federally-owned island in New York Harbor, within the states of New York and New Jersey, that contains a museum and former immigration inspection station of the same name. As the nation's busiest immigrant inspection station from 1892 to 1954, it processed approximately 12 million immigrants to the United States through the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, the island is part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, a U.S. national monument. The north side of the island hosts a museum of immigration, accessible only by ferry. The south side of the island, including the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is abandoned but accessible to the public through guided tours.

    In the 19th century, Ellis Island was the site of Fort Gibson, a component of the fortifications of New York Harbor. It later became a naval magazine for storing artillery. The first inspection opened in 1892 and was destroyed by fire in 1897. The second station opened in 1900 and housed facilities for medical quarantines as well as processing immigrants. After 1924, Ellis Island was used primarily as a detention center; during both World War I and World War II its facilities were also used by the United States military. Following the immigration station's closure, the buildings languished for several years until they partially reopened in 1976. The main building and adjacent structures were completely renovated in 1990.

    The 27.5-acre (11.1 ha) island was greatly expanded by land reclamation between the late 1890s and the 1930s. Jurisdictional disputes between New Jersey and New York persisted until 1998, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in New Jersey v. New York that 3.3 acres (1.3 ha) that comprise the original island and its environs is part of New York, but almost all of the reclaimed land is part of New Jersey.

    1. ^ "Ellis Island - Hudson County, New Jersey". USGS. Retrieved January 1, 2011.
    2. ^ "Proclamation 3656 - Adding Ellis Island to the Statue of Liberty National Monument". April 5, 2010.
    3. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 13, 2009.
    4. ^ "New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places – Hudson County". New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection – Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
    5. ^ Ellis Island Main Building Interior Designation Report 1993.
     
  32. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 November 1901 – The 1901 Caister lifeboat disaster.

    1901 Caister lifeboat disaster

    Memorial to the lifeboatmen who died

    The Caister lifeboat disaster of 13 November 1901 occurred off the coast of Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk, England. It took place during what became known as the "Great Storm", which caused havoc down the east coasts of England and Scotland.

     
  33. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 November 1971Mariner 9 enters orbit around Mars.

    Mariner 9

    Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program. Mariner 9 was launched toward Mars on May 30, 1971[1][2] from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and reached the planet on November 14 of the same year,[1][2] becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet[3] – only narrowly beating the Soviets' Mars 2 and Mars 3, which both arrived within a month. After months of dust storms it managed to send back clear pictures of the surface.

    Mariner 9 returned 7329 images over the course of its mission, which concluded in October 1972.[4]

    1. ^ a b c "Mariner 9: Trajectory Information". National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
    2. ^ a b "Mariner Mars 1971 Project Final Report" (PDF). NASA Technical Reports Server. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
    3. ^ "Mariner 9: Details". National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
    4. ^ NASA PROGRAM & MISSIONS Historical Log
     
  34. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 November 2006 – Al Jazeera English launches worldwide.

    Al Jazeera English

    Al Jazeera English (AJE) is a Qatari pay television news channel owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar. It is the first English-language news channel to be headquartered in the Middle East.[1] Instead of being run centrally, news management rotates between broadcasting centres in Doha and London.

    1. ^ "Al-Jazeera Says Its English-Language News Channel Will Launch November 15". The Post-Star. 1 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009.
     
  35. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 November 1871 – The National Rifle Association receives its charter from New York State.

    National Rifle Association

    Seal of the National Rifle Association

    The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is a gun rights advocacy group based in the United States.[4][5][6] Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related legislation since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against firearms legislation since 1975.[7]

    Founded to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA continues to teach firearm safety and competency. The organization also publishes several magazines and sponsors competitive marksmanship events.[7] According to the NRA, it has nearly 5 million members as of December 2018, although that figure has not been independently confirmed.[8][9][10]

    Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D.C.[11][12] The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) is its lobbying division, which manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates at local, state and federal levels. The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[13][14] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting and the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting.

    1. ^ "The National Rifle Association". The New York Times. September 17, 1871. A meeting of the National Rifle Association was held in the Seventh Regiment armory yesterday, Gen. J.P. Woodward, of the second Division, presided, and Col. H.G. Shaw officiated as Secretary. Articles of association were presented and adopted. The incorporators are composed of forty prominent officers and ex-officers of the National Guard. Membership in the Association is to be open to all persons interested in the promotion of the rifle practice. Regiments and companies in the National Guard are entitled by the by-laws to constitute all their regular members in good standing members of the Association on the payment of one-half of the entrance fees and annual dues.
    2. ^ "National Rifle Association". Guide Star.
    3. ^ a b c Gutowski, Stephen, "NRA Membership Dues, Contributions Rebounded In 2018", Washington Free Beacon, 30 May 2019
    4. ^ Korte, Gregory (May 4, 2013). "Post-Newtown, NRA membership surges to 5 million". USA Today.
    5. ^ Carter, Gregg Lee, ed. (2012). "National Rifle Association (NRA)". Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 616–20. ISBN 978-0313386701. Retrieved June 6, 2014. The National Rifle Association (NRA) is the nation's largest, oldest, and most politically powerful interest group that opposes gun laws and favors gun rights.
    6. ^ More gun rights sources:
    7. ^ a b "A Brief History of NRA". National Rifle Association HQ. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
    8. ^ "Analysis | Nobody knows how many members the NRA has, but its tax returns offer some clues". Washington Post.
    9. ^ AM, Ryan Sit on 3/30/18 at 10:54 (March 30, 2018). "How big is the NRA? Gun group's membership might not be as powerful as it says". Newsweek. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
    10. ^ "About the NRA". home.nra.org. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
    11. ^ "FORTUNE Releases Annual Survey of Most Powerful Lobbying Organizations" (Press release). Time Warner. November 15, 1999. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
    12. ^ Wilson, James Q.; et al. (2011). American Government: Institutions & Policies. Cengage Learning. p. 264. ISBN 978-0495802815.
    13. ^ "Bloomberg Throws Punch at NRA, Obama: Bloomberg says NRA 'encourages behavior that causes things like Connecticut' shooting". ABC News. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
    14. ^ Robillard, Kevin (December 26, 2012). "Frank Luntz: NRA not listening to public". Politico. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
     
  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 November 1871 – The National Rifle Association receives its charter from New York State.

    National Rifle Association

    Seal of the National Rifle Association

    The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is a gun rights advocacy group based in the United States.[4][5][6] Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related legislation since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against firearms legislation since 1975.[7]

    Founded to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA continues to teach firearm safety and competency. The organization also publishes several magazines and sponsors competitive marksmanship events.[7] According to the NRA, it has nearly 5 million members as of December 2018, although that figure has not been independently confirmed.[8][9][10]

    Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D.C.[11][12] The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) is its lobbying division, which manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates at local, state and federal levels. The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[13][14] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting and the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting.

    1. ^ "The National Rifle Association". The New York Times. September 17, 1871. A meeting of the National Rifle Association was held in the Seventh Regiment armory yesterday, Gen. J.P. Woodward, of the second Division, presided, and Col. H.G. Shaw officiated as Secretary. Articles of association were presented and adopted. The incorporators are composed of forty prominent officers and ex-officers of the National Guard. Membership in the Association is to be open to all persons interested in the promotion of the rifle practice. Regiments and companies in the National Guard are entitled by the by-laws to constitute all their regular members in good standing members of the Association on the payment of one-half of the entrance fees and annual dues.
    2. ^ "National Rifle Association". Guide Star.
    3. ^ a b c Gutowski, Stephen, "NRA Membership Dues, Contributions Rebounded In 2018", Washington Free Beacon, 30 May 2019
    4. ^ Korte, Gregory (May 4, 2013). "Post-Newtown, NRA membership surges to 5 million". USA Today.
    5. ^ Carter, Gregg Lee, ed. (2012). "National Rifle Association (NRA)". Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 616–20. ISBN 978-0313386701. Retrieved June 6, 2014. The National Rifle Association (NRA) is the nation's largest, oldest, and most politically powerful interest group that opposes gun laws and favors gun rights.
    6. ^ More gun rights sources:
    7. ^ a b "A Brief History of NRA". National Rifle Association HQ. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
    8. ^ "Analysis | Nobody knows how many members the NRA has, but its tax returns offer some clues". Washington Post.
    9. ^ AM, Ryan Sit on 3/30/18 at 10:54 (March 30, 2018). "How big is the NRA? Gun group's membership might not be as powerful as it says". Newsweek. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
    10. ^ "About the NRA". home.nra.org. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
    11. ^ "FORTUNE Releases Annual Survey of Most Powerful Lobbying Organizations" (Press release). Time Warner. November 15, 1999. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
    12. ^ Wilson, James Q.; et al. (2011). American Government: Institutions & Policies. Cengage Learning. p. 264. ISBN 978-0495802815.
    13. ^ "Bloomberg Throws Punch at NRA, Obama: Bloomberg says NRA 'encourages behavior that causes things like Connecticut' shooting". ABC News. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
    14. ^ Robillard, Kevin (December 26, 2012). "Frank Luntz: NRA not listening to public". Politico. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
     
  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 November 1871 – The National Rifle Association receives its charter from New York State.

    National Rifle Association

    Seal of the National Rifle Association

    The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is a gun rights advocacy group based in the United States.[4][5][6] Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related legislation since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against firearms legislation since 1975.[7]

    Founded to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA continues to teach firearm safety and competency. The organization also publishes several magazines and sponsors competitive marksmanship events.[7] According to the NRA, it has nearly 5 million members as of December 2018, although that figure has not been independently confirmed.[8][9][10]

    Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D.C.[11][12] The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) is its lobbying division, which manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates at local, state and federal levels. The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[13][14] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting and the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting.

    1. ^ "The National Rifle Association". The New York Times. September 17, 1871. A meeting of the National Rifle Association was held in the Seventh Regiment armory yesterday, Gen. J.P. Woodward, of the second Division, presided, and Col. H.G. Shaw officiated as Secretary. Articles of association were presented and adopted. The incorporators are composed of forty prominent officers and ex-officers of the National Guard. Membership in the Association is to be open to all persons interested in the promotion of the rifle practice. Regiments and companies in the National Guard are entitled by the by-laws to constitute all their regular members in good standing members of the Association on the payment of one-half of the entrance fees and annual dues.
    2. ^ "National Rifle Association". Guide Star.
    3. ^ a b c Gutowski, Stephen, "NRA Membership Dues, Contributions Rebounded In 2018", Washington Free Beacon, 30 May 2019
    4. ^ Korte, Gregory (May 4, 2013). "Post-Newtown, NRA membership surges to 5 million". USA Today.
    5. ^ Carter, Gregg Lee, ed. (2012). "National Rifle Association (NRA)". Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 616–20. ISBN 978-0313386701. Retrieved June 6, 2014. The National Rifle Association (NRA) is the nation's largest, oldest, and most politically powerful interest group that opposes gun laws and favors gun rights.
    6. ^ More gun rights sources:
    7. ^ a b "A Brief History of NRA". National Rifle Association HQ. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
    8. ^ "Analysis | Nobody knows how many members the NRA has, but its tax returns offer some clues". Washington Post.
    9. ^ AM, Ryan Sit on 3/30/18 at 10:54 (March 30, 2018). "How big is the NRA? Gun group's membership might not be as powerful as it says". Newsweek. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
    10. ^ "About the NRA". home.nra.org. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
    11. ^ "FORTUNE Releases Annual Survey of Most Powerful Lobbying Organizations" (Press release). Time Warner. November 15, 1999. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
    12. ^ Wilson, James Q.; et al. (2011). American Government: Institutions & Policies. Cengage Learning. p. 264. ISBN 978-0495802815.
    13. ^ "Bloomberg Throws Punch at NRA, Obama: Bloomberg says NRA 'encourages behavior that causes things like Connecticut' shooting". ABC News. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
    14. ^ Robillard, Kevin (December 26, 2012). "Frank Luntz: NRA not listening to public". Politico. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 November 1950 – Lhamo Dondrub is officially named the 14th Dalai Lama.

    14th Dalai Lama

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    The 14th Dalai Lama[note 1] (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup;[note 2] 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama. Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism,[1] which was formally headed by the Ganden Tripas. From the time of the 5th Dalai Lama to 1959, the central government of Tibet, the Ganden Phodrang, invested the position of Dalai Lama with temporal duties.[2][3]

    The 14th Dalai Lama was born in Taktser, Amdo, Tibet. He was selected as the tulku of the 13th Dalai Lama in 1937 and formally recognized as the 14th Dalai Lama in a public declaration near the town of Bumchen in 1939.[4] His enthronement ceremony as the Dalai Lama was held in Lhasa on 22 February 1940 and he eventually assumed full temporal (political) duties on 17 November 1950, at the age of 15, after the People's Republic of China's incorporation of Tibet.[4] The Gelug school's government administered an area roughly corresponding to the Tibet Autonomous Region, just as the nascent PRC wished to assert control over it.

    During the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the Dalai Lama fled to India, where he currently lives as a refugee. He has traveled the world and has spoken about the welfare of Tibetans, environment, economics, women's rights, non-violence, interfaith dialogue, physics, astronomy, Buddhism and science, cognitive neuroscience, reproductive health, and sexuality, along with various topics of Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist teachings. A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989, Time magazine named him one of the "Children of Mahatma Gandhi" and his spiritual heir to nonviolence.[5]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Van Schaik, Sam (2011). Tibet: A History. Yale University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-300-15404-7.
    2. ^ Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S., Jr. (2013). The Princeton dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400848058. Entries on "Dalai Lama" and "Dga' ldan pho brang".
    3. ^ "Definition of Dalai Lama in English". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2 May 2015. The spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism and, until the establishment of Chinese communist rule, the spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet
    4. ^ a b "Chronology of Events". The 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Office of the Dalai Lama. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
    5. ^ "The Children of Gandhi" (excerpt). Time. 31 December 1999. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013.
     
  39. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 November 1180Phillip II becomes king of France.

    Philip II of France

    Philip II (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), known as Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself "King of France". The son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné (God-given) because he was a first son and born late in his father's life.[1] Philip was given the epithet "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the crown lands of France so remarkably.

    The only known description of Philip describes him as

    a handsome, strapping fellow, bald but with a cheerful face of ruddy complexion, and a temperament much inclined towards good-living, wine, and women. He was generous to his friends, stingy towards those who displeased him, well-versed in the art of stratagem, orthodox in belief, prudent and stubborn in his resolves. He made judgements with great speed and exactitude. Fortune's favorite, fearful for his life, easily excited and easily placated, he was very tough with powerful men who resisted him, and took pleasure in provoking discord among them. Never, however, did he cause an adversary to die in prison. He liked to employ humble men, to be the subduer of the proud, the defender of the Church, and feeder of the poor".[2]

    After a twelve-year struggle with the Plantagenet dynasty in the Anglo-French War of 1202–14, Philip broke up the large Angevin Empire presided over by the crown of England and defeated a coalition of his rivals (German, Flemish and English) at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214. This victory would have a lasting impact on western European politics: the authority of the French king became unchallenged, while the English King John was forced by his barons to sign Magna Carta and deal with a rebellion against him aided by Philip, the First Barons' War. The military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals and knights to help carry it out.

    Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority, granting privileges and liberties to the emergent bourgeoisie. He built a great wall around Paris ("the Wall of Philip II Augustus"), re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.

    1. ^ Cullum, P.; Lewis, K., eds. (2004). Holiness and Masculinity in the Middle Ages. Religion and Culture in the Middle Ages. University of Wales Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-7083-1894-2. Retrieved 22 November 2012. [...] Philip Augustus 'Dieudonné', [...] as this epithet demonstrates, was thought to have been given to Louis VII by God, because Louis had been married three times and had to wait many years for the birth of a son.
    2. ^ Horne (2004), p. 25
     
  40. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 November 1955National Review publishes its first issue.

    National Review

    National Review is an American semi-monthly editorial magazine focusing on news and commentary pieces on political, social, and cultural affairs. The magazine was founded by the author William F. Buckley Jr. in 1955.[3] It is currently edited by Rich Lowry.

    Since its founding, the magazine has played a significant role in the development of conservatism in the United States, helping to define its boundaries[3] and promoting fusionism while establishing itself as a leading voice on the American right.[3][4][5]

    The online version, National Review Online, is edited by Charles C. W. Cooke and includes free content and articles separate from the print edition.[6]

    1. ^ "Garrett Bewkes". Retrieved February 2, 2017.
    2. ^ "Total Circulation for Consumer Magazines". Alliance for Audited Media.
    3. ^ a b c Perlstein, Rick (April 11, 2017). "I thought I understood the American Right". New York Times. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
    4. ^ Byers, Dylan. "National Review, conservative thinkers stand against Donald Trump". CNN. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
    5. ^ Brooks, David (September 24, 2017). "The Conservative Mind". The New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
    6. ^ Advertising Media Kit, National Review Online.
     

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