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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

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    11 November 1918World War I: Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car in the forest of Compiègne.

    Armistice of 11 November 1918

    black and white photograph of five men in military uniforms standing side-to-m right, seen outside his railway carriage No. 2419 D in the Forest of Compiègne.
    Photograph taken after reaching agreement for the armistice that ended World War I. This is Ferdinand Foch's own railway carriage in the Forest of Compiègne. Foch's chief of staff Maxime Weygand is second from left. Third from the left is the senior British representative, Sir Rosslyn Wemyss. Foch is second from the right. On the right is Admiral Sir George Hope.

    The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice signed at Le Francport near Compiègne that ended fighting on land, sea, and air in World War I between the Entente and their last remaining opponent, Germany. Previous armistices had been agreed with Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. It was concluded after the German government sent a message to American president Woodrow Wilson to negotiate terms on the basis of a recent speech of his and the earlier declared "Fourteen Points", which later became the basis of the German surrender at the Paris Peace Conference, which took place the following year.

    Also known as the Armistice of Compiègne (French: Armistice de Compiègne, German: Waffenstillstand von Compiègne) from the place where it was officially signed at 5:45 a.m. by the Allied Supreme Commander, French Marshal Ferdinand Foch,[1] it came into force at 11:00 a.m. Central European Time (CET) on 11 November 1918 and marked a victory for the Allies and a defeat for Germany, although not formally a surrender.

    The actual terms, which were largely written by Foch, included the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front, the withdrawal of German forces from west of the Rhine, Allied occupation of the Rhineland and bridgeheads further east, the preservation of infrastructure, the surrender of aircraft, warships, and military materiel, the release of Allied prisoners of war and interned civilians, eventual reparations, no release of German prisoners and no relaxation of the naval blockade of Germany. The armistice was extended three times while negotiations continued on a peace treaty. The Treaty of Versailles, which was officially signed on 28 June 1919, took effect on 10 January 1920.

    Fighting continued up until 11 a.m. CET on 11 November 1918, with 2,738 men dying on the last day of the war.[2]

    1. ^ "Armistice: The End of World War I,1918". EyeWitness to History. 2004. Archived from the original on 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
    2. ^ Persico 2005.
     
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    12 November 1912First Balkan War: King George I of Greece makes a triumphal entry into Thessaloniki after its liberation from 482 years of Ottoman rule.

    First Balkan War

    The First Balkan War (Serbian: Први балкански рат, Prvi balkanski rat; Bulgarian: Балканска война; Greek: Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Turkish: Birinci Balkan Savaşı) lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and involved actions of the Balkan League (the Kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire. The Balkan states' combined armies overcame the initially numerically inferior (significantly superior by the end of the conflict) and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, achieving rapid success.

    The war was a comprehensive and unmitigated disaster for the Ottomans, who lost 83% of their European territories and 69% of their European population.[15] As a result of the war, the League captured and partitioned almost all of the Ottoman Empire's remaining territories in Europe. Ensuing events also led to the creation of an independent Albania, which angered the Serbs. Bulgaria, meanwhile, was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, and attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 June 1913 which provoked the start of the Second Balkan War.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hall16 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hall18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Erickson70 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Erickson (2003), p. 69
    5. ^ Erickson (2003), p. 52
    6. ^ "Там /в Плевенско и Търновско/ действително се говори, че тези черкези отвличат деца от българи, загинали през последните събития." (Из доклада на английския консул в Русе Р. Рийд от 16.06.1876 г. до английския посланик в Цариград Х. Елиот. в Н. Тодоров, Положението, с. 316)
    7. ^ Hacısalihoğlu, Mehmet. Kafkasya'da Rus Kolonizasyonu, Savaş ve Sürgün (PDF). Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi.
    8. ^ BOA, HR. SYS. 1219/5, lef 28, p. 4
    9. ^ Karataş, Ömer. The Settlement of the Caucasian Emigrants in the Balkans during lkans duringthe 19th Century Century
    10. ^ Hall, The Balkan Wars 1912–1913, p 135
    11. ^ Hall, The Balkan Wars 1912–1913, p 135
    12. ^ Βιβλίο εργασίας 3, Οι Βαλκανικοί Πόλεμοι, ΒΑΛΕΡΙ ΚΟΛΕΦ and ΧΡΙΣΤΙΝΑ ΚΟΥΛΟΥΡΗ, translation by ΙΟΥΛΙΑ ΠΕΝΤΑΖΟΥ, CDRSEE, Thessaloniki 2005, p. 120,(Greek). Retrieved from http://www.cdsee.org
    13. ^ Hall, The Balkan Wars 1912–1913, p 135
    14. ^ a b Erickson (2003), p. 329
    15. ^ Balkan Savaşları ve Balkan Savaşları'nda Bulgaristan, Süleyman Uslu
     
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    13 November 1901 – The 1901 Caister lifeboat disaster.

    1901 Caister lifeboat disaster

    Memorial to the lifeboatmen who died

    The Caister lifeboat disaster of 13 November 1901 occurred off the coast of Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk, England. It took place during what became known as the "Great Storm", which caused havoc down the east coasts of England and Scotland.

     
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    14 November 1971Mariner 9 enters orbit around Mars.

    Mariner 9

    Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was a robotic spacecraft that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the NASA Mariner program. Mariner 9 was launched toward Mars on May 30, 1971[1][2] from LC-36B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, and reached the planet on November 14 of the same year,[1][2] becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet[3] – only narrowly beating the Soviet probes Mars 2 (launched May 19) and Mars 3 (launched May 28), which both arrived at Mars only weeks later.

    After the occurrence of dust storms on the planet for several months following its arrival, the orbiter managed to send back clear pictures of the surface. Mariner 9 successfully returned 7,329 images over the course of its mission, which concluded in October 1972.[4]

    1. ^ a b c "Mariner 9: Trajectory Information". National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
    2. ^ a b "Mariner Mars 1971 Project Final Report" (PDF). NASA Technical Reports Server. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
    3. ^ "Mariner 9: Details". National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
    4. ^ "NASA Programs & Missions Historical Log". Archived from the original on 2014-11-13. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
     
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    15 November 1988 – In the Soviet Union, the uncrewed Shuttle Buran makes its only space flight.

    Buran (spacecraft)

    Buran (Russian: Буран, IPA: [bʊˈran], meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: 11F35 1K, construction number: 1.01) was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran program. Besides describing the first operational Soviet/Russian shuttle orbiter, "Buran" was also the designation for the entire Soviet/Russian spaceplane project and its orbiters, which were known as "Buran-class orbiters".

    Buran completed one uncrewed spaceflight in 1988, and was destroyed in the 2002 collapse of its storage hangar.[3] The Buran-class orbiters used the expendable Energia rocket, a class of super heavy-lift launch vehicle.

    It is named after the Asian wind.

    1. ^ a b c d e "Buran". NASA. 12 November 1997. Archived from the original on 4 August 2006. Retrieved 15 August 2006.
    2. ^ "Eight feared dead in Baikonur hangar collapse". Spaceflight Now. 16 May 2002.
    3. ^ Zak, Anatoly (25 December 2018). "Buran reusable orbiter". Russian Space Web. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
     
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    16 November 1940 – The Holocaust: In occupied Poland, the Nazis close off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.

    Warsaw Ghetto

    The Warsaw Ghetto (German: Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer Wohnbezirk in Warschau, "Jewish Residential District in Warsaw"; Polish: getto warszawskie) was the largest of the Nazi ghettos during World War II and the Holocaust. It was established in November 1940 by the German authorities within the new General Government territory of occupied Poland. At its height, as many as 460,000 Jews were imprisoned there,[5] in an area of 3.4 km2 (1.3 sq mi), with an average of 9.2 persons per room,[6][7] barely subsisting on meager food rations.[7] From the Warsaw Ghetto, Jews were deported to Nazi concentration camps and mass-killing centers. In the summer of 1942, at least 254,000 ghetto residents were sent to the Treblinka extermination camp during Großaktion Warschau under the guise of "resettlement in the East" over the course of the summer.[7] The ghetto was demolished by the Germans in May 1943 after the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising had temporarily halted the deportations. The total death toll among the prisoners of the ghetto is estimated to be at least 300,000 killed by bullet or gas,[8] combined with 92,000 victims of starvation and related diseases, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, and the casualties of the final destruction of the ghetto.[2][9][10][11]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference USHMM1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference USHMM2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Engelking & Leociak (2013), p. 71.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Philpott was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference USHMM encyclopedia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bains was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference Gutman1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Shapiro was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference YadVashem1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Urynowicz was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference statistics was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    17 November 1869 – In Egypt, the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, is inaugurated.

    Suez Canal

    The Suez Canal (Egyptian Arabic: قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, Qanāt el Sewes) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez and dividing Africa and Asia. The 193.30 km (120.11 mi) long canal is a popular trade route between Europe and Asia.

    In 1858, Ferdinand de Lesseps formed the Suez Canal Company for the express purpose of building the canal. Construction of the canal lasted from 1859 to 1869. The canal officially opened on 17 November 1869. It offers vessels a direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian oceans via the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian oceans and reducing the journey distance from the Arabian Sea to London by approximately 8,900 kilometres (5,500 mi), or 10 days at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) to 8 days at 24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph).[1] The canal extends from the northern terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez. In 2021, more than 20,600 vessels traversed the canal (an average of 56 per day).[2]

    The original canal featured a single-lane waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass and the Great Bitter Lake.[3] It contained, according to Alois Negrelli's plans, no lock systems, with seawater flowing freely through it. In general, the water in the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez.[4]

    The canal was the property of the Egyptian government, but European shareholders, mostly British and French, owned the concessionary company which operated it until July 1956, when President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalised it—an event which led to the Suez Crisis of October–November 1956.[5] The canal is operated and maintained by the state-owned Suez Canal Authority[6] (SCA) of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag."[7] Nevertheless, the canal has played an important military strategic role as a naval short-cut and choke point. Navies with coastlines and bases on both the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea (Egypt and Israel) have a particular interest in the Suez Canal. After Egypt closed the Suez Canal at the beginning of the Six-Day War on 5 June 1967, the canal remained closed for precisely eight years, reopening on 5 June 1975.[8]

    The Egyptian government launched construction in 2014 to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km (22 mi) to speed up the canal's transit time. The expansion intended to nearly double the capacity of the Suez Canal, from 49 to 97 ships per day.[9] At a cost of LE 59.4 billion(US$9 billion), this project was funded with interest bearing investment certificates issued exclusively to Egyptian entities and individuals.

    The Suez Canal Authority officially opened the new side channel in 2016. This side channel, at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal. As the East Container Terminal is located on the Canal itself, before the construction of the new side channel it was not possible to berth or unberth vessels at the terminal while a convoy was running.[10]

    Aerial view of the Suez Canal at Suez
    1. ^ "The Suez Canal – A vital shortcut for global commerce" (PDF). World Shipping Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
    2. ^ "Number of ships passing through the Suez Canal from 1976 to 2021". Statista. 31 March 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    3. ^ "Suez Canal Authority". Archived from the original on 13 June 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
    4. ^ Elaine Morgan; Stephen Davies (1995). The Red Sea Pilot. Imray Laurie Norie & Wilson. p. 266. ISBN 9780852885543.
    5. ^ "Suez Crisis". History.com. A&E Television Networks. 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
    6. ^ "SCA Overview". Suez Canal Authority. Archived from the original on 25 June 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
    7. ^ Constantinople Convention of the Suez Canal of 2 March 1888 still in force and specifically maintained in Nasser's Nationalization Act.
    8. ^ Feyrer, James. "Distance, Trade, and Income – The 1967 to 1975 Closing of the Suez Canal as a Natural Experiment" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 February 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
    9. ^ "New Suez Canal project proposed by Egypt to boost trade". caironews.net. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
    10. ^ "Egypt opens East Port Said side channel for navigation". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 25 February 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
     
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    18 November 1991Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon release Anglican Church envoys Terry Waite and Thomas Sutherland.

    Terry Waite

    Terence Hardy Waite CBE (born 31 May 1939)[1] is an English humanitarian and author.

    Waite was the Assistant for Anglican Communion Affairs for the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, in the 1980s. As an envoy for the Church of England, he travelled to Lebanon to try to secure the release of four hostages, including the journalist John McCarthy. He was himself kidnapped and held captive from 1987 to 1991.[2]

    After his release he wrote Taken on Trust, a book about his experiences, and became involved in humanitarian causes and charitable work.

    1. ^ "Hostage Waite Gets Belated Birthday Wish". Los Angeles Times. 9 June 1989. Retrieved 12 December 2015. Friends and colleagues of Anglican Church envoy Terry Waite on Thursday sent him a belated birthday wish published in the independent newspaper An Nahar. Waite, who was kidnapped in Lebanon two and a half years ago, spent his 50th birthday on May 31 in captivity
    2. ^ "Kidnapped Waite returns to Beirut". BBC News. 9 December 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
     
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    19 November 2004 – The worst brawl in NBA history results in several players being suspended. Several players and fans are charged with assault and battery.

    Malice at the Palace

    The Malice at the Palace (also known as the Pacers–Pistons brawl)[2][3] occurred during a National Basketball Association (NBA) game between the Indiana Pacers and the defending champion Detroit Pistons on Friday, November 19, 2004, at The Palace in Auburn Hills, Michigan, United States. The Associated Press (AP) called it "the most infamous brawl in NBA history."[4]

    With the Pacers leading 97–82 and 45.9 seconds left in the game,[5] Pistons center Ben Wallace attempted a layup shot but was fouled from behind by Pacers small forward Ron Artest. A furious Wallace then shoved Artest, and a fight broke out on the court between players of both teams. After the fight was broken up, a fan, John Green, threw a drink at Artest from the stands while he was lying on the scorer's table. Artest then charged up to the stands and grabbed another fan, Michael Ryan, whom he mistakenly believed was the culprit, and this immediately escalated into a brawl that lasted for several minutes with fans and players involved. Referees subsequently called an end to the game without playing the remaining time.

    After the game, the NBA suspended nine players, including Artest and Wallace, for a total of 146 games, leading to the players losing US$11 million in salary. Five players were charged with assault, and eventually sentenced to a year of probation and community service. Five fans also faced assault charges and were banned from attending Pistons home games for life. The fight also led the NBA to increase security between players and fans and limit the sale of alcohol at games.

    1. ^ "Indiana Pacers at Detroit Pistons Box Score, November 19, 2004 - Basketball-Reference.com". Basketball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on December 16, 2017. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
    2. ^ Hill, Jemele (November 18, 2009). "The Brawl: Were lessons learned?". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on November 23, 2009. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
    3. ^ Abrams, Jonathan (March 20, 2012). "The Malice at the Palace: An oral history of the scariest moment in NBA history". Grantland. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
    4. ^ "Top 10 list of worst NBA fights, cheap shots". National Basketball Association. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
    5. ^ "The WORST Night In NBA HISTORY (The Malice At The Palace)". YouTube. Archived from the original on April 9, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
     
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    20 November 1959 – The Declaration of the Rights of the Child is adopted by the United Nations.

    Declaration of the Rights of the Child

    Children's day 1928 in Bulgaria. The text on the poster is the Geneva Declaration. In front are Prime Minister Andrey Lyapchev and Metropolitan Stefan of Sofia.

    The Declaration of the Rights of the Child, sometimes known as the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child, is an international document promoting child rights, drafted by Eglantyne Jebb and adopted by the League of Nations in 1924, and adopted in an extended form by the United Nations in 1959.

     
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    21 November 1953 – The Natural History Museum, London announces that the "Piltdown Man" skull, initially believed to be one of the most important fossilized hominid skulls ever found, is a hoax.

    Piltdown Man

    Group portrait of the Piltdown skull being examined. Back row (from left): F. O. Barlow, G. Elliot Smith, Charles Dawson, Arthur Smith Woodward. Front row: A. S. Underwood, Arthur Keith, W. P. Pycraft, and Ray Lankester. Note the portrait of Charles Darwin on the wall. Painting by John Cooke, 1915.

    The Piltdown Man was a paleoanthropological fraud in which bone fragments were presented as the fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human. Although there were doubts about its authenticity virtually from the beginning, the remains were still broadly accepted for many years, and the falsity of the hoax was only definitively demonstrated in 1953. An extensive scientific review in 2016 established that amateur archaeologist Charles Dawson was responsible for the fraudulent evidence.[1]

    In 1912, Charles Dawson claimed that he had discovered the "missing link" between ape and man. In February 1912, Dawson contacted Arthur Smith Woodward, Keeper of Geology at the Natural History Museum, stating he had found a section of a human-like skull in Pleistocene gravel beds near Piltdown, East Sussex.[2] That summer, Dawson and Smith Woodward purportedly discovered more bones and artifacts at the site, which they connected to the same individual. These finds included a jawbone, more skull fragments, a set of teeth, and primitive tools.

    Smith Woodward reconstructed the skull fragments and hypothesised that they belonged to a human ancestor from 500,000 years ago. The discovery was announced at a Geological Society meeting and was given the Latin name Eoanthropus dawsoni ("Dawson's dawn-man"). The questionable significance of the assemblage remained the subject of considerable controversy until it was conclusively exposed in 1953 as a forgery. It was found to have consisted of the altered mandible and some teeth of an orangutan deliberately combined with the cranium of a fully developed, though small-brained, modern human.

    The Piltdown hoax is prominent for two reasons: the attention it generated around the subject of human evolution, and the length of time, 41 years, that elapsed from its alleged initial discovery to its definitive exposure as a composite forgery.

    1. ^ Webb, Jonathan (10 August 2016). "Piltdown review points decisive finger at forger Dawson". BBC. Archived from the original on 23 July 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
    2. ^ Spencer, Frank (1990). The Piltdown papers, 1908–1955: the correspondence and other documents relating to the Piltdown forgery. Natural History Museum Publications. ISBN 978-0198585237.
     
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    22 November 1995Toy Story is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.

    Toy Story

    Toy Story is a 1995 American computer-animated comedy film directed by John Lasseter (in his feature directorial debut), produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The first installment in the Toy Story franchise, it was the first entirely computer-animated feature film, as well as the first feature film from Pixar. It was written by Joss Whedon, Andrew Stanton, Joel Cohen, and Alec Sokolow from a story by Lasseter, Stanton, Pete Docter, and Joe Ranft. The film features music by Randy Newman, was produced by Bonnie Arnold and Ralph Guggenheim, and was executive-produced by Steve Jobs and Edwin Catmull. The film features the voices of Tom Hanks, Tim Allen, Don Rickles, Jim Varney, Wallace Shawn, John Ratzenberger, Annie Potts, R. Lee Ermey, John Morris, Laurie Metcalf, and Erik von Detten.

    Taking place in a world where toys come to life when humans are not present, the plot of Toy Story focuses on the relationship between an old-fashioned pull-string cowboy doll named Woody and a modern space cadet action figure, Buzz Lightyear, as Woody develops jealousy towards Buzz when he becomes their owner Andy's favorite toy.

    Following the success of Tin Toy, a short film that was released in 1988, Pixar was approached by Disney to produce a computer-animated feature film that was told from a small toy's perspective. Lasseter, Stanton, and Docter wrote early story treatments, which were rejected by Disney, who wanted the film's tone to be "edgier". After several disastrous story reels, production was halted and the script was rewritten to better reflect the tone and theme Pixar desired: "toys deeply want children to play with them, and ... this desire drives their hopes, fears, and actions". The studio, then consisting of a relatively small number of employees, produced Toy Story under only minor financial constraints.

    Toy Story premiered at the El Capitan Theatre in Los Angeles, California, United States, on November 19, 1995, and was released in theaters in North America on November 22 of that year. It was the highest-grossing film during its opening weekend,[2] eventually grossing over $373 million worldwide, making it the second highest-grossing film of 1995. The film received critical acclaim, and holds a 100% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes. It was praised for the technical innovation of the 3D animation, screenplay, musical score, and vocal performances (particularly Hanks and Allen); it is considered by many to be one of the best animated films ever made.[4] The film received three Academy Award nominations (Best Original Screenplay (the first animated film to be nominated for this award), Best Original Song for "You've Got a Friend in Me", and Best Original Score) as well as honoring a non-competitive Special Achievement Academy Award.[5]

    In 2005, Toy Story was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant", one of seven films designated in its first year of eligibility. The success of Toy Story launched a multimedia franchise and a series of three sequels, starting with Toy Story 2 (1999). The film also had a theatrical 3D re-release in 2009 as a part of a double feature with the second film. A spin-off, Lightyear, was released in 2022, with Chris Evans voicing the in-universe human Buzz Lightyear who inspired the action figure toyline in the Toy Story films.

    1. ^ "Toy Story". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
    2. ^ a b "Toy Story". The Numbers. Nash Information Services, LLC. Archived from the original on December 5, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2022.
    3. ^ "Toy Story". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on January 18, 2022. Retrieved January 18, 2022.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference best-animation was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ King, Susan (September 30, 2015). "How 'Toy Story' changed the face of animation, taking off 'like an explosion'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
     
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    23 November 1991Queen lead singer Freddie Mercury announces in a statement that he is HIV-positive. He dies the following day.

    Freddie Mercury

    Freddie Mercury (born Farrokh Bulsara; 5 September 1946 – 24 November 1991)[2] was a British singer and songwriter, who achieved worldwide fame as the lead vocalist of the rock band Queen. Regarded as one of the greatest singers in the history of rock music, he was known for his flamboyant stage persona and four-octave vocal range. Mercury defied the conventions of a rock frontman with his theatrical style, influencing the artistic direction of Queen.

    Born in 1946 in Zanzibar to Parsi-Indian parents, Mercury attended English-style boarding schools in India from the age of eight and returned to Zanzibar after secondary school. In 1964, his family fled the Zanzibar Revolution, moving to Middlesex, England. Having studied and written music for years, he formed Queen in 1970 with guitarist Brian May and drummer Roger Taylor. Mercury wrote numerous hits for Queen, including "Killer Queen", "Bohemian Rhapsody", "Somebody to Love", "We Are the Champions", "Don't Stop Me Now" and "Crazy Little Thing Called Love". His charismatic stage performances often saw him interact with the audience, as displayed at the 1985 Live Aid concert. He also led a solo career and was a producer and guest musician for other artists.

    Mercury was diagnosed with AIDS in 1987. He continued to record with Queen, and posthumously featured on their final album, Made in Heaven (1995). He announced his diagnosis the day before his death, from complications from the disease, in 1991 at the age of 45. In 1992, a concert in tribute to him was held at Wembley Stadium, in benefit of AIDS awareness. His career with Queen was dramatised in the 2018 biopic Bohemian Rhapsody.

    As a member of Queen, Mercury was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001, the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2003, and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. In 1990, he and the other Queen members were awarded the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to British Music, and one year after his death, Mercury was awarded it individually. In 2005, Queen were awarded an Ivor Novello Award for Outstanding Song Collection from the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers, and Authors. In 2002, Mercury was voted number 58 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons.

    1. ^ Runtagh, Jordan (23 November 2016). "Freddie Mercury: 10 Things You Didn't Know Queen Singer Did". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
    2. ^ "Freddie Mercury, British singer and songwriter". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
     
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    23 November 1991Queen lead singer Freddie Mercury announces in a statement that he is HIV-positive. He dies the following day.

    Freddie Mercury

    Freddie Mercury (born Farrokh Bulsara; 5 September 1946 – 24 November 1991)[2] was a British singer and songwriter, who achieved worldwide fame as the lead vocalist of the rock band Queen. Regarded as one of the greatest singers in the history of rock music, he was known for his flamboyant stage persona and four-octave vocal range. Mercury defied the conventions of a rock frontman with his theatrical style, influencing the artistic direction of Queen.

    Born in 1946 in Zanzibar to Parsi-Indian parents, Mercury attended English-style boarding schools in India from the age of eight and returned to Zanzibar after secondary school. In 1964, his family fled the Zanzibar Revolution, moving to Middlesex, England. Having studied and written music for years, he formed Queen in 1970 with guitarist Brian May and drummer Roger Taylor. Mercury wrote numerous hits for Queen, including "Killer Queen", "Bohemian Rhapsody", "Somebody to Love", "We Are the Champions", "Don't Stop Me Now" and "Crazy Little Thing Called Love". His charismatic stage performances often saw him interact with the audience, as displayed at the 1985 Live Aid concert. He also led a solo career and was a producer and guest musician for other artists.

    Mercury was diagnosed with AIDS in 1987. He continued to record with Queen, and posthumously featured on their final album, Made in Heaven (1995). He announced his diagnosis the day before his death, from complications from the disease, in 1991 at the age of 45. In 1992, a concert in tribute to him was held at Wembley Stadium, in benefit of AIDS awareness. His career with Queen was dramatised in the 2018 biopic Bohemian Rhapsody.

    As a member of Queen, Mercury was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001, the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2003, and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. In 1990, he and the other Queen members were awarded the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to British Music, and one year after his death, Mercury was awarded it individually. In 2005, Queen were awarded an Ivor Novello Award for Outstanding Song Collection from the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers, and Authors. In 2002, Mercury was voted number 58 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons.

    1. ^ Runtagh, Jordan (23 November 2016). "Freddie Mercury: 10 Things You Didn't Know Queen Singer Did". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
    2. ^ "Freddie Mercury, British singer and songwriter". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
     
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    24 November 1859Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species.

    On the Origin of Species

    On the Origin of Species (or, more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),[3] published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin that is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.[4] Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. The book presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had collected on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.[5]

    Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, while science was part of natural theology. Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to other animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream.

    The book was written for non-specialist readers and attracted widespread interest upon its publication. Darwin was already highly regarded as a scientist, so his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T. H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism. Within two decades, there was widespread scientific agreement that evolution, with a branching pattern of common descent, had occurred, but scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate. During "the eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, and it has now become the unifying concept of the life sciences.

    1. ^ Darwin 1859, p. iii
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Freeman 1977 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. In the 1872 sixth edition, "On" was omitted, so the full title is The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. This edition is usually known as The Origin of Species. The 6th is Darwin's final edition; there were minor modifications in the text of certain subsequent issues. See Freeman, R. B. "The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist." In Van Wyhe, John, ed. Darwin Online: On the Origin of Species, 2002.
    4. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 477.
    5. ^ "Darwin Manuscripts (Digitised notes on Origin)". Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
     
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    25 November 1915Albert Einstein presents the field equations of general relativity to the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

    Introduction to general relativity

    High-precision test of general relativity by the Cassini space probe (artist's impression): radio signals sent between the Earth and the probe (green wave) are delayed by the warping of spacetime (blue lines) due to the Sun's mass.

    General relativity is a theory of gravitation developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. The theory of general relativity says that the observed gravitational effect between masses results from their warping of spacetime.

    By the beginning of the 20th century, Newton's law of universal gravitation had been accepted for more than two hundred years as a valid description of the gravitational force between masses. In Newton's model, gravity is the result of an attractive force between massive objects. Although even Newton was troubled by the unknown nature of that force, the basic framework was extremely successful at describing motion.

    Experiments and observations show that Einstein's description of gravitation accounts for several effects that are unexplained by Newton's law, such as minute anomalies in the orbits of Mercury and other planets. General relativity also predicts novel effects of gravity, such as gravitational waves, gravitational lensing and an effect of gravity on time known as gravitational time dilation. Many of these predictions have been confirmed by experiment or observation, most recently gravitational waves.

    General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes, regions of space where the gravitational effect is strong enough that even light cannot escape. Their strong gravity is thought to be responsible for the intense radiation emitted by certain types of astronomical objects (such as active galactic nuclei or microquasars). General relativity is also part of the framework of the standard Big Bang model of cosmology.

    Although general relativity is not the only relativistic theory of gravity, it is the simplest such theory that is consistent with the experimental data. Nevertheless, a number of open questions remain, the most fundamental of which is how general relativity can be reconciled with the laws of quantum physics to produce a complete and self-consistent theory of quantum gravity.

     
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    26 November 1812 – The Battle of Berezina begins during Napoleon's retreat from Russia.

    Battle of Berezina

      current battle
      Prussian corps
      Napoleon
      Austrian corps

    The Battle of (the) Berezina (or Beresina) took place from 26 to 29 November 1812, between Napoleon's Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army under Field Marshal Wittgenstein and Admiral Chichagov. Napoleon was retreating back toward Poland in chaos after the aborted occupation of Moscow and trying to cross the Berezina River at Borisov. The outcome of the battle was inconclusive as, despite heavy losses, Napoleon managed to cross the river and continue his retreat with the surviving remnants of his army.[6]

    1. ^ Chandler 1966, p. 841.
    2. ^ Riehn 1990, p. 387.
    3. ^ Chambray 1823, p. 300.
    4. ^ Riehn 1990, p. 377.
    5. ^ Chandler 1966, p. 846.
    6. ^ Wilson 1860, p. 177.
     
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    27 November 1727 – The foundation stone to the Jerusalem Church in Berlin is laid.

    Jerusalem Church (Berlin)

    Jerusalem Church (German: Jerusalem(s)kirche, Jerusalemer Kirche) is one of the churches of the Evangelical Congregation in the Friedrichstadt (under this name since 2001), a member of the Protestant umbrella organisation Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia. The present church building is located in Berlin, borough Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, in the quarter of Friedrichstadt. Jerusalem Church is fourth in rank of the oldest oratories in the town proper (except of suburbs incorporated in 1920, which are partly older).

     
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    28 November 1895 – The first American automobile race takes place over the 54 miles from Chicago's Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea wins in approximately 10 hours.

    Chicago Times-Herald race

    "America's First Automobile Race" map
    Mueller-Benz car – second-place finisher

    The Chicago Times-Herald race was the first automobile race held in the United States.[1] Sponsored by the Chicago Times-Herald, the race was held in Chicago in 1895 among six motorized vehicles: four cars and two motorcycles. It was won by Frank Duryea's Motorized Wagon.[1] The race created considerable publicity for the motocycle, which had been introduced in the United States only two years earlier.

    1. ^ a b "Chicago Times-Herald Race of 1895". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
     
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    29 November 1947 – French forces carry out a massacre at Mỹ Trạch, Vietnam during the First Indochina War.

    Mỹ Trạch massacre

    Memorial stele to the victims of Mỹ Trạch Massacre
    Memorial park with the memorial stele to the victims of Mỹ Trạch Massacre

    The My Trach Massacre (Vietnamese: Thảm sát Mỹ Trạch) was a massacre of Vietnamese civilians carried out by the French army during French rule in Vietnam. The massacre occurred in Mỹ Trạch village, Mỹ Thủy commune, Lệ Thủy District, Quảng Bình Province, Vietnam from 5 am to 8 am on November 29, 1947. In this operation, 326 houses were burnt, and more than half of the village's residents were killed.[1] Many women were raped by the French soldiers before being killed. Over 300 civilian residents in Mỹ Trạch were assassinated, of whom 170 were women and 157 were children.[2]

    The location of the massacre was in the foot of Mỹ Trạch Bridge, a bridge on the North–South Railway, next to Mỹ Trạch Railway Station. The victims were forced to the foot of the bridge and lined up before being killed with machine gun fire.[2]

    Every year, November 29 is mourned as "Hatred Date" by the residents in this village.[3]

    The memorial park in which the memorial site is located was classified by the Ministry of Culture of Vietnam as one of the National Historical Relics of Vietnam on 27 December 2001.[4]

    1. ^ Minh, Huệ (December 7, 2018). "Visit My Trach village". Thanh Nien. Archived from the original on April 16, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
    2. ^ a b "My Trach Massacre Care Service". Quảng Bình Official Website. Archived from the original on October 9, 2010. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
    3. ^ "The My Trach Massacre - An aching pain for 66 years". Dan Tri. November 28, 2013. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
    4. ^ Sources: Information on the Memorial Stele and on Official Website of Quảng Bình Provincial Government
     
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    30 November 1864American Civil War: The Confederate Army of Tennessee suffers heavy losses in an attack on the Union Army of the Ohio in the Battle of Franklin.

    Battle of Franklin (1864)

    The Second Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864, in Franklin, Tennessee, as part of the Franklin–Nashville Campaign of the American Civil War. It was one of the worst disasters of the war for the Confederate States Army. Confederate Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood's Army of Tennessee conducted numerous frontal assaults against fortified positions occupied by the Union forces under Maj. Gen. John Schofield and was unable to prevent Schofield from executing a planned, orderly withdrawal to Nashville.

    The Confederate assault of six infantry divisions containing eighteen brigades with 100 regiments numbering almost 20,000 men, sometimes called the "Pickett's Charge of the West", resulted in devastating losses to the men and the leadership of the Army of Tennessee—fourteen Confederate generals (six killed, seven wounded, and one captured) and 55 regimental commanders were casualties. After its defeat against Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas in the subsequent Battle of Nashville, the Army of Tennessee retreated with barely half the men with which it had begun the short offensive, and was effectively destroyed as a fighting force for the remainder of the war.

    The 1864 Battle of Franklin was the second military action in the vicinity; a battle in 1863 was a minor action associated with a reconnaissance in force by Confederate cavalry leader Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn on April 10.

     
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    1 December 1989Philippine coup attempt: The right-wing military rebel Reform the Armed Forces Movement attempts to oust Philippine President Corazon Aquino in a failed bloody coup d'état.

    1989 Philippine coup d'état attempt

    The most serious attempted coup d'état against the government of Philippine President Corazon Aquino was staged beginning December 1, 1989, by members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines belonging to the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM) and soldiers loyal to former President Ferdinand Marcos. Metro Manila was shaken by this Christmas-time coup, which almost seized the Malacañang Palace. It was completely defeated by the Philippine government by December 9, 1989.

     
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    2 December 1908Puyi becomes Emperor of China at the age of two.

    Puyi

    Aisin-Gioro Puyi (Chinese: ; 7 February 1906 – 17 October 1967), courtesy name Yaozhi (曜之), was the last emperor of China as the eleventh and final Qing dynasty monarch. He became emperor at the age of two in 1908, but was forced to abdicate on 12 February 1912 during the Xinhai Revolution. His era name as Qing emperor, Xuantong (Hsuan-tung, 宣統), means "proclamation of unity". He was later installed as the Emperor Kangde (康德) of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo during World War II.

    He was briefly restored to the throne as Qing emperor by the loyalist General Zhang Xun from 1 July to 12 July 1917. He was first wed to Empress Wanrong in 1922 in an arranged marriage. In 1924, he was expelled from the palace and found refuge in Tianjin, where he began to court both the warlords fighting for hegemony over China and the Japanese who had long desired control of China. In 1932, after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the puppet state of Manchukuo was established by Japan, and he was chosen to become the chief executive of the new state using the era name of "Datong" (Ta-tung).

    In 1934, he was declared emperor of Manchukuo with the era name "Kangde" (Kang-te) and reigned over his new empire until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945. This third stint as emperor saw him as a puppet of Japan; he signed most edicts the Japanese gave him. During this period, he largely resided in the Salt Tax Palace, where he regularly ordered his servants beaten. His first wife's opium addiction consumed her during these years, and they were generally distant. He took on numerous concubines, as well as male lovers. With the fall of Japan (and thus Manchukuo) in 1945, Puyi fled the capital and was eventually captured by the Soviets; he was extradited to the People's Republic of China in 1950. After his capture, he never saw his first wife again; she died of starvation in a Chinese prison in 1946.

    Puyi was a defendant at the Tokyo Trials and was later imprisoned and reeducated as a war criminal for 10 years. After his release in 1959, he wrote his memoirs (with the help of a ghost writer) and became a titular member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China. His time in prison greatly changed him, and he expressed deep regret for his actions while he was an emperor. He died in 1967 and was ultimately buried near the Western Qing tombs in a commercial cemetery.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    3 December 1992 – A test engineer for Sema Group uses a personal computer to send the world's first text message via the Vodafone network to the phone of a colleague.

    Text messaging

    A text message using SMS – the 160 character limit and difficulty of typing on feature phone keypads led to the abbreviations of "SMS language"

    Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile devices, desktops/laptops, or another type of compatible computer. Text messages may be sent over a cellular network, or may also be sent via an Internet connection.

    The term originally referred to messages sent using the Short Message Service (SMS). It has grown beyond alphanumeric text to include multimedia messages using the Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) containing digital images, videos, and sound content, as well as ideograms known as emoji (happy faces, sad faces, and other icons), and instant messenger applications (usually the term is used when on mobile devices).

    Text messages are used for personal, family, business and social purposes. Governmental and non-governmental organizations use text messaging for communication between colleagues. In the 2010s, the sending of short informal messages became an accepted part of many cultures, as happened earlier with emailing.[1] This makes texting a quick and easy way to communicate with friends, family and colleagues, including in contexts where a call would be impolite or inappropriate (e.g., calling very late at night or when one knows the other person is busy with family or work activities). Like e-mail and voicemail and unlike calls (in which the caller hopes to speak directly with the recipient), texting does not require the caller and recipient to both be free at the same moment; this permits communication even between busy individuals. Text messages can also be used to interact with automated systems, for example, to order products or services from e-commerce websites, or to participate in online contests. Advertisers and service providers use direct text marketing to send messages to mobile users about promotions, payment due dates, and other notifications instead of using postal mail, email, or voicemail.

    1. ^ Morris, Robert; Pinchot, Jamie (2010). "Conference on Information Systems Applied Research" (PDF). How Mobile Technology is Changing Our Culture. 3: 10 – via CONISAR.
     
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    4 December 1881 – The first edition of the Los Angeles Times is published.

    Los Angeles Times

    The Los Angeles Times (abbreviated as LA Times) is a daily newspaper that started publishing in Los Angeles in 1881 and is now based in the adjacent suburb of El Segundo.[3] It has the fifth-largest circulation in the U.S. and is the largest American newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast.[4] The paper focuses its coverage of issues particularly salient to the West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters. It has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of these and other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong. It is considered a newspaper of record in the U.S.[5][6]

    In the 19th century, the paper developed a reputation for civic boosterism and opposition to labor unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910. The paper's profile grew substantially in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades the paper's readership has declined, and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, and other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize and finalized their first union contract on October 16, 2019.[7] The paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility in El Segundo, near Los Angeles International Airport in July 2018.

    1. ^ Turvill, William (June 24, 2022). "Top 25 US newspaper circulations: Print sales fall another 12% in 2022". Press Gazette. Retrieved June 28, 2022.
    2. ^ "Total Circ for US Newspapers". Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
    3. ^ "Los Angeles Times | History, Ownership, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
    4. ^ "The 10 Most Popular Daily Newspapers In The United States". August 2017. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
    5. ^ Corey Frost; Karen Weingarten; Doug Babington; Don LePan; Maureen Okun (May 30, 2017). The Broadview Guide to Writing: A Handbook for Students (6th ed.). Broadview Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-55481-313-1. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
    6. ^ Caulfield, Mike (January 8, 2017), "National Newspapers of Record", Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers, Self-published, retrieved July 20, 2020
    7. ^ "Los Angeles Times reaches historic agreement with its newsroom union". Los Angeles Times. October 17, 2019. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
     

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