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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    6th April - the first day of the Modern Olympics in 1896:
    The links in this Wikipedia insert are clickable

    1896 Summer Olympics

    The 1896 Summer Olympics (Greek: Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896, romanized: Therinoí Olympiakoí Agónes 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history. Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.

    Fourteen nations and 241 athletes (all males) took part in the games. Participants were all European, or living in Europe, with the exception of the United States team. Winners were given a silver medal, while runners-up received a copper medal. Retroactively, the IOC has converted these to gold and silver, and awarded bronze medals to third placed athletes. Ten of the 14 participating nations earned medals. The United States won the most gold medals, 11, host nation Greece won the most medals overall, 46. The highlight for the Greeks was the marathon victory by their compatriot Spyridon Louis. The most successful competitor was German wrestler and gymnast Carl Schuhmann, who won four events. Over 65% of the competing athletes were Greek.

    Athens had been unanimously chosen to stage the inaugural modern Games during a congress organised by Coubertin in Paris on 23 June 1894, during which the IOC was also created, because Greece was the birthplace of the Ancient Olympic Games. The main venue was the Panathenaic Stadium, where athletics and wrestling took place; other venues included the Neo Phaliron Velodrome for cycling, and the Zappeion for fencing. The opening ceremony was held in the Panathenaic Stadium on 6 April, during which most of the competing athletes were aligned on the infield, grouped by nation. After a speech by the president of the organising committee, Crown Prince Constantine, his father officially opened the Games. Afterwards, nine bands and 150 choir singers performed an Olympic Hymn, composed by Spyridon Samaras, with words by poet Kostis Palamas.

    The 1896 Olympics were regarded as a great success. The Games had the largest international participation of any sporting event to that date. The Panathenaic Stadium overflowed with the largest crowd ever to watch a sporting event.[4] After the Games, Coubertin and the IOC were petitioned by several prominent figures, including Greece's King George and some of the American competitors in Athens, to hold all the following Games in Athens. However, the 1900 Summer Olympics were already planned for Paris and, except for the Intercalated Games of 1906, the Olympics did not return to Greece until the 2004 Summer Olympics, 108 years later.

    1. ^ The number, given by the International Olympic Committee, is open to interpretation and could be as few as 10 and as many as 15. There are numerous reasons for the disparity: National teams hardly existed at the time, and most athletes represented themselves or their clubs. In addition, countries were not always as well-defined as they are today. The number of countries here reflects the number used by most modern sources. See the relevant section for further details.
    2. ^ This number of competitors is according to the International Olympic Committee. The identities of 179 competitors are known. Mallon & Widlund calculate 245 athletes, while De Wael finds 246.
    3. ^ "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
    4. ^ Young (1996), 153
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    7th April. Those in Australia will remember this disruption 10 years ago today:

    1998 Australian waterfront dispute

    April 1998 ABC news report on the Waterfront Dispute.

    The Australian waterfront dispute of 1998 was an event in Australian industrial relations history, in which the Patrick Corporation undertook a restructuring of their operations for the purpose of dismissing their workforce. The restructuring by Patrick Corporation was later ruled illegal by Australian courts. The dispute involved Patrick Corporation terminating the employment of its workforce and locking out the workers of the workplace after the restructuring had taken place, with many of these workers members of the dominant Maritime Union of Australia. The resulting dismissal and locking out of their unionised workforce was supported and backed by the Australian Liberal/National Coalition Government.

    Major events in the dispute occurred in four major ports, where the Patrick Corporation had significant operations: Melbourne, Brisbane, Fremantle and Sydney.[1] It revolved around attempts by Patrick Corporation and the federal government to improve efficiency on Australia's wharves; primarily by reducing staffing numbers and the power of the Maritime Union of Australia.

    Also 7th April is:

    World Health Day

    The World Health Day is a global health awareness day celebrated every year on 7 April, under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as other related organizations.

    In 1948, the WHO held the First World Health Assembly. The Assembly decided to celebrate 7 April of each year, with effect from 1950, as the World Health Day. The World Health Day is held to mark WHO's founding and is seen as an opportunity by the organization to draw worldwide attention to a subject of major importance to global health each year.[1] The WHO organizes international, regional and local events on the Day related to a particular theme. World Health Day is acknowledged by various governments and non-governmental organizations with interests in public health issues, who also organize activities and highlight their support in media reports, such as the Global Health Council.[2]

    World Health Day is one of 11 official global health campaigns marked by WHO, along with World Tuberculosis Day, World Immunization Week, World Malaria Day, World No Tobacco Day, World AIDS Day, World Blood Donor Day, World Chagas Disease Day, World Patient Safety Day, World Antimicrobial Awareness Week and World Hepatitis Day.[3]

    1. ^ World Health Organization: World Health Day. Accessed 16 March 2011.
    2. ^ Global Health Council: World Health Day by Lara Endreszl, 7 April 2009.
    3. ^ World Health Organization: WHO campaigns.

    ...and also on this day in 1948, the WHO came into being:

    World Health Organization

    Coordinates: 46°13′56″N 06°08′03″E / 46.23222°N 6.13417°E / 46.23222; 6.13417

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health.[1] The WHO Constitution, which establishes the agency's governing structure and principles, states its main objective as "the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health."[2] It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, with six semi-autonomous regional offices and 150 field offices worldwide.

    The WHO was established by constitution on 7 April 1948,[3] which is commemorated as World Health Day.[4] The first meeting of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the agency's governing body, took place on 24 July 1948. The WHO incorporated the assets, personnel, and duties of the League of Nations' Health Organisation and the Office International d'Hygiène Publique, including the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).[5] Its work began in earnest in 1951 following a significant infusion of financial and technical resources.[6]

    The WHO's broad mandate includes advocating for universal healthcare, monitoring public health risks, coordinating responses to health emergencies, and promoting human health and well being.[7] It provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards and guidelines, and collects data on global health issues through the World Health Survey. Its flagship publication, the World Health Report, provides expert assessments of global health topics and health statistics on all nations.[8] The WHO also serves as a forum for summits and discussions on health issues.[1]

    The WHO has played a leading role in several public health achievements, most notably the eradication of smallpox, the near-eradication of polio, and the development of an Ebola vaccine. Its current priorities include communicable diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; non-communicable diseases such as heart disease and cancer; healthy diet, nutrition, and food security; occupational health; and substance abuse.

    The WHA, composed of representatives from all 194 member states, serves as the agency's supreme decision-making body. It also elects and advises an executive board made up of 34 health specialists. The WHA convenes annually and is responsible for selecting the director-general, setting goals and priorities, and approving the WHO's budget and activities. The current director-general is Tedros Adhanom, former health minister and foreign minister of Ethiopia, who began his five-year term on 1 July 2017.[9]

    The WHO relies on contributions from member states (both assessed and voluntary) and private donors for funding. As of 2018, it has a budget of over $4.2 billion, a large part of which comes from voluntary contributions from member states.[1] Contributions are assessed by a formula that includes GDP per capita. In 2018–19, the US contributed 15.9% of the WHO's $5.6 billion budget (additionally, American philanthropist Bill Gates provides 9.4% of the funding through his foundation),[ambiguous] the EU and its member states contributed 11%, while China contributed 0.2%.[10] The agency is part of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group.

    1. ^ a b c Jan 24, Published; 2019 (24 January 2019). "The U.S. Government and the World Health Organization". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
    2. ^ "WHO Constitution, BASIC DOCUMENTS, Forty-ninth edition" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 April 2020.
    3. ^ "CONSTITUTION OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION" (PDF). Basic Documents. World Health Organization. Forty-fifth edition, Supplement: 20. October 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
    4. ^ "History". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
    5. ^ "Milestones for health over 70 years". www.euro.who.int. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
    6. ^ "World Health Organization | History, Organization, & Definition of Health". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
    7. ^ "What we do". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
    8. ^ "WHO | World health report 2013: Research for universal health coverage". WHO. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
    9. ^ "Dr Tedros takes office as WHO Director-General". World Health Organization. 1 July 2017. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
    10. ^ "European governments working with U.S. on plans to overhaul WHO, health official says". The Globe and Mail Inc. Reuters. 19 June 2020. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
    Last edited: Apr 7, 2008
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    9th April:

    Alaska purchase

    Redirect to:

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    April 11: Apollo 13 launches:

    Apollo 13

    Apollo 13 was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program and the third meant to land on the Moon. The craft was launched from Kennedy Space Center on April 11, 1970, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank in the service module (SM) failed two days into the mission. The crew instead looped around the Moon, and returned safely to Earth on April 17. The mission was commanded by Jim Lovell with Jack Swigert as command module (CM) pilot and Fred Haise as Apollo Lunar Module (LM) pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for Ken Mattingly, who was grounded after exposure to rubella.

    A routine stir of an oxygen tank ignited damaged wire insulation inside it, causing an explosion that vented the contents of both of the SM's oxygen tanks to space. Without oxygen, needed for breathing and for generating electric power, the SM's propulsion and life support systems could not operate. The CM's systems had to be shut down to conserve its remaining resources for reentry, forcing the crew to transfer to the LM as a lifeboat. With the lunar landing canceled, mission controllers worked to bring the crew home alive.

    Although the LM was designed to support two men on the lunar surface for two days, Mission Control in Houston improvised new procedures so it could support three men for four days. The crew experienced great hardship caused by limited power, a chilly and wet cabin and a shortage of potable water. There was a critical need to adapt the CM's cartridges for the carbon dioxide scrubber system to work in the LM; the crew and mission controllers were successful in improvising a solution. The astronauts' peril briefly renewed public interest in the Apollo program; tens of millions watched the splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean on television.

    An investigative review board found fault with preflight testing of the oxygen tank and the fact that Teflon was placed inside it. The board recommended changes, including minimizing the use of potentially combustible items inside the tank; this was done for Apollo 14. The story of Apollo 13 has been dramatized several times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13 – based on the 1994 memoir co-authored by Lovell Lost Moon - and an episode of the 1998 miniseries From the Earth to the Moon.

    1. ^ "Apollo 13 CM". N2YO.com. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
    2. ^ Orloff 2000, p. 309.
    3. ^ Orloff 2000, p. 284.
    4. ^ Orloff 2000, p. 307.
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    12 April; the first Space Shuttle is launched:


    STS-1 (Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program. The first orbiter, Columbia, launched on 12 April 1981 and returned on 14 April, 54.5 hours later, having orbited the Earth 36 times. Columbia carried a crew of two – mission commander John W. Young and pilot Robert L. Crippen. It was the first American crewed space flight since the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project in 1975. STS-1 was also the only maiden test flight of a new American spacecraft to carry a crew, though it was preceded by atmospheric testing of the orbiter and ground testing of the Space Shuttle system.

    The launch occurred on the 20th anniversary of the first human spaceflight, performed by Yuri Gagarin for the USSR. This was a coincidence rather than a celebration of the anniversary; a technical problem had prevented STS-1 from launching two days earlier, as was planned.

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    April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 262 days remaining until the end of the year.

    It is also the Ides (middle day) of April.

    and in 1997, Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win golf's Masters Tournament.

    Tiger Woods

    Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods (born December 30, 1975) is an American professional golfer. He is tied for first in PGA Tour wins and ranks second in men's major championships and also holds numerous golf records.[5] Woods is widely regarded as one of the greatest golfers, and one of the most famous athletes of all time. He will be inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 2021.[6]

    Following an outstanding junior, college, and amateur golf career, Woods turned professional in 1996 at the age of 20. By the end of April 1997, he had won three PGA Tour events in addition to his first major, the 1997 Masters, which he won by 12 strokes in a record-breaking performance. He reached number one in the world rankings for the first time in June 1997, less than a year after turning pro. Throughout the first decade of the 21st century, Woods was the dominant force in golf. He was the top-ranked golfer in the world from August 1999 to September 2004 (264 weeks) and again from June 2005 to October 2010 (281 weeks). During this time, he won 13 of golf's major championships.

    The next decade of Woods's career was marked by comebacks from personal problems and injuries. He took a self-imposed hiatus from professional golf from December 2009 to early April 2010 in an attempt to resolve marital issues with his then-wife, Elin. Woods admitted to multiple infidelities, and the couple eventually divorced.[7] Woods fell to number 58 in the world rankings in November 2011 before ascending again to the No.1 ranking between March 2013 and May 2014.[8][9] However, injuries led him to undergo four back surgeries between 2014 and 2017.[10] Woods competed in only one tournament between August 2015 and January 2018, and he dropped off the list of the world's top 1,000 golfers.[11][12] On his return to regular competition, Woods made steady progress to the top of the game, winning his first tournament in five years at the Tour Championship in September 2018 and his first major in 11 years at the 2019 Masters.

    Woods has held numerous golf records. He has been the number one player in the world for the most consecutive weeks and for the greatest total number of weeks of any golfer in history. He has been awarded PGA Player of the Year a record 11 times[13] and has won the Byron Nelson Award for lowest adjusted scoring average a record eight times. Woods has the record of leading the money list in ten different seasons. He has won 15 professional major golf championships (trailing only Jack Nicklaus, who leads with 18) and 82 PGA Tour events (tied for first all time with Sam Snead).[14] Woods leads all active golfers in career major wins and career PGA Tour wins. He is the youngest player to achieve the career Grand Slam, and the second golfer (after Nicklaus) to have achieved a career Grand Slam three times. Woods has won 18 World Golf Championships. He was also part of the American winning team for the 1999 Ryder Cup. In May 2019, Woods was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the fourth golfer to receive the honor.[15]

    1. ^ a b "Tiger Woods – Profile". PGA Tour. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
    2. ^ This is calculated by adding Woods's 82 PGA Tour victories, 8 regular European Tour titles, 2 Japan Tour wins, 1 Asian Tour crown, and the 17 other wins in his career.
    3. ^ "Week 24 1997 Ending 15 Jun 1997" (pdf). OWGR. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
    4. ^ 2009 European Tour Official Guide Section 4 Page 577 PDF 21. European Tour. Retrieved April 21, 2009. Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
    5. ^
    6. ^ Harig, Bob (March 11, 2020). "Tiger Woods to be inducted into World Golf Hall of Fame in 2021". ESPN.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference legend was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "Westwood becomes world number one". BBC News. October 31, 2010.
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference chevron was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ "Complete list of Tiger Woods' injuries". PGA Tour.
    11. ^ "With game on point, Tiger Woods is in perfect place to win again at Firestone". USA Today. August 1, 2018.
    12. ^ Reid, Philip (August 14, 2018). "For the new Tiger Woods, second place is far from first loser". The Irish Times. Dublin.
    13. ^ Kelley, Brent (October 20, 2009). "Woods Clinches PGA Player of the Year Award". About.com: Golf. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
    14. ^ "Tracking Tiger". NBC Sports. Archived from the original on June 3, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
    15. ^ Rogers, Katie (May 6, 2019). "'I've Battled,' Tiger Woods Says as He Accepts Presidential Medal of Freedom". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2019.

    Cite error: There are <ref group=notes> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=notes}} template (see the help page).

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    1860 - The first Pony Express rider reaches Sacramento, U.S..

    Pony Express

    Pony Express advertisement
    Pony Express postmark, 1860, westbound

    The Pony Express was a mail service delivering messages, newspapers, and mail using relays of horse-mounted riders that operated from April 3, 1860, to October 26, 1861, between Missouri and California in the United States of America.

    Operated by Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express Company, the Pony Express was of great financial importance to the U.S. During its 18 months of operation, it reduced the time for messages to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts to about 10 days. Many people used the Pony Express as a communication link. It also encouraged catalogs to be created, allowing people to buy goods and have them brought by horse to the customers.[1] It became the West's most direct means of east-west communication before the transcontinental telegraph was established (October 24, 1861), and was vital for tying the new U.S. state of California with the rest of the United States.

    Despite a heavy subsidy, the Pony Express was not a financial success and went bankrupt in 18 months, when faster telegraph service was established. Nevertheless, it demonstrated that a unified transcontinental system of communications could be established and operated year-round. When replaced by the telegraph, the Pony Express quickly became romanticized and became part of the lore of the American West. Its reliance on the ability and endurance of individual young, hardy riders and fast horses was seen as evidence of rugged American individualism of the frontier times.

    1. ^ Bradley (1913), pp. 25–29.
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    April 1912 -The British passenger liner RMS Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic

    RMS Titanic

    Redirect to:

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    April 16. 2007 - Virginia Tech massacre: the deadliest mass shooting in modern American history, in which a gunman shoots 32 people to death and injures 23 others before committing suicide.

    Virginia Tech massacre

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    April 17:

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: invasión de bahía de Cochinos; sometimes called invasión de playa Girón or batalla de Girón, after the Playa Girón) was a failed landing operation on the southwestern coast of Cuba in 1961 by Cuban exiles who opposed Fidel Castro's Cuban Revolution. Covertly financed and directed by the U.S. government, the operation took place at the height of the Cold War, and its failure led to major shifts in international relations between Cuba, the United States, and the Soviet Union.

    In 1952, American ally General Fulgencio Batista led a coup against President Carlos Prio and forced Prio into exile in Miami, Florida. Prio's exile inspired the creation of the 26th of July Movement against Batista by Castro. The movement successfully completed the Cuban Revolution in December 1958. Castro nationalized American businesses—including banks, oil refineries, and sugar and coffee plantations—then severed Cuba's formerly close relations with the United States and reached out to its Cold War rival, the Soviet Union. In response, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower allocated $13.1 million to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in March 1960, for use against Castro. With the aid of Cuban counter-revolutionaries, the CIA proceeded to organize an invasion operation.

    After Castro's victory, Cuban exiles who had traveled to the U.S. had formed the counter-revolutionary military unit Brigade 2506. The brigade fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF), and its purpose was to overthrow Castro's increasingly-communist government. The CIA funded the brigade, which also included some U.S. military[6] personnel, and trained the unit in Guatemala.

    Over 1,400 paramilitaries, divided into five infantry battalions and one paratrooper battalion, assembled and launched from Guatemala and Nicaragua by boat on 17 April 1961. Two days earlier, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers had attacked Cuban airfields and then returned to the U.S. On the night of 17 April, the main invasion force landed on the beach at Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs, where it overwhelmed a local revolutionary militia. Initially, José Ramón Fernández led the Cuban Army counter-offensive; later, Castro took personal control. As the invaders lost the strategic initiative, the international community found out about the invasion, and U.S. President John F. Kennedy decided to withhold further air support.[7] The plan devised during Eisenhower's presidency had required involvement of both air and naval forces. Without air support, the invasion was being conducted with fewer forces than the CIA had deemed necessary. The invaders surrendered on 20 April. Most of the invading counter-revolutionary troops were publicly interrogated and put into Cuban prisons. The invading force had been defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias – FAR).

    The invasion was a U.S. foreign policy failure. The invasion's defeat solidified Castro's role as a national hero and widened the political division between the two formerly-allied countries. It also pushed Cuba closer to the Soviet Union, and those strengthened Soviet-Cuban relations would lead to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.

    1. ^ Kellner 1989, pp. 69–70. "Historians give Guevara, who was director of instruction for Cuba's armed forces, a share of credit for the victory".
    2. ^ Szulc (1986), p. 450. "The revolutionaries won because Castro's strategy was vastly superior to the Central Intelligence Agency's because the revolutionary morale was high and because Che Guevara as the head of the militia training program and Fernández as commander of the militia officers' school, had done so well in preparing 200,000 men and women for war."
    3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference szulc1986 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b FRUS X, documents 19, 24, 35, 245, 271.
    5. ^ a b Quesada 2009, p. 46.
    6. ^ "Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Alabama Air National Guard | Encyclopedia of Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
    7. ^ Voss, Michael (14 April 2011). "The 'perfect failure' of Cuba invasion". BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
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    April 18: 1923 - Yankee Stadium, "The House that Ruth Built", opens.

    Yankee Stadium

    Yankee Stadium is a baseball park located in Concourse, Bronx, New York City. It is the home field for the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball (MLB) and New York City FC of Major League Soccer (MLS), as well as being the host stadium for the annual Pinstripe Bowl game. The $2.3 billion stadium, built with $1.2 billion in public subsidies,[7] replaced the original Yankee Stadium in 2009 and is the second largest stadium in MLB by seating capacity. It is located one block north of the original, on the 24-acre (9.7 ha) former site of Macombs Dam Park; the 8-acre (3.2 ha) site of the original stadium is now a public park called Heritage Field.

    The stadium incorporates replicas of some design elements from the original Yankee Stadium, and like its predecessor, it has hosted additional events, including college football games, soccer matches, two outdoor NHL games, and concerts. Although Yankee Stadium's construction began in August 2006, the project spanned many years and faced many controversies, including the high public cost and the loss of public parkland. The $1.5 billion price tag makes the new Yankee Stadium one of the most expensive stadiums ever built.[23]

    1. ^ Mushnick, Phil. "Yankees brass turned Stadium games into a funeral". nypost.com. The New York Post. Retrieved August 29, 2017. Given the Stadium was short roughly 15,000 who might’ve otherwise been there...
    2. ^ Popper, Daniel. "Young star Aaron Judge the talk of Yankees' Old-Timers' Day at the Stadium". nydailynews.com. The New York Daily News. Retrieved August 29, 2017. Many of the greatest living Yankees from the past half-century graced the field at the Stadium Sunday for Old-Timers’ Day...
    3. ^ "The House That Jeter Built". MLB.com. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
    4. ^ Russ, Hilary. "New York Yankees baseball team to refinance $1 billion of stadium debt". Reuters.com.
    5. ^ a b "S&P raises Yankee Stadium bonds to 'BBB'". Reuters.com.
    6. ^ Brown, Maury. "Yankees parent group carrying nearly $2 billion in debt". TheFreeLibrary.com (Business of Sports Network).
    7. ^ a b http://www.fieldofschemes.com/documents/Yanks-Mets-costs.pdf
    8. ^ "Yankee Stadium". Populous. Archived from the original on November 27, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
    9. ^ a b Scarangello, Thomas Z.; Squarzini, Michael J. (July 2009). "New Yankee Stadium respects its rich history". Structural Engineer. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
    10. ^ "Yankee Stadium". Ballparks Munsey and Suppes. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
    11. ^ a b "New York City FC outline plans for Yankee Stadium's baseball-to-soccer conversion". Major League Soccer. April 21, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
    12. ^ "2018 Official Media Guide and Record Book". Major League Baseball Advanced Media. February 22, 2018. p. 347. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
    13. ^ "New York Yankees on the Forbes MLB Team Valuations List". Forbes. April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
    14. ^ Kronheim, David P. (2016). "2015 MLB Attendance Analysis" (PDF). Flushing, NY: Number Tamer. pp. 11, 165. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
    15. ^ "New York Yankees on the Forbes MLB Team Valuations List". Forbes. March 25, 2015. Archived from the original on June 4, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
    16. ^ Marchand, Andrew; Matthews, Wallace (March 25, 2014). "Question 4: Will Jeter Lure 4 Million Fans?". ESPN. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
    17. ^ Perrotto, John (October 12, 2012). "Yankee Stadium Sea of Blue – Empty Seats – at Game Time". USA Today. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
    18. ^ Shpigel, Ben (October 14, 2010). "Vazquez's Final Pitch in Pinstripes?". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
    19. ^ Booth, Mark. "What's New for NYCFC This Season?". NYCFC.com. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
    20. ^ "Notre Dame Shut Downs Army, Rolls In New Yankee Stadium Debut". University of Notre Dame Official Athletic Site. Associated Press. November 20, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
    21. ^ "Tigers Beat Yankees 3–2, Head to ALCS vs Texas". Sports Illustrated. Associated Press. October 6, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
    22. ^ Notre Dame Shut Downs Army, Rolls In New Yankee Stadium Debut
    23. ^ "NYC baseball stadium subsidies: Do I hear $1.8B?". Field of Schemes. Archived from the original on March 21, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
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    April 19 1995 - Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, is bombed, killing 168.

    Oklahoma City bombing

    The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States, on April 19, 1995. Perpetrated by anti-government extremists Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, the bombing happened at 9:02 am and killed at least 168 people, including many children,[1] injured more than 680 others, and destroyed more than one third of the building, which had to be demolished.[2] The blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings within a 16-block radius, shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, and destroyed or burned 86 cars,[3][4] causing an estimated $652 million worth of damage.[5] Local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies engaged in extensive rescue efforts in the wake of the bombing. They and the city received substantial donations from across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated 11 of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations.[6][7] Until the September 11 attacks in 2001, the Oklahoma City bombing was the deadliest terrorist attack in the history of the United States. It remains the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in U.S. history.

    Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma Highway Patrolman Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for illegal weapons possession.[8][9] Forensic evidence quickly linked McVeigh and Nichols to the attack; Nichols was arrested,[10] and within days, both were charged. Michael and Lori Fortier were later identified as accomplices. McVeigh, a veteran of the Gulf War and a sympathizer with the U.S. militia movement, had detonated a Ryder rental truck full of explosives he parked in front of the building. Nichols had assisted with the bomb's preparation. Motivated by his dislike for the U.S. federal government and unhappy about its handling of the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992 and the Waco siege in 1993, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the fire that ended the siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas.[11][12]

    The official FBI investigation, known as "OKBOMB", involved 28,000 interviews and collecting 3.5 short tons (3,200 kg) of evidence and nearly one billion pieces of information.[13][14][15] The bombers were tried and convicted in 1997. Sentenced to death, McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001, at the U.S. federal penitentiary in Terre Haute, Indiana. Nichols was sentenced to life in prison in 2004. Michael and Lori Fortier testified against McVeigh and Nichols; Michael Fortier was sentenced to 12 years in prison for failing to warn the United States government, and Lori received immunity from prosecution in exchange for her testimony.

    In response to the bombing, the U.S. Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, which tightened the standards for habeas corpus in the United States.[16] It also passed legislation to increase the protection around federal buildings to deter future terrorist attacks.

    On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building, commemorating the victims of the bombing. Remembrance services are held every year on April 19, at the time of the explosion.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference VictimsList was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Shariat, Sheryll; Sue Mallonee; Shelli Stephens-Stidham (December 1998). "Oklahoma City Bombing Injuries" (PDF). Injury Prevention Service, Oklahoma State Department of Health. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 18, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014. Shariat et al. count only 167 killed "as a direct result of the bombing or during escape". They did not include Rebecca Needham Anderson, who – having seen the bombing on TV in Midwest City, Oklahoma – came to the rescue and was killed by a piece of falling debris.The Final Sacrifice of a Gallant Nurse Archived August 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
    3. ^ "Oklahoma City Police Department Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing After Action Report" (PDF). Terrorism Info. p. 58. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2007.
    4. ^ "Case Study 30: Preventing glass from becoming a lethal weapon". Safety Solutions Online. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007.
    5. ^ Hewitt, Christopher (2003). Understanding Terrorism in America: from the Klan to al Qaeda. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-415-27765-5.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference USDJ2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "FEMA Urban Search And Rescue (USAR) Summaries" (PDF). Federal Emergency Management Agency. p. 64. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2006.
    8. ^ "Timothy McVeigh is apprehended" (Video, 3 minutes). NBC News Report. April 22, 1995.
    9. ^ Ottley, Ted (April 14, 2005). "License Tag Snag". truTV. Archived from the original on August 29, 2011.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference TerrorFamily was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Feldman, Paul (June 18, 1995). "Militia Groups Growing, Study Says Extremism: Despite negative publicity since Oklahoma bombing, membership has risen, Anti-Defamation League finds" (Fee required). Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
    12. ^ "McVeigh offers little remorse in letters". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. June 10, 2001. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012.
    13. ^ Serano, Richard. One of Ours: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing. pp. 139–141.
    14. ^ "Lessons learned, and not learned, 11 years later". NBC News. Associated Press. April 16, 2006.
    15. ^ Hamm, Mark S (1997). Apocalypse in Oklahoma. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-55553-300-7.
    16. ^ Doyle, Charles (June 3, 1996). "Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary". FAS. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011.
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    April 21: 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome

    Romulus and Remus

    La Lupa Capitolina "the Capitoline Wolf". Traditional scholarship says the wolf-figure is Etruscan, 5th century BC. The figures of Romulus and Remus were added in the 15th century AD by Antonio Pollaiuolo. Recent studies suggest that the she-wolf may be a medieval sculpture dating from the 13th century AD.[1] The work's attribution attests to the enduring nature of the myth.
    Altar to Mars (divine father of Romulus and Remus) and Venus (their divine ancestress) depicting elements of their legend. Tiberinus, the Father of the Tiber and the infant twins being suckled by a she-wolf in the Lupercal are below. A vulture from the contest of augury and Palatine hill are to the left. (From Ostia, now at the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme).
    The Shepherd Faustulus Bringing Romulus and Remus to His Wife, Nicolas Mignard (1654)
    Romulus and Remus on the House of the She-wolf at the Grand Place of Brussels.

    In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus (Latin[ˈroːmʊlʊs], [ˈrɛmʊs]) are twin brothers whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus. The killing of Remus by his brother, along with other tales from their story, have inspired artists throughout the ages. Since ancient times, the image of the twins suckling a she-wolf has been a symbol of the city of Rome and the ancient Romans. Although the tale takes place before the founding of Rome around 750 BC, the earliest known written account of the myth is from the late 3rd century BC. Possible historical basis for the story, as well as whether the twins' myth was an original part of Roman myth or a later development, is a subject of ongoing debate.

    1. ^ Adriano La Regina, "La lupa del Campidoglio è medievale la prova è nel test al carbonio". La Repubblica. 9 July 2008
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    April 22: 1509 - Henry VIII ascends the throne of England after the death of his father.

    Henry VIII of England

    Redirect to:

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    April 23: 1985 - Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. (The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.)

    New Coke

    New Coke was the unofficial name for the reformulation of Coca-Cola introduced in April 1985 by the Coca-Cola Company. It was renamed Coke II in 1992,[1] and was discontinued in July 2002.

    By 1985, Coca-Cola had been losing market share to diet soft drinks and non-cola beverages for many years. Blind taste tests indicated that consumers seemed to prefer the sweeter taste of rival Pepsi-Cola, and so the Coca-Cola recipe was reformulated. However, the American public's reaction to the change was negative, and "New Coke" was considered a major failure. The company reintroduced the original Coke formula within three months, rebranded "Coca-Cola Classic", resulting in a significant sales boost; this led to speculation that the New Coke formula had been a marketing ploy to stimulate sales of the original Coca-Cola, which the company has denied.[2] The story of New Coke remains influential as a cautionary tale against tampering with a well-established and successful brand.

    1. ^ Jamieson, Sean (April 5, 1990). "Coke II makes its Spokane debut". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). p. A8.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snopes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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    April 24: 1980 - Eight U.S. servicemen died in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempted to end the Iran hostage crisis.

    Operation Eagle Claw

    Operation Eagle Claw, known as Operation Tabas (Persian: عملیات طبس‎) in Iran,[1] was a United States Armed Forces operation ordered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter to attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis by rescuing 52 embassy staff held captive at the Embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980.

    The operation, one of Delta Force's first,[2] encountered many obstacles and failures and was subsequently aborted. Eight helicopters were sent to the first staging area called Desert One, but only five arrived in operational condition.[3] One had encountered hydraulic problems, another was caught in a sand storm, and the third showed signs of a cracked rotor blade. During the operational planning, it was decided that the mission would be aborted if fewer than six helicopters remained operational, despite only four being absolutely necessary.[3] In a move that is still discussed in military circles, the field commanders advised President Carter to abort the mission, which he did.[4]

    As the U.S. forces prepared to withdraw from Desert One, one of the remaining helicopters crashed into a transport aircraft that contained both servicemen and jet fuel. The resulting fire destroyed both aircraft and killed eight servicemen.[3]

    In the context of the Iranian Revolution, Iran's new leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, used the failed operation as a propaganda tool. He claimed that the mission had been stopped by an act of God ("angels of God") who had foiled the U.S. mission in order to protect Iran and his new conservative theocratic government. In turn, Carter blamed his loss in the 1980 U.S. presidential election mainly on his failure to secure the release of the hostages.[5]

    1. ^ AFSOC.af.mil Archived 16 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gabriel106 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b c Bowden, Mark. "The Desert One Debacle". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
    4. ^ "Operation Eagle Claw, 1980: A Case Study In Crisis Management and Military Planning".
    5. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Iran hostage rescue should have and could have worked if the US was more prepared". USA Today. 17 September 2010.
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    1916 - Anzac Day commemorated for the first time, on the first anniversary of the landing at Anzac Cove

    Anzac Day

    The remembrance poppy is an artificial flower that has been used since 1921 to commemorate war dead.
    Flags on the cenotaph in Wellington for the 2007 Dawn March. From left to right, the flags of New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Australia
    First Anzac Day parade in Sydney, along Macquarie Street, 25 April 1916.

    Anzac Day (/ˈænzæk/) is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served".[1][2] Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally devised to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who served in the Gallipoli Campaign, their first engagement in the First World War (1914–1918).

    1. ^ "ANZAC Day". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
    2. ^ "Anzac Day Today". Anzac.govt.nz. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
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    1974_Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon

    Carnation Revolution

    The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April (Portuguese: 25 de Abril), was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup in Lisbon which overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime.[1] The revolution began as a coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement (Portuguese: Movimento das Forças Armadas, MFA), composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it was soon coupled with an unanticipated, popular civil resistance campaign. The revolution led to the fall of the Estado Novo, terminated the Portuguese Colonial War, and started a revolutionary process that would result in a democratic Portugal.

    Its name arose from the fact that almost no shots were fired, and Celeste Caeiro offered carnations to the soldiers when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship; other demonstrators followed suit, and carnations were placed in the muzzles of guns and on the soldiers' uniforms.[2] In Portugal, 25 April is a national holiday (Portuguese: Dia da Liberdade, Freedom Day) which commemorates the revolution.

    1. ^ "1974: Rebels seize control of Portugal", On This Day, 25 April, BBC, 25 April 1974, retrieved 2 January 2010
    2. ^ Association, Peter Booker, Algarve History. "Why April 25th is a holiday – the Carnation Revolution and the events of 1974". Retrieved 29 December 2017.
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    April 26: 1986 - In Ukraine, a nuclear reactor accident occurs at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, creating the world's worst nuclear disaster.

    Chernobyl plant

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    April 28: 1996 - In Tasmania, Australia, Martin Bryant goes on a shooting spree, killing 35 people and seriously injuring 37 more.

    Martin Bryant

    Martin John Bryant[1] (born 7 May 1967) is a convicted Australian mass shooter[2] who murdered 35 people and injured 23 others in the Port Arthur massacre, one of the world's deadliest shooting sprees, in Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia, between 28 and 29 April 1996. He is concurrently serving 35 life sentences, plus 1,035 years, all without the possibility of parole, at Risdon Prison in Hobart.

    1. ^ Wainwright, Robert; Totaro, Paola (27 April 2009). "A dangerous mind: what turned Martin Bryant into a mass murderer?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
    2. ^ "Port Arthur: Witnesses recall horror of Martin Bryant's mass shooting in Tasmania". ABC News. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
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    April 29: 1992 - 1992 Los Angeles riots: Riots in Los Angeles, California, follow the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. Over the next three days 53 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.

    1992 Los Angeles riots

    The 1992 Los Angeles riots, sometimes called the 1992 Los Angeles uprising,[5][6] were a series of riots and civil disturbances that occurred in Los Angeles County in April and May 1992. Unrest began in South Central Los Angeles on April 29, after a trial jury acquitted four officers of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) for usage of excessive force in the arrest and beating of Rodney King, which had been videotaped and widely viewed in TV broadcasts.

    The rioting took place in several areas in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, as thousands of people rioted over a six-day period following the announcement of the verdict. Widespread looting, assault, and arson occurred during the riots, which local police forces had difficulty controlling due to lack of personnel and resources. The situation in the Los Angeles area was only resolved after the California National Guard, the United States military, and several federal law enforcement agencies were deployed to assist in ending the violence and unrest.

    By the time the riots ended, 63 people had been killed,[7] 2,383 had been injured, more than 12,000 had been arrested, and estimates of property damage were over $1 billion, much of which disproportionately affected Koreatown, where the bulk of rioting occurred. LAPD Chief of Police Daryl Gates, who had already announced his resignation by the time of the riots, was attributed with much of the blame for failure to de-escalate the situation and overall mismanagement.[8][9]

    1. ^ Lieberman, Paul (June 18, 1992). "51% of Riot Arrests Were Latino, Study Says : Unrest: RAND analysis of court cases finds they were mostly young men. The figures are open to many interpretations, experts note". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
    2. ^ "Los Angeles riots: Remember the 63 people who died". April 26, 2012.
    3. ^ Harris, Paul (1999). Black Rage Confronts the Law. NYU Press. p. 186. ISBN 9780814735923. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
    4. ^ Rayner, Richard (1998). The Granta Book of Reportage. Granta Books. p. 424. ISBN 9781862071933. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
    5. ^ Danver, Steven L., ed. (2011). "Los Angeles Uprising (1992)". Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia, Volume 3. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. pp. 1095–1100. ISBN 978-1-59884-222-7.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bergesen & Herman was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Miranda, Carolina A. (April 28, 2017). "Of the 63 people killed during '92 riots, 23 deaths remain unsolved — artist Jeff Beall is mapping where they fell". Los Angeles Times.
    8. ^ Cannon, Lou; Lee, Gary (May 2, 1992). "Much Of Blame Is Laid On Chief Gates". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 22, 2018.
    9. ^ Mydans, Seth (October 22, 1992). "Failures of City Blamed for Riot In Los Angeles". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 23, 2018. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
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    30 April: 1975 - Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gain control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ends with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh.

    Fall of Saigon

    The Fall of Saigon,[1][2] also known as the Liberation of Saigon,[3] was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Viet Cong on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.[4]

    The PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. By the afternoon of the next day, the PAVN had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace. The city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the late North Vietnamese President Hồ Chí Minh.

    The capture of the city was preceded by Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of almost all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians who had been associated with the southern regime. A few Americans chose not to be evacuated. US ground combat units had left South Vietnam more than two years prior to the fall of Saigon and were not available to assist with either the defense of Saigon or the evacuation.[5] The evacuation was the largest helicopter evacuation in history.[6]:202 In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and the institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city's population.[7]

    1. ^ Los Angeles Times (29 April 2015). "Is it Liberation Day or Defeat Day in Saigon?". latimes.com. Archived from the original on 2016-02-16. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
    2. ^ "Giai Phong! The Fall and Liberation of Saigon". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2016-02-16. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
    3. ^ Long, Ngo Vinh (1993). "Post-Paris Agreement Struggles and the Fall of Saigon". In Werner, Jayne Susan; Huynh, Luu Doan (eds.). The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American Perspectives. M.E. Sharpe. p. 204. ISBN 9780765638632.; Thap, Nguyen Thi (2012). "Returning to my Home Village". In Dutton, George; Werner, Jayne; Whitmore, John K. (eds.). Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 547–53. ISBN 9780231511100.
    4. ^ "The U.S. and Vietnam: 40 Years After the Fall of Saigon". Archived from the original on 2018-11-04. Retrieved 2018-11-03..
    5. ^
    6. ^ Dunham, George R (1990). U.S. Marines in Vietnam: The Bitter End, 1973–1975 (Marine Corps Vietnam Operational Historical Series). History and Museums Division Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. ISBN 978016026455-9. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
    7. ^ Desbarats, Jacqueline. "Repression in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Executions and Population Relocation", from The Vietnam Debate (1990) by John Morton Moore.
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    1 May: 1328 - Wars of Scottish Independence end: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton – England recognises Scotland as an independent nation.

    Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton

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    2 May: 1946 - "Battle of Alcatraz" - Alcatraz Federal prison, San Francisco is taken over by six inmates following failed escape attempt

    Battle of Alcatraz

    The Battle of Alcatraz, which lasted from May 2 to 4, 1946, was the result of an unsuccessful escape attempt at Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary by armed convicts. Two Federal Bureau of Prisons officers—William A. Miller and Harold Stites—were killed along with three of the perpetrators. Fourteen other officers and one uninvolved convict were also injured. Two of the surviving perpetrators were later executed in 1948 for their roles.[1]

    1. ^ "A Brief History of Alcatraz". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 2009-06-17.
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    May 3: 1979 - Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher to become United Kingdom's first female prime minister as the Labour government is ousted in parliamentary elections.

    Margaret Thatcher

    Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, DStJ, PC, FRS, HonFRSC (née Roberts; 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was a British politician and stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to hold that office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As prime minister, she implemented policies that became known as Thatcherism.

    Thatcher studied chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford, and worked briefly as a research chemist, before becoming a barrister. She was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his 1970–1974 government. In 1975, she defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition, the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. On becoming prime minister after winning the 1979 general election, Thatcher introduced a series of economic policies intended to reverse high inflation and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an oncoming recession.[nb 1] Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Her popularity in her first years in office waned amid recession and rising unemployment, until victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her landslide re-election in 1983. She survived an assassination attempt by the Provisional IRA in the 1984 Brighton hotel bombing and achieved a political victory against the National Union of Mineworkers in the 1984–85 miners' strike.

    Thatcher was re-elected for a third term with another landslide in 1987, but her subsequent support for the Community Charge ("poll tax") was widely unpopular, and her increasingly Eurosceptic views on the European Community were not shared by others in her cabinet. She resigned as prime minister and party leader in 1990, after a challenge was launched to her leadership.[nb 2] After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher (of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire) which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. In 2013, she died of a stroke at the Ritz Hotel, London, at the age of 87.

    A controversial figure in British politics, Thatcher is nonetheless viewed favourably in historical rankings of British prime ministers. Her tenure constituted a realignment towards neoliberal policies in the United Kingdom and debate over the complicated legacy attributed to Thatcherism persists into the 21st century.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference PoliticalStuff.co.uk was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Heffer was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

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    May 4: 1924 - The 1924 Summer Olympics open in Paris, France.

    1924 Summer Olympics

    The 1924 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.

    It was the second time Paris hosted the games (after 1900), becoming the first city to host the Olympics twice. The selection process for the 1924 Summer Olympics consisted of six bids, and Paris was selected ahead of Amsterdam, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Prague, and Rome. The selection was made at the 20th IOC Session in Lausanne in 1921.[2]

    The cost of these Games was estimated to be 10,000,000F. With total receipts at 5,496,610F, the Olympics resulted in a hefty loss despite crowds that reached 60,000 people at a time.[3]

    The opening ceremony was held on 5 July, but some competitions were already started from 4 May. The United States won the most gold and overall medals, having 229 athletes competing compared to France's 401.

    1. ^ "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
    2. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
    3. ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
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    May 5; 1494 - Christopher Columbus discovers the island of Jamaica and claims it for Spain.

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus[a] (/kəˈlʌmbəs/;[3] between 25 August and 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer and navigator who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, opening the way for European exploration and colonization of the Americas. His expeditions, sponsored by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, were the first European contact with the Caribbean, Central America, and South America.

    Scholars generally agree that Columbus was born in the Republic of Genoa and spoke a dialect of Ligurian as his first language. He went to sea at a young age and travelled widely, as far north as the British Isles and as far south as what is now Ghana. He married Portuguese noblewoman Filipa Moniz Perestrelo and was based in Lisbon for several years, but later took a Castilian mistress; he had one son with each woman. Though largely self-educated, Columbus was widely read in geography, astronomy, and history. He formulated a plan to seek a western sea passage to the East Indies, hoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade. Following Columbus's persistent lobbying to multiple kingdoms, Catholic monarchs Queen Isabella I and King Ferdinand II agreed to sponsor a journey west. Columbus left Castile in August 1492 with three ships, and made landfall in the Americas on 12 October (ending the period of human habitation in the Americas now referred to as the pre-Columbian era). His landing place was an island in the Bahamas, known by its native inhabitants as Guanahani. Columbus subsequently visited the islands now known as Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti. This was the first European settlement in the Americas since the Norse colonies begun some 500 years earlier. Columbus returned to Castile in early 1493, bringing a number of captured natives with him. Word of his voyages soon spread throughout Europe.

    Columbus made three further voyages to the New World, exploring the Lesser Antilles in 1493, Trinidad and the northern coast of South America in 1498, and the eastern coast of Central America in 1502. Many of the names he gave to geographical features—particularly islands—are still in use. He continued to seek a passage to the East Indies, and the extent to which he was aware that the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain. He never clearly renounced his belief that he had reached the Far East and gave the name indios ("Indians") to the indigenous peoples he encountered. As a colonial governor, Columbus was accused by his contemporaries of significant brutality and was soon removed from the post. Columbus's strained relationship with the Crown of Castile and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown. Columbus's expeditions inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for centuries, helping create the modern Western world. The transfers between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange.

    Columbus was widely venerated in the centuries after his death, but public perception has fractured in recent decades as scholars give greater attention to the harm committed under his governance, particularly the near-extermination of Hispaniola's indigenous Taíno population from mistreatment and European diseases, as well as their enslavement. Proponents of the Black Legend theory of history claim that Columbus has been unfairly maligned as part of a wider anti-Catholic sentiment. Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia and the District of Columbia.

    1. ^ Lester, Paul M. (January 1993). "Looks are deceiving: The portraits of Christopher Columbus". Visual Anthropology. 5 (3–4): 211–227. doi:10.1080/08949468.1993.9966590.
    2. ^ Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Columbus, Diego. The youngest brother of Christopher Columbus" . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead. – The names Giacomo and Diego are cognates, along with James, all sharing a common origin. See Behind the Name, Mike Campbell, pages Giacomo, Diego, and James. All retrieved 3 February 2017.
    3. ^ "Columbus". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

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    May 5: 1954 - Roger Bannister becomes the first person to run the mile in under four minutes.

    Roger Bannister

    Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister CH CBE FRCP (23 March 1929 – 3 March 2018) was a British middle-distance athlete and neurologist who ran the first sub-4-minute mile.

    At the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Bannister set a British record in the 1500 metres and finished in fourth place. This achievement strengthened his resolve to become the first athlete to finish the mile run in under four minutes. He accomplished this feat on 6 May 1954 at Iffley Road track in Oxford, with Chris Chataway and Chris Brasher providing the pacing. When the announcer, Norris McWhirter, declared "The time was three...", the cheers of the crowd drowned out Bannister's exact time, which was 3 minutes and 59.4 seconds. He had attained this record with minimal training, while practising as a junior doctor. Bannister's record lasted just 46 days.

    Bannister went on to become a neurologist and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, before retiring in 1993. As Master of Pembroke, he was on the governing body of Abingdon School from 1986 to 1993.[3] When asked whether the 4-minute mile was his proudest achievement, he said he felt prouder of his contribution to academic medicine through research into the responses of the nervous system. Bannister was patron of the MSA Trust. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 2011.[4]

    1. ^ a b c "Roger Bannister at sports-reference.com". www.sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
    2. ^ All-Athletics. "Profile of Roger Bannister". Archived from the original on 4 April 2016.
    3. ^ "Abingdon School Athletics" (PDF). The Abingdonian.
    4. ^ Sale, Jerome (2 May 2014). "Sir Roger Bannister reveals Parkinson's disease battle". BBC News.
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    May 7: 2007 - The tomb of Herod the Great is discovered.

    Herod the Great

    Herod I (/ˈhɛrəd/; Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, Modern: Hōrdōs, Tiberian: Hōrĕḏōs (Fima); Greek: Ἡρῴδης Hērǭdēs; c. 72 – 4 or 1 BCE), also known as Herod the Great, was a Roman client king of Judea,[3][4][5] referred to as the Herodian kingdom. The history of his legacy has polarized opinion, as he is known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea, including his renovation of the Second Temple in Jerusalem and the expansion of the Temple Mount towards its north,[6] the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron, the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima, the fortress at Masada, and Herodium. Vital details of his life are recorded in the works of the 1st century CE Roman–Jewish historian Josephus.[7] Herod also appears in the Christian Gospel of Matthew as the ruler of Judea who orders the Massacre of the Innocents at the time of the birth of Jesus, although a majority of Herod biographers do not believe this event to have occurred.[8] Despite his successes, including singlehandedly forging a new aristocracy from practically nothing,[9] he has still garnered criticism from various historians. His reign polarizes opinion amongst scholars and historians, some viewing his legacy as evidence of success, and some as a reminder of his tyrannical rule.[7]

    Upon Herod's death, the Romans divided his kingdom among three of his sons and his sister: Archelaus became ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea; Herod Antipas became tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea; Philip became tetrarch of territories north and east of the Jordan; and Salome I was given a toparchy including the cities of Jabneh, Ashdod, and Phasaelis.

    1. ^ Alternative identifications of the statue's subject include Ptolemy IX and Ptolemy X. See Rocca, Samuel (2015). Herod's Judaea: A Mediterranean State in the Classic World. Eugene: Wipf and Stock. pp. 127–128. ISBN 9781498224543.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Steinmann 2009, pp. 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Perowne (2003). Herod the Great. pp. 92–93. ISBN 0-7509-3273-2.
    4. ^ Peters, Francis E. (2005). The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Volume II: The Words and Will of God The Words And Will of God. Princeton University Press.
    5. ^ Kasher, Aryeh; Witztum, Eliezer (2007). King Herod: a persecuted persecutor : a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography. Translation by Karen Gold. Walter de Gruyter.
    6. ^ Josephus, Antiquities (15.11.67); cf. Babylonian Talmud (Ta'anit 23a). Josephus, The Jewish War (1.21.1). Herod the Great rebuilt the Temple sanctuary and expanded the Temple Mount at its north side around the older Temple courts, and "enclosed an area double the former size." Formerly, according to the Mishnah (Middot 2:1), the Temple Mount had measured 500 cubits x 500 cubits square, and its expansion was done to accommodate the pilgrims.
    7. ^ a b Schwartz, Seth (2014). "Herod to Florus". The Ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 59–62. ISBN 978-1-107-04127-1.
    8. ^ Maier 1998, p. 170-171.
    9. ^ Cohen, Shaye. Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Prentice Hall Biblical Archeological Society. p. 269.
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    May 7: 1886 - Pharmacist John Styth Pemberton invents a carbonated beverage that would later be named "Coca-Cola".

    John Styth Pemberton

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    May 9: 1941 - World War II: The German submarine U-110 is captured by the Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.

    Enigma cryptography machine

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    May 10: 1908 - Mother's Day is observed for the first time in the United States - in Grafton, West Virginia.

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    May 11: 1997 - IBM Deep Blue, a chess-playing supercomputer, defeats Garry Kasparov in the last game of the rematch, becoming the first computer to beat a world-champion chess player.

    IBM Deep Blue

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    May 13: 1958 - Velcro's trade mark is registered


    Velcro is a privately held company, founded by Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral in the 1950s, that is known for being the original manufacturer of hook-and-loop fasteners.

    1. ^ "Company Information". Velcro. Velcro BVBA. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
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    14 May: 1948 - Israel declared to be an independent state and a provisional government is established. Immediately after the declaration, Israel was attacked by the neighboring Arab states. The War of Independence begins.


    Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35

    Israel (/ˈɪzriəl, ˈɪzrəl/; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל‎; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎), officially known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, Medinat Yisra'el), is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the east and west,[22] respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv,[23] while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although international recognition of the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem is limited.[24][25][26][27][fn 4]

    Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa.[28] Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age,[29][30] while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age.[31][32] The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE.[33] Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.[34][35] The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE,[36] which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea.[37] Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction,[36] the expulsion of the Jewish population[36][38] and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina.[39] Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement followed by immigration to Palestine.

    During the first half of the 20th century, the land was controlled as a mandate of the British Empire from 1920-1948, having been ceded by the Ottomans at the end of the First World War. Not long after, the Second World War saw the mandate bombed heavily and Yishuv Jews serve for the Allies, after the British agreed to supply arms and form a Jewish Brigade in 1944. Amidst growing tension and with the British eager to appease both Arab and Jewish factions, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine in 1947 recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem.[40] The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders.[41][42][43] The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states.[44] Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries,[45] and since the Six-Day War in June 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim).[46][47][48][fn 5] Subsequent legislative acts have resulted in the full application of Israeli law within the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, as well as its partial application in the West Bank via "pipelining" into Israeli settlements.[49][50][51][52] Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is internationally considered to be the world's longest military occupation in modern times.[fn 5][56] Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement, while Israel has signed peace treaties with both Egypt and Jordan.

    In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the Jewish people.[57] The country is a liberal democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage.[58][59] The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. With a population of around 9 million as of 2019,[60] Israel is a developed country and an OECD member.[61] It has the world's 31st-largest economy by nominal GDP, and is the most developed country currently in conflict.[62] It has the highest standard of living in the Middle East,[21] and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training,[63] percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree,[64] research and development spending by GDP percentage,[65] women's safety,[66] life expectancy,[67] innovativeness,[68] and happiness.[69]

    1. ^ "Australia recognises West Jerusalem as Israeli capital". BBC News. 15 December 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
    2. ^ "Foreign Ministry statement regarding Palestinian-Israeli settlement". www.mid.ru. 6 April 2017.
    3. ^ "Czech Republic announces it recognizes West Jerusalem as Israel's capital". Jerusalem Post. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017. The Czech Republic currently, before the peace between Israel and Palestine is signed, recognizes Jerusalem to be in fact the capital of Israel in the borders of the demarcation line from 1967." The Ministry also said that it would only consider relocating its embassy based on "results of negotiations.
    4. ^ "Honduras recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital". The Times of Israel. 29 August 2019.
    5. ^ "Guatemala se suma a EEUU y también trasladará su embajada en Israel a Jerusalén" [Guatemala joins US, will also move embassy to Jerusalem]. Infobae (in Spanish). 24 December 2017. Guatemala's embassy was located in Jerusalem until the 1980s, when it was moved to Tel Aviv.
    6. ^ "Nauru recognizes J'lem as capital of Israel". Israel National News. 29 August 2019.
    7. ^ "Trump Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's Capital and Orders U.S. Embassy to Move". The New York Times. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
    8. ^ Frot, Mathilde (4 September 2020). "Kosovo to normalise relations with Israel". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
    9. ^ "Kosovo and Serbia hand Israel diplomatic boon after US-brokered deal". The Guardian. 4 September 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
    10. ^ "Arabic in Israel: an official language and a cultural bridge". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 18 December 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
    11. ^ "Israel Passes 'National Home' Law, Drawing Ire of Arabs". The New York Times. 19 July 2018.
    12. ^ Lubell, Maayan (19 July 2018). "Israel adopts divisive Jewish nation-state law". Reuters.
    13. ^ "Press Releases from the Knesset". Knesset website. 19 July 2018. The Arabic language has a special status in the state; Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law.
    14. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference population_stat2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ "Home page". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
    16. ^ Population Census 2008 (PDF) (Report). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
    17. ^ OECD 2011.
    18. ^ Quarterly Economic and Social Monitor, Volume 26, October 2011, p. 57: "When Israel bid in March 2010 for membership in the 'Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development'... some members questioned the accuracy of Israeli statistics, as the Israeli figures (relating to gross domestic product, spending and number of the population) cover geographical areas that the Organization does not recognize as part of the Israeli territory. These areas include East Jerusalem, Israeli settlements in the West Bank and the Golan Heights."
    19. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
    20. ^ "Income inequality". data.oecd.org. OECD. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
    21. ^ a b Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
    22. ^ "Palestinian Territories". State.gov. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
    23. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
    24. ^ Aldajani, Ra'fat, and Drew Christiansen. 22 June 2015. "The Controversial Sovereignty over the City of Jerusalem." The National Catholic Reporter. via Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs: "No U.S. president has ever officially acknowledged Israeli sovereignty over any part of Jerusalem (...) The refusal to recognize Jerusalem as Israeli territory is a near universal policy among Western nations."
    25. ^ Akram, Susan M., Michael Dumper, Michael Lynk, and Iain Scobbie, eds. 2010. International Law and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Rights-Based Approach to Middle East Peace. Routledge. p. 119: "UN General Assembly Resolution 181 recommended the creation of an international zone, or corpus separatum, in Jerusalem to be administered by the UN for a 10-year period, after which there would be a referendum to determine its future. This approach applies equally to West and East Jerusalem and is not affected by the occupation of East Jerusalem in 1967. To a large extent it is this approach that still guides the diplomatic behaviour of states and thus has greater force in international law."
    26. ^ "Jerusalem: Opposition to mooted Trump Israel announcement grows." BBC News. 4 December 2017: "Israeli sovereignty over Jerusalem has never been recognised internationally"
    27. ^ Whither Jerusalem (Lapidot) p. 17: "Israeli control in west Jerusalem since 1948 was illegal and most states have not recognized its sovereignty there"
    28. ^ Charles A. Repenning & Oldrich Fejfar, Evidence for earlier date of 'Ubeidiya, Israel, hominid site Nature 299, 344–347 (23 September 1982)
    29. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica article on Canaan
    30. ^ Cite error: The named reference Golden was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    31. ^ Cite error: The named reference Finkelstein was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    32. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pitcher was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    33. ^ Cite error: The named reference Broshi 2001 174 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    34. ^ Cite error: The named reference BabylonianChronicles was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    35. ^ Jon L. Berquist (2007). Approaching Yehud: New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period. Society of Biblical Lit. pp. 195–. ISBN 978-1-58983-145-2.
    36. ^ a b c Peter Fibiger Bang; Walter Scheidel (2013). The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean. Oxford University Press. pp. 184–187. ISBN 978-0-19-518831-8.
    37. ^ Abraham Malamat (1976). A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. pp. 223–239. ISBN 978-0-674-39731-6.
    38. ^ Yohanan Aharoni (15 September 2006). The Jewish People: An Illustrated History. A&C Black. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-0-8264-1886-9.
    39. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch; Geoffrey William Bromiley (2005). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-0-8028-2416-5.
    40. ^ Cite error: The named reference 181(II) was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    41. ^ Cite error: The named reference FOOTNOTEMorris200866 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    42. ^ Cite error: The named reference FOOTNOTEMorris200875 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    43. ^ Cite error: The named reference FOOTNOTEMorris2008396 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    44. ^ "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
    45. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 1
    46. ^ "Debate Map: Israel".
    47. ^ Benjamin Rubin. "Israel, Occupied Territories". Max Planck Encyclopedias of International Law [MPIL]. doi:10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e1301 (inactive 16 January 2021) – via Oxford Public International Law.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021 (link)
    48. ^ Cuyckens, Hanne (1 October 2016). "Is Israel Still an Occupying Power in Gaza?". Netherlands International Law Review. 63 (3): 275–295. doi:10.1007/s40802-016-0070-1. S2CID 151481665.
    49. ^ "The status of Jerusalem" (PDF). The Question of Palestine & the United Nations. United Nations Department of Public Information. East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory.
    50. ^ "Analysis: Kadima's big plans". BBC News. 29 March 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
    51. ^ Kessner, BC (2 April 2006). "Israel's Hard-Learned Lessons". Homeland Security Today. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
    52. ^ Kumaraswamy, P.R. (5 June 2002). "The Legacy of Undefined Borders". Tel Aviv Notes. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
    53. ^ Sanger, Andrew (2011). "The Contemporary Law of Blockade and the Gaza Freedom Flotilla". In M.N. Schmitt; Louise Arimatsu; Tim McCormack (eds.). Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 2010. Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law. 13. p. 429. doi:10.1007/978-90-6704-811-8_14. ISBN 978-90-6704-811-8. Israel claims it no longer occupies the Gaza Strip, maintaining that it is neither a Stale nor a territory occupied or controlled by Israel, but rather it has 'sui generis' status. Pursuant to the Disengagement Plan, Israel dismantled all military institutions and settlements in Gaza and there is no longer a permanent Israeli military or civilian presence in the territory. However the Plan also provided that Israel will guard and monitor the external land perimeter of the Gaza Strip, will continue to maintain exclusive authority in Gaza air space, and will continue to exercise security activity in the sea off the coast of the Gaza Strip as well as maintaining an Israeli military presence on the Egyptian-Gaza border. and reserving the right to reenter Gaza at will.
      Israel continues to control six of Gaza's seven land crossings, its maritime borders and airspace and the movement of goods and persons in and out of the territory. Egypt controls one of Gaza's land crossings. Troops from the Israeli Defence Force regularly enter pans of the territory and/or deploy missile attacks, drones and sonic bombs into Gaza. Israel has declared a no-go buffer zone that stretches deep into Gaza: if Gazans enter this zone they are shot on sight. Gaza is also dependent on israel for inter alia electricity, currency, telephone networks, issuing IDs, and permits to enter and leave the territory. Israel also has sole control of the Palestinian Population Registry through which the Israeli Army regulates who is classified as a Palestinian and who is a Gazan or West Banker. Since 2000 aside from a limited number of exceptions Israel has refused to add people to the Palestinian Population Registry.
      It is this direct external control over Gaza and indirect control over life within Gaza that has led the United Nations, the UN General Assembly, the UN Fact Finding Mission to Gaza, International human rights organisations, US Government websites, the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office and a significant number of legal commentators, to reject the argument that Gaza is no longer occupied.
    54. ^ Scobbie, Iain (2012). Elizabeth Wilmshurst (ed.). International Law and the Classification of Conflicts. Oxford University Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-19-965775-9. Even after the accession to power of Hamas, Israel's claim that it no longer occupies Gaza has not been accepted by UN bodies, most States, nor the majority of academic commentators because of its exclusive control of its border with Gaza and crossing points including the effective control it exerted over the Rafah crossing until at least May 2011, its control of Gaza's maritime zones and airspace which constitute what Aronson terms the 'security envelope' around Gaza, as well as its ability to intervene forcibly at will in Gaza.
    55. ^ Gawerc, Michelle (2012). Prefiguring Peace: Israeli-Palestinian Peacebuilding Partnerships. Lexington Books. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7391-6610-9. While Israel withdrew from the immediate territory, Israel still controlled all access to and from Gaza through the border crossings, as well as through the coastline and the airspace. ln addition, Gaza was dependent upon Israel for water electricity sewage communication networks and for its trade (Gisha 2007. Dowty 2008). ln other words, while Israel maintained that its occupation of Gaza ended with its unilateral disengagement Palestinians – as well as many human right organizations and international bodies – argued that Gaza was by all intents and purposes still occupied.
    56. ^ See for example:
      * Hajjar, Lisa (2005). Courting Conflict: The Israeli Military Court System in the West Bank and Gaza. University of California Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-520-24194-7. The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is the longest military occupation in modern times.
      * Anderson, Perry (July–August 2001). "Editorial: Scurrying Towards Bethlehem". New Left Review. 10. longest official military occupation of modern history—currently entering its thirty-fifth year
      * Makdisi, Saree (2010). Palestine Inside Out: An Everyday Occupation. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-33844-7. longest-lasting military occupation of the modern age
      * Kretzmer, David (Spring 2012). "The law of belligerent occupation in the Supreme Court of Israel" (PDF). International Review of the Red Cross. 94 (885): 207–236. doi:10.1017/S1816383112000446. This is probably the longest occupation in modern international relations, and it holds a central place in all literature on the law of belligerent occupation since the early 1970s
      * Alexandrowicz, Ra'anan (24 January 2012), "The Justice of Occupation", The New York Times, Israel is the only modern state that has held territories under military occupation for over four decades
      * Weill, Sharon (2014). The Role of National Courts in Applying International Humanitarian Law. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-968542-4. Although the basic philosophy behind the law of military occupation is that it is a temporary situation modem occupations have well demonstrated that rien ne dure comme le provisoire A significant number of post-1945 occupations have lasted more than two decades such as the occupations of Namibia by South Africa and of East Timor by Indonesia as well as the ongoing occupations of Northern Cyprus by Turkey and of Western Sahara by Morocco. The Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, which is the longest in all occupation's history has already entered its fifth decade.
      * Azarova, Valentina. 2017, Israel's Unlawfully Prolonged Occupation: Consequences under an Integrated Legal Framework, European Council on Foreign Affairs Policy Brief: "June 2017 marks 50 years of Israel's belligerent occupation of Palestinian territory, making it the longest occupation in modern history."
    57. ^ "Israel". Freedom in the World. Freedom House. 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
    58. ^ Rummel 1997, p. 11. "A current list of liberal democracies includes: Andorra, Argentina, ..., Cyprus, ..., Israel, ..."
    59. ^ "Global Survey 2006: Middle East Progress Amid Global Gains in Freedom". Freedom House. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
    60. ^ "Latest Population Statistics for Israel". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
    61. ^ "Israel's accession to the OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
    62. ^ "Current conflicts".
    63. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 339-340
    64. ^ Education at a Glance: Israel (Report). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
    65. ^ "Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D - OECD Data". data.oecd.org. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
    66. ^ Australia, Chris Pash, Business Insider (2017). "The 10 safest countries in the world for women". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
    67. ^ "Health status - Life expectancy at birth - OECD Data". theOECD.
    68. ^ "These Are the World's Most Innovative Countries". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
    69. ^ Report, World Happiness (14 March 2018). "World Happiness Report 2018". World Happiness Report. Retrieved 26 February 2019.

    Cite error: There are <ref group=fn> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=fn}} template (see the help page).

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    May 15: 1940 - McDonald's opened its first restaurant in San Bernardino, California.


    Corporate logo on red background with the wordmark, used in the 1990s and early 2000s.

    McDonald's Corporation is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, and later turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its previous headquarters in Oak Brook, Illinois, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in June 2018.[6][7][8][9]

    McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue,[10] serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries[11] across 37,855 outlets as of 2018.[12][13] Although McDonald's is best known for its hamburgers, cheeseburgers and french fries, they feature chicken products, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes, wraps, and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food,[14] the company has added to its menu salads, fish, smoothies, and fruit. The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent, royalties, and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to two reports published in 2018, McDonald's is the world's second-largest private employer with 1.7 million employees (behind Walmart with 2.3 million employees).[15][16] As of 2020, McDonald's has the ninth-highest global brand valuation.[17]

    1. ^ Bomkamp, Samantha (June 13, 2016). "Mcdonald's HQ Move Is Boldest Step Yet in Effort to Transform Itself". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
    2. ^ "Enrique Hernandez, Jr". McDonalds.com.
    3. ^ Cain, Áine. "McDonald's drive-thrus are 'not suitable for horses' — and 11 other insider facts about McDonald's that employees know and most customers don't". Business Insider.
    4. ^ "MCDONALDS CORP, 10-K". February 22, 2019. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
    5. ^ "McDonald's Corporation 2017 Annual Report Form (10-K)" (PDF). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 23, 2018. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
    6. ^ "McDonald's future Near West Side neighbors air parking, traffic safety beefs". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
    7. ^ Hufford, Austen (June 14, 2016). "McDonald's to Move Headquarters to Downtown Chicago". Retrieved August 7, 2016 – via The Wall Street Journal.
    8. ^ "McDonald's Headquarters Opening in West Loop, Offers Food From Around The World". Retrieved April 25, 2018 – via CBS Chicago.
    9. ^ "McDonald's Opens New Global Headquarters in Chicago's West Loop". July 4, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
    10. ^ null. "McDonald's Is King Of Restaurants In 2017 – pg.1". Forbes. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
    11. ^ "McDonald's: 60 years, billions served". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
    12. ^ http://d18rn0p25nwr6d.cloudfront.net/CIK-0000063908/d72ec326-1c7b-4773-9130-0b32322d435d.html
    13. ^ "Data" (PDF). d18rn0p25nwr6d.cloudfront.net.
    14. ^ Robbins, John (October 8, 2010). "How Bad Is McDonald's Food?". HuffPost.
    15. ^ "The world's 30 largest employers will surprise you". www.msn.com. June 29, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
    16. ^ "The World's Largest Employers". WorldAtlas. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
    17. ^ Magazine, BrandZ (July 1, 2020). "BrandZ Global Top 100 Most Valuable Brands". BrandZ.
    Last edited by a moderator: Sep 28, 2016

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