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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    24 August 1349 – Six thousand Jews are killed in Mainz after being blamed for the bubonic plague.

    Bubonic plague

    Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis).[1] One to seven days after exposure to the bacteria, flu-like symptoms develop.[1] These symptoms include fever, headaches, and vomiting,[1] as well as swollen and painful lymph nodes occurring in the area closest to where the bacteria entered the skin.[2] Acral necrosis, the dark discoloration of skin, is another symptom. Occasionally, swollen lymph nodes, known as "buboes," may break open.[1]

    The three types of plague are the result of the route of infection: bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague.[1] Bubonic plague is mainly spread by infected fleas from small animals.[1] It may also result from exposure to the body fluids from a dead plague-infected animal.[6] Mammals such as rabbits, hares, and some cat species are susceptible to bubonic plague, and typically die upon contraction.[7] In the bubonic form of plague, the bacteria enter through the skin through a flea bite and travel via the lymphatic vessels to a lymph node, causing it to swell.[1] Diagnosis is made by finding the bacteria in the blood, sputum, or fluid from lymph nodes.[1]

    Prevention is through public health measures such as not handling dead animals in areas where plague is common.[8][1] While vaccines against the plague have been developed, the World Health Organization recommends that only high-risk groups, such as certain laboratory personnel and health care workers, get inoculated.[1] Several antibiotics are effective for treatment, including streptomycin, gentamicin, and doxycycline.[4][5]

    Without treatment, plague results in the death of 30% to 90% of those infected.[1][4] Death, if it occurs, is typically within 10 days.[9] With treatment, the risk of death is around 10%.[4] Globally between 2010 and 2015 there were 3,248 documented cases, which resulted in 584 deaths.[1] The countries with the greatest number of cases are the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, and Peru.[1]

    The plague is considered the likely cause of the Black Death that swept through Asia, Europe, and Africa in the 14th century and killed an estimated 50 million people,[1][10] including about 25% to 60% of the European population.[1][11] Because the plague killed so many of the working population, wages rose due to the demand for labor.[11] Some historians see this as a turning point in European economic development.[11] The disease is also considered to have been responsible for the Plague of Justinian, originating in the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th century CE, as well as the third epidemic, affecting China, Mongolia, and India, originating in the Yunnan Province in 1855.[12] The term bubonic is derived from the Greek word βουβών, meaning "groin".[13]

    1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u World Health Organization (November 2014). "Plague Fact sheet N°267". Archived from the original on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
    2. ^ a b "Plague Symptoms". 13 June 2012. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
    3. ^ Clinic, Bubonic plague. "Plague". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
    4. ^ a b c d e f Prentice MB, Rahalison L (April 2007). "Plague". Lancet. 369 (9568): 1196–207. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60566-2. PMID 17416264. S2CID 208790222.
    5. ^ a b "Plague Resources for Clinicians". 13 June 2012. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
    6. ^ "Plague Ecology and Transmission". 13 June 2012. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
    7. ^ Edman BF, Eldridge JD (2004). Medical Entomology a Textbook on Public Health and Veterinary Problems Caused by Arthropods (Rev.. ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 390. ISBN 9789400710092.
    8. ^ McMichael AJ (August 2010). "Paleoclimate and bubonic plague: a forewarning of future risk?". BMC Biology. 8 (1): 108. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-108. PMC 2929224. PMID 24576348.
    9. ^ Keyes DC (2005). Medical response to terrorism : preparedness and clinical practice. Philadelphia [u.a.]: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 74. ISBN 9780781749862.
    10. ^ Haensch S, Bianucci R, Signoli M, Rajerison M, Schultz M, Kacki S, et al. (October 2010). "Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death". PLOS Pathogens. 6 (10): e1001134. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001134. PMC 2951374. PMID 20949072.
    11. ^ a b c "Plague History". 13 June 2012. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
    12. ^ Cohn SK (2008). "Epidemiology of the Black Death and successive waves of plague". Medical History. Supplement. 52 (27): 74–100. doi:10.1017/S0025727300072100. PMC 2630035. PMID 18575083.
    13. ^ LeRoux N (2007). Martin Luther As Comforter: Writings on Death Volume 133 of Studies in the History of Christian Traditions. BRILL. p. 247. ISBN 9789004158801.
     
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    25 August 1944 – World War II: Paris is liberated by the Allies.

    Liberation of Paris

    The liberation of Paris (French: Libération de Paris) was a military battle that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944. Paris had been occupied by Nazi Germany since the signing of the Second Compiègne Armistice on 22 June 1940, after which the Wehrmacht occupied northern and western France.

    The liberation began when the French Forces of the Interior—the military structure of the French Resistance—staged an uprising against the German garrison upon the approach of the US Third Army, led by General George Patton. On the night of 24 August, elements of General Philippe Leclerc's 2nd French Armored Division made their way into Paris and arrived at the Hôtel de Ville shortly before midnight. The next morning, 25 August, the bulk of the 2nd Armored Division and US 4th Infantry Division and other allied units entered the city. Dietrich von Choltitz, commander of the German garrison and the military governor of Paris, surrendered to the French at the Hôtel Le Meurice, the newly established French headquarters. General Charles de Gaulle of the French Army arrived to assume control of the city as head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic.

    1. ^ a b "Libération de Paris [Liberation of Paris]" Archived 19 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine (in French). (PDF format).
    2. ^ "The Lost Evidence – Liberation of Paris". History.
    3. ^ "Libération de Paris forces américaines" (in French).
     
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    26 August 1978Papal conclave: Albino Luciani is elected as Pope John Paul I.

    August 1978 papal conclave

    The August 1978 papal conclave, the first of the two conclaves held that year, was convoked after the death of Pope Paul VI on 6 August 1978 at Castel Gandolfo. After the cardinal electors assembled in Rome, they elected Cardinal Albino Luciani, Patriarch of Venice, as the new pope on the fourth ballot. He accepted the election and took the name of John Paul I.

    It was the first conclave since the promulgation of Ingravescentem aetatem (1970), which made cardinals who had reached the age of 80 by the day the conclave began ineligible to participate in the balloting. There were 15 cardinals excluded by that rule. The number of votes cast for Luciani on the final ballot was so great that even the uniform opposition of these cardinals would not have changed the outcome.[1]

    1. ^ Reese, Thomas (1998). Inside the Vatican. Harvard University Press. p. 101. ISBN 9780674418028. Retrieved 22 June 2018. According to Reese, 16 cardinals were excluded from voting because of their age.
     
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    27 August 1955 – The first edition of the Guinness Book of Records is published in Great Britain

    Guinness World Records

    Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 1999 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world. The brainchild of Sir Hugh Beaver, the book was co-founded by twin brothers Norris and Ross McWhirter in Fleet Street, London, in August 1955.

    The first edition topped the best-seller list in the United Kingdom by Christmas 1955.[3] The following year the book was launched internationally, and as of the 2022 edition, it is now in its 67th year of publication, published in 100 countries and 23 languages, and maintains over 53,000 records in its database.

    The international franchise has extended beyond print to include television series and museums. The popularity of the franchise has resulted in Guinness World Records becoming the primary international authority on the cataloguing and verification of a huge number of world records.[4][5][6][7] The organisation employs record adjudicators to verify the authenticity of the setting and breaking of records. Following a series of owners, the franchise has been owned by the Jim Pattison Group since 2008, with its headquarters moved to South Quay Plaza, Canary Wharf, London in 2017. Since 2008, Guinness World Records has orientated its business model toward inventing new world records as publicity stunts for companies and individuals, which has attracted criticism.[8][9][10]

    1. ^ "Corporate". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 19 March 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
    2. ^ Guinness World Records. LinkedIn.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference best seller was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Midlands world record breakers". ITV News. Retrieved 15 October 2022. The Guinness World Records, the global authority on record breaking achievements
    5. ^ "Metallica Earns Spot In 'Guinness World Records' 2015 Edition". Blabbermouth. Retrieved 15 October 2022. Guinness World Records (GWR) is the universally recognized global authority on record-breaking achievement.
    6. ^ "Lewandowski enters Guinness World Record Books". Bundesliga. Retrieved 5 August 2020. Guinness World Records is the world's authority on record-breaking achievements.
    7. ^ "Guinness World Records: How the Irish brewer became an authority on firsts, feats and pub trivia". The Independent. Retrieved 5 August 2020. The book recounting record-breaking achievements from all manner of disciplines across the world is now in its 63rd edition and continues to be a bestseller, the place to go for anyone interested in finding out who is the world's most tattooed man or who built the fastest jet-powered go-kart.
    8. ^ Edwards, Phil (6 March 2015). "Guinness World Records is no longer just a book company. It's a branded experience". Vox. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference planetmoney was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    28 August 1898Caleb Bradham's beverage "Brad's Drink" is renamed "Pepsi-Cola".

    Pepsi

    Preview warning: Page using Infobox drink with unknown parameter "area_served"

    Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by PepsiCo. Originally created and developed in 1893 by Caleb Bradham and introduced as Brad's Drink, it was renamed as Pepsi-Cola in 1898, and then shortened to Pepsi in 1961.

     
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    29 August 1756Frederick the Great attacks Saxony, beginning the Seven Years' War in Europe.

    Seven Years' War

    The Seven Years' War, 1754 to 1763, was a global conflict that involved most of the European Great Powers, and was fought primarily in Europe, the Americas, and Asia-Pacific. Related conflicts include the French and Indian War, the Carnatic Wars and the Anglo-Spanish War (1762–1763). The opposing alliances were led by Great Britain and France respectively, both seeking to establish global pre-eminence at the expense of the other.[9] Along with Spain, France fought Britain both in Europe and overseas with land-based armies and naval forces, while Britain's ally Prussia sought territorial expansion in Europe and consolidation of its power. Long-standing colonial rivalries pitting Britain against France and Spain in North America and the West Indies were fought on a grand scale with consequential results. Prussia sought greater influence in the German states, while Austria wanted to regain Silesia, captured by Prussia in the previous war, and to contain Prussian influence.

    In a realignment of traditional alliances, known as the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Prussia became part of a coalition led by Britain, which also included long-time Prussian competitor Hanover, at the time in personal union with Britain. At the same time, Austria ended centuries of conflict between the Bourbon and Habsburg families by allying with France, along with Saxony, Sweden and Russia. Spain aligned formally with France in 1762. Spain unsuccessfully attempted to invade Britain's ally Portugal, attacking with their forces facing British troops in Iberia. Smaller German states either joined the Seven Years' War or supplied mercenaries to the parties involved in the conflict.

    Anglo-French conflict over their colonies in North America had begun in 1754 in what became known in the United States as the French and Indian War (1754–63), which became a theatre of the Seven Years' War when war was officially declared 2 years later, and it effectively ended France's presence as a land power on that continent. It was "the most important event to occur in eighteenth-century North America"[10] prior to the American Revolution. Spain entered the war in 1761, joining France in the Third Family Compact between the two Bourbon monarchies. The alliance with France was a disaster for Spain, with the loss to Britain of two major ports, Havana in the West Indies and Manila in the Philippines, returned in the 1763 Treaty of Paris between France, Spain and Great Britain. In Europe, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centred on the desire of Austria (long the political centre of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation) to recover Silesia from Prussia. The Treaty of Hubertusburg ended the war between Saxony, Austria and Prussia, in 1763. Britain began its rise as the world's predominant colonial and naval power. France's supremacy in Europe was halted until after the French Revolution and the emergence of Napoleon Bonaparte. Prussia confirmed its status as a great power, challenging Austria for dominance within the German states, thus altering the European balance of power.

    1. ^ a b Kohn (2000), p. 417.
    2. ^ a b The Cambridge History of the British Empire. 1929. p. 126. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
    3. ^ "British History in depth: Was the American Revolution Inevitable?". BBC History. Retrieved 21 July 2018. In 1763, Americans joyously celebrated the British victory in the Seven Years' War, revelling in their identity as Britons and jealously guarding their much-celebrated rights which they believed they possessed by virtue of membership in what they saw as the world's greatest empire.
    4. ^ Wilson 2008, p. 119.
    5. ^ Riley, James C. (1986). The Seven Years War and the Old Regime in France: The Economic and Financial Toll Princeton University Press, p. 78.
    6. ^ Hochedlinger (2003), p. 298.
    7. ^ a b c d e f Danley (2012), p. 524.
    8. ^ Speelman (2012), p. 524.
    9. ^ Elliott, J.H., Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492–1830. New Haven: Yale University Press 2006, p. 292.
    10. ^ Anderson (2007), p. xvii.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    30 August 1992 – The 11-day Ruby Ridge standoff ends with Randy Weaver surrendering to federal authorities.

    Ruby Ridge

    Ruby Ridge was the site of an eleven-day siege in 1992 in Boundary County, Idaho, near Naples. It began on August 21, when deputies of the United States Marshals Service (USMS) initiated action to apprehend and arrest Randy Weaver under a bench warrant after his failure to appear on firearms charges. Weaver refused to surrender, and members of his immediate family, and family friend Kevin Harris, resisted as well. The Hostage Rescue Team of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI HRT) became involved as the siege developed.

    During the USMS reconnaissance of the Weaver property, six U.S. Marshals encountered Harris and Sammy, Weaver's 14-year-old son, in woods near the family cabin. A shootout took place. Deputy U.S. Marshal William Francis Degan, Sammy Weaver, and the Weavers' dog, Striker, all died as a result. In the subsequent siege of the Weaver residence, led by the FBI, Weaver's wife Vicki was killed by FBI sniper fire. All casualties occurred in the first two days of the operation. The siege and standoff were ultimately resolved by civilian negotiators. Harris surrendered and was arrested on August 30, while Weaver and his three daughters surrendered the next day.

    Randy Weaver and Kevin Harris were subsequently arraigned on a variety of federal criminal charges, including first-degree murder for the death of Degan. Harris was acquitted of all charges, and Weaver was acquitted of all charges except for the original bail condition violation for the firearms charges and for having missed his original court date. He was fined $10,000 and sentenced to eighteen months in prison, credited with time served plus an additional three months, and released after sixteen months.[1][2][page needed]

    During the federal criminal trial of Weaver and Harris, Weaver's attorney, Gerry Spence, made accusations of criminal wrongdoing against the agencies involved in the incident, in particular the FBI, the USMS, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF), and the United States Attorney's Office (USAO) for Idaho. At the trial's end, the Department of Justice's Office of Professional Responsibility formed the Ruby Ridge Task Force (RRTF) to investigate Spence's charges. A redacted HTML version of the RRTF report, publicly released by Lexis Counsel Connect, raised questions about all the participating agencies' conduct and policies. The Justice Department later posted a more complete PDF version of the report.[3][4]

    Both the Weaver family and Harris brought civil suits against the federal government over the firefight and siege. The Weavers won a combined out-of-court settlement in August 1995 of $3.1 million. After numerous appeals, Harris was awarded a $380,000 settlement in September 2000.

    To answer public questions about Ruby Ridge, the Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Government Information held hearings between September 6 and October 19, 1995, and later issued a report calling for reforms in federal law enforcement to prevent a repeat of the losses of life at Ruby Ridge and restore public confidence in federal law enforcement.[5] It was observed that the Ruby Ridge incident and the 1993 Waco siege involved many of the same agencies (FBI HRT and ATF) and some of the same personnel (the FBI HRT commander). The Government Accountability Office (GAO) also conducted a review of federal policies about use of deadly force, publishing it in 1995.

    In 1997, the Boundary County prosecutor indicted FBI HRT sniper Lon Horiuchi for manslaughter before the statute of limitations for the charge could expire; the case, Idaho v. Horiuchi, was moved to federal court, which has jurisdiction over federal agents.[6] The case was dismissed because of the supremacy clause. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled in 2001 that Horiuchi could be tried on state charges. A new county prosecutor, Brett Benson, had been elected in 2000 and dismissed the case, saying it was unlikely the state would be able to prove the criminal charges. Benson's decision was controversial.[7][8]

    The events that took place at Ruby Ridge, and the law enforcement response during the Waco siege roughly six months later, have been cited by commentators as catalysts for the Oklahoma City bombing by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols.[9]

    1. ^ "18 Months in Jail for White Supremacist". The New York Times. October 19, 1993. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Walter02 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ RRTF, Report of the RRTF to the OPR (1994; more complete version), see Bibliography.
    4. ^ RRTF, Report of the RRTF to the OPR (2006) [1994; OPR legacy, highly redacted version, PDF series], see Bibliography.
    5. ^ "Opening Statement of Louis J. Freeh, Director Federal Bureau of Investigation". fas.org. October 19, 1995. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
    6. ^ "F.B.I. Agent to Be Tried In Federal Court". The New York Times. January 13, 1998. Retrieved June 26, 2007.
    7. ^ Verhovek, Sam Howe (June 15, 2001). "F.B.I. Agent To Be Spared Prosecution in Shooting". The New York Times. Seattle, WA. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
    8. ^ Idaho v. Horiuchi, 266 (9th Cir. June 5, 2001).
    9. ^ Niebuhr, Gustav (April 26, 1995). "Terror in Oklahoma: Religion; Assault on Waco Sect Fuels Extremists' Rage". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 18, 2018. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
     
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    31 August 1999 – The first of a series of bombings in Moscow kills one person and wounds 40 others.

    Russian apartment bombings

    The Russian apartment bombings were a series of explosions that hit four apartment blocks in the Russian cities of Buynaksk, Moscow and Volgodonsk in September 1999, killing more than 300, injuring more than 1,000, and spreading a wave of fear across the country. The bombings, together with the Invasion of Dagestan, triggered the Second Chechen War.[1][2] The handling of the crisis by Vladimir Putin, who was prime minister at the time, boosted his popularity greatly and helped him attain the presidency within a few months.

    The blasts hit Buynaksk on 4 September and in Moscow on 9 and 13 September. On 13 September, Russian Duma speaker Gennadiy Seleznyov made an announcement in the Duma about receiving a report that another bombing had just happened in the city of Volgodonsk. A bombing did indeed happen in Volgodonsk, but only three days later, on 16 September. Chechen militants were blamed for the bombings, but denied responsibility, along with Chechen president Aslan Maskhadov.

    A suspicious device resembling those used in the bombings was found and defused in an apartment block in the Russian city of Ryazan on 22 September.[3][4] On 23 September, Vladimir Putin praised the vigilance of the inhabitants of Ryazan and ordered the air bombing of Grozny, which marked the beginning of the Second Chechen War.[5] Three FSB agents who had planted the devices at Ryazan were arrested by the local police.[6] The next day, FSB director Nikolay Patrushev announced that the incident in Ryazan had been an anti-terror drill and the device found there contained only sugar.[7]

    The official Russian investigation of the Buynaksk bombing was completed in 2001, while the investigation of Moscow and Volgodonsk bombings was completed in 2002. In 2000, seven people were convicted of perpetrating the Buynaksk attack. According to the court ruling on the Moscow and Volgodonsk bombings, which was announced in 2004, the attacks were organised and led by Achemez Gochiyaev, who remains at large. All bombings, the court ruled, were ordered by Islamist warlords Ibn Al-Khattab and Abu Omar al-Saif, who have been killed. Five other suspects have been killed and six have been convicted by Russian courts on terrorism-related charges.

    State Duma deputy Yuri Shchekochikhin filed two motions for a parliamentary investigation of the events, but the motions were rejected by the State Duma in March 2000. An independent public commission to investigate the bombings was chaired by Duma deputy Sergei Kovalev.[8] The commission was rendered ineffective because of government refusal to respond to its inquiries. Two key members of the Kovalev Commission, Sergei Yushenkov and Yuri Shchekochikhin, have since died in apparent assassinations.[9][10] The Commission's lawyer and investigator Mikhail Trepashkin was arrested and served four years in prison for revealing state secrets.[11] Former FSB agent Alexander Litvinenko, who defected and blamed the FSB for the bombings, was poisoned and killed in London in 2006. A British inquiry later determined that Litvinenko's murder was "probably" carried out with the approval of Putin and Patrushev.[12]

    The attacks were officially attributed to Chechen terrorists.[13] Some historians and journalists say the bombings were coordinated by Russian state security services to help bring Putin into the presidency.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] Others disagree with such theories.[22][23][24][25][26] Independent investigations have faced obstruction from the Russian government.[27][28]

    1. ^ Yeltsin 2000, pp. 335–338
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference De_La_Pedraja_pp147_148 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Ответ Генпрокуратуры на депутатский запрос о взрывах в Москве Archived 10 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian), machine translation Archived 25 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine.
    4. ^ "September 1999 Russian apartment bombings timeline - Blog - The Fifth Estate". CBC. 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
    5. ^ Goldfarb & Litvinenko 2007, pp. 190, 196
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference AmyKnight was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Russian bomb scare turns out to be anti-terror drill". CNN. 24 September 1999. Archived from the original on 20 August 2019. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
    8. ^ "Russian Federation: Amnesty International's concerns and recommendations in the case of Mikhail Trepashkin". Amnesty International. 23 March 2006. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
    9. ^ "Московские Новости". MN.RU. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
    10. ^ "Радиостанция 'Эхо Москвы' / Передачи / Интервью / Четверг, 25 July 2002: Сергей Ковалев". Beta.echo.msk.ru. 25 July 2002. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
    11. ^ (in Russian) Volgodonsk (Rostov region) apartment bombing; criminal investigation of Moscow and Buynaksk apartment bombings Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, an interview with FSB public relations director Alexander Zdanovich and MVD head of information Oleg Aksyonov by Vladimir Varfolomeyev, Echo of Moscow, 16 September 1999. computer translation Archived 8 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine
    12. ^ "President Putin 'probably' approved Litvinenko murder". BBC News. 21 January 2016. Archived from the original on 9 September 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
    13. ^ Petersson, Bo; Hutcheson, Derek (2021). "Rising from the ashes. The role of Chechnya in contemporary Russian politics". Language and Society in the Caucasus. Understanding the past, navigating the present. Lund: Universus Press. ISBN 978-91-87439-67-4. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference amyknight2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Satter, David (17 August 2016). "The Unsolved Mystery Behind the Act of Terror That Brought Putin to Power". National Review. Archived from the original on 26 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
    16. ^ "David Satter – House committee on Foreign Affairs" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
    17. ^ Felshtinsky & Pribylovsky 2008, pp. 105–111
    18. ^ Video on YouTube In Memoriam Aleksander Litvinenko, Jos de Putter, Tegenlicht documentary VPRO 2007, Moscow, 2004 Interview with Anna Politkovskaya
    19. ^ ’’The consolidation of Dictatorship in Russia’’ by Joel M. Ostrow, Georgiy Satarov, Irina Khakamada p.96
    20. ^ Salter, Lamar; Lopez, Linette; Kakoyiannis, Alana (22 March 2018). "How a series of deadly Russian apartment bombings in 1999 led to Putin's rise to power". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
    21. ^ Stein, Jeff (7 February 2022). "Russian 'False Flag' Ukraine Plot Wouldn't Be Its First". Military.com. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
    22. ^ Talbott 2002, pp. 356–358
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference New_Nobility_p111 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Ware2005 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pope was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference BrianTaylor was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ "Two Decades On, Smoldering Questions About The Russian President's Vault To Power". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
    28. ^ Knight, Amy. "Finally, We Know About the Moscow Bombings". New York Review of Books. ISSN 0028-7504. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
     
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    1 September 1894 – Over 400 people die in the Great Hinckley Fire, a forest fire in Hinckley, Minnesota.

    Great Hinckley Fire

    The Great Hinckley Fire was a conflagration in the pine forests of the U.S. state of Minnesota in September 1894, which burned an area of at least 200,000 acres (810 km2; 310 sq mi)[1] (perhaps more than 250,000 acres [1,000 km2; 390 sq mi]), including the town of Hinckley. The official death count was 418; the actual number of fatalities was likely higher.[2] Other sources put the death toll at 476.[3]

    1. ^ Haines, Donald A.; Sando, Rodney W. (1969). "Climatic Conditions Preceding Historical Great Fires in the North Central Region". North Central Experimentation Forest Service. US Department of Agriculture.
    2. ^ "The Great Hinckley Fire of 1894". Retrieved March 24, 2015.
    3. ^ Headlines and Heros. A Treasury of Railroad Folklore. New York, Bonaza Books, 1953
     
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    2 September 1859 – The Carrington Event is the strongest geomagnetic storm on record.

    Carrington Event

    The Carrington Event was the most intense geomagnetic storm in recorded history, peaking from 1 to 2 September 1859 during solar cycle 10. It created strong auroral displays that were reported globally[1] and caused sparking and even fires in multiple telegraph stations. The geomagnetic storm was most likely the result of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the Sun colliding with Earth's magnetosphere.[2]

    The geomagnetic storm was associated with a very bright solar flare on 1 September 1859. It was observed and recorded independently by British astronomers Richard Christopher Carrington and Richard Hodgson—the first records of a solar flare.

    A geomagnetic storm of this magnitude occurring today would cause widespread electrical disruptions, blackouts, and damage due to extended outages of the electrical power grid.[3][4][5]

    1. ^ Kimball, D. S. (April 1960). "A Study of the Aurora of 1859" (PDF). Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
    2. ^ Tsurutani, B. T. (2003). "The extreme magnetic storm of 1–2 September 1859". Journal of Geophysical Research. 108 (A7): 1268. doi:10.1029/2002JA009504. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
    3. ^ Solar Storm Risk to the North American Electric Grid (PDF). Lloyd's of London and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
    4. ^ Baker, D.N.; et al. (2008). Severe Space Weather Events – Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts. Washington, D.C.: The National Academy Press. doi:10.17226/12507. ISBN 978-0-309-12769-1.
    5. ^ Phillips, Dr. Tony (23 July 2014). "Near miss: The solar superstorm of July 2012". NASA. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
     
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    3 September 1666 – The Royal Exchange burns down in the Great Fire of London.

    Royal Exchange, London

    The Royal Exchange in London was founded in the 16th century by the merchant Sir Thomas Gresham on the suggestion of his factor Richard Clough to act as a centre of commerce for the City of London.[1] The site was provided by the City of London Corporation and the Worshipful Company of Mercers, who still jointly own the freehold. The original foundation was ceremonially opened by Queen Elizabeth I who granted it its "royal" title. The current building is trapezoidal in floor plan and is flanked by Cornhill and Threadneedle Street, which converge at Bank junction in the heart of the city. It lies in the ward of Cornhill.

    The exchange building has twice been destroyed by fire and subsequently rebuilt. The present building was designed by Sir William Tite in the 1840s. The site was notably occupied by the Lloyd's insurance market for nearly 150 years. Today the Royal Exchange contains Fortnum & Mason The Bar & Restaurant, luxury shops, and offices.

    Traditionally, the steps of the Royal Exchange are the place where certain royal proclamations (such as the dissolution of parliament) are read out by either a herald or a crier. Following the death or abdication of a monarch and the confirmation of the next monarch's accession to the throne by the Accession Council, the Royal Exchange Building is one of the locations where a herald proclaims the new monarch's reign to the public.

    1. ^ grisham.weebly.com; accessed 31 July 2016
     
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    4 September 1971Alaska Airlines Flight 1866 crashes near Juneau, Alaska, killing all 111 people on board.

    Alaska Airlines Flight 1866

    Alaska Airlines Flight 1866 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight operated by Alaska Airlines from Anchorage, Alaska, to Seattle, Washington, with several intermediate stops in southeast Alaska. The aircraft was a Boeing 727-100 with U.S. registry N2969G[1] manufactured in 1966. On September 4, 1971, the aircraft operating the flight crashed into a mountain in Haines Borough, about 18 miles west of Juneau, Alaska, while on approach for landing. All 111 people aboard were killed.[2] The subsequent investigation found that erroneous navigation readouts led the crew to descend prematurely. No definitive cause for the misleading data was found. It was the first fatal jet aircraft crash involving Alaska Airlines, and remained the deadliest single-aircraft accident in United States history until June 24, 1975, when Eastern Air Lines Flight 66 crashed.[3]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Alaska Airlines - HistoryLink.org". Retrieved January 14, 2017.
    3. ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
     
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    5 September 1972 – A Palestinian terrorist group called "Black September" attacks and takes hostage 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games. Two die in the attack and nine are murdered the following day.

    Munich massacre

    The Munich massacre was a terrorist attack carried out during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, by eight members of the Palestinian militant organization Black September, who infiltrated the Olympic Village, killed two members of the Israeli Olympic team, and took nine others hostage.[1][2][3][4] Black September called the operation "Iqrit and Biram",[5] after two Palestinian Christian villages whose inhabitants were expelled by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.[6][7][8] The Black September commander was Luttif Afif, who was also their negotiator. West German neo-Nazis gave the group logistical assistance.[9]

    Shortly after the hostages were taken, Afif demanded the release of 234 Palestinian prisoners who were being held in Israeli jails, plus the West German–imprisoned founders of the Red Army Faction, Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof.[10][11] West German police ambushed the terrorists, and killed five of the eight Black September members, but the rescue attempt failed and all of the hostages were killed.[12] A West German policeman was also killed in the crossfire, and the West German government was criticized for the poor execution of its rescue attempt and its overall handling of the incident. The three surviving perpetrators were Adnan Al-Gashey, Jamal Al-Gashey, and Mohammed Safady, who were arrested, only to be released the next month in the hostage exchange that followed the hijacking of Lufthansa Flight 615. By then, the Israeli government had launched Operation Wrath of God, which authorized Mossad to track down and kill anyone who had played a role in the attack.[13][14]

    Two days prior to the start of the 2016 Summer Olympics, in a ceremony led by Brazilian and Israeli officials, the International Olympic Committee honored the eleven Israelis and one German who were killed at Munich.[15] In the 2020 Summer Olympics, a moment of silence was observed in the opening ceremony.[16]

    1. ^ Juan Sanchez (7 August 2007). Terrorism & Its Effects. Global Media. p. 144. ISBN 978-81-89940-93-5. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
    2. ^ Aubrey, Stefan M. (11 September 2001). The New Dimension of International Terrorism. ISBN 9783728129499. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
    3. ^ Encyclopedia of terrorism. SAGE Publications. 2003. p. 248. ISBN 9780761924081. Retrieved 22 June 2010 – via Internet Archive.
    4. ^ Simon, Jeffrey David (18 July 1976). The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism. ISBN 0253214777. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
    5. ^ Sylas, Eluma Ikemefuna (2006). Terrorism: A Global Scourge. ISBN 9781425905309. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
    6. ^ Benveniśtî, Mêrôn (2000). Sacred landscape: the buried history of the Holy Land since 1948. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23422-2. pp. 325–326.
    7. ^ "Justice for Ikrit and Biram" Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Haaretz, 10 October 2001.
    8. ^ Elias Chacour with David Hazard: Blood Brothers: A Palestinian Struggles for Reconciliation in the Middle East. ISBN 0-8007-9321-8. Foreword by Secretary James A. Baker III. 2nd Expanded ed. 2003. pp. 44–61.
    9. ^ Latsch, Gunther; Wiegrefe, Klaus (18 June 2012), "Files Reveal Neo-Nazis Helped Palestinian Terrorists", Spiegel Online
    10. ^ Reeve, Simon (22 January 2006). "Olympics Massacre: Munich – The real story". The Independent. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
    11. ^ Fleisher, Malkah (22 July 2012). "'Baffled' Bob Costas to Call Own Minute of Silence During Olympic Broadcast for Slain Israeli Team". The Jewish Press. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ James Montague (5 September 2012). "The Munich massacre: A survivor's story". CNN. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
    14. ^ "The Mossad's secret wars". Al Jazeera. 20 February 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    15. ^ "First official Olympic ceremony held in memory of Munich victims" Archived 14 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Jerusalem Post; accessed 5 September 2017.
    16. ^ Spungin, Tal (23 July 2021). "Olympics: Moment of silence for Munich massacre victims for first time". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 23 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
     
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    6 September 1939 – World War II: South Africa declares war on Germany.

    Military history of South Africa during World War II

    During World War II, many South Africans saw military service. The Union of South Africa participated with other British Empire forces in battles in North Africa against Erwin Rommel and his Afrika Korps, and many South African pilots joined the Royal Air Force and fought against the Axis powers in the European theatre.

    A Sherman tank from the South African 6th Armoured Division in 1944
     
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    7 September 1986Desmond Tutu becomes the first black man to lead the Anglican Diocese of Cape Town.

    Desmond Tutu

    Desmond Mpilo Tutu OMSG CH GCStJ (7 October 1931 – 26 December 2021) was a South African Anglican bishop and theologian, known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist. He was Bishop of Johannesburg from 1985 to 1986 and then Archbishop of Cape Town from 1986 to 1996, in both cases being the first black African to hold the position. Theologically, he sought to fuse ideas from black theology with African theology.

    Tutu was born of mixed Xhosa and Motswana heritage to a poor family in Klerksdorp, South Africa. Entering adulthood, he trained as a teacher and married Nomalizo Leah Tutu, with whom he had several children. In 1960, he was ordained as an Anglican priest and in 1962 moved to the United Kingdom to study theology at King's College London. In 1966 he returned to southern Africa, teaching at the Federal Theological Seminary and then the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. In 1972, he became the Theological Education Fund's director for Africa, a position based in London but necessitating regular tours of the African continent. Back in southern Africa in 1975, he served first as dean of St Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg and then as Bishop of Lesotho; from 1978 to 1985 he was general-secretary of the South African Council of Churches. He emerged as one of the most prominent opponents of South Africa's apartheid system of racial segregation and white minority rule. Although warning the National Party government that anger at apartheid would lead to racial violence, as an activist he stressed non-violent protest and foreign economic pressure to bring about universal suffrage.

    In 1985, Tutu became Bishop of Johannesburg and in 1986 the Archbishop of Cape Town, the most senior position in southern Africa's Anglican hierarchy. In this position, he emphasised a consensus-building model of leadership and oversaw the introduction of female priests. Also in 1986, he became president of the All Africa Conference of Churches, resulting in further tours of the continent. After President F. W. de Klerk released the anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990 and the pair led negotiations to end apartheid and introduce multi-racial democracy, Tutu assisted as a mediator between rival black factions. After the 1994 general election resulted in a coalition government headed by Mandela, the latter selected Tutu to chair the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses committed by both pro and anti-apartheid groups. Following apartheid's fall, Tutu campaigned for gay rights and spoke out on a wide range of subjects, among them his criticism of South African presidents Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma, his opposition to the Iraq War, and describing Israel's treatment of Palestinians as apartheid. In 2010, he retired from public life.

    As Tutu rose to prominence in the 1970s, different socio-economic groups and political classes held a wide range of views about him, from critical to admiring. He was popular among South Africa's black majority and was internationally praised for his work involving anti-apartheid activism, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize and other international awards. He also compiled several books of his speeches and sermons.

     
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    8 September 1504 – Michelangelo's David is unveiled in Piazza della Signoria in Florence.

    David (Michelangelo)

    David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture, created in marble between 1501 and 1504 by the Italian artist Michelangelo. David is a 5.17-metre (17 ft 0 in)[a] marble statue of the Biblical figure David, a favoured subject in the art of Florence.[b]

    David was originally commissioned as one of a series of statues of prophets to be positioned along the roofline of the east end of Florence Cathedral, but was instead placed in a public square, outside the Palazzo Vecchio, the seat of civic government in Florence, in the Piazza della Signoria, where it was unveiled on 8 September 1504. The statue was moved to the Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, in 1873, and later replaced at the original location by a replica.

    Because of the nature of the figure it represented, the statue soon came to symbolize the defence of civil liberties embodied in the Republic of Florence, an independent city-state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici family. The eyes of David, with a warning glare, were fixated towards Rome where the Medici family lived.[3]

    1. ^ See
    2. ^ "Frequently asked questions (FAQ)".
    3. ^ This theory was first proposed[citation needed] by Saul Levine "The Location of Michelangelo's David: The Meeting of January 25, 1504, The Art Bulletin 56 (1974): 31–49.


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    9 September 1543Mary Stuart, at nine months old, is crowned "Queen of Scots" in the central Scottish town of Stirling.

    Mary, Queen of Scots

    Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart[3] or Mary I of Scotland,[4] was Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 until her forced abdication in 1567.

    The only surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, Mary was six days old when her father died and she inherited the throne. During her childhood, Scotland was governed by regents, first by the heir to the throne, James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, and then by her mother, Mary of Guise. In 1548, she was betrothed to Francis, the Dauphin of France, and was sent to be brought up in France, where she would be safe from invading English forces during the Rough Wooing. Mary married Francis in 1558, becoming queen consort of France from his accession in 1559 until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland in August 1561. Following the Scottish Reformation, the tense religious and political climate that Mary encountered on her return to Scotland was further agitated by prominent Scots such as John Knox, who openly questioned whether her subjects had a duty to obey her. The early years of her personal rule were marked by pragmatism, tolerance, and moderation. She issued a proclamation accepting the religious settlement in Scotland as she had found it upon her return, retained advisers such as James Stewart, Earl of Moray (her illegitimate paternal half-brother), and William Maitland of Lethington, and governed as the Catholic monarch of a Protestant kingdom.

    Mary married her half-cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, in 1565, and in June 1566, they had a son, James. In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, and he was found murdered in the garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month, he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. On 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southward seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Elizabeth I of England.

    Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own and was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving Mary as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in captivity, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586 and was beheaded the following year at Fotheringhay Castle. Mary's life and subsequent execution established her in popular culture as a romanticised historical character.

    1. ^ Bishop John Lesley said Mary was born on the 7th, but Mary and John Knox claimed the 8th, which was the feast day of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary (Fraser 1994, p. 13; Wormald 1988, p. 11).
    2. ^ While Catholic Europe switched to the New Style Gregorian calendar in the 1580s, England and Scotland retained the Old Style Julian calendar until 1752. In this article, dates before 1752 are Old Style, with the exception that years are assumed to start on 1 January rather than 25 March.
    3. ^ Also spelled as Marie and as Steuart or Stewart
    4. ^ "National Records of Scotland; Hall of Fame A-Z - Mary Queen of Scots". NRS. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
     
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    10 September 1515Thomas Wolsey is invested as a Cardinal.

    Thomas Wolsey

    Thomas Wolsey[a] (c. March 1473[1] – 29 November 1530) was an English statesman and Catholic bishop. When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509, Wolsey became the king's almoner.[2] Wolsey's affairs prospered and by 1514 he had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. He also held important ecclesiastical appointments. These included the Archbishopric of York—the second most important role in the English church—and that of papal legate. His appointment as a cardinal by Pope Leo X in 1515 gave him precedence over all other English clergy.

    The highest political position Wolsey attained was Lord Chancellor, the king's chief adviser (formally, as his successor and disciple Thomas Cromwell was not). In that position, he enjoyed great freedom and was often depicted as an[3] alter rex ("other king"). After failing to negotiate an annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, Wolsey fell out of favour and was stripped of his government titles. He retreated to York to fulfil his ecclesiastical duties as archbishop, a position he nominally held but had neglected during his years in government. He was recalled to London to answer to charges of treason—charges Henry commonly used against ministers who fell out of his favour—but died on the way from natural causes.


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    1. ^ Armstrong 2008.
    2. ^ Jack 2012.
    3. ^ "Tudor Times". Tudor Times. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
     
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    11 September 1922 – The Treaty of Kars is ratified in Yerevan, Armenia.

    Treaty of Kars

    The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars Antlaşması, Russian: Карсский договор, tr. Karskii dogovor, Georgian: ყარსის ხელშეკრულება, Armenian: Կարսի պայմանագիր, Azerbaijani: Qars müqaviləsi) was a treaty that established the borders between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian republics of the Soviet Union, which are now the independent republics of Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan.[3][4] The treaty was signed in the city of Kars on 13 October 1921.[1][2]

    Signatories of the Treaty of Kars included representatives from the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, which would declare the Republic of Turkey in 1923, and from the Armenian, Azerbaijani and Georgian Socialist Soviet Republics with the participation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The last four parties would become constituent parts of the Soviet Union after the victory of the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War and the December 1922 Union Treaty.[1][2]

    The treaty was the successor treaty to the March 1921 Treaty of Moscow. Most of the territories ceded to Turkey in the treaty were acquired by Imperial Russia from the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.[5] The only exception was the Surmali region, which had been part of the Erivan Khanate of Iran before it was annexed by Russia in the Treaty of Turkmenchay after the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28.[6]

    1. ^ a b c d e f g h (in Russian) Договор о дружбе между Армянской ССР, Азербайджанской ССР и Грузинской ССР, с одной стороны, и Турцией – с другой, Заключенный при участии РСФСР в Карсе Archived 24 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ a b c English Translation of Treaty of Friendship between Turkey, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Armenia, the Azerbaijan Socialist Soviet Republic, and the Socialist Soviet Republic of Georgia Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Armenian News Network / Groong.
    3. ^ Tsutsiev, Arthur (2014). Atlas of the Ethno-Political History of the Caucasus. Translated by Nora Seligman Favorov. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0300153088.
    4. ^ King, Charles (2008). The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0195177756.
    5. ^ King, p. 153.
    6. ^ Tsutsiev, pp. 14–15.
     
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    12 September 1915 – French soldiers rescue over 4,000 Armenian genocide survivors stranded on Musa Dagh.

    Armenian genocide

    The Armenian genocide[a] was the systematic destruction of the Armenian people and identity in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Spearheaded by the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), it was implemented primarily through the mass murder of around one million Armenians during death marches to the Syrian Desert and the forced Islamization of Armenian women and children.

    Before World War I, Armenians occupied a protected, but subordinate, place in Ottoman society. Large-scale massacres of Armenians occurred in the 1890s and 1909. The Ottoman Empire suffered a series of military defeats and territorial losses—especially the 1912–1913 Balkan Wars—leading to fear among CUP leaders that the Armenians, whose homeland in the eastern provinces was viewed as the heartland of the Turkish nation, would seek independence. During their invasion of Russian and Persian territory in 1914, Ottoman paramilitaries massacred local Armenians. Ottoman leaders took isolated indications of Armenian resistance as evidence of a widespread rebellion, though no such rebellion existed. Mass deportation was intended to permanently forestall the possibility of Armenian autonomy or independence.

    On 24 April 1915, the Ottoman authorities arrested and deported hundreds of Armenian intellectuals and leaders from Constantinople. At the orders of Talaat Pasha, an estimated 800,000 to 1.2 million Armenians were sent on death marches to the Syrian Desert in 1915 and 1916. Driven forward by paramilitary escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to robbery, rape, and massacres. In the Syrian Desert, the survivors were dispersed into concentration camps. In 1916, another wave of massacres was ordered, leaving about 200,000 deportees alive by the end of the year. Around 100,000 to 200,000 Armenian women and children were forcibly converted to Islam and integrated into Muslim households. Massacres and ethnic cleansing of Armenian survivors were carried out by the Turkish nationalist movement during the Turkish War of Independence after World War I.

    This genocide put an end to two thousand years of Armenian civilization. Together with the mass murder and expulsion of Syriac and Greek Orthodox Christians, it enabled the creation of an ethnonationalist Turkish state. The Turkish government maintains that the deportation of Armenians was a legitimate action that cannot be described as genocide. As of 2022, 33 countries have recognized the events as genocide, which is also the academic consensus.

    1. ^ Suny 2015, pp. 245, 330.
    2. ^ Bozarslan et al. 2015, p. 187.
    3. ^ Morris & Ze'evi 2019, p. 1.


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    13 September 1609Henry Hudson reaches the river that would later be named after him – the Hudson River.

    Henry Hudson

    Henry Hudson (c. 1565 – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.

    In 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a rumoured Northeast Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle. In 1609, he landed in North America on behalf of the Dutch East India Company and explored the region around the modern New York metropolitan area. Looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia[3] on his ship Halve Maen ("Half Moon"), he sailed up the Hudson River, which was later named after him, and thereby laid the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region.

    On his final expedition, while still searching for the Northwest Passage, Hudson became the first European to see Hudson Strait and the immense Hudson Bay.[4] In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied. The mutineers cast Hudson, his son, and seven others adrift; the Hudsons and their companions were never seen again.

    1. ^ Butts, E. (2009). Henry Hudson: new world voyager. Toronto: Dundurn. p. 17. ISBN 9781554884551.
    2. ^ Hunter, D. (2007). God's Mercies: rivalry, betrayal and the dream of discovery. Toronto: Doubleday. p. 12. ISBN 9780385660587.
    3. ^ De Laet, J. (1625). Nieuvve wereldt, ofte, Beschrijvinghe van West-Indien (in Dutch). Leyden: Elzevier. p. 83. OCLC 65327738.
    4. ^ Rink, O. A. (1986). Holland on the Hudson: an economic and social history of Dutch New York. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780801418662.


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    14 September 1917 – The Russian Empire is formally replaced by the Russian Republic.

    Russian Empire

    The Russian Empire[a][b] was the final period of the Russian monarchy from 1721 to 1917, ruling across large parts of Eurasia. It succeeded the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad, which ended the Great Northern War. The rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighbouring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Qajar Iran, the Ottoman Empire, and Qing China. It also held colonies in North America between 1799 and 1867. Covering an area of approximately 22,800,000 square kilometres (8,800,000 sq mi), it remains the third-largest empire in history, surpassed only by the British Empire and the Mongol Empire; it ruled over a population of 125.6 million people per the 1897 Russian census, which was the only census carried out during the entire imperial period. Owing to its geographic extent across three continents at its peak, it featured great ethnic, linguistic, religious, and economic diversity.

    From the 10th–17th centuries, the land was ruled by a noble class known as the boyars, above whom was a tsar (later adapted as the "Emperor of all the Russias"). The groundwork leading up to the establishment of the Russian Empire was laid by Ivan III (1462–1505): he tripled the territory of the Russian state and laid its foundation, renovating the Moscow Kremlin and also ending the dominance of the Golden Horde. From 1721 until 1762, the Russian Empire was ruled by the House of Romanov; its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov, ruled from 1762 until 1917. At the beginning of the 19th century, the territory of the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, and from the Baltic Sea in the west to Alaska, Hawaii, and California in the east. By the end of the 19th century, it had expanded its control over most of Central Asia and parts of Northeast Asia.

    Peter I (1682–1725) fought numerous wars and expanded an already vast empire into a major power of Europe. During his rule, he moved the Russian capital from Moscow to the new model city of Saint Petersburg, which was largely built according to designs of the Western world; he also led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval socio-political customs with a modern, scientific, rationalist, and Western-oriented system. Catherine the Great (1762–1796) presided over a golden age: she expanded the Russian state by conquest, colonization, and diplomacy, while continuing Peter I's policy of modernization towards a Western model. Alexander I (1801–1825) played a major role in defeating the militaristic ambitions of Napoleon and subsequently constituting the Holy Alliance, which aimed to restrain the rise of secularism and liberalism across Europe. The Russian Empire further expanded to the west, south, and east, concurrently establishing itself as one of the most powerful European powers. Its victories in the Russo-Turkish Wars were later checked by defeat in the Crimean War (1853–1856), leading to a period of reform and intensified expansion into Central Asia.[8] Alexander II (1855–1881) initiated numerous reforms, most notably the 1861 emancipation of all 23 million serfs. His official policy involved the responsibility of the Russian Empire towards the protection of Eastern Orthodox Christians residing within the Ottoman-ruled territories of Europe; this was one factor that later led to the Russian entry into World War I on the side of the Allied Powers against the Central Powers.

    Until the 1905 Russian Revolution, the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy, following which a semi-constitutional monarchy was nominally established. However, it functioned poorly during World War I, leading to the February Revolution. With the abdication of Nicholas II in 1917, the monarchy was abolished. In the aftermath of the February Revolution, the short-lived Russian Provisional Government proclaimed the establishment of the Russian Republic as a successor across its territories.[9][10] The October Revolution saw the Bolsheviks seize power in the Russian Republic, sparking the Russian Civil War. In 1918, the Bolsheviks executed the Romanov family, and after emerging victorious from the Russian Civil War in 1922–1923, they established the Soviet Union across most of the territory of the former Russian Empire.

    1. ^ "18th Century in the Russian History" Rushmania.com https://rusmania.com/history-of-russia/18th-century
    2. ^ J. Coleman, Heather (2014). Orthodox Christianity in Imperial Russia: A Source Book on Lived Religion. Indiana University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780253013187. After all, Orthodoxy was both the majority faith in the Russian Empire – approximately 70 percent subscribed to this faith in the 1897 census–and the state religion.
    3. ^ Williams, Beryl (1 December 1994). "The concept of the first Duma: Russia 1905–1906". Parliaments, Estates and Representation. 14 (2): 149–158. doi:10.1080/02606755.1994.9525857.
    4. ^ "The Sovereign Emperor exercises legislative power in conjunction with the State Council and State Duma". Fundamental Laws, "Chapter One On the Essence of Supreme Sovereign Power Article 7." Archived 8 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine
    5. ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 475–504. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793.
    6. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D. (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
    7. ^ "St. Petersburg through the Ages". www.forumspb.com. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
    8. ^ "The Great Game, 1856-1907: Russo-British Relations in Central and East Asia | Reviews in History". reviews.history.ac.uk. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
    9. ^ Geoffrey Swain (2014). Trotsky and the Russian Revolution. Routledge. p. 15. ISBN 9781317812784. Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015. The first government to be formed after the February Revolution of 1917 had, with one exception, been composed of liberals.
    10. ^ Alexander Rabinowitch (2008). The Bolsheviks in Power: The First Year of Soviet Rule in Petrograd. Indiana UP. p. 1. ISBN 978-0253220424. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    15 September 1935 – The Nuremberg Laws deprive German Jews of citizenship.

    Nuremberg Laws

    Title page of the German government gazette Reichsgesetzblatt issue proclaiming the laws, published on 16 September 1935 (RGB I No. 100)

    The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze, pronounced [ˈnʏʁnbɛʁɡɐ ɡəˈzɛtsə] (listen)) were antisemitic and racist laws that were enacted in Nazi Germany on 15 September 1935, at a special meeting of the Reichstag convened during the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party. The two laws were the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, which forbade marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews and Germans and the employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens. The remainder were classed as state subjects without any citizenship rights. A supplementary decree outlining the definition of who was Jewish was passed on 14 November, and the Reich Citizenship Law officially came into force on that date. The laws were expanded on 26 November 1935 to include Romani and Black people. This supplementary decree defined Romanis as "enemies of the race-based state", the same category as Jews.

    Out of foreign policy concerns, prosecutions under the two laws did not commence until after the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in Berlin. After Hitler rose to power in 1933, the Nazis began to implement antisemitic policies, which included the formation of a Volksgemeinschaft (people's community) based on race. Chancellor and Führer (leader) Adolf Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses on 1 April 1933, and the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April, excluded the so-called non-Aryans from the legal profession, the civil service, and from teaching in secondary schools and universities. Books considered un-German, including those by Jewish authors, were destroyed in a nationwide book burning on 10 May. Jewish citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks. They were actively suppressed, stripped of their citizenship and civil rights, and eventually completely removed from German society.

    The Nuremberg Laws had a crippling economic and social impact on the Jewish community. Persons convicted of violating the marriage laws were imprisoned, and (subsequent to 8 March 1938) upon completing their sentences were re-arrested by the Gestapo and sent to Nazi concentration camps. Non-Jews gradually stopped socialising with Jews or shopping in Jewish-owned stores, many of which closed due to a lack of customers. As Jews were no longer permitted to work in the civil service or government-regulated professions such as medicine and education, many middle-class business owners and professionals were forced to take menial employment. Emigration was problematic, as Jews were required to remit up to 90% of their wealth as a tax upon leaving the country.[1] By 1938 it was almost impossible for potential Jewish emigrants to find a country willing to take them. Mass deportation schemes such as the Madagascar Plan proved to be impossible for the Nazis to carry out, and starting in mid-1941, the German government started mass exterminations of the Jews of Europe.

    1. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 64, 66.
     
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    16 September 1955 – A Soviet Zulu-class submarine becomes the first to launch a ballistic missile.

    Zulu-class submarine

    The Soviet Navy's Project 611 (NATO reporting name: Zulu class) were one of the first Soviet post-war attack submarines. They were roughly as capable as the American GUPPY fleet-boat conversions.[1] They were a contemporary of the Whiskey-class submarines and shared a similar sonar arrangement. Like most conventional submarines designed 1946-1960, their design was influenced by the German Type XXI U-boat of the World War II era.[2]

    The first few boats of the class were equipped with twin 57mm and twin 25mm anti-aircraft guns and no snorkels, although the guns were removed and snorkels added soon after the boats entered service.[3][4] Six were converted in 1956 to become the world's first ballistic missile submarines, one armed with a single R-11FM Scud missile and five others with two Scuds each. They were designated as Project AV 611 and received the NATO reporting name of Zulu V.[1] The missiles were too long to be contained in the boat's hull, and extended into the enlarged sail. To be fired, the submarine had to surface and raise the missile out of the sail. Soviet submarine B-67 successfully launched a missile on 16 September 1955.[5]

    The Zulus were the basis for the very successful Foxtrot-class submarine, which lent their hull to the Golf class of ballistic missile submarine.

    Twenty-six boats were built overall, entering service from 1952 to 1957, 8 of them in Leningrad and 18 in Severodvinsk. Their names were initially B-61 through B-82 and B-88 through B-91, with most renamed in the 1970s or 1980s.[6] The class received the NATO reporting names Zulu I through Zulu V, the last referring to the five converted missile-firing submarines (excluding the prototype). It is unclear from references how many of each subclass were built.[4][7] Most were converted to non-combat uses and eventually scrapped.[8]

    1. ^ a b Norman Polamr and K. J. Moore, 'Cold War Submarines,'
    2. ^ Sean Maloney, 'To Secure Command of the Sea,' University of New Brunswick thesis 1991, p.315
    3. ^ Polmar, Norman; Moore, Kenneth J. (2003). Cold War Submarines: The Design and Construction of U.S. and Soviet Submarines, 1945-2001. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books. p. 30. ISBN 978-1574885941.
    4. ^ a b Gardiner, p. 398
    5. ^ Polmar, Norman; White, Michael (2010-11-29). Project Azorian: The CIA and the Raising of the K-129. Naval Institute Press. p. 20. ISBN 9781591146902. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
    6. ^ "Large submarines - Project 611". Retrieved 19 December 2014.
    7. ^ "611". Retrieved 19 December 2014.
    8. ^ "611". Retrieved 19 December 2014.
     
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    17 September 1930 – The Kurdish Ararat rebellion is suppressed by the Turks.

    Ararat rebellion

    The Ararat rebellion, also known as the Ağrı rebellion (Turkish: Ağrı ayaklanmaları or Ağrı isyanı), was a 1930 uprising of the Kurds of Ağrı Province, in eastern Turkey, against the Turkish government. The leader of the guerrilla forces during the rebellion was Ihsan Nuri of the Jibran tribe.[13]

    1. ^ Gunter, Michael M. (2009). The A to Z of the Kurds. Scarecrow Press. p. 9. ISBN 9780810863347.
    2. ^ Rohat Alakom, Hoybûn örgütü ve Ağrı ayaklanması, Avesta, 1998, ISBN 975-7112-45-3, p. 180. (in Turkish)
    3. ^ Robert W. Olson: Imperial meanderings and republican by-ways: essays on eighteenth century Ottoman and twentieth century history of Turkey, Isis Press, 1996, ISBN 9754280975, page 142.
    4. ^ a b Robin Leonard Bidwell, Kenneth Bourne, Donald Cameron Watt, Great Britain. Foreign Office: British documents on foreign affairs--reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print: From the First to the Second World War. Series B, Turkey, Iran, and the Middle East, 1918-1939, Volume 32, University Publications of America, 1997, page 82.
    5. ^ Soner Çağaptay: Islam, secularism, and nationalism in modern Turkey: who is a Turk?, Routledge, ISBN 1134174489, page 38
    6. ^ Yusuf Mazhar, Cumhuriyet, 16 Temmuz 1930, ... Zilan harekatında imha edilenlerin sayısı 15,000 kadardır. Zilan Deresi ağzına kadar ceset dolmuştur...
    7. ^ Ahmet Kahraman, ibid, p. 211, Karaköse, 14 (Özel muhabirimiz bildiriyor) ...
    8. ^ Ayşe Hür, "Osmanlı'dan bugüne Kürtler ve Devlet-4" Archived 2011-02-25 at the Wayback Machine, Taraf, October 23, 2008, Retrieved August 16, 2010.
    9. ^ M. Kalman, Belge, tanık ve yaşayanlarıyla Ağrı Direnişi 1926–1930, Pêrî Yayınları, İstanbul, 1997, ISBN 975-8245-01-5, p. 105.
    10. ^ "Der Krieg am Ararat" (Telegramm unseres Korrespondenten) Berliner Tageblatt, October 3, 1930, "... die Türken in der Gegend von Zilan 220 Dörfer zerstört und 4500 Frauen und Greise massakriert."
    11. ^ Martin van Bruinessen, "Zaza, Alevi and Dersimi as Deliberately Embraced Ethnic Identities" in '"Aslını İnkar Eden Haramzadedir!" The Debate on the Ethnic Identity of The Kurdish Alevis' in Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi, Barbara Kellner-Heinkele, Anke Otter-Beaujean, Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East: Collected Papers of the International Symposium "Alevism in Turkey and Comparable Sycretistic Religious Communities in the Near East in the Past and Present" Berlin, 14-17 April 1995, BRILL, 1997, ISBN 9789004108615, p. 13.
    12. ^ Martin van Bruinessen, "Zaza, Alevi and Dersimi as Deliberately Embraced Ethnic Identities" in '"Aslını İnkar Eden Haramzadedir!" The Debate on the Ethnic Identity of The Kurdish Alevis', p. 14.
    13. ^ Rohat Alkom, Hoybûn örgütü ve Ağrı ayaklanması, Avesta, 1998, ISBN 975-7112-45-3, p. 80. (in Turkish)
     
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    18 September 1809 – The Royal Opera House in London opens.

    Royal Opera House

    The Royal Opera House (ROH) is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is often referred to as simply Covent Garden, after a previous use of the site. It is the home of The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet, and the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. The first theatre on the site, the Theatre Royal (1732), served primarily as a playhouse for the first hundred years of its history. In 1734, the first ballet was presented. A year later, the first season of operas, by George Frideric Handel, began. Many of his operas and oratorios were specifically written for Covent Garden and had their premieres there.

    The current building is the third theatre on the site, following disastrous fires in 1808 and 1856 to previous buildings.[2] The façade, foyer, and auditorium date from 1858, but almost every other element of the present complex dates from an extensive reconstruction in the 1990s. The main auditorium seats 2,256 people, making it the third largest in London, and consists of four tiers of boxes and balconies and the amphitheatre gallery. The proscenium is 14.80 metres (48 ft 7 in) wide, with the stage of the same depth and 12.20 metres (40 ft 0 in) high. The main auditorium is a Grade I listed building.[3]

    1. ^ Historic England (9 January 1970). "The Royal Opera House (1066392)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
    2. ^ "11 Secrets of London's Royal Opera House". Londonist.
    3. ^ "Royal Opera House (London)" Archived 23 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine description on theatrestrust.org.uk Retrieved 10 May 2013
     
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    19 September 2006 – The Thai army stages a coup. The Constitution is revoked and martial law is declared.

    2006 Thai coup d'état

    The 2006 Thai coup d'état took place on 19 September 2006, when the Royal Thai Army staged a coup d'état against the elected caretaker government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. The coup d'état, which was Thailand's first non-constitutional change of government in fifteen years since the 1991 Thai coup d'état, followed a year-long political crisis involving Thaksin, his allies, and political opponents and occurred less than a month before nationwide House elections were scheduled to be held. It has been widely reported in Thailand and elsewhere that General Prem Tinsulanonda, key person in military-monarchy nexus, Chairman of the Privy Council, was the mastermind of the coup. The military cancelled the scheduled 15 October elections, abrogated the 1997 constitution, dissolved parliament and constitutional court, banned protests and all political activities, suppressed and censored the media, declared martial law nationwide, and arrested cabinet members.

    The new rulers, led by General Sonthi Boonyaratglin and organised as the Council for Democratic Reform (CDR), issued a declaration on 21 September setting out their reasons for taking power and giving a commitment to restore democratic government within one year.[1] However, the CDR also announced that after elections and the establishment of a democratic government, the council would be transformed into a Council of National Security (CNS) whose future role in Thai politics was not explained.[2] The CNS later drafted an interim charter and appointed retired General Surayud Chulanont as Premier. Martial law was lifted in 41 of Thailand's 76 provinces on 26 January 2007 but remained in place in another 35 provinces.[3] Elections were held on 23 December 2007, after a military-appointed tribunal outlawed the Thai Rak Thai (TRT) party of Thaksin Shinawatra and banned TRT executives from contesting in elections for five years.

    The 2006 coup was named the unfinished coup after another army general Prayut Chan-o-cha staged the 2014 Thai coup d'état eight years later against the government of Yingluck Shinawatra, Thaksin Shinawatra's sister, removing her government. The 2014 coup had taken over the country for five years, much longer than the 2006 coup, and drafted the junta senates to be involved in the prime minister election.[4]

    1. ^ "Council for Democratic Reform website" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 January 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2006.
    2. ^ Bangkok Post, 25 September 2006, Military set to publish interim constitution Archived 12 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
    3. ^ Bangkok Post, "Thailand lifts martial law in 41 provinces" Archived 18 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 26 January 2007
    4. ^ Ferrara 2014, p. 17 - 46..
     
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    20 September 2019 – Roughly four million people, mostly students, demonstrate across the world to address climate change. Sixteen-year-old Greta Thunberg from Sweden leads the demonstration in New York City.

    September 2019 climate strikes

    Protest attendee numbers from 20–27 September 2019, by country.
      1,000,000+
      100,000+
      10,000+
      1,000+
      100+
      Small protests, unclear numbers

    The September 2019 climate strikes, also known as the Global Week for Future, were a series of international strikes and protests to demand action be taken to address climate change, which took place from 20–27 September 2019. The strikes' key dates were 20 September, which was three days before the United Nations Climate Summit, and 27 September.[3][4] The protests took place across 4,500 locations in 150 countries.[5][6] The event is a part of the school strike for climate movement, inspired by Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg.[7][8] The Guardian reported that roughly 6 million people participated in the events,[1] whilst 350.org – a group that organised many of the protests – claim that 7.6 million people participated.[2]

    The 20 September protests were likely the largest climate strikes in world history.[9][10] Organisers reported that over 4 million people participated in strikes worldwide,[9] including 1.4 million participants in Germany.[11][12] An estimated 300,000 protesters took part in Australian strikes,[13] a further 300,000 people joined UK protests[14] and protesters in New York – where Greta Thunberg delivered a speech – numbered roughly 250,000.[4][10] More than 2,000 scientists in 40 countries pledged to support the strikes.[15]

    A second wave of protests took place on 27 September,[16] in which an estimated 2 million people took part in over 2,400 protests.[1][17] There were reported figures of one million protesters in Italy,[18] and 170,000 people in New Zealand.[19] In Montreal, where Greta Thunberg spoke, the Montreal school board cancelled classes for 114,000 of its students.[20][21] An estimated 500,000 protesters, including several federal party leaders, joined the march in Montreal.[22][23]

    1. ^ a b c Taylor, Matthew; Watts, Jonathan; Bartlett, John (2019-09-27). "Climate crisis: 6 million people join latest wave of global protests". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
    2. ^ a b "Global climate strike gathers 7.6m people". Hürriyet Daily News. 2019-09-29. Retrieved 2019-09-30.
    3. ^ Feller, Madison (2019-09-17). "The World Is Burning, and Teens Are Fighting: What to Know About the Global Climate Strike". Elle. Archived from the original on 2019-09-20. Retrieved 2019-09-19.
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference CNN Melbourne was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Milman, Oliver (2019-09-20). "US to stage its largest ever climate strike: 'Somebody must sound the alarm'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2019-09-20. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
    6. ^ Tollefson, Jeff (2019-09-18). "The hard truths of climate change – by the numbers". Nature. Archived from the original on 2019-09-19. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
    7. ^ "Inside The Youth-Led Plan To Pull Off The Biggest Climate Strike So Far". MTV News. Archived from the original on 2019-09-20. Retrieved 2019-09-19.
    8. ^ Weise, Elizabeth (2019-09-19). "'It's our future that's at stake': US students plan to skip school Friday to fight climate 'emergency'". USA Today. Archived from the original on 2019-09-19.
    9. ^ a b Barclay, Eliza; Resnick, Brian (2019-09-20). "How big was the global climate strike? 4 million people, activists estimate". Vox. Archived from the original on 2019-09-21. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
    10. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Guardian globe was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Germany strikers was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ "Rekordzahlen bei Klimademos: In Deutschland demonstrieren 1,4 Millionen Menschen". zdf.de (in German). Retrieved 2019-09-21.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference abc was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference UK total was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Conley, Julia (2019-09-20). ""Students Have Led and We Must Follow": Thousands of Scientists From 40 Nations Join Global Climate Strike". Buzz Flash. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
    16. ^ Taylor, Matthew; Bartlett, John (2019-09-27). "Fresh wave of climate strikes takes place around the world". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
    17. ^ Giuffrida, Angela (2019-09-27). "Italian minister urges pupils to skip class for global climate strike". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Repubblica million was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference NZ Herald was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference GlobeAndMail was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference Montreal cancelled was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Murphy, Jessica (2019-09-27). "Hundreds of thousands join Canada climate strikes". BBC. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
    23. ^ Riga, Andy (2019-09-28). "As it happened – 500,000 in Montreal climate march led by Greta Thunberg". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2022-09-22.
     
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    21 September 1972 – Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos begins authoritarian rule by declaring martial law.

    Ferdinand Marcos

    Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (UK: /ˈmɑːrkɒs/ MAR-koss, US: /-ks, -kɔːs/ -⁠kohss, -⁠kawss,[5][6] Tagalog: [ˈmaɾkɔs]; September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician, lawyer, dictator,[7][8][9] and kleptocrat[10][11][12] who was the 10th president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He ruled under martial law from 1972 until 1981[13] and kept most of his martial law powers until he was deposed in 1986, branding his rule as "constitutional authoritarianism"[14][15]: 414  under his Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement). One of the most controversial leaders of the 20th century, Marcos's rule was infamous for its corruption,[16][17][18] extravagance,[19][20][21] and brutality.[22][23][24]

    Marcos gained political success by claiming to have been the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines",[25] but many of his claims have been found to be false,[26][27][28] with United States Army documents describing his wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd".[29][30] After World War II, he became a lawyer then served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965. He was elected the President of the Philippines in 1965 and presided over an economy that grew during the beginning of his 20-year rule[31] but would end in the loss of livelihood, extreme poverty,[32][33] and a crushing debt crisis.[34][33] He pursued an aggressive program of infrastructure development funded by foreign debt,[35][36] making him popular during his first term, although it triggered an inflationary crisis which led to social unrest in his second term.[37][38] Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972,[39][40] shortly before the end of his second term. Martial law was ratified in 1973 through a fraudulent referendum.[41] The Constitution was revised, media outlets were silenced,[42] and violence and oppression were used[24] against the political opposition,[43][44] Muslims,[45] suspected communists,[46][47] and ordinary citizens.[44]

    After being elected for a third term in the 1981 Philippine presidential election, Marcos's popularity suffered greatly, due to the economic collapse that began in early 1983 and the public outrage over the assassination of opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. later that year. This discontent, the resulting resurgence of the opposition in the 1984 Philippine parliamentary election, and the discovery of documents exposing his financial accounts and false war records led Marcos to call the snap election of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, and human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution of February 1986, which removed him from power.[48] To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly".[49] Marcos then fled with his family to Hawaii.[50] He was succeeded as president by Aquino's widow, Corazon "Cory" Aquino.[51][52][53]

    According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG),[54] the Marcos family stole US$5 billion–$10 billion from the Central Bank of the Philippines.[55][56] The PCGG also maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars[57] from the Philippines[58][59] between 1965 and 1986. His wife, Imelda Marcos, made infamous in her own right by the excesses that characterized her and her husband's conjugal dictatorship,[60][61][62] is the source of the term "Imeldific".[63] Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., are still active in Philippine politics, with Bongbong having been elected president in the 2022 election. Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos held the Guinness World Record for the largest-ever theft from a government for decades,[64] although Guinness took the record down from their website while it underwent periodic review a few weeks before the 2022 Philippine presidential election.[65]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference loveLiesLoot was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Lagasca, Charlie (April 11, 2011). "Bongbong mum on Australian half-sister". The Philippine Star.
    3. ^ "Hunt for tyrant's millions leads to former model's home". The Sydney Morning Herald. July 24, 2004.
    4. ^ Malig, Jojo (March 31, 2011). "Ferdinand Marcos' Aussie daughter axed from TV show". ABS-CBN News.
    5. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). "Marcos". Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
    6. ^ The New Websters Dictionary of the English Language. Lexicon Publications, Inc. 1994. p. 609. ISBN 0-7172-4690-6.
    7. ^ Bonner, William; Bonner, Raymond (1987). Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. Times Books. ISBN 978-0-8129-1326-2.
    8. ^ Fuentecilla, Jose V. (April 1, 2013). Fighting from a Distance: How Filipino Exiles Helped Topple a Dictator. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-09509-2.
    9. ^ "Marcos: Rise and fall of a dictator". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 19, 2016.
    10. ^ David, Chaikin; Sharman, J.C. (2009). "The Marcos Kleptocracy". Corruption and Money Laundering: A Symbiotic Relationship. Palgrave Series on Asian Governance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 153–186. doi:10.1057/9780230622456_7. ISBN 978-0-230-61360-7.
    11. ^ Root, Hilton L. (2019). "Lootable Resources and Political Virtue: The Economic Governance of Lee Kuan Yew, Ferdinand Marcos, and Chiang Kai-shek Compared". In Mendoza, Ronald U.; Beja, Edsel L. Jr.; Teehankee, Julio C.; La Viña, Antonio G. M.; Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria Fe (eds.). Building Inclusive Democracies In ASEAN. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. pp. 225–241. doi:10.1142/9789813236493_0013. ISBN 978-981-3236-50-9. S2CID 158645388.
    12. ^ Roa, Ana (September 29, 2014). "Regime of Marcoses, cronies, kleptocracy". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
    13. ^ Lacsamana, Leodivico Cruz (1990). Philippine History and Government (Second ed.). Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. ISBN 971-06-1894-6. p. 189.
    14. ^ Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 9780275941376.
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference PalgraveNewHistoryofSEA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W. (August 1, 1993). "Corruption*". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 108 (3): 599–617. doi:10.2307/2118402. ISSN 0033-5533. JSTOR 2118402.
    17. ^ Quah, Jon S.T. (2010). "Curbing Corruption in the Philippines: Is this an Impossible Dream". Philippine Journal of Public Administration. 54 (1–2): 1–43 – via University of the Philippines Diliman.
    18. ^ Hodess, Robin; Inowlocki, Tania; Rodriguez, Diana; Wolfe, Toby, eds. (2004). Global Corruption Report 2004 (PDF). Sterling, VA, USA: Pluto Press in association with Transparency International. pp. 13, 101. ISBN 0-7453-2231-X.
    19. ^ Traywick, Catherine (January 16, 2014). "Shoes, Jewels, and Monets: The Immense Ill-Gotten Wealth of Imelda Marcos". Foreign Policy.
    20. ^ "The weird world of Imelda Marcos". The Independent. February 25, 1986.
    21. ^ Laurie, Jim (1986). "Excerpt – Imelda Marcos from ABC 20/20 March 1986". ABC News. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021.
    22. ^ Conde, Carlos H. (July 8, 2007). "Marcos family returning to the limelight in the Philippines". The New York Times.
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference amnestyInternational1975 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ a b "Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime". Ateneo de Manila University. September 20, 1999.
    25. ^ Bueza, Michael (August 20, 2016). "Marcos' World War II 'medals' explained". Rappler.
    26. ^ "Marcos flees at last". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
    27. ^ Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part II)". Asian Journal USA. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
    28. ^ Bondoc, Jarius (April 8, 2011). "Suspicions resurface about Marcos heroism". The Philippine Star.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference JeffGerth&JoelBrinkley19860123 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part I)". Asian Journal USA. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017.
    31. ^ "GDP (constant LCU) – Data". data.worldbank.org.
    32. ^ "Under Marcos dictatorship unemployment worsened, prices soared, poverty persisted". IBON Foundation. November 25, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
    33. ^ a b de Dios, Emmanuel S. (November 16, 2015). "The truth about the economy under the Marcos regime". Business World. Archived from the original on May 6, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
    34. ^ Yamsuan, Cathy (December 12, 2011). "Open records of Marcos' spy agency, Enrile urges". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
    35. ^ Mendoza, Ronald (February 26, 2016). "Ferdinand Marcos' economic disaster". Rappler.
    36. ^ Galang, Ping (February 21, 2011). "The economic decline that led to Marcos' fall". GMA News. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
    37. ^ Balbosa, Joven Zamoras (1992). "IMF Stabilization Program and Economic Growth: The Case of the Philippines". Journal of Philippine Development. XIX (35).
    38. ^ Cororaton, Cesar B. "Exchange Rate Movements in the Philippines". DPIDS Discussion Paper Series 97-05: 3, 19.
    39. ^ "Declaration of Martial Law". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
    40. ^ "FM Declares Martial Law". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines Sunday Express. September 24, 1972.
    41. ^ Schirmer, Daniel B.; Shalom, Stephen Roskamm (1987). The Philippines Reader: A history of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship and Resistance. South End Press. p. 191. ISBN 9780896082755.
    42. ^ Rivett, Rohan (March 13, 1973). "The Mark of Marcos – Part I: A deafening silence in the Philippines". The Age.
    43. ^ Kushida, Kenji (2003). "The Political Economy of the Philippines Under Marcos – Property Rights in the Philippines from 1965 to 1986" (PDF). Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 1, 2016. {{cite web}}: |archive-url= is malformed: flag (help)
    44. ^ a b Panti, Llanesca (October 16, 2018). "Imee done with apologizing for atrocities during Marcos regime". GMA News. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
    45. ^ "Philippine Church Leaders Fear Failure of Government-Muslim Negotiations". UCA News. February 10, 1987. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
    46. ^ Cortez, Kath M. (September 21, 2019). "Martial Law veterans recall fighting dark days of dictatorship". Davao Today.
    47. ^ "Why the Late Philippine Dictator Was No Hero". Human Rights Watch. November 8, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
    48. ^ "From Aquino's Assassination to People's Power". Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
    49. ^ Hoffman, David; Cannon, Lou; Coleman, Milton; Dewar, Helen; Goshko, John M.; Oberdorfer, Don; W, George C. (February 26, 1986). "In Crucial Call, Laxalt Told Marcos: 'Cut Cleanly'". The Washington Post.
    50. ^ Reaves, Joseph A. (February 26, 1986). "Marcos Flees, Aquino Rules – Peaceful Revolt Ends In Triumph". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014.
    51. ^ Benigno Aquino Jr. (August 21, 1983). "The undelivered speech of Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr. upon his return from the U.S., August 21, 1983". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
    52. ^ Laurie, Jim (August 21, 1983). "Last interview with and footage of Ninoy Aquino assassination". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
    53. ^ Kashiwara, Ken (October 16, 1983). "Aquino's Final Journey". The New York Times Magazine.
    54. ^ Pazzibugan, Dona Z. (February 13, 2014). "PCGG recovers $29M from Marcos loot". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
    55. ^ "Hail to the thief". The Economist. November 12, 2016.
    56. ^ "Chronology of the Marcos Plunder". Asian Journal. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
    57. ^ Mogato, Manuel (February 24, 2016). "Philippines still seeks $1 billion in Marcos wealth 30 years after his ouster". Reuters.
    58. ^ Tantiangco, Aya; Bigtas, Jannielyn Ann (February 25, 2016). "What Marcoses brought to Hawaii after fleeing PHL in '86: $717-M in cash, $124-M in deposit slips". GMA News.
    59. ^ Heilprin, John (April 13, 2015). "Political Will guides Marcos case in Philippines". Swiss Broadcasting Corporation.
    60. ^ Mijares, Primitivo (1976). The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos-1 (PDF). San Francisco: Union Square Publications.
    61. ^ Warde, Ibrahim (May 25, 2011). "From Marcos to Gaddafi: Kleptocrats, Old and New". The World Post.
    62. ^ Doyo, Ma. Ceres P. (October 12, 2014). "'Imeldific' collection of artworks (partial list)". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
    63. ^ Macapendeg, Mac (September 21, 2012). "Martial Law fashion: The Imeldific and the Third World look". GMA News.
    64. ^ "Greatest robbery of a Government". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on February 21, 2022. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
    65. ^ Patag, Kristine Joy (March 18, 2022). "Fact check: Guinness not disputing historical fact on 'greatest robbery of a gov't'". Philstar.com. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved May 11, 2022.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    1
    21 September 1972 – Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos begins authoritarian rule by declaring martial law.

    Ferdinand Marcos

    Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (UK: /ˈmɑːrkɒs/ MAR-koss, US: /-ks, -kɔːs/ -⁠kohss, -⁠kawss,[5][6] Tagalog: [ˈmaɾkɔs]; September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician, lawyer, dictator,[7][8][9] and kleptocrat[10][11][12] who was the 10th president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He ruled under martial law from 1972 until 1981[13] and kept most of his martial law powers until he was deposed in 1986, branding his rule as "constitutional authoritarianism"[14][15]: 414  under his Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement). One of the most controversial leaders of the 20th century, Marcos's rule was infamous for its corruption,[16][17][18] extravagance,[19][20][21] and brutality.[22][23][24]

    Marcos gained political success by claiming to have been the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines",[25] but many of his claims have been found to be false,[26][27][28] with United States Army documents describing his wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd".[29][30] After World War II, he became a lawyer then served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965. He was elected the President of the Philippines in 1965 and presided over an economy that grew during the beginning of his 20-year rule[31] but would end in the loss of livelihood, extreme poverty,[32][33] and a crushing debt crisis.[34][33] He pursued an aggressive program of infrastructure development funded by foreign debt,[35][36] making him popular during his first term, although it triggered an inflationary crisis which led to social unrest in his second term.[37][38] Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972,[39][40] shortly before the end of his second term. Martial law was ratified in 1973 through a fraudulent referendum.[41] The Constitution was revised, media outlets were silenced,[42] and violence and oppression were used[24] against the political opposition,[43][44] Muslims,[45] suspected communists,[46][47] and ordinary citizens.[44]

    After being elected for a third term in the 1981 Philippine presidential election, Marcos's popularity suffered greatly, due to the economic collapse that began in early 1983 and the public outrage over the assassination of opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. later that year. This discontent, the resulting resurgence of the opposition in the 1984 Philippine parliamentary election, and the discovery of documents exposing his financial accounts and false war records led Marcos to call the snap election of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, and human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution of February 1986, which removed him from power.[48] To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly".[49] Marcos then fled with his family to Hawaii.[50] He was succeeded as president by Aquino's widow, Corazon "Cory" Aquino.[51][52][53]

    According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG),[54] the Marcos family stole US$5 billion–$10 billion from the Central Bank of the Philippines.[55][56] The PCGG also maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars[57] from the Philippines[58][59] between 1965 and 1986. His wife, Imelda Marcos, made infamous in her own right by the excesses that characterized her and her husband's conjugal dictatorship,[60][61][62] is the source of the term "Imeldific".[63] Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., are still active in Philippine politics, with Bongbong having been elected president in the 2022 election. Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos held the Guinness World Record for the largest-ever theft from a government for decades,[64] although Guinness took the record down from their website while it underwent periodic review a few weeks before the 2022 Philippine presidential election.[65]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference loveLiesLoot was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Lagasca, Charlie (April 11, 2011). "Bongbong mum on Australian half-sister". The Philippine Star.
    3. ^ "Hunt for tyrant's millions leads to former model's home". The Sydney Morning Herald. July 24, 2004.
    4. ^ Malig, Jojo (March 31, 2011). "Ferdinand Marcos' Aussie daughter axed from TV show". ABS-CBN News.
    5. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). "Marcos". Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
    6. ^ The New Websters Dictionary of the English Language. Lexicon Publications, Inc. 1994. p. 609. ISBN 0-7172-4690-6.
    7. ^ Bonner, William; Bonner, Raymond (1987). Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. Times Books. ISBN 978-0-8129-1326-2.
    8. ^ Fuentecilla, Jose V. (April 1, 2013). Fighting from a Distance: How Filipino Exiles Helped Topple a Dictator. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-09509-2.
    9. ^ "Marcos: Rise and fall of a dictator". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 19, 2016.
    10. ^ David, Chaikin; Sharman, J.C. (2009). "The Marcos Kleptocracy". Corruption and Money Laundering: A Symbiotic Relationship. Palgrave Series on Asian Governance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 153–186. doi:10.1057/9780230622456_7. ISBN 978-0-230-61360-7.
    11. ^ Root, Hilton L. (2019). "Lootable Resources and Political Virtue: The Economic Governance of Lee Kuan Yew, Ferdinand Marcos, and Chiang Kai-shek Compared". In Mendoza, Ronald U.; Beja, Edsel L. Jr.; Teehankee, Julio C.; La Viña, Antonio G. M.; Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria Fe (eds.). Building Inclusive Democracies In ASEAN. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. pp. 225–241. doi:10.1142/9789813236493_0013. ISBN 978-981-3236-50-9. S2CID 158645388.
    12. ^ Roa, Ana (September 29, 2014). "Regime of Marcoses, cronies, kleptocracy". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
    13. ^ Lacsamana, Leodivico Cruz (1990). Philippine History and Government (Second ed.). Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. ISBN 971-06-1894-6. p. 189.
    14. ^ Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 9780275941376.
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference PalgraveNewHistoryofSEA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W. (August 1, 1993). "Corruption*". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 108 (3): 599–617. doi:10.2307/2118402. ISSN 0033-5533. JSTOR 2118402.
    17. ^ Quah, Jon S.T. (2010). "Curbing Corruption in the Philippines: Is this an Impossible Dream". Philippine Journal of Public Administration. 54 (1–2): 1–43 – via University of the Philippines Diliman.
    18. ^ Hodess, Robin; Inowlocki, Tania; Rodriguez, Diana; Wolfe, Toby, eds. (2004). Global Corruption Report 2004 (PDF). Sterling, VA, USA: Pluto Press in association with Transparency International. pp. 13, 101. ISBN 0-7453-2231-X.
    19. ^ Traywick, Catherine (January 16, 2014). "Shoes, Jewels, and Monets: The Immense Ill-Gotten Wealth of Imelda Marcos". Foreign Policy.
    20. ^ "The weird world of Imelda Marcos". The Independent. February 25, 1986.
    21. ^ Laurie, Jim (1986). "Excerpt – Imelda Marcos from ABC 20/20 March 1986". ABC News. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021.
    22. ^ Conde, Carlos H. (July 8, 2007). "Marcos family returning to the limelight in the Philippines". The New York Times.
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference amnestyInternational1975 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ a b "Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime". Ateneo de Manila University. September 20, 1999.
    25. ^ Bueza, Michael (August 20, 2016). "Marcos' World War II 'medals' explained". Rappler.
    26. ^ "Marcos flees at last". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
    27. ^ Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part II)". Asian Journal USA. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
    28. ^ Bondoc, Jarius (April 8, 2011). "Suspicions resurface about Marcos heroism". The Philippine Star.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference JeffGerth&JoelBrinkley19860123 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part I)". Asian Journal USA. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017.
    31. ^ "GDP (constant LCU) – Data". data.worldbank.org.
    32. ^ "Under Marcos dictatorship unemployment worsened, prices soared, poverty persisted". IBON Foundation. November 25, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
    33. ^ a b de Dios, Emmanuel S. (November 16, 2015). "The truth about the economy under the Marcos regime". Business World. Archived from the original on May 6, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
    34. ^ Yamsuan, Cathy (December 12, 2011). "Open records of Marcos' spy agency, Enrile urges". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
    35. ^ Mendoza, Ronald (February 26, 2016). "Ferdinand Marcos' economic disaster". Rappler.
    36. ^ Galang, Ping (February 21, 2011). "The economic decline that led to Marcos' fall". GMA News. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
    37. ^ Balbosa, Joven Zamoras (1992). "IMF Stabilization Program and Economic Growth: The Case of the Philippines". Journal of Philippine Development. XIX (35).
    38. ^ Cororaton, Cesar B. "Exchange Rate Movements in the Philippines". DPIDS Discussion Paper Series 97-05: 3, 19.
    39. ^ "Declaration of Martial Law". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
    40. ^ "FM Declares Martial Law". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines Sunday Express. September 24, 1972.
    41. ^ Schirmer, Daniel B.; Shalom, Stephen Roskamm (1987). The Philippines Reader: A history of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship and Resistance. South End Press. p. 191. ISBN 9780896082755.
    42. ^ Rivett, Rohan (March 13, 1973). "The Mark of Marcos – Part I: A deafening silence in the Philippines". The Age.
    43. ^ Kushida, Kenji (2003). "The Political Economy of the Philippines Under Marcos – Property Rights in the Philippines from 1965 to 1986" (PDF). Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 1, 2016. {{cite web}}: |archive-url= is malformed: flag (help)
    44. ^ a b Panti, Llanesca (October 16, 2018). "Imee done with apologizing for atrocities during Marcos regime". GMA News. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
    45. ^ "Philippine Church Leaders Fear Failure of Government-Muslim Negotiations". UCA News. February 10, 1987. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
    46. ^ Cortez, Kath M. (September 21, 2019). "Martial Law veterans recall fighting dark days of dictatorship". Davao Today.
    47. ^ "Why the Late Philippine Dictator Was No Hero". Human Rights Watch. November 8, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
    48. ^ "From Aquino's Assassination to People's Power". Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
    49. ^ Hoffman, David; Cannon, Lou; Coleman, Milton; Dewar, Helen; Goshko, John M.; Oberdorfer, Don; W, George C. (February 26, 1986). "In Crucial Call, Laxalt Told Marcos: 'Cut Cleanly'". The Washington Post.
    50. ^ Reaves, Joseph A. (February 26, 1986). "Marcos Flees, Aquino Rules – Peaceful Revolt Ends In Triumph". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014.
    51. ^ Benigno Aquino Jr. (August 21, 1983). "The undelivered speech of Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr. upon his return from the U.S., August 21, 1983". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
    52. ^ Laurie, Jim (August 21, 1983). "Last interview with and footage of Ninoy Aquino assassination". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
    53. ^ Kashiwara, Ken (October 16, 1983). "Aquino's Final Journey". The New York Times Magazine.
    54. ^ Pazzibugan, Dona Z. (February 13, 2014). "PCGG recovers $29M from Marcos loot". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
    55. ^ "Hail to the thief". The Economist. November 12, 2016.
    56. ^ "Chronology of the Marcos Plunder". Asian Journal. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
    57. ^ Mogato, Manuel (February 24, 2016). "Philippines still seeks $1 billion in Marcos wealth 30 years after his ouster". Reuters.
    58. ^ Tantiangco, Aya; Bigtas, Jannielyn Ann (February 25, 2016). "What Marcoses brought to Hawaii after fleeing PHL in '86: $717-M in cash, $124-M in deposit slips". GMA News.
    59. ^ Heilprin, John (April 13, 2015). "Political Will guides Marcos case in Philippines". Swiss Broadcasting Corporation.
    60. ^ Mijares, Primitivo (1976). The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos-1 (PDF). San Francisco: Union Square Publications.
    61. ^ Warde, Ibrahim (May 25, 2011). "From Marcos to Gaddafi: Kleptocrats, Old and New". The World Post.
    62. ^ Doyo, Ma. Ceres P. (October 12, 2014). "'Imeldific' collection of artworks (partial list)". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
    63. ^ Macapendeg, Mac (September 21, 2012). "Martial Law fashion: The Imeldific and the Third World look". GMA News.
    64. ^ "Greatest robbery of a Government". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on February 21, 2022. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
    65. ^ Patag, Kristine Joy (March 18, 2022). "Fact check: Guinness not disputing historical fact on 'greatest robbery of a gov't'". Philstar.com. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved May 11, 2022.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    22 September 1934 – The Gresford disaster in Wales kills 266 miners and rescuers.

    Gresford disaster

    The Gresford disaster occurred on 22 September 1934 at Gresford Colliery, near Wrexham, Denbighshire, when an explosion and underground fire killed 266 men. Gresford is one of Britain's worst coal mining disasters: a controversial inquiry into the disaster did not conclusively identify a cause, though evidence suggested that failures in safety procedures and poor mine management were contributory factors. Further public controversy was caused by the decision to seal the colliery's damaged sections permanently, meaning that only eleven of those who died were recovered.

     
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    23 September 1983 – Gulf Air Flight 771 is destroyed by a bomb, killing all 117 people on board.

    Gulf Air Flight 771

    Gulf Air Flight 771 was a flight from Karachi, Pakistan, to Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. On 23 September 1983, while the Boeing 737-2P6[1] was on approach to Abu Dhabi International Airport, a bomb planted by Palestinian nationalist militant group, Abu Nidal Organization, exploded in the baggage compartment. The plane crashed in the desert near Jebel Ali between Abu Dhabi and Dubai in the UAE. All five crew members and 107 passengers died.[2]

    1. ^ "Accident Synopsis". airdisaster.com. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
    2. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Criminal Occurrence description". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
     
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    24 September 1911His Majesty's Airship No. 1, Britain's first rigid airship, is wrecked by strong winds before her maiden flight at Barrow-in-Furness.

    HMA No. 1

    His Majesty's Airship No. 1 was designed and built by Vickers, Sons and Maxim at their works in Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, England, as an aerial scout airship for the Royal Navy. It was the first British rigid airship to be built, and was constructed in a direct attempt to compete with the German airship programme. Often referred to as "Mayfly", a nickname given to it by the lower deck (i.e. the non-commissioned component of a naval ship's crew), in public records it is designated ‘HMA Hermione’ because the naval contingent at Barrow were attached to HMS Hermione, a cruiser moored locally preparing to act as its tender.[1]

    When it was moved from its shed in Cavendish Dock to conduct full trials on 24 September 1911 it broke in two before it could attempt its first flight as a result of being subject to strong winds .[2] Although Mayfly never flew, its brief career provided valuable training and experimental data for British airship crews and designers.[3]

    1. ^ Jarret, P., (ed.) (2002) Pioneer Aircraft; Early Aviation before 1914. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-869-0, p 41
    2. ^ "Airship Breaks in Half" Popular Mechanics, December 1911, p. 773.
    3. ^ HMA No. 1 "The Mayfly" The Airship Heritage Trust. Retrieved on 1 March 2009.
     
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    25 September 1964 – The Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal begins.

    Mozambican War of Independence

    The Mozambican War of Independence (Portuguese: Guerra da Independência de Moçambique, 'War of Independence of Mozambique') was an armed conflict between the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front or FRELIMO (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique) and Portugal. The war officially started on September 25, 1964, and ended with a ceasefire on September 8, 1974, resulting in a negotiated independence in 1975.

    Portugal's wars against guerrilla fighters seeking independence in its 400-year-old African territories began in 1961 with Angola. In Mozambique, the conflict erupted in 1964 as a result of unrest and frustration amongst many indigenous Mozambican populations, who perceived foreign rule as exploitation and mistreatment, which served only to further Portuguese economic interests in the region. Many Mozambicans also resented Portugal's policies towards indigenous people, which resulted in discrimination and limited access to Portuguese-style education and skilled employment.

    As successful self-determination movements spread throughout Africa after World War II, many Mozambicans became progressively more nationalistic in outlook, and increasingly frustrated by the nation's continued subservience to foreign rule. For the other side, many enculturated indigenous Africans who were fully integrated into the social organization of Portuguese Mozambique, in particular those from urban centres, reacted to claims of independence with a mixture of discomfort and suspicion. The ethnic Portuguese of the territory, which included most of the ruling authorities, responded with increased military presence and fast-paced development projects.

    A mass exile of Mozambique's political intelligentsia to neighbouring countries provided havens from which radical Mozambicans could plan actions and foment political unrest in their homeland. The formation of FRELIMO and the support of the Soviet Union, Romania, China, Cuba, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Tanzania, Zambia, Egypt, Algeria, Gaddafi regime in Libya and Brazil through arms and advisers, led to the outbreak of violence that was to last over a decade.

    From a military standpoint, the Portuguese regular army held the upper hand during the conflict against FRELIMO guerrilla forces. Nonetheless, Mozambique succeeded in achieving independence on June 25, 1975, after a civil resistance movement known as the Carnation Revolution backed by portions of the military in Portugal overthrew the Salazar regime, thus ending 470 years of Portuguese colonial rule in the East African region. According to historians of the Revolution, the military coup in Portugal was in part fuelled by protests concerning the conduct of Portuguese troops in their treatment of some of the indigenous Mozambican populace.[40][41] The growing communist influence within the group of Portuguese insurgents who led the military coup and the pressure of the international community in relation to the Portuguese Colonial War were the primary causes of the outcome.[42]

    1. ^ Anna Calori, Anne-Kristin Hartmetz, Bence Kocsev, James Mark, Jan Zofka, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, Oct 21, 2019, Between East and South: Spaces of Interaction in the Globalizing Economy of the Cold War, pp. 133-134
    2. ^ Ion Rațiu, Foreign Affairs Publishing Company, 1975, Contemporary Romania: Her Place in World Affairs, p. 90
    3. ^ Frontiersmen: Warfare In Africa Since 1950, 2002. p. 49.
    4. ^ China Into Africa: Trade, Aid, and Influence, 2009. p. 156.
    5. ^ Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography, 2008. p. 315
    6. ^ The Cuban Military Under Castro, 1989. p. 45
    7. ^ Translations on Sub-Saharan Africa 607–623, 1967. p. 65.
    8. ^ Underdevelopment and the Transition to Socialism: Mozambique and Tanzania, 2013. p. 38.
    9. ^ Southern Africa The Escalation of a Conflict : a Politico-military Study, 1976. p. 99.
    10. ^ Tito in the world press on the occasion of the 80th birthday, 1973. p. 33.
    11. ^ Mozambique, Resistance and Freedom: A Case for Reassessment, 1994. p. 64.
    12. ^ "Moscow's Next Target in Africa" by Robert Moss
    13. ^ FRELIMO. Departamento de Informação e Propaganda, Mozambique revolution, p. 10
    14. ^ Liberalism, Black Power, and the Making of American Politics, 1965–1980. 2009. p. 83
    15. ^ United Front against imperialism: China's foreign policy in Africa, 1986. p. 174
    16. ^ Portuguese Africa: a handbook, 1969. p. 423.
    17. ^ Frelimo candidate Filipe Nyusi leading Mozambique presidential election
    18. ^ Mozambique in the twentieth century: from colonialism to independence, 1979. p. 271
    19. ^ A History of FRELIMO, 1982. p. 13
    20. ^ Encyclopedia Americana: Sumatra to Trampoline, 2005. p. 275
    21. ^ Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era, 2007. p. 226
    22. ^ Culture And Customs of Mozambique, 2007. p. 16
    23. ^ Intercontinental Press, 1974. p. 857.
    24. ^ The Last Bunker: A Report on White South Africa Today, 1976. p. 122
    25. ^ Vectors of Foreign Policy of the Mozambique Front (1962–1975): A Contribution to the Study of the Foreign Policy of the People's Republic of Mozambique, 1988. p. 8
    26. ^ Africa's Armies: From Honor to Infamy, 2009. p. 76
    27. ^ Imagery and Ideology in U.S. Policy Toward Libya 1969–1982, 1988. p.. 70
    28. ^ Qaddafi: his ideology in theory and practice, 1986. p. 140.
    29. ^ Selcher, Wayne A. (1976). "Brazilian Relations with Portuguese Africa in the Context of the Elusive "Luso-Brazilian Community"". Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs. 18 (1): 25–58. doi:10.2307/174815. JSTOR 174815.
    30. ^ South Africa in Africa: A Study in Ideology and Foreign Policy, 1975. p. 173.
    31. ^ The dictionary of contemporary politics of Southern Africa, 1988. p. 250.
    32. ^ Terror on the Tracks: A Rhodesian Story, 2011. p. 5.
    33. ^ Chirambo, Reuben (2004). "'Operation Bwezani': The Army, Political Change, and Dr. Banda's Hegemony in Malawi" (PDF). Nordic Journal of African Studies. 13 (2): 146–163. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
    34. ^ Salazar: A Political Biography, 2009. p. 530.
    35. ^ Prominent African Leaders Since Independence, 2012. p. 383.
    36. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin. The Israeli connection: Whom Israel arms and why, pp. 64. IB Tauris, 1987.
    37. ^ Westfall, William C., Jr., United States Marine Corps, Mozambique-Insurgency Against Portugal, 1963–1975, 1984. Retrieved on March 10, 2007
    38. ^ Walter C. Opello, Jr. Issue: A Journal of Opinion, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1974, p. 29
    39. ^ Cite error: The named reference Leonard38 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    40. ^ George Wright, The Destruction of a Nation, 1996
    41. ^ Phil Mailer, Portugal – The Impossible Revolution?, 1977
    42. ^ Stewart Lloyd-Jones, ISCTE (Lisbon), Portugal's history since 1974, "The Portuguese Communist Party (PCP–Partido Comunista Português), which had courted and infiltrated the MFA from the very first days of the revolution, decided that the time was now right for it to seize the initiative. Much of the radical fervour that was unleashed following Spínola's coup attempt was encouraged by the PCP as part of their own agenda to infiltrate the MFA and steer the revolution in their direction.", Centro de Documentação 25 de Abril, University of Coimbra
     
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    26 September 1789George Washington appoints Thomas Jefferson the first United States Secretary of State

    United States Secretary of State

    The United States secretary of state is a member of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States and the head of the U.S. Department of State. The office holder is one of the highest ranking members of the president's Cabinet, and ranks the first in the U.S. presidential line of succession among Cabinet secretaries.

    Created in 1789 with Thomas Jefferson as its first office holder, the secretary of state represents the United States to foreign countries, and is therefore considered analogous to a foreign minister in other countries.[5][6] The secretary of state is nominated by the president of the United States and, following a confirmation hearing before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, is confirmed by the United States Senate. The secretary of state, along with the secretary of the treasury, secretary of defense, and attorney general, are generally regarded as the four most crucial Cabinet members because of the importance of their respective departments.[7]

    Secretary of State is a Level I position in the Executive Schedule and thus earns the salary prescribed for that level (US$221,400, as of January 2021).[8][4] The current secretary of state is Antony Blinken, who was confirmed on January 26, 2021, by the Senate by a vote of 78–22.[9]

    1. ^ "Protocol Reference". United States Department of State. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
    2. ^ "United Nations Heads of State, Protocol and Liaison Service" (PDF). United Nations. January 29, 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 14, 2020. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
    3. ^ "3 U.S. Code § 19 – Vacancy in offices of both President and Vice President; officers eligible to act". Cornell Law School.
    4. ^ a b 5 U.S.C. § 5312.
    5. ^ "Heads of State, Heads of Government, Ministers for Foreign Affairs", Protocol and Liaison Service, United Nations. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
    6. ^ NATO Member Countries, NATO. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
    7. ^ "Cabinets and Counselors: The President and the Executive Branch" (1997). Congressional Quarterly. p. 87.
    8. ^ "Salary Table No. 2021-EX Rates of Basic Pay for the Executive Schedule (EX)" (PDF).
    9. ^ "U.S. Senate: U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 117th Congress – 1st Session". www.senate.gov. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
     
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    27 September 1998 – The Google internet search engine retroactively claims this date as its birthday.

    Google

    Eric Schmidt, Sergey Brin, and Larry Page sitting together
    Then-CEO and former Chairman of Google Eric Schmidt with co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page (left to right) in 2008

    Google LLC (/ˈɡɡəl/ (listen)) is an American multinational technology company focusing on search engine technology, online advertising, cloud computing, computer software, quantum computing, e-commerce, artificial intelligence,[9] and consumer electronics. It has been referred to as "the most powerful company in the world"[10] and one of the world's most valuable brands due to its market dominance, data collection, and technological advantages in the area of artificial intelligence.[11][12][13] Its parent company Alphabet is considered one of the Big Five American information technology companies, alongside Amazon, Apple, Meta, and Microsoft.

    Google was founded on September 4, 1998, by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were PhD students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14% of its publicly listed shares and control 56% of the stockholder voting power through super-voting stock. The company went public via an initial public offering (IPO) in 2004. In 2015, Google was reorganized as a wholly owned subsidiary of Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's largest subsidiary and is a holding company for Alphabet's Internet properties and interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google on October 24, 2015, replacing Larry Page, who became the CEO of Alphabet. On December 3, 2019, Pichai also became the CEO of Alphabet.[14]

    The company has since rapidly grown to offer a multitude of products and services beyond Google Search, many of which hold dominant market positions. These products address a wide range of use cases, including email (Gmail), navigation (Waze & Maps), cloud computing (Cloud), web browsing (Chrome), video sharing (YouTube), productivity (Workspace), operating systems (Android), cloud storage (Drive), language translation (Translate), photo storage (Photos), video calling (Meet), smart home (Nest), smartphones (Pixel), wearable technology (Pixel Watch & Fitbit), music streaming (YouTube Music), video on demand (YouTube TV), artificial intelligence (Google Assistant), machine learning APIs (TensorFlow), AI chips (TPU), and more. Discontinued Google products include gaming (Stadia), Glass,[citation needed] Google+, Reader, Play Music, Nexus, Hangouts, and Inbox by Gmail.[15][16]

    Google's other ventures outside of Internet services and consumer electronics include quantum computing (Sycamore), self-driving cars (Waymo, formerly the Google Self-Driving Car Project), smart cities (Sidewalk Labs), and transformer models (Google Brain).[17]

    Google and YouTube are the two most visited websites worldwide followed by Facebook and Twitter. Google is also the largest search engine, mapping and navigation application, email provider, office suite, video sharing platform, photo and cloud storage provider, mobile operating system, web browser, ML framework, and AI virtual assistant provider in the world as measured by market share. On the list of most valuable brands, Google is ranked second by Forbes[18] and fourth by Interbrand.[19] It has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, censorship, search neutrality, antitrust and abuse of its monopoly position.

    1. ^ Fitzpatrick, Alex (September 4, 2014). "Google Used to Be the Company That Did 'Nothing But Search'". Time.
    2. ^ "When is Google's birthday – and why are people confused?". The Telegraph. September 27, 2019. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022.
    3. ^ Griffin, Andrew (September 27, 2019). "Google birthday: The one big problem with the company's celebratory doodle". The Independent.
    4. ^ Wray, Richard (September 5, 2008). "Happy birthday Google". The Guardian.
    5. ^ "Company – Google". January 16, 2015. Archived from the original on January 16, 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
    6. ^ Claburn, Thomas (September 24, 2008). "Google Founded By Sergey Brin, Larry Page... And Hubert Chang?!?". InformationWeek. UBM plc. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
    7. ^ "Locations— Google Jobs". Archived from the original on September 30, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Condon, Stephanie (May 7, 2019). "Google I/O: From 'AI first' to AI working for everyone". ZDNet. Retrieved April 2, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    10. ^ Jack, Simon (November 21, 2017). "Google - powerful and responsible?". BBC News. Retrieved March 29, 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    11. ^ McCormick, Rich (June 2, 2016). "Elon Musk: There's only one AI company that worries me". The Verge. Retrieved March 29, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    12. ^ "Justice Department Sues Monopolist Google For Violating Antitrust Laws". www.justice.gov. October 20, 2020. Retrieved March 29, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    13. ^ "Land of the Giants: The Titans of Tech | CNN+". plus.cnn.com. Retrieved April 18, 2022.
    14. ^ Feiner, Lauren (December 3, 2019). "Larry Page steps down as CEO of Alphabet, Sundar Pichai to take over". CNBC. Retrieved June 16, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    15. ^ Brady, Heather; Kirk, Chris (March 15, 2013). "The Google Graveyard". Slate. Archived from the original on March 16, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
    16. ^ Booker, Logan (March 17, 2013). "Google Graveyard Does Exist". gizmodo. Gizmodo. Archived from the original on May 18, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
    17. ^ "Inside X, Google's top-secret moonshot factory". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
    18. ^ Swant, Marty. "THE WORLD'S VALUABLE BRANDS". Forbes. Retrieved January 19, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    19. ^ "BEST GLOBAL BRANDS". Interbrand. Retrieved March 7, 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    28 September 1919Race riots begin in Omaha, Nebraska.

    Omaha race riot of 1919

    The Omaha Race Riot occurred in Omaha, Nebraska, September 28–29, 1919. The race riot resulted in the lynching of Will Brown, a black civilian; the death of two white rioters; the injuries of many Omaha Police Department officers and civilians, including the attempted hanging of Mayor Edward Parsons Smith; and a public rampage by thousands of white rioters who set fire to the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha. It followed more than 20 race riots that occurred in major industrial cities of the United States during the Red Summer of 1919.

     
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    29 November 1877Thomas Edison demonstrates his phonograph for the first time.

    Phonograph

    Thomas Edison with his second phonograph, photographed by Levin Corbin Handy in Washington, April 1878
    An Edison Standard Phonograph that uses wax cylinders

    A phonograph, in its later forms also called a gramophone (as a trademark since 1887, as a generic name in the UK since 1910) or since the 1940s called a record player, or more recently a turntable,[a] is a device for the mechanical and analogue recording and reproduction of sound. The sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, etched, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record". To recreate the sound, the surface is similarly rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it, very faintly reproducing the recorded sound. In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring horn, or directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope-type earphones.

    The phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison.[1][2][3][4] Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s and introduced the graphophone, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a zigzag groove around the record. In the 1890s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, which is predominantly used in many languages. Later improvements through the years included modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the stylus or needle, pickup system, and the sound and equalization systems.

    The disc phonograph record was the dominant commercial audio recording format throughout most of the 20th century. In the 1960s, the use of 8-track cartridges and cassette tapes were introduced as alternatives. In the 1980s, phonograph use declined sharply due to the popularity of cassettes and the rise of the compact disc, as well as the later introduction of digital music distribution in the 2000s. However, records are still a favorite format for some audiophiles, DJs, collectors, and turntablists (particularly in hip hop and electronic dance music), and have undergone a revival since the 2000s.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "The Incredible Talking Machine". Time. June 23, 2010. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
    2. ^ "Tinfoil Phonograph". Rutgers University. Archived from the original on 2011-05-13.
    3. ^ "History of the Cylinder Phonograph". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
    4. ^ "The Biography of Thomas Edison". Gerald Beals. Archived from the original on 2011-09-03.
     
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    30 September 1949 – The Berlin Airlift ends.

    Berlin Blockade

    The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control. The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche Mark from West Berlin.

    The Western Allies organised the Berlin Airlift (German: Berliner Luftbrücke, lit.'"Berlin Air Bridge"') from 26 June 1948 to 30 September 1949 to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, a difficult feat given the size of the city and the population.[1][2] American and British air forces flew over Berlin more than 250,000 times, dropping necessities such as fuel and food, with the original plan being to lift 3,475 tons of supplies daily. By the spring of 1949, that number was often met twofold, with the peak daily delivery totalling 12,941 tons.[3] Among these, candy-dropping aircraft dubbed "raisin bombers" generated much goodwill among German children.[4]

    Having initially concluded there was no way the airlift could work, the Soviets found its continued success an increasing embarrassment. On 12 May 1949, the USSR lifted the blockade of West Berlin, due to economic issues in East Berlin, although for a time the Americans and British continued to supply the city by air as they were worried that the Soviets would resume the blockade and were only trying to disrupt western supply lines. The Berlin Airlift officially ended on 30 September 1949 after fifteen months. The US Air Force had delivered 1,783,573 tons (76.4% of total) and the RAF 541,937 tons (23.3% of total),[nb 1] totalling 2,334,374 tons, nearly two-thirds of which was coal, on 278,228 flights to Berlin. In addition Canadian, Australian, New Zealand and South African air crews assisted the RAF during the blockade.[5]: 338  The French also supported but only to provide for their military garrison.[6]

    American C-47 and C-54 transport airplanes, together, flew over 92,000,000 miles (148,000,000 km) in the process, almost the distance from Earth to the Sun.[7] British transports, including Handley Page Haltons and Short Sunderlands, flew as well. At the height of the Airlift, one plane reached West Berlin every thirty seconds.[8]

    Seventeen American and eight British aircraft crashed during the operation.[9] A total of 101 fatalities were recorded as a result of the operation, including 40 Britons and 31 Americans,[8] mostly due to non-flying accidents.

    The Berlin Blockade served to highlight the competing ideological and economic visions for postwar Europe. It played a major role in aligning West Berlin with the United States as the major protecting power,[10] and in drawing West Germany into the NATO orbit several years later in 1955.

    1. ^ Journey Across Berlin (1961). Universal Newsreel. 1957. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
    2. ^ Air Force Story, The Cold War, 1948–1950 (1953). Universal Newsreel. 1953. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
    3. ^ The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. p. 828.
    4. ^ Smoler, Fredric (April/May 2003). "Where Berlin and America Meet Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine" American Heritage. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
    5. ^ "5 – National Security". South Africa: a country study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. 1997. ISBN 0-8444-0796-8.
    6. ^ Jacques Bariéty (1994). "La France et la crise internationale du blocus de Berlin". Histoire, économie et société; Volume 13; numéro 1. pp. 29–44. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
    7. ^ Berlin Airlift: Logistics, Humanitarian Aid, and Strategic Success Archived 16 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Major Gregory C. Tine, Army Logistician
    8. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference turner27 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Tunner 1964, p. 218
    10. ^ Daum, Andreas W. (2000). "America's Berlin, 1945‒2000: Between Myths and Visions". In Trommler, Frank (ed.). Berlin: The New Capital in the East (PDF). The American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, Johns Hopkins University. pp. 49–73. Retrieved 2 March 2021.


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    1 October 1946 – Nazi leaders are sentenced at the Nuremberg trials.

    Nuremberg trials

    The Nuremberg trials were held by the Allies against representatives of the defeated Nazi Germany, for plotting and carrying out invasions of other countries, and other crimes, in World War II.

    Between 1939 and 1945, Nazi Germany invaded many countries across Europe, inflicting 27 million deaths in the Soviet Union alone. Proposals for how to punish the defeated Nazi leaders ranged from a show trial (the Soviet Union) to summary executions (the United Kingdom). In mid-1945, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States agreed to convene a joint tribunal in Nuremberg, with the Nuremberg Charter as its legal instrument. Between 20 November 1945 and 1 October 1946, the International Military Tribunal (IMT) tried 21 of the most important surviving leaders of Nazi Germany in the political, military, and economic spheres, as well as six German organizations. The purpose of the trial was not just to convict the defendants but also to assemble irrefutable evidence of Nazi crimes, offer a history lesson to the defeated Germans, and delegitimize the traditional German elite.

    The IMT focused on the crime of aggression—plotting and waging aggressive war, which the verdict declared "the supreme international crime" because "it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole".[1] Most of the defendants were also charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity. Twelve further trials were conducted by the United States against lower-level perpetrators, which focused more on the Holocaust. Although controversial at the time for their use of ex post facto law, the trials' innovation of holding individuals responsible for violations of international law established international criminal law.

    1. ^ Sellars 2013, p. 165.
     

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