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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    16 August 1946Mass riots in Kolkata begin; more than 4,000 people would be killed in 72 hours.

    Direct Action Day

    Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the 1946 Calcutta Killings, was a day of nationwide communal riots [5] by the Indian Muslim community announced by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. It led to large-scale violence between Muslims and Hindus in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.[3] The day also marked the start of what is known as The Week of the Long Knives.[6][7]

    The All-India Muslim League and the Indian National Congress were the two largest political parties in the Constituent Assembly of India in the 1940s. The Muslim League had demanded, since its 1940 Lahore Resolution, that the Muslim-majority areas of India in the northwest and the east, should be constituted as 'independent states'. The 1946 Cabinet Mission to India for planning of the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership proposed a three-tier structure: a centre, groups of provinces, and provinces. The "groups of provinces" were meant to accommodate the Muslim League demand. Both the Muslim League and Congress in principle accepted the Cabinet Mission's plan. However, Muslim League suspected that Congress's acceptance was insincere.[8]

    Consequently, in July 1946, it withdrew its agreement to the plan and announced a general strike (hartal) on 16 August, terming it Direct Action Day, to assert its demand for a separate homeland for Indian Muslims out of certain northwestern and eastern provinces in colonial India.[9][10] Calling for Direct Action Day, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, leader of the All India Muslim League, said that he wanted “either a divided India or a destroyed India”.[11][12]

    Against a backdrop of communal tension, the protest triggered massive riots in Calcutta.[4][13] More than 4,000 people lost their lives and 100,000 residents were left homeless in Calcutta within 72 hours.[3][4] This violence sparked off further religious riots in the surrounding regions of Noakhali, Bihar, United Provinces (modern Uttar Pradesh), Punjab, and the North Western Frontier Province. These events sowed the seeds for the eventual Partition of India.

    1. ^ Sarkar, Tanika; Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2017). Calcutta: The Stormy Decades. Taylor & Francis. p. 441. ISBN 978-1-351-58172-1.
    2. ^ Wavell, Archibald P. (1946). Report to Lord Pethick-Lawrence. British Library Archives: IOR.
    3. ^ a b c Burrows, Frederick (1946). Report to Viceroy Lord Wavell. The British Library IOR: L/P&J/8/655 f.f. 95, 96–107.
    4. ^ a b c Das, Suranjan (May 2000). "The 1992 Calcutta Riot in Historical Continuum: A Relapse into 'Communal Fury'?". Modern Asian Studies. 34 (2): 281–306. doi:10.1017/S0026749X0000336X. JSTOR 313064. S2CID 144646764.
    5. ^ Zehra, Rosheena (16 August 2016). "Direct Action Day: When Massive Communal Riots Made Kolkata Bleed". TheQuint. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
    6. ^ Sengupta, Debjani (2006). "A City Feeding on Itself: Testimonies and Histories of 'Direct Action' Day" (PDF). In Narula, Monica (ed.). Turbulence. Serai Reader. Volume 6. The Sarai Programme, Center for the Study of Developing Societies. pp. 288–295. OCLC 607413832. |volume= has extra text (help)
    7. ^ L/I/1/425. The British Library Archives, London.
    8. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, Chapter 7 (pp. 283–289).
    9. ^ Nariaki, Nakazato (2000). "The politics of a Partition Riot: Calcutta in August 1946". In Sato Tsugitaka (ed.). Muslim Societies: Historical and Comparative Aspects. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-415-33254-5.
    10. ^ Bourke-White, Margaret (1949). Halfway to Freedom: A Report on the New India in the Words and Photographs of Margaret Bourke-White. Simon and Schuster. p. 15.
    11. ^ Guha, Ramachandra (23 August 2014). "Divided or Destroyed – Remembering Direct Action Day". The Telegraph.
    12. ^ Tunzelmann, Alex von (2012). Indian Summer: The Secret History of the End of an Empire. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4711-1476-2.
    13. ^ Das, Suranjan (2012). "Calcutta Riot, 1946". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
     
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    17 August 2005 – Over 500 bombs are set off by terrorists at 300 locations in 63 out of the 64 districts of Bangladesh.

    2005 Bangladesh bombings

    On 17 August 2005, around 500 bomb explosions occurred at 300 locations in 63 out of the 64 districts of Bangladesh. The bombs exploded within a half-hour period starting from 11:30 am. An terrorist organization, Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) claimed responsibility for the bombings. The group, led by Shaykh Abdur Rahman and Siddiqur Rahman (also known as Bangla Bhai), is alleged to be affiliated with Al Qaeda, although this has not been proven. Another terrorist group, named Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, was associated with JMB in executing the co-ordinated attack. Following the bombings, both groups were banned by the Government of Bangladesh.

     
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    18 August 2005 – A massive power blackout hits the Indonesian island of Java, affecting almost 100 million people, one of the largest and most widespread power outages in history.

    2005 Java–Bali blackout

    The 2005 Java–Bali Blackout was a power outage across Java and Bali on 18 August 2005, affecting some 100 million people.[1]

    1. ^ Donnan, Shawn (19 August 2005). "Indonesian outage leaves 100m without electricity". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
     
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    19 August 2009 – A series of bombings in Baghdad, Iraq, kills 101 and injures 565 others.

    August 2009 Baghdad bombings

    The August 2009 Baghdad bombings were three coordinated car bomb attacks and a number of mortar strikes in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad, on 19 August 2009. The explosives were detonated simultaneously across the capital at approximately 10:45 in the morning, killing at least 101 people and wounding at least 565, making it the deadliest attack since the 14 August 2007 Yazidi communities bombings in northern Iraq which killed almost 800 people. The bombings targeted both government and privately-owned buildings.

    1. ^ Richard Spencer (19 August 2009). "Iraq al Qaeda bombings kill almost 100 as multiple targets hit in Baghdad". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
    2. ^ "Fresh violence strikes Baghdad". Al Jazeera. 20 August 2009. Archived from the original on 20 August 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference CNN was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference WP27Oct09 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    20 August 1977Voyager program: NASA launches the Voyager 2 spacecraft.

    Voyager 2

    Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets and interstellar space beyond the Sun's heliosphere. A part of the Voyager program, it was launched 16 days before its twin, Voyager 1, on a trajectory that took longer to reach Jupiter and Saturn but enabled further encounters with Uranus and Neptune.[4] It is the only spacecraft to have visited either of these two ice giant planets. Voyager 2 was the fourth of five spacecraft to achieve the Solar escape velocity, which allowed it to leave the Solar System.

    Voyager 2 successfully fulfilled its primary mission of visiting the Jovian system in 1979, the Saturnian system in 1981, Uranian system in 1986, and the Neptunian system in 1989. The spacecraft is now in its extended mission of studying interstellar space; as of September 16, 2021, Voyager 2 has been operating for 44 years and 30 days, reaching a distance of 127.75 AU (19.111 billion km; 11.875 billion mi) from Earth.[5]

    The probe crossed into interstellar space on November 5, 2018, at a distance of 122 AU (1.83×1010 km) (about 16:58 light-hours)[6] from the Sun[7] and moving at a velocity of 15.341 km/s (55,230 km/h)[8] relative to the star. Voyager 2 has left the Sun's heliosphere and is traveling through the interstellar medium (ISM), a region of outer space beyond the influence of the Solar System, joining Voyager 1, which had reached the interstellar medium in 2012.[9][10][11][12] Voyager 2 has begun to provide the first direct measurements of the density and temperature of the interstellar plasma.[13]

    Voyager 2 remains in contact with Earth through the NASA Deep Space Network.[14] In 2020, maintenance to the Deep Space Network cut outbound contact with the probe for eight months. Contact was reestablished on November 2, 2020, when a series of instructions was transmitted, subsequently executed, and relayed back with a successful communication message.[15] As of February 12, 2021, full communications with the probe were restored after a major antenna upgrade that took a year to complete. The DSS 43 communication antenna, which is solely responsible for communications with the probe, is located near Canberra, Australia.[16]

    1. ^ "VOYAGER:Mission Information". NASA. 1989. Archived from the original on February 20, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2011.
    2. ^ "Voyager 2". US National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
    3. ^ "VOYAGER 2". N2YO. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference ESBS was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ "Voyager - Mission Status". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
    6. ^ "Convert light years to astronomical unit - Conversion of Measurement Units".
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference where was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "Voyager - Mission Status".
    9. ^ University of Iowa (November 4, 2019). "Voyager 2 reaches interstellar space - Iowa-led instrument detects plasma density jump, confirming spacecraft has entered the realm of the stars". EurekAlert!. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
    10. ^ Chang, Kenneth (November 4, 2019). "Voyager 2's Discoveries From Interstellar Space - In its journey beyond the boundary of the solar wind's bubble, the probe observed some notable differences from its twin, Voyager 1". The New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2019.
    11. ^ Gill, Victoria (December 10, 2018). "Nasa's Voyager 2 probe 'leaves the Solar System'". BBC News. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
    12. ^ Brown, Dwayne; Fox, Karen; Cofield, Calia; Potter, Sean (December 10, 2018). "Release 18-115 - NASA's Voyager 2 Probe Enters Interstellar Space". NASA. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
    13. ^ "At last, Voyager 1 slips into interstellar space – Atom & Cosmos". Science News. September 12, 2013. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
    14. ^ NASA Voyager - The Interstellar Mission Mission Overview Archived May 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
    15. ^ Dockrill, Peter (November 5, 2020). "NASA finally makes contact with Voyager 2 after longest radio silence in 30 years". Live Science. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
    16. ^ Stirone, Shannon (February 12, 2021). "Earth to Voyager 2: After a Year in the Darkness, We Can Talk to You Again - NASA's sole means of sending commands to the distant space probe, launched 44 years ago, is being restored on Friday". The New York Times. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
     
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    21 August 1911 – The Mona Lisa is stolen by Vincenzo Peruggia, a Louvre employee.

    Mona Lisa

    The Mona Lisa (/ˌmnə ˈlsə/; Italian: Gioconda [dʒoˈkonda] or Monna Lisa [ˈmɔnna ˈliːza]; French: Joconde [ʒɔkɔ̃d]) is a half-length portrait painting by Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci. Considered an archetypal masterpiece of the Italian Renaissance,[4][5] it has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".[6] The painting's novel qualities include the subject's enigmatic expression,[7] the monumentality of the composition, the subtle modelling of forms, and the atmospheric illusionism.[8]

    The painting is probably of the Italian noblewoman Lisa Gherardini,[9] the wife of Francesco del Giocondo, and is in oil on a white Lombardy poplar panel. Leonardo never gave the painting to the Giocondo family, and later it is believed he left it in his will to his favored apprentice Salaì.[10] It had been believed to have been painted between 1503 and 1506; however, Leonardo may have continued working on it as late as 1517. It was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic itself, on permanent display at the Louvre, Paris since 1797.[11]

    The Mona Lisa is one of the most valuable paintings in the world. It holds the Guinness World Record for the highest known insurance valuation in history at US$100 million in 1962[12] (equivalent to $870 million in 2021).

    1. ^ "The Mona Lisa's Twin Painting Discovered". All Things Considered. 2 February 2012. National Public Radio. The original Mona Lisa in the Louvre is difficult to see — it's covered with layers of varnish, which has darkened over the decades and the centuries, and even cracked', Bailey says
    2. ^ "Theft of the Mona Lisa". Treasures of the World. PBS. time has aged and darkened her complexion.
    3. ^ Sassoon, Donald (2001). Mona Lisa: The History of the World's Most Famous Painting. HarperCollins. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-00-710614-1. It is actually quite dirty, partly due to age and partly to the darkening of a varnish applied in the sixteenth century.
    4. ^ "The Theft That Made Mona Lisa a Masterpiece". All Things Considered. 30 July 2011. NPR. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
    5. ^ Sassoon, Donald (21 September 2001). "Why I think Mona Lisa became an icon". Times Higher Education.
    6. ^ Lichfield, John (1 April 2005). "The Moving of the Mona Lisa". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016.
    7. ^ Cohen, Philip (23 June 2004). "Noisy secret of Mona Lisa's". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
    8. ^ "Mona Lisa – Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo". Musée du Louvre. Archived from the original on 30 July 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
    9. ^ "Mona Lisa – Heidelberger find clarifies identity". University Library Heidelberg. Archived from the original on 8 May 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
    10. ^ "Was the 'Mona Lisa' Leonardo's Male Lover?". Artnet News. 22 April 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
    11. ^ Carrier, David (31 May 2006). Museum Skepticism: A History of the Display of Art in Public Galleries. Duke University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8223-3694-5.
    12. ^ "Highest insurance valuation for a painting". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
     
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    22 August 2004 – Versions of The Scream and Madonna, two paintings by Edvard Munch, are stolen at gunpoint from a museum in Oslo, Norway.

    Edvard Munch

    Edvard Munch (/mʊŋk/ MUUNK,[1] Norwegian: [ˈɛ̀dvɑɖ ˈmʊŋk] (About this soundlisten); 12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter. His best known work, The Scream, has become one of the iconic images of world art.

    His childhood was overshadowed by illness, bereavement and the dread of inheriting a mental condition that ran in the family. Studying at the Royal School of Art and Design in Kristiania (today's Oslo), Munch began to live a bohemian life under the influence of the nihilist Hans Jæger, who urged him to paint his own emotional and psychological state ('soul painting'). From this emerged his distinctive style.

    Travel brought new influences and outlets. In Paris, he learned much from Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, especially their use of colour. In Berlin, he met the Swedish dramatist August Strindberg, whom he painted, as he embarked on his major canon The Frieze of Life, depicting a series of deeply-felt themes such as love, anxiety, jealousy and betrayal, steeped in atmosphere.

    The Scream was conceived in Kristiania. According to Munch, he was out walking at sunset, when he 'heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature'. The painting's agonised face is widely identified with the angst of the modern person. Between 1893 and 1910, he made two painted versions and two in pastels, as well as a number of prints. One of the pastels would eventually command the fourth highest nominal price paid for a painting at auction.

    As his fame and wealth grew, his emotional state remained insecure. He briefly considered marriage, but could not commit himself. A breakdown in 1908 forced him to give up heavy drinking, and he was cheered by his increasing acceptance by the people of Kristiania and exposure in the city's museums. His later years were spent working in peace and privacy. Although his works were banned in Nazi Germany, most of them survived World War II, securing him a legacy.

     
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    23 August 1973 – A bank robbery gone wrong in Stockholm, Sweden, turns into a hostage crisis; over the next five days the hostages begin to sympathise with their captors, leading to the term "Stockholm syndrome".

    Norrmalmstorg robbery

    The Norrmalmstorg robbery was a bank robbery and hostage crisis best known as the origin of the term Stockholm syndrome. It occurred at the Norrmalmstorg Square in Stockholm, Sweden, in August 1973 and was the first criminal event in Sweden to be covered by live television.[1] Jan-Erik Olsson was a convicted criminal who had disappeared while on furlough from prison and then held up a bank and took four hostages. During the ensuing negotiations, Swedish Minister of Justice Lennart Geijer allowed Olsson's former cellmate and friend Clark Olofsson to be brought from prison to the bank. Although Olofsson was a long-time career criminal, it is doubtful he was in league with Olsson.[2] Famously, the hostages then bonded with their captors and appeared to protect them. It is noted however that the hostages were in fact simply distrustful of the police and their willingness to risk the hostages' lives.[3] Police finally mounted a tear gas attack five days into the crisis, and the robbers surrendered. Olsson was sentenced to 10 years for the robbery, and Olofsson was ultimately acquitted. The seemingly paradoxical actions of the hostages led to a great deal of academic and public interest in the case, including a 2003 Swedish television film titled Norrmalmstorg, a 2018 Canadian film titled Stockholm and a Swedish Netflix television series Clark premiering in 2021.[4]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference 40-ar-sedan was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Svensson, Per (2016-11-07). Dramat på Norrmalmstorg: 23 till 28 augusti 1973. ISBN 9789100169350.
    3. ^ Hill, Jess (2019). See What You Made Me Do: Power, Control and Domestic Abuse. Melbourne: Black Inc. ISBN 1760641405.
    4. ^ "About Netflix – BILL SKARSGÅRD PLAYS CLARK OLOFSSON IN NEW SWEDISH NETFLIX ORIGINAL DIRECTED BY JONAS ÅKERLUND". About Netflix.
     
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    24 August 1932Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly across the United States non-stop (from Los Angeles to Newark, New Jersey).

    Amelia Earhart

    Amelia Mary Earhart (/ˈɛərhɑːrt/ AIR-hart, born July 24, 1897 – disappeared July 2, 1937, declared dead January 5, 1939) was an American aviation pioneer and author.[2][Note 1] Earhart was the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.[4] She set many other records,[3][Note 2] was one of the first aviators to promote commercial air travel, wrote best-selling books about her flying experiences, and was instrumental in the formation of The Ninety-Nines, an organization for female pilots.[6]

    Born in Atchison, Kansas, Earhart developed a passion for adventure at a young age, steadily gaining flying experience from her twenties. In 1928, Earhart became the first female passenger to cross the Atlantic by airplane (accompanying pilot Wilmer Stultz), for which she achieved celebrity status. In 1932, piloting a Lockheed Vega 5B, Earhart made a nonstop solo transatlantic flight, becoming the first woman to achieve such a feat. She received the United States Distinguished Flying Cross for this accomplishment.[7] In 1935, Earhart became a visiting faculty member at Purdue University as an advisor to aeronautical engineering and a career counselor to women students. She was also a member of the National Woman's Party and an early supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment.[8][9] Known as one of the most inspirational American figures in aviation from the late 1920s throughout the 1930s, Earhart's legacy is often compared to the early aeronautical career of pioneer aviator Charles Lindbergh, as well as to figures like First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt for their close friendship and lasting impact on the issue of women's causes from that period.

    During an attempt at becoming the first female to complete a circumnavigational flight of the globe in 1937 in a Purdue-funded Lockheed Model 10-E Electra, Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean near Howland Island. The two were last seen in Lae, New Guinea, on July 2, 1937, on the last land stop before Howland Island and one of their final legs of the flight. She presumably lost her life in the Pacific during the circumnavigation, just three weeks prior to her fortieth birthday.[10] Nearly one year and six months after she and Noonan disappeared, Earhart was officially declared dead. Investigations and significant public interest in their disappearance still continue over 80 years later.[Note 3]

    Decades after her presumed death, Earhart was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1968 and the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1973. She now has several commemorative memorials named in her honor around the United States, including an urban park, an airport, a residence hall, a museum, a research foundation, a bridge, a cargo ship, an earth-fill dam, four schools, a hotel, a playhouse, a library, multiple roads, and more. She also has a minor planet, planetary corona and newly-discovered lunar crater named after her. She is ranked ninth on Flying's list of the 51 Heroes of Aviation.[12]

    1. ^ Van Pelt 2005, p. 205.
    2. ^ Morey 1995, p. 11.
    3. ^ a b Oakes 1985.
    4. ^ Pearce 1988, p. 95.
    5. ^ Ferdinando, Lisa. "Clinton Celebrates Pioneer Aviatrix Amelia Earhart." Archived June 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Voice of America, March 19, 2012.
    6. ^ Lovell 1989, p. 152.
    7. ^ Goldstein & Dillon 1997, pp. 111, 112.
    8. ^ "Timeline: Equal Rights Amendment, Phase One: 1921–1972." Archived December 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine feminism101.com. Retrieved: June 4, 2012.
    9. ^ Francis, Roberta W."The History Behind the Equal Rights Amendment." equalrightsamendment.org, July 21, 2011. Retrieved: June 4, 2012.
    10. ^ De Hart, Jane Sherron (1995). Ware, Susan (ed.). "The Perils of Flying Solo: Amelia Earhart and Feminist Individualism". Reviews in American History. 23 (1): 86–90. doi:10.1353/rah.1995.0004. ISSN 0048-7511. JSTOR 2703241. S2CID 201762326.
    11. ^ "The Mystery of Amelia Earhart." Social Studies School Service, February 10, 2007. Retrieved: July 12, 2017.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference FlyingMag was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=Note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=Note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    25 August 1967George Lincoln Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party, is assassinated by a former member of his group.

    American Nazi Party

    The American Nazi Party (ANP) is an American neo-Nazi political party founded by George Lincoln Rockwell and headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. Rockwell founded the organization as the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS), but renamed it the American Nazi Party in 1960.[7] Since the late 1960s, a number of small groups have used the name "American Nazi Party" with most being independent of each other and disbanding before the 21st century. The party is based largely upon the ideals and policies of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in Germany during the Nazi era, and embraced its uniforms and iconography.[8][A]

    Shortly after Rockwell's murder in 1967, the organization appointed Rockwell's second in command, Deputy Commander Matt Koehl as the new leader. The American Nazi Party, now under Koehl's command, was subject to ideological disagreements between members in the 1970s and 1980s. "In 1982, Martin Kerr, a leader at the Franklin Road headquarters, announced that the organization was changing its name to the New Order and moving to the Midwest," effective January 1, 1983.[11] Due to recruitment issues along with financial and legal trouble, Koehl was forced to relocate the group's headquarters from the DC area, eventually finding his way to scattered locations in Wisconsin and Michigan. After Koehl's death in 2014, a long-time member and officer of the New Order, Martin Kerr assumed leadership and maintains the New Order website and organization.

    A former member of the original American Nazi Party, Rocky Suhayda, founded his own organization using the American Nazi Party name and has been active since at least 2008.[12] Suhayda claims Rockwell as its founder despite no direct legal or financial link between it and Rockwell's legacy organization.[13] The one connection between the original American Nazi Party and Rocky Suhayda's group besides ideology is that they sell reprints of Rockwell's 1960s-era magazine The Stormtrooper on their website.

    1. ^ Rockwell, George Lincoln. From Ivory Tower to Privy Wall: On The Art of Propaganda Archived August 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine c.1966
    2. ^ Holley, Peter (August 6, 2016). "Top Nazi leader: Trump will be a 'real opportunity' for white nationalists". The Washington Post.
    3. ^ Michigan, NSM (2016). "A BRIEF HISTORY OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SOCIALISM" (PDF). National Socialist Movement.
    4. ^ WETA. "Nazis in Arlington: George Rockwell and the ANP". Boundary Stones: WETA's Washington DC History Blog. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
    5. ^ “The Stormtrooper Magazine [American Nazi Party publication],” Social Welfare History Image Portal, accessed June 17, 2020, https://images.socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/items/show/266.
    6. ^ a b c Green & Stabler 2015, p. 390.
    7. ^ Rockwell, George Lincoln. From Ivory Tower to Privy Wall: On The Art of Propaganda Archived August 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine c.1966
    8. ^ Potok, Mark (August 29, 2001). "The Nazi International". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
    9. ^ Wolter & Masters 2004, p. 65.
    10. ^ Van Ells, Mark D. (August 2007). Americans for Hitler – The Bund. America in WWII. 3. pp. 44–49. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
    11. ^ "Death of an Arlington Nazi". www.northernvirginiamag.com. December 30, 2010. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
    12. ^ "A Guide to the American Nazi Party Recruiting Materials, c.1966 American Nazi Party Recruiting Materials Ms2015-060". August 12, 2016. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
    13. ^ Loeser Consulting. "American Nazi Party (USA), Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - Flags of Extremism - Part 1 (a-m)". www.loeser.us. Retrieved March 26, 2018.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=upper-alpha> tags or {{efn-ua}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=upper-alpha}} template or {{notelist-ua}} template (see the help page).

     
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    26 August 1883 – The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa begins its final, paroxysmal, stage.

    1883 eruption of Krakatoa

    The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa (Indonesian: Letusan Krakatau 1883) in the Sunda Strait began on 20 May 1883 and peaked on the late morning of Monday, 27 August 1883, when over 70% of the island of Krakatoa and its surrounding archipelago were destroyed as it collapsed into a caldera.

    The eruption was one of the deadliest and most destructive volcanic events in recorded history and explosions were so violent that they were heard 3,110 kilometres (1,930 mi) away in Perth, Western Australia, and Rodrigues near Mauritius, 4,800 kilometres (3,000 mi) away.[2] At least 36,417 deaths are attributed to the eruption and the tsunamis it created. The sound was claimed to be heard in 50 different locations around the world and the sound wave is recorded to have travelled the globe seven times over.[3]

    Significant additional effects were also felt around the world in the days and weeks after the volcano's eruption. Additional seismic activity continued until February 1884; reports of seismic activity after October 1883 were later dismissed by Rogier Verbeek's investigation into the eruption.

    1. ^ a b c "Krakatau". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
    2. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Krakatoa" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 923.
    3. ^ Woulff, Gordon; McGetchin, Thomas R (December 1958). "Acoustic Noise from Volcanoes: Theory and Experiment". Geophysical Journal International. Oxford University Press. 1 (4): 601–616. Bibcode:1958GeoJ....1..601W. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1958.tb05346.x. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
     
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    27 August 2011Hurricane Irene strikes the United States east coast, killing 47 and causing an estimated $15.6 billion in damage

    Hurricane Irene

    Hurricane Irene was a large and destructive tropical cyclone which affected much of the Caribbean and East Coast of the United States during late August 2011. The ninth named storm, first hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season, Irene originated from a well-defined Atlantic tropical wave that began showing signs of organization east of the Lesser Antilles. Due to development of atmospheric convection and a closed center of circulation, the system was designated as Tropical Storm Irene on August 20, 2011. After intensifying, Irene made landfall in St. Croix as a strong tropical storm later that day. Early on August 21, the storm made a second landfall in Puerto Rico. While crossing the island, Irene strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane. The storm paralleled offshore of Hispaniola, continuing to slowly intensify in the process. Shortly before making four landfalls in the Bahamas, Irene peaked as a 120 mph (190 km/h) Category 3 hurricane.

    Thereafter, the storm slowly leveled off in intensity as it struck the Bahamas and then curved northward after passing east of Grand Bahama. Continuing to weaken, Irene was downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane before making landfall on the Outer Banks of North Carolina on August 27, becoming the first hurricane to make landfall in the United States since Hurricane Ike in 2008. Later that day, the storm re-emerged into the Atlantic from southeastern Virginia. Although Irene remained a hurricane over water, it weakened to a tropical storm while making yet another landfall in the Little Egg Inlet in southeastern New Jersey on August 27. A few hours later, Irene made its ninth and final landfall in Brooklyn, New York City. Early on August 29, Irene transitioned into an extratropical cyclone while striking Vermont, after remaining inland as a tropical cyclone for less than 12 hours.

    Throughout its path, Irene caused widespread destruction and at least 49 deaths. Damage estimates throughout the United States are estimated near $13.5 billion, making Irene one of the costliest hurricanes on record in the country. In addition, monetary losses in the Caribbean and Canada were $830 million and $130 million respectively for a total of nearly $14.2 billion in damage.[1][2]

    1. ^ Fieser, Erza (August 25, 2011). "Hurricane Irene barrels toward US as Caribbean islands take stock of damage". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on August 26, 2011. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
    2. ^ Telling the Weather Story (PDF) (Report). Insurance Bureau of Canada. June 4, 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
     
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    28 August 1963March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom: Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gives his I Have a Dream speech.

    I Have a Dream

    "I Have a Dream" is a public speech that was delivered by American civil rights activist and Baptist minister,[2] Martin Luther King Jr., during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963. In the speech, he called for civil and economic rights and an end to racism in the United States. Delivered to over 250,000 civil rights supporters from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., the speech was a defining moment of the civil rights movement and among the most iconic speeches in American history.[3][4]

    Beginning with a reference to the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared millions of slaves free in 1863,[5] King said "one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free".[6] Toward the end of the speech, King departed from his prepared text for a partly improvised peroration on the theme "I have a dream", prompted by Mahalia Jackson's cry: "Tell them about the dream, Martin!"[7] In this part of the speech, which most excited the listeners and has now become its most famous, King described his dreams of freedom and equality arising from a land of slavery and hatred.[8] Jon Meacham writes that, "With a single phrase, Martin Luther King Jr. joined Jefferson and Lincoln in the ranks of men who've shaped modern America".[9] The speech was ranked the top American speech of the 20th century in a 1999 poll of scholars of public address.[10] The speech has also been described as having "a strong claim to be the greatest in the English language of all time".[11]

    1. ^ "Special Collections, March on Washington, Part 17". Open Vault. at WGBH. August 28, 1963. Archived from the original on December 26, 2018. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference MKNYT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Hansen, D, D. (2003). The Dream: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Speech that Inspired a Nation. New York, NY: Harper Collins. p. 177. OCLC 473993560.
    4. ^ Tikkanen, Amy (August 29, 2017). "I Have a Dream". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on October 20, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
    5. ^ Echols, James (2004), I Have a Dream: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Future of Multicultural America.
    6. ^ Alexandra Alvarez, "Martin Luther King's 'I Have a Dream': The Speech Event as Metaphor", Journal of Black Studies 18(3); doi:10.1177/002193478801800306.
    7. ^ See Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954–1963.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mills was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Meacham, Jon (August 26, 2013). "One Man". Time. p. 26.
    10. ^ Stephen Lucas and Martin Medhurst (December 15, 1999). "I Have a Dream Speech Leads Top 100 Speeches of the Century". University of Wisconsin–Madison. Archived from the original on July 1, 2015. Retrieved July 18, 2006.
    11. ^ O'Grady, Sean (April 3, 2018). "Martin Luther King's 'I Have a Dream' speech is the greatest oration of all time". The Independent. Archived from the original on January 28, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
     
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    29 August 1997Netflix is launched as an internet DVD rental service.

    Netflix

    Netflix, Inc. is an American over-the-top content platform and production company headquartered in Los Gatos, California, United States. The company is a subscription-based streaming service provider offering online streaming from a library of films and television series, 40% of which is Netflix original programming produced in-house. It often produces more original series and films than any network or cable company. Netflix has also played a prominent role in independent film distribution.[8] As of July 2021, Netflix had 209 million subscribers, including 72 million in the United States and Canada.[9][10] It is available worldwide except in mainland China (due to local restrictions), Syria, North Korea, and Crimea (due to US sanctions). Netflix is a member of the Motion Picture Association (MPA).

    Netflix was founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in Scotts Valley, California. Netflix's initial business model included DVD sales and rental by mail, but Hastings abandoned the sales about a year after the company's founding to focus on the initial DVD rental business.[8][11] Netflix expanded its business in 2007 with the introduction of streaming media while retaining the DVD and Blu-ray rental business. The company expanded internationally in 2010 with video on demand available in Canada, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean. Netflix entered the content-production industry in 2013, debuting its first series House of Cards. In January 2016, it expanded to an additional 130 countries and then operated in 190 countries.

    The company is ranked 164th on the Fortune 500[12] and 284th on the Forbes Global 2000.[13] It is the largest entertainment/media company by market capitalization.[14] In 2021, Netflix was ranked as the 8th most trusted brand globally by Morning Consult.[15] During the 2010s decade, Netflix was the top-performing stock in the S&P 500 stock market index, with a total return of 3,693%.[16][17]

    Netflix is based in Los Gatos, California, in Santa Clara County,[18][19] with the two CEOs, Hastings and Ted Sarandos, split between Los Gatos and Los Angeles, respectively.[20][21] The company is seen as part of the Silicon Valley high-tech world.[22] It also operates international offices in Asia, Europe, and Latin America including in Canada, France, Brazil, the Netherlands, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. The company has production hubs in Los Angeles,[23] Albuquerque,[24] London,[25] Madrid, Vancouver and Toronto.[26]

    1. ^ "Business Search - Results". businesssearch.sos.ca.gov. Secretary of State of California. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
    2. ^ "Where is Netflix available?". Netflix. Archived from the original on July 7, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Millarworld was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Taback was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference egyptian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brooker was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "US SEC: 2020 Form 10-K Netflix, Inc". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. January 28, 2021. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
    8. ^ a b Pogue, David (January 25, 2007). "A Stream of Movies, Sort of Free". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
    9. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (April 20, 2021). "Netflix subscriber growth is stalling as it runs low on hits". The Verge.
    10. ^ Katz, Brandon (April 30, 2021). "Netflix Growth Is Slowing, But Its Customers Remain the Most Loyal of All". Observer.
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Netflixed was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ "Fortune 500: Netflix". Fortune.
    13. ^ "Forbes Global 2000: Netflix". Forbes.
    14. ^ Swartz, Jon (July 10, 2020). "Netflix shares close up 8% for yet another record high". MarketWatch.
    15. ^ Howard, Phoebe Wall (April 20, 2021). "Ford rated with Apple, Amazon, Pfizer in new consumer trust survey". Detroit Free Press.
    16. ^ Hough, Jack (December 18, 2019). "10 Stocks That Had Better Decades Than Amazon and Google". Barron's.
    17. ^ Fitzgerald, Maggie (December 13, 2019). "Here are the best-performing stocks of the decade". CNBC.
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference losgatos1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference losgatos2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bloomberg2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference co-CEO 2020 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Owens, Jeremy C. (June 4, 2013). "Los Gatos approves controversial Netflix expansion". SiliconValley.com. San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
    23. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (January 5, 2021). "Los Angeles Production Grinds To A Halt Amid Covid-19 Surge; Netflix Is Latest Major Studio To Pause Filming".
    24. ^ Bishop, Bryan (October 8, 2018). "Amazon prime buys up New Mexico studio facility for massive new production hub". The Verge.
    25. ^ Clarke, Stewart (July 3, 2019). "Netflix Creates U.K. Film and TV Production Hub at Shepperton Studios". Variety.
    26. ^ GREEN, JENNIFER (April 4, 2019). "Netflix Unveils New Projects, Plans for Growth in Spain at Production Hub Inauguration". Hollywood Reporter.
     
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    29 August 1997Netflix is launched as an internet DVD rental service.

    Netflix

    Netflix, Inc. is an American over-the-top content platform and production company headquartered in Los Gatos, California, United States. The company is a subscription-based streaming service provider offering online streaming from a library of films and television series, 40% of which is Netflix original programming produced in-house. It often produces more original series and films than any network or cable company. Netflix has also played a prominent role in independent film distribution.[8] As of July 2021, Netflix had 209 million subscribers, including 72 million in the United States and Canada.[9][10] It is available worldwide except in mainland China (due to local restrictions), Syria, North Korea, and Crimea (due to US sanctions). Netflix is a member of the Motion Picture Association (MPA).

    Netflix was founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in Scotts Valley, California. Netflix's initial business model included DVD sales and rental by mail, but Hastings abandoned the sales about a year after the company's founding to focus on the initial DVD rental business.[8][11] Netflix expanded its business in 2007 with the introduction of streaming media while retaining the DVD and Blu-ray rental business. The company expanded internationally in 2010 with video on demand available in Canada, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean. Netflix entered the content-production industry in 2013, debuting its first series House of Cards. In January 2016, it expanded to an additional 130 countries and then operated in 190 countries.

    The company is ranked 164th on the Fortune 500[12] and 284th on the Forbes Global 2000.[13] It is the largest entertainment/media company by market capitalization.[14] In 2021, Netflix was ranked as the 8th most trusted brand globally by Morning Consult.[15] During the 2010s decade, Netflix was the top-performing stock in the S&P 500 stock market index, with a total return of 3,693%.[16][17]

    Netflix is based in Los Gatos, California, in Santa Clara County,[18][19] with the two CEOs, Hastings and Ted Sarandos, split between Los Gatos and Los Angeles, respectively.[20][21] The company is seen as part of the Silicon Valley high-tech world.[22] It also operates international offices in Asia, Europe, and Latin America including in Canada, France, Brazil, the Netherlands, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. The company has production hubs in Los Angeles,[23] Albuquerque,[24] London,[25] Madrid, Vancouver and Toronto.[26]

    1. ^ "Business Search - Results". businesssearch.sos.ca.gov. Secretary of State of California. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
    2. ^ "Where is Netflix available?". Netflix. Archived from the original on July 7, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Millarworld was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Taback was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference egyptian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Brooker was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "US SEC: 2020 Form 10-K Netflix, Inc". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. January 28, 2021. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
    8. ^ a b Pogue, David (January 25, 2007). "A Stream of Movies, Sort of Free". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.
    9. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (April 20, 2021). "Netflix subscriber growth is stalling as it runs low on hits". The Verge.
    10. ^ Katz, Brandon (April 30, 2021). "Netflix Growth Is Slowing, But Its Customers Remain the Most Loyal of All". Observer.
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Netflixed was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ "Fortune 500: Netflix". Fortune.
    13. ^ "Forbes Global 2000: Netflix". Forbes.
    14. ^ Swartz, Jon (July 10, 2020). "Netflix shares close up 8% for yet another record high". MarketWatch.
    15. ^ Howard, Phoebe Wall (April 20, 2021). "Ford rated with Apple, Amazon, Pfizer in new consumer trust survey". Detroit Free Press.
    16. ^ Hough, Jack (December 18, 2019). "10 Stocks That Had Better Decades Than Amazon and Google". Barron's.
    17. ^ Fitzgerald, Maggie (December 13, 2019). "Here are the best-performing stocks of the decade". CNBC.
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference losgatos1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference losgatos2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bloomberg2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference co-CEO 2020 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Owens, Jeremy C. (June 4, 2013). "Los Gatos approves controversial Netflix expansion". SiliconValley.com. San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
    23. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (January 5, 2021). "Los Angeles Production Grinds To A Halt Amid Covid-19 Surge; Netflix Is Latest Major Studio To Pause Filming".
    24. ^ Bishop, Bryan (October 8, 2018). "Amazon prime buys up New Mexico studio facility for massive new production hub". The Verge.
    25. ^ Clarke, Stewart (July 3, 2019). "Netflix Creates U.K. Film and TV Production Hub at Shepperton Studios". Variety.
    26. ^ GREEN, JENNIFER (April 4, 2019). "Netflix Unveils New Projects, Plans for Growth in Spain at Production Hub Inauguration". Hollywood Reporter.
     
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    30 August 1963 – The Moscow–Washington hotline between the leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union goes into operation.

    Moscow–Washington hotline

    The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, U.S. (left) and the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia (right), the two facilities linked by the hotline.

    The Moscow–Washington hotline (formally known in the United States as the Washington–Moscow Direct Communications Link;[1] Russian: Горячая линия Вашингтон — Москва, tr. Goryachaya liniya Vashington–Moskva) is a system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and the Russian Federation (formerly the Soviet Union). This hotline was established in 1963 and links the Pentagon with the Kremlin (historically, with Soviet Communist Party leadership across the square from the Kremlin itself).[1][2] Although in popular culture it is known as the "red telephone", the hotline was never a telephone line, and no red phones were used. The first implementation used Teletype equipment, and shifted to fax machines in 1986.[3] Since 2008, the Moscow–Washington hotline has been a secure computer link over which messages are exchanged by a secure form of email.[4]

    1. ^ a b Stone, Webster (September 18, 1988). "Moscow's Still Holding". New York Times. Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
    2. ^ Clavin, Tom (19 Jun 2013). "There Never Was Such a Thing as a Red Phone in the White House". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
    3. ^ Graham, Thomas; La Vera, Damien (2002). "The "Hot Line" Agreements". Cornerstones of Security: Arms Control Treaties in the Nuclear Era. University of Washington Press. pp. 20–28. ISBN 9780295801414.
    4. ^ Craig, Bell; Richardson, Paul E. (September–October 2009). "The Hot Line {Is a Hollywood Myth}". Russian Life. 52 (5). Archived from the original on 2015-06-30.[dead link]
     
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    31 August 1997Diana, Princess of Wales, her companion Dodi Fayed and driver Henri Paul die in a car crash in Paris.

    Death of Diana, Princess of Wales

    Preview warning: Page using Template:Infobox event with unknown parameter "Where is the car now"

    In the early hours of 31 August 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales, died from the injuries she sustained in a car crash in the Pont de l'Alma tunnel in Paris, France. Her partner, Dodi Fayed, and the driver of the Mercedes-Benz W140 S-Class, Henri Paul, were pronounced dead at the scene. Their bodyguard, Trevor Rees-Jones, was seriously injured, but survived the crash.

    Some media claimed the erratic behaviour of paparazzi following the car, as reported by the BBC, had contributed to the crash.[2] In 1999, a French investigation found that Paul, who lost control of the vehicle at high speed while intoxicated by alcohol and under the effects of prescription drugs, was solely responsible for the crash. He was the deputy head of security at the Hôtel Ritz and had earlier goaded paparazzi waiting for Diana and Fayed outside the hotel.[3] Anti-depressants and traces of an anti-psychotic in his blood may have worsened Paul's inebriation.[4] In 2008, the jury at a British inquest returned a verdict of unlawful killing through grossly negligent driving by Paul and the following paparazzi vehicles.[5] Some media reports claimed Rees-Jones survived because he was wearing a seat belt, but other investigations revealed that none of the occupants of the car were wearing their seat belts.[6]

    Diana was 36 years old when she died.[7] Her death caused an unprecedented outpouring of public grief in the United Kingdom and worldwide, and her funeral was watched by an estimated 2.5 billion people. The Royal Family were criticised in the press for their reaction to Diana's death. Public interest in Diana has remained high and she has retained regular press coverage in the years after her death.

    1. ^ "Plan of Alma Tunnel" (PDF). Coroner's Inquests into the Deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed. Computer Aided Modelling Bureau, Metropolitan Police Service. November 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
    2. ^ "The Princess and The Press". BBC. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
    3. ^ Director: David Bartlett, Executive Producer: David Upshal. "The Coronation of Elizabeth II/The Death of Diana". Days That Shook the World.
    4. ^ Nundy, Julian; Graves, David. "Diana crash caused by chauffeur, says report". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2002.
    5. ^ "Diana jury blames paparazzi and Henri Paul for her 'unlawful killing'". Daily Telegraph. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
    6. ^ Sephton, Connor (28 August 2017). "Trevor Rees-Jones: What happened to the sole survivor of Diana's crash". Sky News. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
    7. ^ Carla B. Johnston (1998). Global News Access: The Impact of New Communications Technologies. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-275-95774-2.
     
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    1 September 1961 – The Eritrean War of Independence officially begins with the shooting of Ethiopian police by Hamid Idris Awate.

    Eritrean War of Independence

    The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between successive Ethiopian governments and Eritrean independence fighters from 1 September 1961 to 24 May 1991.

    Eritrea has been an Italian colony since 1880s; after the defeat of the Italians by the Allies of World War II in 1941, Eritrea became briefly a British protectorate until 1951. The General Assembly of the United Nations held a meeting about the fate of Eritrea, in which the majority of the delegates voted for the federation of Eritrea with Ethiopia, and Eritrea became a constituent state of the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea in 1952. The Federation was supposed to last for ten years in which Eritreans could have mini sovereign decisions such as a parliament and some autonomy, but under the Ethiopian crown for further ones. The Assembly also assigned commissioner Anzio Mattienzo to supervise the process. Eritreans were supposed to claim Eritrea as an independent sovereign state after the ten years of federation. However, Eritrea's declining autonomy and growing discontent with Ethiopian rule caused an independence movement led by the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) in 1961. Hamid Idris Awate officially began the Eritrean armed struggle for independence on 1 September 1961 on the mountain of Adal, near the town of Agordat in south western Eritrea. Ethiopia annexed Eritrea the next year.[32]

    Following the Ethiopian Revolution in 1974, the Derg abolished the Ethiopian Empire and established a Marxist-Leninist communist state. The Derg enjoyed support from the Soviet Union and other communist nations in fighting against the Eritreans. The ELF was supported diplomatically and militarily by various countries, particularly the People's Republic of China, which supplied the ELF with weapons and training until 1972, when Ethiopia recognized Beijing as the legitimate government of China.[4]

    The Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) became the main liberation group in 1977, expelling the ELF from Eritrea, then exploiting the Ogaden War to launch a war of attrition against Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government under the Workers Party of Ethiopia lost Soviet support at the end of the 1980s and were overwhelmed by Ethiopian anti-government groups, allowing the EPLF to defeat Ethiopian forces in Eritrea in May 1991.[33]

    The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), with the help of the EPLF, defeated the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) when it took control of the capital Addis Ababa a month later.[34] In April 1993, the Eritrean people voted almost unanimously in favour of independence in the Eritrean independence referendum, with formal international recognition of an independent, sovereign Eritrea in the same year.

    1. ^ a b c Fauriol, Georges A; Loser, Eva (1990). Cuba: the international dimension. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-88738-324-6.
    2. ^ a b The maverick state: Gaddafi and the New World Order, 1996. Page 71.
    3. ^ a b c Connell, Dan; Killion, Tom (2011). Historical Dictionary of Eritrea. Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8108-5952-4.
    4. ^ a b Schmidt, Elizabeth (2013). Foreign intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror. Cambridge. p. 158. ISBN 9780521882385. China assisted the ELF with weapons and military training until 1972, when Ethiopian recognition of Beijing as the legitimate Chinese government led to China's abandonment of the Eritrean struggle.
    5. ^ Chinese and African Perspectives on China in Africa 2009, Page 93
    6. ^ Schoultz, Lars (2009). That infernal little Cuban republic: the United States and the Cuban Revolution. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3260-8.
    7. ^ a b Historical Dictionary of Eritrea, 2010. Page 492
    8. ^ a b Oil, Power and Politics: Conflict of Asian and African Studies, 1975. Page 97.
    9. ^ Eritrea: Even the Stones Are Burning, 1998. Page 110
    10. ^ Eritrea – liberation or capitulation, 1978. Page 103
    11. ^ Politics and liberation: the Eritrean struggle, 1961–86: an analysis of the political development of the Eritrean liberation struggle 1961–86 by help of a theoretical framework developed for analysing armed national liberation movements, 1987. Page 170
    12. ^ Tunisia, a Country Study, 1979. Page 220.
    13. ^ African Freedom Annual, 1978. Page 109
    14. ^ Ethiopia at Bay: A Personal Account of the Haile Selassie Years, 2006. page 318.
    15. ^ Historical Dictionary of Eritrea, 2010. page 460
    16. ^ a b Spencer C. Tucker, A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, 2009. page 2402
    17. ^ The Pillage of Sustainablility in Eritrea, 1600s–1990s: Rural Communities and the Creeping Shadows of Hegemony, 1998. Page 82.
    18. ^ Ethiopia and the United States: History, Diplomacy, and Analysis, 2009. page 84.
    19. ^ [1][2][3][18]
    20. ^ "Toledo Blade - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com.
    21. ^ Ethiopia Archived 10 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Peace Corps website (accessed 6 July 2010)
    22. ^ File:Haille Sellasse and Richard Nixon 1969.png
    23. ^ [20][21][22]
    24. ^ a b c "Ethiopia-Israel". country-data.com. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
    25. ^ U.S. Requests for Ethiopian Bases Pushed Toledo Blade, 13 March 1957
    26. ^ "Communism, African-Style". Time. 4 July 1983. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
    27. ^ "Ethiopia Red Star Over the Horn of Africa". Time. 4 August 1986. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
    28. ^ "Ethiopia a Forgotten War Rages On". Time. 23 December 1985. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
    29. ^ [3][26][27][28]
    30. ^ Kaufman, Michael T. "Ethiopian Official Is Believed to Have Been Executed". The New York Times.
    31. ^ a b c Cousin, Tracey L. "Eritrean and Ethiopian Civil War". ICE Case Studies. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
    32. ^ "Eritrea: Report of the United Nations Commission for Eritrea; Report of the Interim Committee of the General Assembly on the Report of the United Nations Commission for Eritrea". undocs.org. United Nations. 2 December 1950. A/RES/390(V). Retrieved 17 March 2017.
    33. ^ "Ethiopia-Eritrea: A Troubled Relationship". The Washington Post.
    34. ^ Krauss, Clifford (28 May 1991). "Ethiopian Rebels Storm the Capital and Seize Control". The New York Times.
     
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    2 September 1987 – In Moscow, the trial begins for 19-year-old pilot Mathias Rust, who flew his Cessna airplane into Red Square in May.

    Mathias Rust

    Mathias Rust (born 1 June 1968)[citation needed] is a German aviator known for his flight that ended with a landing near Red Square in Moscow on 28 May 1987. An amateur pilot, the then-teenager flew from Helsinki, Finland, to Moscow, being tracked several times by Soviet Air Defence Forces and civilian air traffic controllers, as well as Soviet Air Force interceptor aircraft. The Soviet fighters did not receive permission to shoot him down, and his aeroplane was mistaken for a friendly aircraft several times. He landed on Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge, next to Red Square near the Kremlin in the capital of the Soviet Union.

    Rust said he wanted to create an "imaginary bridge" to the East, and that his flight was intended to reduce tension and suspicion between the two Cold War sides.[1][2]

    Rust's flight through a supposedly impenetrable air defence system had a great effect on the Soviet military and led to the dismissal of many senior officers, including Minister of Defence Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergei Sokolov and the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Air Defence Forces, former World War II fighter ace pilot Chief Marshal Alexander Koldunov. The incident aided Mikhail Gorbachev in the implementation of his reforms, by allowing him to dismiss numerous military officials opposed to his policies. Rust was sentenced to four years in a general-regime labour camp for violation of border crossing and air traffic regulations, and for provoking an emergency situation upon his landing. After 14 months in prison, he was pardoned by Andrei Gromyko, the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, and released.[1][2]

    1. ^ a b LeCompte, Tom (July 2005). "The Notorious Flight of Mathias Rust". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
    2. ^ a b Hadjimatheou, Chloe (7 December 2012). "Mathias Rust: German teenager who flew to Red Square". BBC World Service. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
     
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    3 September 1997Vietnam Airlines Flight 815 (Tupolev Tu-134) crashes on approach into Phnom Penh airport, killing 64.

    Vietnam Airlines Flight 815

    Vietnam Airlines Flight 815 (Thai: เวียดนามแอร์ไลน์ เที่ยวบินที่ 815) was a scheduled Vietnam Airlines flight from Ho Chi Minh City to Phnom Penh's Pochentong International Airport. The Tupolev Tu-134B-3 aircraft (built in 1984) crashed on final approach approximately 800 metres (2,600 ft; 870 yd) short of the runway, killing 64 of the 66 people on board. The aircraft was completely destroyed.[1]

    1. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev Tu-134B-3 VN-A120 Phnom Penh-Pochentong Airport (PNH)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
     
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    4 September 1977 – The Golden Dragon massacre takes place in San Francisco.

    Golden Dragon massacre

    The Golden Dragon massacre[1] was a gang-related shooting attack that took place on September 4, 1977, inside the Golden Dragon Restaurant at 822 Washington Street in Chinatown, San Francisco, California. The five perpetrators, members of the Joe Boys, a Chinese youth gang, were attempting to kill leaders of the Wah Ching, a rival Chinatown gang. The attack left five people dead and 11 others injured, none of whom were gang members. Seven perpetrators were later convicted and sentenced in connection with the murders. The massacre led to the establishment of the San Francisco Police Department's Asian Gang Task Force, credited with ending gang-related violence in Chinatown by 1983. The restaurant itself closed in 2006.

    1. ^ (traditional Chinese: 金龍酒樓大屠殺; simplified Chinese: 金龙酒楼大屠杀; Jyutping: Gam1lung4 zau2lau4 daai6tou4saat3; pinyin: Jīnlóng Jiǔlóu Dàtúshā)Donat, Hank (2002). "Notorious SF: Golden Dragon Massacre". MisterSF. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
     
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    5 September 1980 – The Gotthard Road Tunnel opens in Switzerland as the world's longest highway tunnel at 10.14 miles (16.32 km) stretching from Göschenen to Airolo.

    Gotthard Road Tunnel

    The Gotthard Road Tunnel in Switzerland runs from Göschenen in the canton of Uri at its northern portal, to Airolo in Ticino to the south, and is 16.9 kilometres (10.5 mi) in length below the St Gotthard Pass, a major pass of the Alps. At time of construction, in 1980, it was the longest road tunnel in the world; it is currently the fifth-longest.[2] Although it is a motorway tunnel, part of the A2 from Basel to Chiasso, it consists of only one bidirectional tube with two lanes. With a maximum elevation of 1,175 metres (3,855 ft)[3] at the tunnel's highest point, the A2 motorway has the lowest maximum elevation of any direct north-south road through the Alps.[4]

    The tunnel rises from the northern portal at Göschenen (1,080 m (3,540 ft)) and the culminating point is reached after approximately 8 kilometres (5.0 mi). After two or three more kilometres, the border between the cantons of Uri and Ticino is passed; after another 7 kilometres (4.3 mi), the tunnel ends at the southern portal near to Airolo (1,146 m (3,760 ft)). The journey takes about 13 minutes by car, the maximum speed being 80 km/h.

    The Gotthard Road Tunnel is one of the three tunnels that connect the Swiss Plateau to southern Switzerland and run under the Gotthard Massif, the two other being railway tunnels, the Gotthard Tunnel (1882) and the Gotthard Base Tunnel (2016). All three tunnels bypass the Gotthard Pass, an important trade route since the 13th century. The pass road culminates about 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above the tunnel, at a height of 2,106 metres (6,909 ft), and is only passable in summer.

    1. ^ "Verkehrsentwicklung am Gotthard-Strassentunnel" (in German, French, and Italian). ASTRA – Swiss Federal Roads Office. 2015. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    2. ^ After Norway's Lærdal Tunnel 24.5 km (15.2 mi), Japan's Yamate Tunnel, and China's Zhongnanshan Tunnel 18 km (11 mi).
    3. ^ Der Tiefbau, Volume 14 (1974)
    4. ^ The other direct north-south roads through the Alps with similar elevations are: Fréjus Road Tunnel (>1,297 m), Mont Blanc Tunnel (1,395 m) and Brenner Pass (1,370 m)
     
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    6 September 1962 – Archaeologist Peter Marsden discovers the first of the Blackfriars Ships dating back to the second century AD in the Blackfriars area of the banks of the River Thames in London.

    Blackfriars shipwrecks

    The Blackfriars shipwrecks were a series of wrecks discovered by archaeologist Peter Marsden in the Blackfriars area of the banks of the River Thames in London, England. The wrecks were discovered while building a riverside embankment wall along the River Thames. Marsden discovered the first on 6 September 1962 and the next two were discovered in 1970. A later discovery added to the previous three wrecks, constituting now what is known as the four Blackfriars wrecks.

     
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    7 September 1191Third Crusade: Battle of Arsuf: Richard I of England defeats Saladin at Arsuf.

    Battle of Arsuf

    The Battle of Arsuf was a battle during the Third Crusade which took place on 7 September 1191. The battle was a Christian victory, with forces led by Richard I of England defeating a larger Ayyubid army led by Saladin.

    The battle occurred just outside the city of Arsuf (Arsur in Latin), when Saladin met Richard's army as it was moving along the Mediterranean coast from Acre to Jaffa, following the capture of Acre. During their march from Acre, Saladin launched a series of harassing attacks on Richard's army, but the Christians successfully resisted these attempts to disrupt their cohesion. As the Crusaders crossed the plain to the north of Arsuf, Saladin committed the whole of his army to a pitched battle. Once again the Crusader army maintained a defensive formation as it marched, with Richard awaiting for the ideal moment to mount a counterattack. However, after the Knights Hospitaller launched a charge at the Ayyubids, Richard was forced to commit his entire force to support the attack. After initial success, Richard was able to regroup his army and achieve victory.

    The battle resulted in Christian control of the central Palestinian coast, including the port of Jaffa.

    1. ^ Jill N. Claster, Sacred Violence: The European Crusades to the Middle East, 1095-1396, (University of Toronto Press, 2009), 207.
    2. ^ Boas, Adrian. "The Crusader World." 2015. Page 78.
    3. ^ Bennett, Matthew. "The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487." Vol 1. January 26, 1996. Page 101.
    4. ^ Boas, Adrian. "The Crusader World." 2015. Page 78.
    5. ^ a tenth or a hundredth of the Ayyubid casualties, according to the Itinerarium (trans. 2001 Book IV Ch. XIX, p. 185)
    6. ^ 7,000 dead according to the Itinerarium trans. 2001 Book IV Ch. XIX, p. 185
     
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    8 September 1988 – Yellowstone National Park is closed for the first time in U.S. history due to ongoing fires.

    Yellowstone fires of 1988

    The Yellowstone fires of 1988 collectively formed the largest wildfire in the recorded history of Yellowstone National Park in the United States. Starting as many smaller individual fires, the flames quickly spread out of control due to drought conditions and increasing winds, combining into one large conflagration which burned for several months. The fires almost destroyed two major visitor destinations and, on September 8, 1988, the entire park closed to all non-emergency personnel for the first time in its history.[6] Only the arrival of cool and moist weather in the late autumn brought the fires to an end. A total of 793,880 acres (3,213 km2), or 36 percent of the park, was affected by the wildfires.[1]

    Thousands of firefighters fought the fires, assisted by dozens of helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft which were used for water and fire retardant drops. At the peak of the effort, more than 9,000 firefighters were assigned to the park. With fires raging throughout the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and other areas in the western United States, the staffing levels of the National Park Service and other land management agencies were inadequate for the situation; more than 4,000 U.S. military personnel were soon brought in to assist in wildfire suppression efforts. The firefighting effort cost $120 million ($260 million in 2021).[3] Losses to structures were minimized by concentrating firefighting efforts near major visitor areas, keeping property damage down to $3 million ($7 million as of 2021).[4] No firefighters died while fighting the Yellowstone fires, though there were two fire-related deaths outside the park.

    Before the late 1960s, fires were generally believed to be detrimental for parks and forests, and management policies were aimed at suppressing fires as quickly as possible. However, as the beneficial ecological role of fire became better understood in the decades before 1988, a policy was adopted of allowing natural fires to burn under controlled conditions, which proved highly successful in reducing the area lost annually to wildfires.

    In contrast, in 1988, Yellowstone was overdue for a large fire, and, in the exceptionally dry summer, many smaller "controlled" fires combined. The fires burned discontinuously, leaping from one patch to another, leaving intervening areas untouched. Intense fires swept through some regions, burning everything in their paths. Tens of millions of trees and countless plants were killed by the wildfires, and some regions were left looking blackened and dead. However, more than half of the affected areas were burned by ground fires, which did less damage to hardier tree species. Not long after the fires ended, plant and tree species quickly reestablished themselves, and native plant regeneration has been highly successful.

    The Yellowstone fires of 1988 were unprecedented in the history of the National Park Service, and led to many questions about existing fire management policies. Media accounts of mismanagement were often sensational and inaccurate, sometimes wrongly reporting or implying that most of the park was being destroyed. While there were temporary declines in air quality during the fires, no adverse long-term health effects have been recorded in the ecosystem and, contrary to initial reports, few large mammals were killed by the fires, though there was a subsequent reduction in the number of moose which has yet to rebound.

    1. ^ a b c Young, Linda. "Flames of Controversy: Interpreting the Yellowstone Fires of 1988". Wildland Fire Education and Outreach Case Studies. National Interagency Fire Command. Archived from the original on June 23, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Schullery2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Kaage, Bill. "Yellowstone 1988: A 25th Anniversary Retrospective". National Park Service. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference 25 anniversary was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Franke2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Schullery, Paul (1989). "Yellowstone fires: a preliminary report". Northwest Science. 63 (1): 44–54.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

     
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    9 September 1839John Herschel takes the first glass plate photograph.

    John Herschel

    Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet KH FRS (/ˈhɜːrʃəl, ˈhɛər-/;[2] 7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871)[1] was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint,[3][4][5] and did botanical work.[6]

    Herschel originated the use of the Julian day system in astronomy. He named seven moons of Saturn and four moons of Uranus – the seventh planet, discovered by his father Sir William Herschel. He made many contributions to the science of photography, and investigated colour blindness and the chemical power of ultraviolet rays. His Preliminary Discourse (1831), which advocated an inductive approach to scientific experiment and theory-building, was an important contribution to the philosophy of science.[7]

    1. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference ODNB was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Herschel". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference EncycBrit was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference columbia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference vernacu was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference HersNAH was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cobb 2012, pp. 409–439.
     
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    10 September 1939 – World War II: The Canadian declaration of war on Germany receives royal assent.

    Canadian declaration of war on Germany

    The "proclamation" of George VI "declaring that a State of War with the German Reich exists and has existed in Our Dominion of Canada as and from the tenth day of September, 1939". The Great Seal of Canada is affixed above the Attorney General's signature and the signature of the Governor-General Lord Tweedsmuir is at the top as a witness.

    A recommendation for a declaration of war by Canada on Nazi Germany was announced in a speech made by Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King on 3 September 1939.[1] Though Mackenzie King was in Ottawa at the time of his speech, it was broadcast over the radio. There was also a Canadian announcement in the Canadian newspaper, the Canada Gazette.[2] The declaration of war was made on 10 September 1939, just 7 days after the United Kingdom and France declared war.

    Canada did not declare war on Germany in 1914 at the outset of World War I, as it had no authority to do so at the time; as part of the British Empire, it entered the war with the United Kingdom in consequence of its own declaration of war. Canada gained this authority with the Statute of Westminster 1931.

    1. ^ 1939 Canada at the Side of Britain. CBC. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
    2. ^ "Proclamation". The Canada Gazette (in English and French). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 3 September 1939. p. 1. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
     
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    11 September 2012 – The U.S. embassy in Benghazi, Libya is attacked, resulting in four deaths.

    2012 Benghazi attack

    The 2012 Benghazi attack was a coordinated attack against two United States government facilities in Benghazi, Libya, by members of the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Sharia.

    On September 11, 2012, at 9:40pm local time, members of Ansar al-Sharia attacked the American diplomatic compound in Benghazi resulting in the deaths of both United States Ambassador to Libya J. Christopher Stevens and U.S. Foreign Service Information Management Officer Sean Smith.[1][2]

    At around 4:00 a.m. on September 12, the group launched a mortar attack against a CIA annex approximately one mile (1.6 km) away, killing two CIA contractors Tyrone S. Woods and Glen Doherty[2][3][4] and wounding ten others. Initial analysis by the CIA, repeated by top government officials, indicated that the attack spontaneously arose from a protest.[5] Subsequent investigations showed that the attack was premeditated—although rioters and looters not originally part of the group may have joined in after the attacks began.[6][7][8]

    There is no definitive evidence that al-Qaeda or any other international terrorist organization participated in the Benghazi attack.[9][10][11] The United States immediately increased security worldwide at diplomatic and military facilities and began investigating the Benghazi attack.[12][13] The Libyan Government condemned the attacks and took steps to disband the militias. 30,000 Libyans marched through Benghazi condemning Ansar al-Sharia, which had been formed during the 2011 Libyan civil war to topple Muammar Gaddafi.[14][15][16]

    Despite persistent accusations against President Obama, Hillary Clinton, and Susan Rice, ten investigations—six by Republican-controlled Congressional Committees—did not find that they or any other high-ranking Obama administration officials had acted improperly.[17][18][19][20] Four career State Department officials were criticized for denying requests for additional security at the facility prior to the attack. Eric J. Boswell, the Assistant Secretary of State for Diplomatic Security, resigned under pressure, while three others were suspended.[21] In her role as Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton subsequently took responsibility for the security lapses.[22]

    On August 6, 2013, it was reported that the United States had filed criminal charges against several individuals alleged to have been involved in the attacks, including militia leader Ahmed Abu Khattala.[23] Khattala has been described by both Libyan and United States officials as the Benghazi leader of Ansar al-Sharia. The United States Department of State designated Ansar al-Sharia as a terrorist organization in January 2014.[24][25][26] Khattala was captured in Libya by United States Army Special Operations Forces, who were acting in coordination with the FBI, in June 2014.[27] Another suspect, Mustafa al-Imam, was captured in October 2017[28].[29]

    1. ^ "U.S. Senate Select Committee Review of the Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Diplomatic Facilities in Benghazi, Libya, September 11–12, 2012" (PDF). January 15, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2014.
    2. ^ a b "Timeline: Here's how the Benghazi attacks played out". Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 14, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
    3. ^ "US officials: CIA ran Benghazi consulate". United Press International. November 2, 2012. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
    4. ^ Aaron Blake (January 27, 2014). "Clinton says Benghazi is her biggest regret". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 30, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
    5. ^ Dilanian, Ken. "House intel panel debunks many Benghazi theories". AP NEWS. Archived from the original on April 1, 2018. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
    6. ^ Rogin, Josh (October 9, 2012). "State Department: No Protest at the Benghazi consulate". The Cable. Archived from the original on November 12, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2014.(subscription required)
      Herridge, Cathrine (December 4, 2013). "CIA witnesses offer more evidence Benghazi attack planned". Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
      Starr, Barbara (September 27, 2012). "Panetta: Terrorists 'clearly' planned Benghazi attack". CNN. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
    7. ^ David D. Kirkpatrick (June 17, 2014). "Brazen Figure May Hold Key to Mysteries". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 23, 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
      David D. Kirkpatrick (October 18, 2012). "Suspect in Libya Attack, in Plain Sight, Scoffs at U.S." The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
    8. ^ "Exclusive:Libyan Islamist says he was at U.S. consulate during attack". Reuters. October 18, 2012. Archived from the original on October 3, 2016. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
    9. ^ "N.Y. Times probe finds no al-Qaeda link to Benghazi raid". USATODAY. December 28, 2013. Archived from the original on August 27, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
    10. ^ "New York Times report casts doubt on al Qaeda involvement in Benghazi". cnn.com. December 30, 2013. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
    11. ^ "In Benghazi, US Intelligence Wasn't Focused On 'Homegrown Militants'". npr.com. February 26, 2014. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
      "Transcript: In Benghazi, US Intelligence Wasn't Focused On 'Homegrown Militants'". npr.com. February 26, 2014. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
    12. ^ "CIA talking points for Susan Rice called Benghazi attack 'spontaneously inspired' by protests". CBS News. November 15, 2012. Archived from the original on November 21, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference EgyptNotLibya was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBCMilitiaStormed was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYTMilitantsBesieged was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Dilanian, Ken. "House intel panel debunks many Benghazi theories". AP NEWS. Archived from the original on April 1, 2018. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
    17. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (November 22, 2014). "G.O.P.-Led Benghazi Panel Bolsters Administration". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 21, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
    18. ^ O’Toole, Molly. "Libya Is Obama's Biggest Regret — And Hillary's Biggest Threat". Archived from the original on February 21, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
    19. ^ O’Toole, Molly. "In Final Report, Benghazi Committee Finds No New Evidence of Clinton Wrongdoing". Archived from the original on February 21, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
    20. ^ Gearan, Anne; Miller, Greg (December 19, 2012). "Four State Dept. officials disciplined after Benghazi probe". Archived from the original on April 1, 2018. Retrieved April 1, 2018 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
    21. ^ "Transcript of Hillary Clinton's testimony on Benghazi attack". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
    22. ^ Perez, Evan (August 7, 2013). "First criminal charges filed in Benghazi attack probe". CNN. Archived from the original on September 4, 2013. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
    23. ^ "Terrorist Designations of Three Ansar al-Shari'a Organizations and Leaders". U.S. Department of State. January 10, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
    24. ^ John King; Chelsea J. Carter (August 7, 2013). "Lawmaker: If CNN can interview suspect in Benghazi attack, why can't FBI?". CNN. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
    25. ^ Erik Wemple (April 3, 2014). "New York Times stands by Benghazi story". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
    26. ^ "U.S. captures Benghazi suspect in secret raid". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
    27. ^ "Mustafa al-Imam Sentenced to 236 Months in Prison for September 2012 Terrorist Attack in Benghazi, Libya". United States Department of State. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
    28. ^ "Man seized over Benghazi attack is Syrian linked to suspected ringleader -Libyan officials". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 11, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
     
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    12 September 1983 – The USSR vetoes a United Nations Security Council Resolution deploring the Soviet destruction of Korean Air Lines Flight 007.

    Korean Air Lines Flight 007

    Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (also known as KAL007 and KE007)[note 2] was a scheduled Korean Air Lines flight from New York City to Seoul via Anchorage, Alaska. On September 1, 1983, the South Korean airliner servicing the flight was shot down by a Soviet Su-15 interceptor. The Boeing 747 airliner was en route from Anchorage to Seoul, but due to a navigational mistake made by the KAL crew the airliner deviated from its original planned route and flew through Soviet prohibited airspace around the time of a U.S. aerial reconnaissance mission. The Soviet Air Forces treated the unidentified aircraft as an intruding U.S. spy plane, and destroyed it with air-to-air missiles, after firing warning shots which were likely not seen by the KAL pilots.[2] The Korean airliner eventually crashed in the sea near Moneron Island west of Sakhalin in the Sea of Japan. All 269 passengers and crew aboard were killed, including Larry McDonald, a United States Representative from Georgia. The Soviets found the wreckage under the sea on September 15, 1983, and found the flight recorders in October, but this information was kept secret until 1992.

    The Soviet Union initially denied knowledge of the incident,[3] but later admitted shooting down the aircraft, claiming that it was on a MASINT spy mission.[4] The Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union said it was a deliberate provocation by the United States[5] to probe the Soviet Union's military preparedness, or even to provoke a war. The White House accused the Soviet Union of obstructing search and rescue operations.[6] The Soviet Armed Forces suppressed evidence sought by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) investigation, such as the flight recorders,[7] which were released ten years later, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[8]

    The incident was one of the most tense moments of the Cold War and resulted in an escalation of anti-Soviet sentiment, particularly in the United States.

    As a result of the incident, the United States altered tracking procedures for aircraft departing from Alaska. The interface of the autopilot used on airliners was redesigned to make it more ergonomic.[9] In addition, the incident was one of the most important events that prompted the Reagan administration to allow worldwide access to the United States Global Positioning System (GPS).[10][11]

    1. ^ Aviation Safety Database
    2. ^ Maier, KAL 007 Mystery
    3. ^ Young & Launer, pp. xiii, 47
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sputnik was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Pearson, p. 145
    6. ^ Congressional Record, September 20, 1983, pp. S12462-S12464
    7. ^ Soviet news magazine, Izvestia #228, October 16, 1992
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference tapes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference NASA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pace95 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference GPS was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    12 September 1983 – The USSR vetoes a United Nations Security Council Resolution deploring the Soviet destruction of Korean Air Lines Flight 007.

    Korean Air Lines Flight 007

    Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (also known as KAL007 and KE007)[note 2] was a scheduled Korean Air Lines flight from New York City to Seoul via Anchorage, Alaska. On September 1, 1983, the South Korean airliner servicing the flight was shot down by a Soviet Su-15 interceptor. The Boeing 747 airliner was en route from Anchorage to Seoul, but due to a navigational mistake made by the KAL crew the airliner deviated from its original planned route and flew through Soviet prohibited airspace around the time of a U.S. aerial reconnaissance mission. The Soviet Air Forces treated the unidentified aircraft as an intruding U.S. spy plane, and destroyed it with air-to-air missiles, after firing warning shots which were likely not seen by the KAL pilots.[2] The Korean airliner eventually crashed in the sea near Moneron Island west of Sakhalin in the Sea of Japan. All 269 passengers and crew aboard were killed, including Larry McDonald, a United States Representative from Georgia. The Soviets found the wreckage under the sea on September 15, 1983, and found the flight recorders in October, but this information was kept secret until 1992.

    The Soviet Union initially denied knowledge of the incident,[3] but later admitted shooting down the aircraft, claiming that it was on a MASINT spy mission.[4] The Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union said it was a deliberate provocation by the United States[5] to probe the Soviet Union's military preparedness, or even to provoke a war. The White House accused the Soviet Union of obstructing search and rescue operations.[6] The Soviet Armed Forces suppressed evidence sought by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) investigation, such as the flight recorders,[7] which were released ten years later, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[8]

    The incident was one of the most tense moments of the Cold War and resulted in an escalation of anti-Soviet sentiment, particularly in the United States.

    As a result of the incident, the United States altered tracking procedures for aircraft departing from Alaska. The interface of the autopilot used on airliners was redesigned to make it more ergonomic.[9] In addition, the incident was one of the most important events that prompted the Reagan administration to allow worldwide access to the United States Global Positioning System (GPS).[10][11]

    1. ^ Aviation Safety Database
    2. ^ Maier, KAL 007 Mystery
    3. ^ Young & Launer, pp. xiii, 47
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sputnik was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Pearson, p. 145
    6. ^ Congressional Record, September 20, 1983, pp. S12462-S12464
    7. ^ Soviet news magazine, Izvestia #228, October 16, 1992
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference tapes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference NASA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pace95 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference GPS was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


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    13 September 1962 – An appeals court orders the University of Mississippi to admit James Meredith, the first African-American student admitted to the segregated university.

    James Meredith

    James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is the first African-American student admitted to the racially segregated University of Mississippi. He is also an American civil rights movement figure, writer, political adviser, and Air Force veteran. It was in 1962 that Meredith became the first African-American student admitted to the theretofore segregated University of Mississippi,[1] after the intervention of the federal government, an event that was a flashpoint in the civil rights movement. Inspired by President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address, Meredith decided to exercise his constitutional rights and apply to the University of Mississippi.[2] His goal was to put pressure on the Kennedy administration to enforce civil rights for African Americans.[2]

    In 1966, Meredith planned a solo 220-mile March Against Fear from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi; he wanted to highlight continuing racism in the South and encourage voter registration after passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. He did not want major civil rights organizations involved. The second day, he was shot by a white gunman and suffered numerous wounds. Leaders of major organizations vowed to complete the march in his name after he was taken to the hospital. While Meredith was recovering, more people from across the country became involved as marchers. He rejoined the march and when Meredith and other leaders entered Jackson on June 26, they were leading an estimated 15,000 marchers, in what was the largest civil rights march in Mississippi. During the march, more than 4,000 African Americans registered to vote, and it was a catalyst to continued community organizing and additional registration.

    In 2002 and again in 2012, the University of Mississippi led year-long series of events to celebrate the 40th and 50th anniversaries of Meredith's integration of the institution. He was among numerous speakers invited to the campus, where a statue of him commemorates his role. The Lyceum-The Circle Historic District at the center of the campus has been designated as a National Historic Landmark for these events.

    1. ^ Dave, Paresh (February 18, 2014). "James Meredith talks about vandals". The Los Angeles Times.
    2. ^ a b Bryant 2006, p. 60.
     
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    14 September 1808Finnish War: Russians defeat the Swedes at the Battle of Oravais.

    Battle of Oravais

    The Battle of Oravais (Finnish: Oravaisten taistelu; Swedish: Slaget vid Oravais) was one of the decisive battles in the Finnish War, fought from 1808 to 1809 between Sweden and the Russian Empire as part of the wider Napoleonic Wars. Taking place in modern-day Vörå in western Finland, it is sometimes regarded as the turning point of the Finnish War: the last chance for Sweden to turn the war to her advantage. It was the bloodiest battle of the conflict, along with the Battle of Sävar, which some historians attribute to the exhaustion, resignation and desperation of the Swedish army: it was losing the war, and defeat led to its loss of Finland to Russia.


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    15 September 2000 – The Summer Olympics, officially known as the games of the XXVII Olympiad, are opened in Sydney, Australia.

    2000 Summer Olympics

    The 2000 Summer Olympics (officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000, the Millennium Olympic Games or the Games of the New Millennium) was an international multi-sport event held from 15 September to 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, and in the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956.

    Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated and was the first Summer Games to feature at least 300 events in its official sports programme. The Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers, sportsmanship and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better".[3]

    James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney",[4] while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead. Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, and be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best".[3]

    These games would provide the inspiration for London’s winning bid for the 2012 Olympic Games in 2005 and in preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did."[5] These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch before the arrival of his successor, Jacques Rogge. These were also the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot.

    The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "The Olympic Summer Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
    2. ^ a b "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
    3. ^ a b "How the media viewed the Sydney Olympics". CoolRunning Australia. 20 March 2010. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
    4. ^ Mossop, James (1 October 2000). "Sydney has set the highest standards for future hosts". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
    5. ^ "Sydney 2000 the Olympic Games benchmark, Sebastian Coe says". The Australian. 25 July 2012.
     
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    16 September 1987 – The Montreal Protocol is signed to protect the ozone layer from depletion

    Montreal Protocol

    Retrospective video on the Montreal Protocol and the collaboration between policy-makers, scientists, and industry leaders to regulate CFCs
    The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, also known simply as the Montreal Protocol, is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. Open for signature on 16 September 1987,[1] it was made pursuant to the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, which established the framework for international cooperation in addressing ozone depletion.[2] The Montreal Protocol entered into force on 1 January 1989, and has since undergone nine revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), 1998 (Australia), 1999 (Beijing) and 2016 (Kigali).[3][4][5]

    As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica is slowly recovering.[6] Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070.[7][8][9] The Montreal Protocol's success is attributed to its effective burden sharing and solution proposals, which helped mitigate regional conflicts of interest, compared to the shortcomings of the global regulatory approach of the Kyoto Protocol.[10] However, global regulation was already being installed before a scientific consensus was established, and overall public opinion was convinced of possible imminent risks with the ozone layer.[11][12]

    The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol have each been ratified by 196 nations and the European Union,[13] making them the first universally ratified treaties in United Nations history.[14] Due to its widespread adoption and implementation, the Montreal Protocol has been hailed as an example of exceptional international cooperation, with Kofi Annan describing it as "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date".[15][16]

    The treaties are also notable in the unique expedience of global action, with only 14 years lapsing between a basic scientific research discovery (1973) and the international agreement signed (1985 and 1987).

    1. ^ "United Nations Treaty Collection. Chapter XXVII 2.a Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer". treaties.un.org.
    2. ^ "MOFA: [Environment] Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna Convention, Montreal Protocol)". www.mofa.go.jp. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
    3. ^ Hub, IISD's SDG Knowledge. "Kigali Amendment Enters into Force, Bringing Promise of Reduced Global Warming | News | SDG Knowledge Hub | IISD". Retrieved 7 March 2019.
    4. ^ McGrath, Matt (15 October 2016). "Deal reached on HFC greenhouse gases". BBC News.
    5. ^ "Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol". United Nations Environment Programme Ozone Secretariat. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
    6. ^ Ewenfeldt B, "Ozonlagret mår bättre", Arbetarbladet 12-9-2014, p. 10.
    7. ^ "Ozone Layer on Track to Recovery: Success Story Should Encourage Action on Climate". UNEP. UNEP. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
    8. ^ Susan Solomon; Anne R. Douglass; Paul A. Newman (July 2014). "The Antarctic ozone hole: An update". Physics Today. 67 (7): 42–48. Bibcode:2014PhT....67g..42D. doi:10.1063/PT.3.2449.
    9. ^ Canada, Environment and Climate Change (20 February 2015). "Ozone layer depletion: Montreal Protocol". aem. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
    10. ^ Of Montreal and Kyoto: A Tale of Two Protocols by Cass R. Sunstein 38 ELR 10566 8/2008
    11. ^ Environmental Politics Climate Change and Knowledge Politics Archived 26 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine Reiner Grundmann, Vol. 16, No. 3, 414–432, June 2007
    12. ^ Technische Problemlösung, Verhandeln und umfassende Problemlösung, (eng. technical trouble shooting, negotiating and generic problem solving capability) in Gesellschaftliche Komplexität und kollektive Handlungsfähigkeit (Societys complexity and collective ability to act), ed. Schimank, U. (2000). Frankfurt/Main: Campus, p.154-182 book summary at the Max Planck Gesellschaft Archived 12 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
    13. ^ "Status of Ratification – The Ozone Secretariat". Ozone.unep.org. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
    14. ^ "UNEP press release: "South Sudan Joins Montreal Protocol and Commits to Phasing Out Ozone-Damaging Substances"". Unep.org.
    15. ^ "The Ozone Hole-The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer". Theozonehole.com. 16 September 1987.
    16. ^ "Background for International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer - 16 September". www.un.org. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
     
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    17 September 1965 – The Battle of Chawinda is fought between Pakistan and India

    Battle of Chawinda

    The Battle of Chawinda was a major engagement between Pakistan and India in the Second Kashmir War[b] as part of the Sialkot campaign. It is well-known as being one of the largest tank battles in history since the Battle of Kursk, which was fought between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany in World War II.[14]

    The initial clashes in Chawinda coincided with the Battle of Phillora, and the fighting here intensified once the Pakistani forces at Phillora retreated. The battle came to an end shortly before the United Nations Security Council mandated an immediate ceasefire, which would formally end the hostilities of the 1965 war.[15][16]

    1. ^ Jogindar Singh (1993). Behind the Scene: An Analysis of India's Military Operations, 1947-1971. Lancer Publishers. pp. 217–219. ISBN 1-897829-20-5. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
    2. ^ Chakravorty 1992a.
    3. ^ Abrar Hussain (2005). Men of Steel: 6 Armored Division in the 1965 War. Army Education Publishing House. pp. 36–52. ISBN 969-8125-19-1.
    4. ^ Nawaz 2008, pp. 227–230.
    5. ^ Krishna Rao 1991.
    6. ^ Sources assessing stalemate:
    7. ^ Zaloga 1980, p. 19.
    8. ^ Barua 2005, p. 191
    9. ^ Philip, Snehesh Alex (12 August 2019). "How Pakistani Lt Col Nisar Ahmed won over Indian peers after stalling their advance in 1965". ThePrint. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
    10. ^ Amin, Major A.H. "Battle of Chawinda Comedy of Higher Command Errors". Military historian. Defence journal(pakistan). Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
    11. ^ a b Clodfelter, Michael (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015, 4th ed. McFarland. p. 600. ISBN 9781476625850.
    12. ^ a b Chakravorty 1992a, p. 221.
    13. ^ a b Zaloga 1980, p. 35.
    14. ^ Michael E. Haskew (2 November 2015). Tank: 100 Years of the World's Most Important Armored Military Vehicle. Voyageur Press. pp. 201–. ISBN 978-0-7603-4963-2.
    15. ^ Pradhan 2007.
    16. ^ "Indo-Pakistan War of 1965". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2 June 2012.


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    18 September 1997 – The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention is adopted.

    Ottawa Treaty

    The Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, known informally as the Ottawa Treaty, the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention, or often simply the Mine Ban Treaty, aims at eliminating anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines) around the world. To date, there are 164 state parties to the treaty. One state (the Marshall Islands) has signed but not ratified the treaty, while 32 UN states, including China, Russia, and the United States have not; making a total of 33 United Nations states not party.[1][2]

    1. ^ a b "Status of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction". Treaties Database of the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
    2. ^ "Treaty Status". ICBL. Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
     
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    18 September 1997 – The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention is adopted.

    Ottawa Treaty

    The Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, known informally as the Ottawa Treaty, the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention, or often simply the Mine Ban Treaty, aims at eliminating anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines) around the world. To date, there are 164 state parties to the treaty. One state (the Marshall Islands) has signed but not ratified the treaty, while 32 UN states, including China, Russia, and the United States have not; making a total of 33 United Nations states not party.[1][2]

    1. ^ a b "Status of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction". Treaties Database of the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
    2. ^ "Treaty Status". ICBL. Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
     
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    19 September 1991Ötzi the Iceman is discovered in the Alps on the border between Italy and Austria.

    Ötzi

    Ötzi, also called the Iceman, is the natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BC, discovered in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps (hence the nickname "Ötzi") on the border between Austria and Italy.

    Ötzi is believed to have been murdered, due to the discovery of an arrowhead embedded in his left shoulder and various other wounds. The nature of his life and the circumstances of his death are the subject of much investigation and speculation.

    He is Europe's oldest known natural human mummy, offering an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic (Copper Age) Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy.

    1. ^ Farid Chenoune (2005). Carried Away: All About Bags. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-86565-158-6.
    2. ^ Joachim Chwaszcza; Brian Bell (1993). Italian Alps, South Tyrol. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-65772-0.
     
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    20 September 2000 – The United Kingdom's MI6 Secret Intelligence Service building is attacked by individuals using a Russian-built RPG-22 anti-tank missile.

    2000 MI6 attack

    On Wednesday 20 September 2000, the Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA) carried out an attack on MI6's SIS Building headquarters in Vauxhall, Lambeth, London. A Russian-built RPG-22 anti-tank rocket, fired 300 metres (330 yards) away from MI6 headquarters, struck the building on the south side of the eighth floor, causing superficial damage. No fatalities or injuries were recorded.[1]

    Although London had been the targets of terrorist attacks before 2000, it had not been subjected to a rocket launcher attack; this was the first time a RPG-22 rocket launcher was seen and used in Great Britain. It was initially thought the Real IRA acquired the launchers from the Provisional IRA's arsenal, but later confirmed it was brought from the former Yugoslavia.[2] The "audacious" attack caused minimal damage due to the building's bullet-proof and bomb-proof structure, failing to penetrate the inner cladding.[3]

    At the time of the attack, the constituency of South Antrim was preparing for a by-election to be held the following day; it was won by Democratic Unionist William McCrea, who defeated Ulster Unionist David Burnside.

    1. ^ "Attack on MI6 Snarls Central London : Missile Hits the Home Of British Intelligence". The New York Times. 22 September 2000. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference independentmi6 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference telegraph was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    21 September 1942 – The Boeing B-29 Superfortress makes its maiden flight.

    Boeing B-29 Superfortress

    Boeing assembly line at Wichita, Kansas (1944)

    The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is an American four-engined propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing and flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War. Named in allusion to its predecessor, the B-17 Flying Fortress, the Superfortress was designed for high-altitude strategic bombing but also excelled in low-altitude night incendiary bombing and in dropping naval mines to blockade Japan. B-29s dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and became the only aircraft that has ever used nuclear weapons in combat.

    One of the largest aircraft of World War II, the B-29 had state-of-the-art technology, including a pressurized cabin, dual-wheeled, tricycle landing gear, and an analog computer-controlled fire-control system that allowed one gunner and a fire-control officer to direct four remote machine gun turrets. The $3 billion cost of design and production (equivalent to $43 billion today[3]), far exceeding the $1.9 billion cost of the Manhattan Project, made the B-29 program the most expensive of the war.[4][5] The B-29's advanced design allowed it to remain in service in various roles throughout the 1950s. The type was retired in the early 1960s after 3,970 of them had been built. A few were used as flying television transmitters by the Stratovision company. The Royal Air Force flew the B-29 as the Washington until 1954.

    The B-29 was the progenitor of a series of Boeing-built bombers, transports, tankers, reconnaissance aircraft and trainers. The re-engined B-50 Superfortress became Lucky Lady II, the first aircraft to fly around the world non-stop, during a 94-hour flight in 1949. The Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter airlifter, which was first flown in 1944, was followed in 1947 by its commercial airliner variant, the Boeing Model 377 Stratocruiser. This bomber-to-airliner derivation was similar to the B-17/Model 307 evolution. In 1948, Boeing introduced the KB-29 tanker, followed in 1950 by the Model 377-derivative KC-97. A line of outsized-cargo variants of the Stratocruiser is the Guppy / Mini Guppy / Super Guppy, which remain in service with NASA and other operators. The Soviet Union produced 847 Tupolev Tu-4s, an unlicensed reverse-engineered copy of the aircraft. Twenty B-29s remain as static displays but only two, FIFI and Doc, still fly.[6]

    1. ^ LeMay and Yenne 1988, p. 60.
    2. ^ "Boeing B-29." Boeing. Retrieved: 5 August 2010.
    3. ^ 1634 to 1699: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy ofthe United States: Addenda et Corrigenda (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1700-1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How much is that in real money?: a historical price index for use as a deflator of money values in the economy of the United States (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved 1 January 2020.
    4. ^ O'Brien, Phillips Payson (2015). How the War Was Won (First ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-1-107-01475-6.
    5. ^ "B-29 Superfortress, U.S. Heavy Bomber". The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia. © 2009 by Kent G. Budge. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    6. ^ Waller, Staff Sgt. Rachel (17 July 2016). "B-29 'Doc' takes to the skies from McConnell". McConnell AFB. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
     

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