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Tedizolid and Linezolid for Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections of the L

Discussion in 'Diabetic Foot & Wound Management' started by NewsBot, Aug 18, 2016.

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  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Tedizolid and Linezolid for Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections of the Lower Extremity versus Non-Lower Extremity: Pooled Analysis of Two Phase 3 Trials.
    Warren S. Joseph, Darren Culshaw, Steven Anuskiewicz, Carisa De Anda, and Philippe Prokocimer
    Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association In-Press.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    Tedizolid

    Tedizolid (formerly torezolid, trade name Sivextro),[1] is an oxazolidinone-class antibiotic. Tedizolid phosphate is a phosphate ester prodrug of the active compound tedizolid. It was developed by Cubist Pharmaceuticals, following acquisition of Trius Therapeutics (originator: Dong-A Pharmaceuticals), and is marketed for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (also known as complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs)).[2]

    Tedizolid has been approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration on June 20, 2014, for the treatment of acute bacterial Skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by certain susceptible bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains, MRSA, and methicillin-susceptible strains), various Streptococcus species (S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and S. anginosus group including S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus), and Enterococcus faecalis.[3][4] Tedizolid is a second-generation oxazolidinone derivative that is 4-to-16-fold more potent against staphylococci and enterococci compared to linezolid.[5] The recommended dosage for treatment is 200 mg once daily for a total duration of six days, either orally (with or without food) or through an intravenous injection (if patient is older than 18 years old).[4]

    1. ^ "Trius grows as lead antibiotic moves forward". 31 Oct 2011.
    2. ^ "Cubist Pharmaceuticals to Acquire Trius Therapeutics". July 2013.
    3. ^ "FDA approves Sivextro to treat skin infections". June 2014.
    4. ^ a b "Sivextro Prescribing info". Lexington, MA: Cubist.Updated March 2015.
    5. ^ "Tedizolid (TR-701): a new oxazolidinone with enhanced potency". Accessed 2015-03-16.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    Linezolid

    Linezolid is an antibiotic used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.[1][2] Linezolid is active against most Gram-positive bacteria that cause disease, including streptococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).[1][3] The main uses are infections of the skin and pneumonia although it may be used for a variety of other infections including drug-resistant tuberculosis.[2][4] It is used either by injection into a vein or by mouth.[2]

    When given for short periods, linezolid is a relatively safe antibiotic.[5] It can be used in people of all ages and in people with liver disease or poor kidney function.[2] Common side effects with short-term use include headache, diarrhea, rash, and nausea.[2] Serious side effects may include serotonin syndrome, bone marrow suppression, and high blood lactate levels, particularly when used for more than two weeks.[2][6] If used for longer periods it may cause nerve damage, including optic nerve damage, which may be irreversible.[6]

    As a protein synthesis inhibitor, linezolid works by suppressing bacterial protein production.[7] This either stops growth or results in bacterial death.[2] Although many antibiotics work this way, the exact mechanism of action of linezolid appears to be unique in that it blocks the initiation of protein production, rather than one of the later steps.[7] As of 2014, bacterial resistance to linezolid has remained low.[8] Linezolid is a member of the oxazolidinone class of medications.[2]

    Linezolid was discovered in the mid 1990s, and was approved for commercial use in 2000.[9][10] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[11] Linezolid is available as a generic medication.[2] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.90 per day,[12] while that in the United States in 2016 was about US$13.79 per day.[13] It appears to be more cost-effective than alternatives such as vancomycin, mostly because of the ability to switch from intravenous use to administration by mouth sooner.[14]

    1. ^ a b c d Roger C, Roberts JA, Muller L (May 2018). "Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oxazolidinones". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 57 (5): 559–575. doi:10.1007/s40262-017-0601-x. PMID 29063519.
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Linezolid". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
    3. ^ Pfizer (16 July 2010). "Zyvox (linezolid) Label Information" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
    4. ^ The selection and use of essential medicines: Twentieth report of the WHO Expert Committee 2015 (including 19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines and 5th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children) (PDF). WHO. 2015. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-92-4-069494-1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
    5. ^ Marino PL, Sutin KM (2007). "Antimicrobial therapy". The ICU book. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 817. ISBN 978-0-7817-4802-5.
    6. ^ a b "Linezolid Side Effects in Detail". drugs.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
    7. ^ a b Swaney SM, Aoki H, Ganoza MC, Shinabarger DL (December 1998). "The oxazolidinone linezolid inhibits initiation of protein synthesis in bacteria" (PDF). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 42 (12): 3251–5. doi:10.1128/AAC.42.12.3251. PMC 106030. PMID 9835522.
    8. ^ Mendes RE, Deshpande LM, Jones RN (April 2014). "Linezolid update: stable in vitro activity following more than a decade of clinical use and summary of associated resistance mechanisms". Drug Resistance Updates. 17 (1–2): 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.drup.2014.04.002. PMID 24880801. Emergence of resistance has been limited ... It is still uncertain whether the occurrences of such isolates are becoming more prevalent.
    9. ^ Li JJ, Corey EJ (2013). Drug Discovery: Practices, Processes, and Perspectives. John Wiley & Sons. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-118-35446-9. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017.
    10. ^ Torok E, Moran E, Cooke F (2009). "Chapter 2 Antimicrobials". Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-103962-1. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
    11. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
    12. ^ "Global Drug Facility Product Catalogue" (PDF). 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
    13. ^ "NADAC as of 2016-12-07". Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
    14. ^ Grau S, Rubio-Terrés C (April 2008). "Pharmacoeconomics of linezolid". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 9 (6): 987–1000. doi:10.1517/14656566.9.6.987. PMID 18377341.
     

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