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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    5 June 1963 – The British Secretary of State for War, John Profumo, resigns in a sex scandal known as the "Profumo affair".

    Profumo affair

    John Profumo in 1938

    The Profumo affair was a major scandal in twentieth-century British politics.[1] John Profumo, the Secretary of State for War in Harold Macmillan's Conservative government, had an extramarital affair with 19-year-old model Christine Keeler beginning in 1961. Profumo denied the affair in a statement to the House of Commons, but weeks later a police investigation exposed the truth, proving that Profumo had lied to the House of Commons.[2] The scandal severely damaged the credibility of Macmillan's government, and Macmillan resigned as Prime Minister in October 1963, citing ill health. Ultimately, the fallout contributed to the Conservative government's defeat by the Labour Party in the 1964 general election.

    When the Profumo affair was first revealed, public interest was heightened by reports that Keeler may have been simultaneously involved with Captain Yevgeny Ivanov, a Soviet naval attaché, thereby creating a possible national security risk. Keeler knew both Profumo and Ivanov through her friendship with Stephen Ward, an osteopath and socialite who had taken her under his wing. The exposure of the affair generated rumours of other scandals and drew official attention to the activities of Ward, who was charged with a series of immorality offences. Perceiving himself as a scapegoat for the misdeeds of others, Ward took a fatal overdose during the final stages of his trial, which found him guilty of living off the immoral earnings of Keeler and her friend Mandy Rice-Davies.

    An inquiry into the Profumo affair by a senior judge, Lord Denning, assisted by a senior civil servant, TA Critchley, concluded that there had been no breaches of security arising from the Ivanov connection, although Denning's report was later described as superficial and unsatisfactory. Profumo subsequently worked as a volunteer at Toynbee Hall, an East London charitable trust. By 1975 he had been officially rehabilitated, although he did not return to public life. He died, honoured and respected, in 2006. By contrast, Keeler found it difficult to escape the negative image attached to her by press, law, and parliament throughout the scandal. In various, sometimes contradictory accounts, she challenged Denning's conclusions relating to security issues. Ward's conviction has been described by analysts as an act of establishment revenge, rather than serving justice. In the 2010s the Criminal Cases Review Commission reviewed his case, but ultimately decided against referring it to the Court of Appeal. Dramatisations of the Profumo affair have been shown on stage and screen.

    1. ^ Foussianes, Chloe (17 November 2019). "How Prince Philip Was Connected to the Profumo Affair—and How Anthony Blunt May Have Covered For Him". Town & Country. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
    2. ^ "British Secretary of War John Profumo resigns amid sex scandal". history.com. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
     
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    6 June 1889 – The Great Seattle Fire destroys all of downtown Seattle.

    Great Seattle Fire

    The Great Seattle Fire was a fire that destroyed the entire central business district of Seattle, Washington on June 6, 1889. The conflagration lasted for less than a day, burning through the afternoon and into the night, and during the same summer as the Great Spokane Fire and the Great Ellensburg Fire. Seattle quickly rebuilt using brick buildings that sat 20 feet (6.1 m) above the original street level. Its population swelled during reconstruction, becoming the largest city in the newly admitted state of Washington.

     
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    7 June 1982Priscilla Presley opens Graceland to the public; the bathroom where Elvis Presley died five years earlier is kept off-limits.

    Graceland

    Graceland is a mansion on a 13.8-acre (5.6-hectare) estate in Memphis, Tennessee, United States, which was once owned by rock musician Elvis Presley. His daughter, Lisa Marie Presley, inherited Graceland after his death in 1977. Graceland is located at 3764 Elvis Presley Boulevard in the Whitehaven neighborhood, about nine miles (14 kilometers) south of central Memphis and fewer than four miles (6.4 km) north of the Mississippi border.[5]

    It was opened to the public as a house museum on June 7, 1982. The site was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on November 7, 1991, becoming its first site recognized for significance related to rock and roll. Graceland was declared a National Historic Landmark on March 27, 2006, also a first for such a site. Graceland is the most-visited privately owned home in the United States, attracting more than 650,000 visitors annually.[6] It rivals in number of visitors such public attractions as Hearst Castle, now operated as a California state park, and the White House, home and office of the President of the United States in the capital.[5][page needed][7]

    1. ^ Cook, Jody; Henry, Patty (May 27, 2004). "National Historic Landmark Nomination: Graceland" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved June 21, 2009. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help) and Accompanying 12 photos, exterior and interior, from 2001 (3.44 MB)
    2. ^ West, Carroll Van (1995). Tennessees Historic Landscapes: Travelers Guide. University of Tennessee Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-87049-881-7.
    3. ^ "Graceland". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on December 30, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2008.
    4. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
    5. ^ a b Victor 2008, p. 208
    6. ^ "Elvis Ancestors Wore Kilts". CBS News. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
    7. ^ "Amazing Graceland wows fans". The National. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
     
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    8 June 1783Laki, a volcano in Iceland, begins an eight-month eruption which kills over 9,000 people and starts a seven-year famine.

    Laki

    Laki (Icelandic pronunciation: ​[ˈlaːcɪ]) or Lakagígar [ˈlaːkaˌciːɣar̥] (Craters of Laki) is a volcanic fissure in the western part of Vatnajökull National Park, Iceland, not far from the volcanic fissure of Eldgjá and the small village of Kirkjubæjarklaustur. The fissure is properly referred to as Lakagígar, while Laki is a mountain that the fissure bisects. Lakagígar is part of a volcanic system centered on the volcano Grímsvötn and including the volcano Þórðarhyrna.[1][2][3] It lies between the glaciers of Mýrdalsjökull and Vatnajökull, in an area of fissures that run in a southwest to northeast direction.

    The system erupted violently over an eight-month period between June 1783 and February 1784 from the Laki fissure and the adjoining volcano Grímsvötn, pouring out an estimated 42 billion tonnes or 14 km3 (18×10^9 cu yd) of basalt lava and clouds of poisonous hydrofluoric acid and sulfur dioxide compounds that contaminated the soil, leading to the death of over 50% of Iceland's livestock population, and the destruction of the vast majority of all crops. This led to a famine which then killed approximately a quarter of the island's human population.[4]

    The Laki eruption and its aftermath caused a drop in global temperatures, as 120 million tonnes of sulfur dioxide was spewed into the Northern Hemisphere. This caused crop failures in Europe and may have caused droughts in North Africa and India.

    1. ^ "Katla". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
    2. ^ "Iceland : Katla Volcano". Iceland on the web. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
    3. ^ Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Thórdís Högnadóttir (January 2007). "Volcanic systems and calderas in the Vatnajökull region, central Iceland: Constraints on crustal structure from gravity data". Journal of Geodynamics. 43 (1): 153–169. Bibcode:2007JGeo...43..153G. doi:10.1016/j.jog.2006.09.015.
    4. ^ Gunnar Karlsson (2000), Iceland's 1100 Years, p. 181
     
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    9 June 1856 – Five hundred Mormons leave Iowa City, Iowa for the Mormon Trail.

    Mormon handcart pioneers

    The Handcart Pioneer Monument, by Torleif S. Knaphus, located on Temple Square in Salt Lake City, Utah

    The Mormon handcart pioneers were participants in the migration of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) to Salt Lake City, Utah, who used handcarts to transport their belongings.[1] The Mormon handcart movement began in 1856 and continued until 1860.

    Motivated to join their fellow church members in Utah, but lacking funds for full teams of oxen or horses, nearly 3,000 Mormon pioneers from England, Wales, Scotland and Scandinavia made the journey from Iowa or Nebraska to Utah in ten handcart companies. The trek was disastrous for two of the companies, which started their journey dangerously late and were caught by heavy snow and severe temperatures in central Wyoming. Despite a dramatic rescue effort, more than 210 of the 980 pioneers in these two companies died along the way. John Chislett, a survivor, wrote, "Many a father pulled his cart, with his little children on it, until the day preceding his death."[2]

    Although fewer than 10 percent of the 1846–1868 Latter-day Saint emigrants made the journey west using handcarts, the handcart pioneers have become an important symbol in LDS culture, representing the faithfulness and sacrifice of the pioneer generation. They continue to be recognized and honored in events such as Pioneer Day, church pageants, and similar commemorations.

    1. ^ Roberts, David (Fall 2008), "The Awful March of the Saints", American Heritage
    2. ^ Hafen and Hafen (1981), p. 102.
     
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    10 June 1886Mount Tarawera in New Zealand erupts, killing 153 people and burying the famous Pink and White Terraces. Eruptions continue for three months creating a large, 17 km long fissure across the mountain peak.

    Pink and White Terraces

    The Pink and White Terraces (Māori: Te Otukapuarangi, lit.'the Fountain of the Clouded Sky' and Te Tarata, 'the Tattooed Rock'), were natural wonders of New Zealand.[1] They were reportedly the largest silica sinter deposits on earth.[2] Until recently, they were lost[3] and thought destroyed in the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, while new hydrothermal features formed to the south-west i.e. Waimangu Volcanic Rift Valley.

    The Pink and White Terraces were formed by upwelling geothermal springs containing a cocktail of silica-saturated, near-neutral pH chloride water.[4][2] These two world-famous springs were part of a group of hot springs and geysers, chiefly along an easterly ridge named Pinnacle Ridge (or the Steaming Ranges by Mundy).[5] The main tourist attractions included Ngahapu, Ruakiwi, Te Tekapo, Waikanapanapa, Whatapoho, Ngawana, Koingo and Whakaehu.

    The Pink and the White Terrace springs were around 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) apart.[5] The White Terraces were at the north-east end of Lake Rotomahana and faced west to north west at the entrance to the Kaiwaka Channel. Te Tarata descended to the lake edge around 25 metres (82 ft) below.[2] The Pink Terraces lay four fifths of the way down the lake on the western shore, facing east to south-east. The pink appearance over the mid and upper basins (near the colour of a rainbow trout) was due to antimony and arsenic sulfides, although the Pink Terraces also contained gold in ore-grade concentrations.[6]

    1. ^ "Pink and White Terraces". Rotorua Museum. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
    2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference ReferenceA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Pink and White Terraces: Niwa scientists confirm the location of NZ's lost natural wonder". 28 November 2018.
    4. ^ Ferdinand von Hochstetter (1867). New Zealand: Its Physical Geography, Geology and Natural History. Stuttgart: J. G. Cotta.
    5. ^ a b Keam, Ronald F. (15 March 2016). "The Tarawera eruption, Lake Rotomahana, and the origin of the Pink and White Terraces". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. The Lake Rotomahana Geothermal System and Effects of the 1886 Mt. Tarawera Eruption. 314: 10–38. Bibcode:2016JVGR..314...10K. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.11.009.
    6. ^ Hutching, Hamish Campbell & Gerard (2011). In search of ancient New Zealand. North Shore, N.Z.: Penguin. ISBN 978-0143206170.
     
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    11 June 1509Henry VIII of England marries Catherine of Aragon.

    Catherine of Aragon

    Catherine of Aragon (Spanish: Catalina; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII from their marriage on 11 June 1509 until their annulment on 23 May 1533. She was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother, Arthur, Prince of Wales.

    The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Prince Arthur, heir apparent to the English throne. They married in 1501, but Arthur died five months later. Catherine held the position of ambassador of the Aragonese crown to England in 1507, the first known female ambassador in European history.[1] She married Arthur's younger brother, the recently ascended Henry VIII, in 1509. For six months in 1513, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English crushed and defeated the Scottish at the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part with an emotional speech about English courage.[2]

    By 1525, Henry VIII was infatuated with Anne Boleyn and dissatisfied that his marriage to Catherine had produced no surviving sons, leaving their daughter Mary as heir presumptive at a time when there was no established precedent for a woman on the throne. He sought to have their marriage annulled, setting in motion a chain of events that led to England's schism with the Catholic Church. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters. In 1533 their marriage was consequently declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgement of clergy in England, without reference to the pope. Catherine refused to accept Henry as supreme head of the Church in England and considered herself the king's rightful wife and queen, attracting much popular sympathy.[3] Despite this, Henry acknowledged her only as dowager princess of Wales. After being banished from court by Henry, Catherine lived out the remainder of her life at Kimbolton Castle, dying there in January 1536 of cancer. The English people held Catherine in high esteem, and her death set off tremendous mourning.[4] Her daughter Mary would become the first undisputed English queen regnant in 1553.

    Catherine commissioned The Education of a Christian Woman by Juan Luis Vives, and Vives dedicated the book, controversial at the time, to the Queen in 1523. Such was Catherine's impression on people that even her enemy Thomas Cromwell said of her, "If not for her sex, she could have defied all the heroes of History."[5] She successfully appealed for the lives of the rebels involved in the Evil May Day, for the sake of their families.[6] Catherine also won widespread admiration by starting an extensive programme for the relief of the poor.[6][7] She was a patron of Renaissance humanism, and a friend of the great scholars Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas More.[7]

     
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    12 June 1981 – The first of the Indiana Jones film franchise, Raiders of the Lost Ark, is released in theaters.

    Indiana Jones

    Indiana Jones is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film Raiders of the Lost Ark. In 1984, a prequel, The Temple of Doom, was released, and in 1989, a sequel, The Last Crusade. A fourth film followed in 2008, titled The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. A fifth film is in production and is scheduled to be released in 2023. The series was created by George Lucas and stars Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones. The first four films were directed by Steven Spielberg, who worked closely with Lucas during their production.

    In 1992, the franchise expanded to a television series with The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, portraying the character in his childhood and youth, and including adventures with his father. Marvel Comics began publishing The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones in 1983, and Dark Horse Comics gained the comic book rights to the character in 1991. Novelizations of the films have been published, as well as many novels with original adventures, including a series of German novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein, twelve novels set before the films published by Bantam Books, and a series set during the character's childhood inspired by the television show. Numerous Indiana Jones video games have been released since 1982.

     
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    13 June 1971Vietnam War: The New York Times begins publication of the Pentagon Papers.

    Pentagon Papers

    A CIA map of dissident activities in Indochina, published as part of the Pentagon Papers

    The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. Released by Daniel Ellsberg, who had worked on the study, they were first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of The New York Times in 1971.[1][2] A 1996 article in The New York Times said that the Pentagon Papers had demonstrated, among other things, that the Johnson Administration had "systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress."[3]

    The Pentagon Papers revealed that the U.S. had secretly enlarged the scope of its actions in the Vietnam War with coastal raids on North Vietnam and Marine Corps attacks—none of which were reported in the mainstream media. For his disclosure of the Pentagon Papers, Ellsberg was initially charged with conspiracy, espionage, and theft of government property; charges were later dismissed, after prosecutors investigating the Watergate scandal discovered that the staff members in the Nixon White House had ordered the so-called White House Plumbers to engage in unlawful efforts to discredit Ellsberg.[4][5]

    In June 2011, the documents forming the Pentagon Papers were declassified and publicly released.[6][7]

    1. ^ "The Pentagon Papers". United Press International (UPI). 1971. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
    2. ^ Sheehan, Neil (June 13, 1971). "Vietnam Archive: Pentagon Study Traces 3 Decades of Growing U.S. Involvement". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
    3. ^ Apple, R.W. (June 23, 1996). "25 Years Later;Lessons From the Pentagon Papers". The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
    4. ^ "The Watergate Story". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 26, 2013. Watergate prosecutors find a memo addressed to John Ehrlichman describing in detail the plans to burglarize the office of Pentagon Papers defendant Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist, The Post reports.
    5. ^ "Pentagon Papers Charges Are Dismissed; Judge Byrne Frees Ellsberg and Russo, Assails 'Improper Government Conduct'". The New York Times. May 11, 1973. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
    6. ^ "Pentagon Papers". History (U.S. TV channel). Retrieved October 26, 2013.
    7. ^ "After 40 Years, Pentagon Papers Declassified In Full". NPR. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
     
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    14 June 1982Falklands War: Argentine forces in the capital Stanley conditionally surrender to British forces.

    Falklands War

    The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas) was a ten-week undeclared war between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and its territorial dependency, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

    The conflict began on 2 April, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands, followed by the invasion of South Georgia the next day. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with an Argentine surrender on 14 June, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities.

    The conflict was a major episode in the protracted dispute over the territories' sovereignty. Argentina asserted (and maintains) that the islands are Argentine territory,[4] and the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory. The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory that had been a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, and strongly favour British sovereignty. Neither state officially declared war, although both governments declared the islands a war zone.

    The conflict has had a strong effect in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles, films, and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the unfavourable outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall and the democratisation of the country. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected with an increased majority the following year. The cultural and political effect of the conflict has been less in the UK than in Argentina, where it has remained a common topic for discussion.[5]

    Diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, at which the two governments issued a joint statement.[6] No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina adopted a new constitution,[7] which declared the Falkland Islands as part of one of its provinces by law.[8] However, the islands continue to operate as a self-governing British Overseas Territory.[9]

    1. ^ "Falkland Islands profile". BBC News. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
    2. ^ Burns, John F. (5 January 2013). "Vitriol Over Falklands Resurfaces, as Do Old Arguments". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
    3. ^ a b Historia Marítima Argentina, Volume 10, p. 137. Departamento de Estudios Históricos Navales, Cuántica Editora, Argentina: 1993.
    4. ^ "Argentine to reaffirm Sovereignty Rights over The Falkland Islands". National Turk. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
    5. ^ "Cómo evitar que Londres convierta a las Malvinas en un Estado independiente". Clarin. 1 April 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
    6. ^ "Joint statement of 19 October 1989: Re-establishing Consular Relations Between Britain and Argentina, and Agreeing a Framework on Sovereignty Which Would Allow Further Talks". Falklands info. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
    7. ^ "Constitución Nacional". Argentine Senate (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 June 2004. La Nación Argentina ratifica su legítima e imprescriptible soberanía sobre las Islas Malvinas, Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur y los espacios marítimos e insulares correspondientes, por ser parte integrante del territorio nacional.
    8. ^ "Argentina: Constitución de 1994". pdba.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
    9. ^ Cahill 2010, "Falkland Islands".
     
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    15 June 1667 – The first human blood transfusion is administered by Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys.

    Jean-Baptiste Denys

    Jean-Baptiste Denys (1643 – 3 October 1704) was a French physician[1] notable for having performed the first fully documented human blood transfusion, a xenotransfusion. He studied in Montpellier and was the personal physician to King Louis XIV.

    1. ^ "This Month in Anesthesia History". Archived from the original on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
     
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    16 June 1961 – While on tour with the Kirov Ballet in Paris, Rudolf Nureyev defects from the Soviet Union

    Rudolf Nureyev

    Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev (/ˈnjʊəriɛf, njʊˈrɛf/ NURE-ee-ef, nyuurr-AY-ef; Tatar/Bashkir: Рудольф Хәмит улы Нуриев; Russian: Рудо́льф Хаме́тович Нуре́ев, IPA: [rʊˈdolʲf xɐˈmʲetəvʲɪtɕ nʊˈrʲejɪf]; 17 March 1938 – 6 January 1993) was a Soviet-born ballet dancer and choreographer. Nureyev is regarded by some as the greatest male ballet dancer of his generation.[1][2][3][4]

    Nureyev was born on a Trans-Siberian train near Irkutsk, Siberia, Soviet Union, to a Tatar family. He began his early career with the company that in the Soviet era was called the Kirov Ballet (now called by its original name, the Mariinsky Ballet) in Leningrad. He defected from the Soviet Union to the West in 1961, despite KGB efforts to stop him.[5] This was the first defection of a Soviet artist during the Cold War, and it created an international sensation. He went on to dance with The Royal Ballet in London and from 1983 to 1989 served as director of the Paris Opera Ballet. Nureyev was also a choreographer serving as the chief choreographer of the Paris Opera Ballet. He produced his own interpretations of numerous classical works,[6] including Swan Lake, Giselle and La Bayadère.[7]

    1. ^ Lord of the dance – Rudolf Nureyev at the National Film Theatre, London, 1–31 January 2003 Archived 1 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, by John Percival, The Independent, 26 December 2002.
    2. ^ Rudolf Nureyev, Charismatic Dancer Who Gave Fire to Ballet's Image, Dies at 54 Archived 10 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine, by Jack Anderson, The Independent, 7 January 1993.
    3. ^ (in French) Rudolf Noureev exercising at the barre Archived 7 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 21 December 1970, site INA (4 min 13).
    4. ^ Philippe Noisette, (in French) « Que reste-t-il de Noureev ? » Archived 17 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Les Échos, 1 March 2013.
    5. ^ Bridcut, John (17 September 2007). "The KGB's long war against Rudolf Nureyev". London: The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
    6. ^ "Rudolf Nureyev's Choreographies – The Rudolf Nureyev Foundation". Nureyev.org. 10 December 2018. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
    7. ^ Noisette, Philippe (26 January 2013). "Benjamin Millepied, le pari de Stéphane Lissner". Paris Match (in French). Archived from the original on 18 February 2017.
     
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    17 June 1885 – The Statue of Liberty arrives in New York Harbor.

    Statue of Liberty

    The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886.

    The statue is a figure of Libertas, a robed Roman liberty goddess. She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed JULY IV MDCCLXXVI (July 4, 1776 in Roman numerals), the date of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. A broken shackle and chain lie at her feet as she walks forward, commemorating the recent national abolition of slavery.[7] After its dedication, the statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, seen as a symbol of welcome to immigrants arriving by sea.

    Bartholdi was inspired by a French law professor and politician, Édouard René de Laboulaye, who is said to have commented in 1865 that any monument raised to U.S. independence would properly be a joint project of the French and American peoples. The Franco-Prussian War delayed progress until 1875, when Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the United States provide the site and build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions.

    The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from 1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar (equivalent to $30 in 2021). The statue was built in France, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland.

    The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has been maintained by the National Park Service as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, and is a major tourist attraction. Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred since 1916.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Schneiderman was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference monuments was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Liberty Enlightening the World". Washington, D.C.: National Park Service. Archived from the original on January 1, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
    4. ^ Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 9/08/2017 through 9/14/2017, National Park Service, September 14, 2017, archived from the original on December 29, 2018, retrieved July 13, 2019.
    5. ^ "New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places – Hudson County". New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection – Historic Preservation Office. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference neighbor was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Abolition". Statue of Liberty National Monument. National Park Service. February 26, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
     
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    18 June 1778American Revolutionary War: The British Army abandons Philadelphia.

    American Revolutionary War

    The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, secured American independence from Great Britain. Fighting began on April 19, 1775, followed by the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The American Patriots were supported by the Kingdom of France and to a lesser extent the Spanish Empire, in a conflict taking place in North America, the Caribbean, and Atlantic Ocean.

    Established by royal charter in the 17th and 18th centuries, the American colonies were largely autonomous in domestic affairs and commercially prosperous, trading with Britain and its Caribbean colonies, as well as other European powers via their Caribbean entrepôts. After British victory over the French in the Seven Years' War in 1763, tensions between the motherland and her 13 colonies arose over trade, policy in the Northwest Territory, and taxation measures, including the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts. Colonial opposition led to the Boston Massacre in 1770 which largely fostered the idea of independence from Britain. While the earlier taxation measures were repealed, Parliament adopted the Tea Act in 1773, a measure that led to Boston Tea Party later that year. In response, Parliament imposed the so-called Intolerable Acts in mid-1774, closing the Boston Harbor, revoking Massachusetts' charter, and placing the colony under control of the British government.

    The measures stirred unrest throughout the colonies, 12 of which sent delegates to Philadelphia in early September 1774 to organize a protest as the First Continental Congress. In an appeal to Britain's George III seeking peace, the Congress drafted a Petition to the King but also threatened a boycott of British goods known as the Continental Association if the Intolerable Acts were not withdrawn. Despite attempts to achieve a peaceful solution, fighting began with the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775, and in June Congress authorized the creation of a Continental Army with George Washington as commander-in-chief. Although the "coercion policy" advocated by the North ministry was opposed by a faction within Parliament, both sides increasingly viewed conflict as inevitable. The Olive Branch Petition sent by Congress to George III in July 1775 was rejected, and in August Parliament declared the colonies in a state of rebellion.

    Following the loss of Boston in March 1776, Sir William Howe, the new British commander-in-chief, launched the New York and New Jersey campaign. He captured New York City in November, before Washington won small but significant victories at Trenton and Princeton, which restored Patriot confidence. In summer 1777, Howe succeeded in taking Philadelphia, but in October a separate force under John Burgoyne was forced to surrender at Saratoga. This victory was crucial in convincing powers like France and Spain an independent United States was a viable entity. The Continental Army then went into winter quarters in Valley Forge, where General von Steuben drilled it into an organized fighting unit.

    France provided the US informal economic and military support from the beginning of the rebellion, and after Saratoga the two countries signed a commercial agreement and a Treaty of Alliance in February 1778. In return for a guarantee of independence, Congress joined France in its global war with Britain and agreed to defend the French West Indies. Spain also allied with France against Britain in the Treaty of Aranjuez (1779), though it did not formally ally with the Americans. Nevertheless, access to ports in Spanish Louisiana allowed the Patriots to import arms and supplies, while the Spanish Gulf Coast campaign deprived the Royal Navy of key bases in the south.

    This undermined the 1778 strategy devised by Howe's replacement, Sir Henry Clinton, which took the war into the Southern United States. Despite some initial success, by September 1781 Cornwallis was besieged by a Franco-American force in Yorktown. After an attempt to resupply the garrison failed, Cornwallis surrendered in October, and although the British wars with France and Spain continued for another two years, this largely ended fighting in North America. In April 1782, the North ministry was replaced by a new British government which accepted American independence and began negotiating the Treaty of Paris. With the treaty's ratification on September 3, 1783, Britain accepted American independence, and the war officially ended. The Treaties of Versailles resolved separate conflicts with France and Spain.[41]

    1. ^ Smith 1907, p.86
    2. ^ Everest 1977, p.38
    3. ^ Seineke 1981, p.36, fn
    4. ^ a b Bell 2015, Essay
    5. ^ Axelrod 2014, p. 66
    6. ^ Eelking 1893, p. 66
    7. ^ a b Atwood 2002, pp. 1, 23
    8. ^ Lowell 1884, pp. 14–15
    9. ^ Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 1556-40, 2007
    10. ^ Simms 2009, pp. 615–618
    11. ^ a b Duncan, L. 1931, p. 371
    12. ^ Lanning 2009, pp. 195–196
    13. ^ a b Greene & Pole 2008, p. 328
    14. ^ U.S. Merchant Marine 2012, "Privateers and Mariners"
    15. ^ Simmons 2003
    16. ^ Paullin 1906, pp. 315–316
    17. ^ Keiley 1913, "Rochambeau"
    18. ^ "Rochambeau", Dictionary of American Biography
    19. ^ a b c Beerman 1979 , p. 181
    20. ^ Britannica 1911, "C. H. Estaing"
    21. ^ "F. J. P. de Grasse", Encyclopædia Britannica
    22. ^ Dull 1987, p. 110
    23. ^ Gayarré 1867, pp. 125-126
    24. ^ Beerman 1979 , pp. 177-179
    25. ^ Rinaldi, "British Army 1775–1783"
    26. ^ Chartrand 2006, p. 63
    27. ^ a b Winfield 2007
    28. ^ Mackesy 1993 [1964], pp. 6, 176
    29. ^ Savas & Dameron 2006, p. xli
    30. ^ Knesebeck 2017 [1845], p. 9
    31. ^ Cite error: The named reference Greene p. 393 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    32. ^ Burrows 2008a, "Patriots or Terrorists"
    33. ^ Peckham (ed.) 1974
    34. ^ a b c Clodfelter 2017, pp. 133–134
    35. ^ Rignault 2004, pp. 20, 53
    36. ^ Clodfelter 2017, pp. 75, 135
    37. ^ Otfinoski 2008, p. 16
    38. ^ Archuleta 2006, p. 69
    39. ^ Clodfelter 2017, p. 134
    40. ^ Burrows 2008b, Forgotten Patriots
    41. ^ Wallace 2015, "American Revolution"


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    19 June 1978Garfield's first comic strip, originally published locally as Jon in 1976, goes into nationwide syndication

    Garfield

    Garfield is an American comic strip created by Jim Davis. Originally published locally as Jon in 1976, then in nationwide syndication from 1978 as Garfield, it chronicles the life of the title character Garfield the cat, his human owner Jon Arbuckle, and Odie the dog. As of 2013, it was syndicated in roughly 2,580 newspapers and journals, and held the Guinness World Record for being the world's most widely syndicated comic strip.[1]

    Though this is rarely mentioned in print, Garfield is set in Jim Davis' hometown of Muncie, Indiana, according to the television special Happy Birthday, Garfield. Common themes in the strip include Garfield's laziness, obsessive eating, love of coffee and lasagna, disdain of Mondays, and diets. Garfield is also shown to manipulate people to get whatever he wants. The strip's focus is mostly on the interactions among Garfield, Jon, and Odie, but other recurring characters appear as well.

    Originally created with the intentions to "come up with a good, marketable character",[2] Garfield has spawned merchandise earning $750 million to $1 billion annually. In addition to the various merchandise and commercial tie-ins, the strip has spawned several animated television specials, two animated television series, two theatrical feature-length live-action/CGI animated films, and three fully CGI animated direct-to-video films.

    Part of the strip's broad pop cultural appeal is due to its lack of social or political commentary; though this was Davis's original intention, he also admitted that his "grasp of politics isn't strong", joking that, for many years, he thought "OPEC was a denture adhesive".[3][4]

    On August 6, 2019, New York City-based Paramount Global, at the time ViacomCBS, announced that it would acquire Paws, Inc., including most rights to the Garfield franchise (the comics, merchandise and animated cartoons). The deal did not include the rights to the live-action Garfield films,[5] which are still owned by The Walt Disney Company through its 20th Century Studios label, as well as the upcoming animated Garfield film which is set for worldwide distribution by Sony Pictures except China.[6] Jim Davis will continue to make comics, and a new Garfield animated series is in production for Paramount Global subsidiary Nickelodeon.[7]

    1. ^ "Garfield Named World's Most Syndicated Comic Strip". Business Wire. January 22, 2002. Archived from the original on September 10, 2004. Retrieved July 26, 2008.
    2. ^ Shapiro, Walter (December 12, 1982). "LIVES: The Cat That Rots the Intellect". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
    3. ^ Johnson, Beth (June 19, 1998). "'Garfield' 20 years later". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
    4. ^ "Everybody loves Garfield". The Star. November 5, 2005. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2022.
    5. ^ Mullin, Benjamin (August 6, 2019). "Viacom, Hungry For Hits, Gobbles Garfield". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
    6. ^ Rubin, Rebecca (November 1, 2021). "Chris Pratt to Voice Garfield in Upcoming Animated Movie". Variety. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
    7. ^ Steinberg, Brian (August 6, 2019). "Viacom Acquires Comic-Strip Cat Garfield". Variety. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
     
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    20 June 1837Queen Victoria succeeds to the British throne

    Queen Victoria

    Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than any previous British monarch. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. In 1876, the British Parliament voted to grant her the additional title of Empress of India.

    Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After the deaths of her father and grandfather in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. Victoria, a constitutional monarch, attempted privately to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

    Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, British republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond jubilees were times of public celebration. She died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

     
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    21 June 1529French forces are driven out of northern Italy by Spain at the Battle of Landriano during the War of the League of Cognac.

    Battle of Landriano

    The Battle of Landriano took place on 21 June 1529, between the French army under Francis de Bourbon, Comte de St. Pol and the Imperial–Spanish army commanded by Don Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova[2] in the context of the War of the League of Cognac. The French army was destroyed and the battle's strategic result was that the struggle between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor for control of northern Italy was temporarily at an end.[3]

    1. ^ M. Galandra: The Italian Wars
    2. ^ a b Arthur Hassall p.105
    3. ^ Cadenas y Vincent p.290
     
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    22 June 1907 – The London Underground's Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway opens.

    Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway

    Route map of the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway.
    Geographic route map of Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway

    The Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway (CCE&HR), also known as the Hampstead Tube, was a railway company established in 1891 that constructed a deep-level underground "tube" railway in London.[note 1] Construction of the CCE&HR was delayed for more than a decade while funding was sought. In 1900 it became a subsidiary of the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL), controlled by American financier Charles Yerkes. The UERL quickly raised the funds, mainly from foreign investors. Various routes were planned, but a number of these were rejected by Parliament. Plans for tunnels under Hampstead Heath were authorised, despite opposition by many local residents who believed they would damage the ecology of the Heath.

    When opened in 1907, the CCE&HR's line served 16 stations and ran for 7.67 miles (12.34 km)[1] in a pair of tunnels between its southern terminus at Charing Cross and its two northern termini at Archway and Golders Green. Extensions in 1914 and the mid-1920s took the railway to Edgware and under the River Thames to Kennington, serving 23 stations over a distance of 14.19 miles (22.84 km).[1] In the 1920s the route was connected to another of London's deep-level tube railways, the City and South London Railway (C&SLR), and services on the two lines were merged into a single London Underground line, eventually called the Northern line.

    Within the first year of opening, it became apparent to the management and investors that the estimated passenger numbers for the CCE&HR and the other UERL lines had been over-optimistic. Despite improved integration and cooperation with the other tube railways, and the later extensions, the CCE&HR struggled financially. In 1933 the CCE&HR and the rest of the UERL were taken into public ownership. Today, the CCE&HR's tunnels and stations form the Northern line's Charing Cross branch from Kennington to Camden Town, the Edgware branch from Camden Town to Edgware, and the High Barnet branch from Camden Town to Archway.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ a b Length of line calculated from distances given at "Clive's Underground Line Guides, Northern line, Layout". Clive D. W. Feather. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
     
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    23 June 1972 – U.S. President Richard M. Nixon and White House Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman are taped talking about illegally using the Central Intelligence Agency to obstruct the Federal Bureau of Investigation's investigation into the Watergate break-ins.

    Watergate scandal

    The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal in the United States involving the administration of U.S. President Richard Nixon from 1972 to 1974 that led to Nixon's resignation. The scandal stemmed from the Nixon administration's continual attempts to cover up its involvement in the June 17, 1972 break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Washington, D.C., Watergate Office Building. After the five perpetrators were arrested, the press and the U.S. Justice Department connected the cash found on them at the time to the Committee for the Re-Election of the President.[1][2] Further investigations, along with revelations during subsequent trials of the burglars, led the U.S. House of Representatives to grant the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary additional investigative authority—-to probe into "certain matters within its jurisdiction"—[3][4] and led the U.S. Senate to create the U.S. Senate Watergate Committee. The resulting Senate Watergate hearings were broadcast "gavel-to-gavel" nationwide by PBS, and they aroused public interest.[5] Witnesses testified that Nixon had approved plans to cover up his administration’s involvement in the break-in, and that there was a voice-activated taping system in the Oval Office.[6][7] Throughout the investigation, Nixon’s administration resisted its probes, and this led to a constitutional crisis.[8]

    Several major revelations and egregious presidential actions obstructing the investigation later in 1973 prompted the House to commence an impeachment process against Nixon.[9] The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had to release the Oval Office tapes to government investigators. The Nixon White House tapes revealed that he had conspired to cover up activities that took place after the break-in and had later tried to use federal officials to deflect attention from the investigation.[10][11] The House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment against Nixon for obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of Congress. With his complicity in the cover-up made public, and his political support completely eroded, Nixon resigned from office on August 9, 1974. It is generally believed that, if he had not done so, he would have been impeached by the House and removed from office by a trial in the Senate.[12][13] He is the only U.S. president to have resigned from office. On September 8, 1974, Nixon's successor, Gerald Ford, pardoned him.

    There were 69 people indicted and 48 people—many of them top Nixon administration officials—convicted.[14] The metonym Watergate came to encompass an array of clandestine and often illegal activities undertaken by members of the Nixon administration, including bugging the offices of political opponents and people of whom Nixon or his officials were suspicious; ordering investigations of activist groups and political figures; and using the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Internal Revenue Service as political weapons.[15] The use of the suffix -gate after an identifying term has since become synonymous with public scandal, especially political scandal.[16][17][18][19][20]

    1. ^ Perry, James M. "Watergate Case Study". Class Syllabus for "Critical Issues in Journalism". Columbia School of Journalism, Columbia University. Archived from the original on July 15, 2019. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
    2. ^ Dickinson, William B.; Cross, Mercer; Polsky, Barry (1973). Watergate: chronology of a crisis. Vol. 1. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc. pp. 8, 133, 140, 180, 188. ISBN 0-87187-059-2. OCLC 20974031.
    3. ^ Rybicki, Elizabeth; Greene, Michael (October 10, 2019). "The Impeachment Process in the House of Representatives". CRS Report for Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. pp. 5–7. R45769. Archived from the original on January 22, 2020. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
    4. ^ "H.Res.74 – 93rd Congress, 1st Session". congress.gov. February 28, 1973. Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
    5. ^ ""Gavel-to-Gavel": The Watergate Scandal and Public Television". American Archive of Public Broadcasting. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
    6. ^ "A burglary turns into a constitutional crisis". CNN. June 16, 2004. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
    7. ^ "Senate Hearings: Overview". fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
    8. ^ "A burglary turns into a constitutional crisis". CNN. June 16, 2004. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
    9. ^ Manheim, Karl; Solum, Lawrence B. (Spring 1999). "Nixon Articles of Impeachment". Impeachment Seminar. Archived from the original on March 3, 2017.
    10. ^ "The Smoking Gun Tape" (Transcript of the recording of a meeting between President Nixon and H. R. Haldeman). Watergate.info website. June 23, 1972. Archived from the original on May 1, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
    11. ^ White, Theodore Harold (1975). Breach of Faith: The Fall of Richard Nixon. New York: Atheneum Publishers. p. 7. ISBN 0-689-10658-0. OCLC 1370091.
    12. ^ White (1975), Breach of Faith, p. 29. "And the most punishing blow of all was to come in late afternoon when the President received, in his Oval Office, the Congressional leaders of his party—Barry Goldwater, Hugh Scott and John Rhodes. The accounts of all three men agree. Goldwater averred that there were not more than fifteen votes left in support of him in the Senate."
    13. ^ Dash, Samuel (1976). Chief Counsel: Inside the Ervin Committee – The Untold Story of Watergate. New York: Random House. pp. 259–260. ISBN 0-394-40853-5. OCLC 2388043. Soon Alexander Haig and James St. Clair learned of the existence of this tape and they were convinced that it would guarantee Nixon's impeachment in the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate.
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference convictions was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Ervin, Sam, U.S. Senator, et al., Final Report of the Watergate Committee]
    16. ^ Trahair, R.C.S From Aristotelian to Reaganomics: A Dictionary of Eponyms With Biographies in the Social Sciences. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994. ISBN 0-313-27961-6
    17. ^ Smith, Ronald D. and Richter, William Lee. Fascinating People and Astounding Events From American History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1993. ISBN 0-87436-693-3
    18. ^ Lull, James and Hinerman, Stephen. Media Scandals: Morality and Desire in the Popular Culture Marketplace. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-231-11165-7
    19. ^ Hamilton, Dagmar S. "The Nixon Impeachment and the Abuse of Presidential Power", In Watergate and Afterward: The Legacy of Richard M. Nixon. Leon Friedman and William F. Levantrosser, eds. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1992. ISBN 0-313-27781-8
    20. ^ "El 'valijagate' sigue dando disgustos a Cristina Fernández | Internacional". El País. November 4, 2008. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
     
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    24 June 1793 – The first Republican constitution in France is adopted.

    French Constitution of 1793

    The Constitution of 1793 (French: Acte constitutionnel du 24 juin 1793), also known as the Constitution of the Year I or the Montagnard Constitution, was the second constitution ratified for use during the French Revolution under the First Republic. Designed by the Montagnards, principally Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Saint-Just, it was intended to replace the constitutional monarchy of 1791 and the Girondin constitutional project.[1] With sweeping plans for democratization and wealth redistribution, the new document promised a significant departure from the relatively moderate goals of the Revolution in previous years.

    However, the Constitution's radical provisions were never implemented. The government placed a moratorium upon it, ostensibly because of the need to employ emergency war powers during the French Revolutionary War. Those same emergency powers would permit the Committee of Public Safety to conduct the Reign of Terror, and when that period of violent political combat was over, the constitution was invalidated by its association with the defeated Robespierre. In the Thermidorian Reaction, it was discarded in favor of a more conservative document, the Constitution of 1795.

     
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    25 June 2017 – The World Health Organization estimates that Yemen has over 200,000 cases of cholera.

    2016–2022 Yemen cholera outbreak

    An outbreak of cholera began in Yemen in October 2016.[2][3][4] The outbreak peaked in 2017 with over 2000 reported deaths in that year alone.[5][6] As of November 2021, there have been more than 2.5 million cases reported, and more than 4,000 people have died in the Yemen cholera outbreak, which the United Nations deemed the worst humanitarian crisis in the world at that time.[7][8] However, the outbreak has substantially decreased by 2021, with a successful vaccination program implemented and only 5,676 suspected cases with two deaths reported between January 1 and March 6 of 2021.[9]

    Vulnerable to water-borne diseases before the conflict, 16 months went by before a program of oral vaccines was started.[7] The cholera outbreak was worsened as a result of the ongoing civil war and the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthi movement that began in March 2015.[7][6] Airstrikes damaged hospital infrastructure,[10] and water supply and sanitation in Yemen were affected by the ongoing conflict.[6][11] The government of Yemen stopped funding public health in 2016;[12] sanitation workers were not paid by the government, causing garbage to accumulate,[10] and healthcare workers either fled the country or were not paid.[6]

    The UNICEF and World Health Organization (WHO) executive directors stated: "This deadly cholera outbreak is the direct consequence of two years of heavy conflict. Collapsing health, water and sanitation systems have cut off 14.5 million people from regular access to clean water and sanitation, increasing the ability of the disease to spread. Rising rates of malnutrition have weakened children's health and made them more vulnerable to disease. An estimated 30,000 dedicated local health workers who play the largest role in ending this outbreak have not been paid their salaries for nearly ten months."[13]

    1. ^ a b "CHOLERA SITUATION IN YEMEN" (PDF). WHO OCHA reliefweb. December 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
    2. ^ Raslan R, El Sayegh S, Chams S, Chams N, Leone A, Hajj Hussein I (2017). "Re-Emerging Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in War-Affected Peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean Region-An Update". Frontiers in Public Health (Review). 5: 283. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2017.00283. PMC 5661270. PMID 29119098.
    3. ^ "Yemen: Health Cluster Bulletin, December 2020 - Yemen". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference :5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ "WHO EMRO Outbreak update - cholera in Yemen, 19 December 2017 Cholera Epidemic and pandemic diseases". www.emro.who.int.
    6. ^ a b c d Qadri F, Islam T, Clemens JD (November 2017). "Cholera in Yemen - An Old Foe Rearing Its Ugly Head". The New England Journal of Medicine. 377 (21): 2005–2007. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1712099. PMID 29091747.
    7. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference Federspiel was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "Humanitarian crisis in Yemen remains the worst in the world, warns UN". UN News. United Nations. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference unicef_2021 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ a b Snyder S (15 May 2017). "Thousands in Yemen get sick in an entirely preventable cholera outbreak". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
    11. ^ "Access to water continues to be jeopardized for millions of children in war-torn Yemen". UNICEF. 24 July 2018. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Guardian12October was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference WHO_UNICEF was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    26 June 1906 – The first Grand Prix motor race is held at Le Mans.

    1906 French Grand Prix

    The 1906 Grand Prix de l'Automobile Club de France, commonly known as the 1906 French Grand Prix, was a motor race held on 26 and 27 June 1906, on closed public roads outside the city of Le Mans. The Grand Prix was organised by the Automobile Club de France (ACF) at the prompting of the French automobile industry as an alternative to the Gordon Bennett races, which limited each competing country's number of entries regardless of the size of its industry. France had the largest automobile industry in Europe at the time, and in an attempt to better reflect this the Grand Prix had no limit to the number of entries by any particular country. The ACF chose a 103.18-kilometre (64.11 mi) circuit, composed primarily of dust roads sealed with tar, which would be lapped six times on both days by each competitor, a combined race distance of 1,238.16 kilometres (769.36 mi). Lasting for more than 12 hours overall, the race was won by Ferenc Szisz driving for the Renault team. FIAT driver Felice Nazzaro finished second, and Albert Clément was third in a Clément-Bayard.

    Paul Baras of Brasier set the fastest lap of the race on his first lap. He held on to the lead until the third lap, when Szisz took over first position, defending it to the finish. Hot conditions melted the road tar, which the cars kicked up into the faces of the drivers, blinding them and making the racing treacherous. Punctures were common; tyre manufacturer Michelin introduced a detachable rim with a tyre already affixed, which could be quickly swapped onto a car after a puncture, saving a significant amount of time over manually replacing the tyre. This helped Nazzaro pass Clément on the second day, as the FIAT—unlike the Clément-Bayard—made use of the rims.

    Renault's victory contributed to an increase in sales for the French manufacturer in the years following the race. Despite being the second to carry the title, the race has become known as the first Grand Prix. The success of the 1906 French Grand Prix prompted the ACF to run the Grand Prix again the following year, and the German automobile industry to organise the Kaiserpreis, the forerunner to the German Grand Prix, in 1907.

    1. ^ Hodges (1967), pp. 2–3.


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    27 June 1950 – The United States decides to send troops to fight in the Korean War.

    Korean War

    The Korean War (also known by other names) was fought between North Korea and South Korea from 1950 to 1953. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following clashes along the border and rebellions in South Korea.[49][50][51] North Korea was supported by China and the Soviet Union while South Korea was supported by the United Nations, principally the United States. The fighting ended with an armistice on 27 July 1953.

    In 1910, Imperial Japan annexed Korea, where it ruled for 35 years until its surrender at the end of World War II on 15 August 1945.[f] The United States and the Soviet Union divided Korea along the 38th parallel into two zones of occupation. The Soviets administered the northern zone and the Americans administered the southern zone. In 1948, as a result of Cold War tensions, the occupation zones became two sovereign states. A socialist state, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, was established in the north under the totalitarian communist leadership of Kim Il-sung while a capitalist state, the Republic of Korea, was established in the south under the authoritarian, autocratic leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither accepted the border as permanent.

    North Korean military (Korean People's Army, KPA) forces crossed the border and drove into South Korea on 25 June 1950.[52] Joseph Stalin had final decision power and several times demanded North Korea postpone the invasion, until he and Mao Zedong both gave their final approval in spring 1950.[53] The United Nations Security Council denounced the North Korean move as an invasion and authorized the formation of the United Nations Command and the dispatch of forces to Korea[54] to repel it.[55][56] The Soviet Union was boycotting the UN for recognizing Taiwan (Republic of China) as China,[57] and China (People's Republic of China) on the mainland was not recognized by the UN, so neither could support their ally North Korea at the Security Council meeting. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.[58]

    After the first two months of war, South Korean Army (ROKA) and American forces hastily dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, retreating to a small area behind a defensive line known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, a risky amphibious UN counteroffensive was launched at Incheon, cutting off KPA troops and supply lines in South Korea. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces invaded North Korea in October 1950 and moved rapidly towards the Yalu River—the border with China—but on 19 October 1950, Chinese forces of the People's Volunteer Army (PVA) crossed the Yalu and entered the war.[52] The UN retreated from North Korea after the First Phase Offensive and the Second Phase Offensive. Chinese forces were in South Korea by late December.

    In these and subsequent battles, Seoul was captured four times, and communist forces were pushed back to positions around the 38th parallel, close to where the war had started. After this, the front stabilized, and the last two years were a war of attrition. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive US bombing campaign. Jet-powered fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, and Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.

    The fighting ended on 27 July 1953 when the Korean Armistice Agreement was signed. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was ever signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict.[59][60] In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the DMZ[61] and agreed to work toward a treaty to formally end the Korean War.[62]

    The Korean War was among the most destructive conflicts of the modern era, with approximately 3 million war fatalities and a larger proportional civilian death toll than World War II or the Vietnam War. It incurred the destruction of virtually all of Korea's major cities, thousands of massacres by both sides, including the mass killing of tens of thousands of suspected communists by the South Korean government, and the torture and starvation of prisoners of war by the North Koreans. North Korea became among the most heavily bombed countries in history.[63] Additionally, several million North Koreans are estimated to have fled North Korea over the course of the war.[64]

    1. ^ Kim, Heesu (1996). Anglo-American Relations and the Attempts to Settle the Korean Question 1953–1960 (PDF) (Thesis). London School of Economics and Political Science. p. 213. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
    2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    3. ^ "6.25전쟁 당시 대한민국에 도움의 손길 내밀었던 이탈리아". Newsis. 26 August 2016. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
    4. ^ "독일, 62년만에 6.25 전쟁 의료지원국에 포함…총 6개국으로 늘어". 해럴드 경제. 22 June 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
    5. ^ 임, 성호 (19 June 2020). "[6.25전쟁 70년] 이역만리 한국서 수백만명 살리고 의술 전파까지". Yeonhap News. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
    6. ^ Young, Sam Ma (2010). "Israel's Role in the UN during the Korean War" (PDF). Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs. 4 (3): 81–89. doi:10.1080/23739770.2010.11446616. S2CID 219293462. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2015.
    7. ^ a b c Morris-Suzuki, Tessa (29 July 2012). "Post-War Warriors: Japanese Combatants in the Korean War". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. 10 (31).
    8. ^ Whan-woo, Yi (16 September 2019). "Pakistan's Defense Day rekindles Korean War relief aid". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
    9. ^ Edles, Laura Desfor (1998). Symbol and Ritual in the New Spain: the transition to democracy after Franco. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0521628853.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference rozhlas cz was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ a b Edwards, Paul M. (2006). Korean War Almanac. Almanacs of American wars. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 528. ISBN 978-0816074679. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017.
    12. ^ Kocsis, Piroska (2005). "Magyar orvosok Koreában (1950–1957)" [Hungarian physicians in Korea (1950–1957)]. ArchivNet: XX. századi történeti források (in Hungarian). Budapest: Magyar Országos Levéltár. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
    13. ^ "Romania's "Fraternal Support" to North Korea during the Korean War, 1950–1953". Wilson Centre. December 2011. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
    14. ^ Birtle, Andrew J. (2000). The Korean War: Years of Stalemate. U.S. Army Center of Military History. p. 34. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
    15. ^ Millett, Allan Reed, ed. (2001). The Korean War, Volume 3. Korea Institute of Military History. U of Nebraska Press. p. 692. ISBN 978-0803277960. Retrieved 16 February 2013. Total Strength 602,902 troops
    16. ^ Kane, Tim (27 October 2004). "Global U.S. Troop Deployment, 1950–2003". Reports. The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
      Ashley Rowland (22 October 2008). "U.S. to keep troop levels the same in South Korea". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
      Colonel Tommy R. Mize, United States Army (12 March 2012). "U.S. Troops Stationed in South Korea, Anachronistic?" (PDF). United States Army War College. Defense Technical Information Center. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
      Louis H. Zanardi; Barbara A. Schmitt; Peter Konjevich; M. Elizabeth Guran; Susan E. Cohen; Judith A. McCloskey (August 1991). "Military Presence: U.S. Personnel in the Pacific Theater" (PDF). Reports to Congressional Requesters. United States General Accounting Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
    17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k USFK Public Affairs Office. "USFK United Nations Command". United States Forces Korea. United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016. Republic of Korea – 590,911
      Colombia – 1,068
      United States – 302,483
      Belgium – 900
      United Kingdom – 14,198
      South Africa – 826
      Canada – 6,146
      Netherlands – 819
      Turkey – 5,453
      Luxembourg – 44
      Australia – 2,282
      Philippines – 1,496
      New Zealand – 1,385
      Thailand – 1,204[clarification needed]
      Ethiopia – 1,271
      Greece – 1,263
      France – 1,119
    18. ^ Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). Korean War Order of Battle: United States, United Nations, and Communist Ground, Naval, and Air Forces, 1950–1953. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 126. ISBN 978-0275978358. Retrieved 16 February 2013. A peak strength of 14,198 British troops was reached in 1952, with over 40,000 total serving in Korea.
      "UK-Korea Relations". British Embassy Pyongyang. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 9 February 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013. When war came to Korea in June 1950, Britain was second only to the United States in the contribution it made to the UN effort in Korea. 87,000 British troops took part in the Korean conflict, and over 1,000 British servicemen lost their lives
      Jack D. Walker. "A Brief Account of the Korean War". Information. Korean War Veterans Association. Retrieved 17 February 2013. Other countries to furnish combat units, with their peak strength, were: Australia (2,282), Belgium/Luxembourg (944), Canada (6,146), Colombia (1,068), Ethiopia (1,271), France (1,119), Greece (1,263), Netherlands (819), New Zealand (1,389), Philippines (1,496), Republic of South Africa (826), Thailand (1,294), Turkey (5,455), and the United Kingdom (Great Britain 14,198).
    19. ^ "Land of the Morning Calm: Canadians in Korea 1950–1953". Veterans Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. 7 January 2013. Archived from the original on 23 March 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013. Peak Canadian Army strength in Korea was 8,123 all ranks.
    20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Cite error: The named reference ROK Web was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ a b c Edwards, Paul M. (2006). Korean War Almanac. Almanacs of American wars. Infobase Publishing. p. 517. ISBN 978-0816074679. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
    22. ^ Ramachandran, D. p (19 March 2017). "The doctor-heroes of war". The Hindu – via www.thehindu.com.
    23. ^ Fact Sheet: America's Wars". U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, Washington D.C., May 2017.
    24. ^ Zhang 1995, p. 257.
    25. ^ Xiaobing, Li (2009). A History of the Modern Chinese Army Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. p. 105: "By December 1952, the Chinese forces in Korea had reached a record high of 1.45 million men, including fifty-nine infantry divisions, ten artillery divisions, five antiaircraft divisions, and seven tank regiments. CPVF numbers remained stable until the armistice agreement was signed in July 1953."
    26. ^ Shrader, Charles R. (1995). Communist Logistics in the Korean War. Issue 160 of Contributions in Military Studies. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 90. ISBN 978-0313295096. Retrieved 17 February 2013. NKPA strength peaked in October 1952 at 266,600 men in eighteen divisions and six independent brigades.
    27. ^ a b Kolb, Richard K. (1999). "In Korea we whipped the Russian Air Force". VFW Magazine. 86 (11). Retrieved 17 February 2013. Soviet involvement in the Korean War was on a large scale. During the war, 72,000 Soviet troops (among them 5,000 pilots) served along the Yalu River in Manchuria. At least 12 air divisions rotated through. A peak strength of 26,000 men was reached in 1952.
    28. ^ Cite error: The named reference xu was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    29. ^ a b c "U.S. Military Casualties – Korean War Casualty Summary". Defense Casualty Analysis System. United States Department of Defense. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
    30. ^ "Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency > Our Missing > Past Conflicts". www.dpaa.mil.
    31. ^ "How Many Americans Died in Korea?". www.cbsnews.com.
    32. ^ "Records of American Prisoners of War During the Korean War, created, 1950–1953, documenting the period 1950–1953". Access to Archival Databases. National Archives and Records Administration. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2013. This series has records for 4,714 U.S. military officers and soldiers who were prisoners of war (POWs) during the Korean War and therefore considered casualties.
    33. ^ a b Office of the Defence Attaché (30 September 2010). "Korean war". British Embassy Seoul. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
    34. ^ "Korean War WebQuest". Veterans Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. 11 October 2011. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013. In Brampton, Ontario, there is a 60-metre long "Memorial Wall" of polished granite, containing individual bronze plaques which commemorate the 516 Canadian soldiers who died during the Korean War.
      "Canada Remembers the Korean War". Veterans Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. 1 March 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2013. The names of 516 Canadians who died in service during the conflict are inscribed in the Korean War Book of Remembrance located in the Peace Tower in Ottawa.
    35. ^ Aiysha Abdullah; Kirk Fachnie (6 December 2010). "Korean War veterans talk of "forgotten war"". Canadian Army. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013. Canada lost 516 military personnel during the Korean War and 1,042 more were wounded.
      "Canadians in the Korean War". kvacanada.com. Korean Veterans Association of Canada Inc. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013. Canada's casualties totalled 1,558 including 516 who died.
      "2013 declared year of Korean war veteran". MSN News. The Canadian Press. 8 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013. The 1,558 Canadian casualties in the three-year conflict included 516 people who died.
    36. ^ Ted Barris (1 July 2003). "Canadians in Korea". legionmagazine.com. Royal Canadian Legion. Archived from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013. Not one of the 33 Canadian PoWs imprisoned in North Korea signed the petitions.
    37. ^ Australian War Memorial Korea MIA Archived 28 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 17 March 2012
    38. ^ a b Sandler, Stanley, ed. (2002). Ground Warfare: H–Q. Volume 2 of Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 160. ISBN 978-1576073445. Retrieved 19 March 2013. Philippines: KIA 92; WIA 299; MIA/POW 97
      New Zealand: KIA 34; WIA 299; MIA/POW 1
    39. ^ "Two War Reporters Killed". The Times. London. 14 August 1950. ISSN 0140-0460.
    40. ^ Cite error: The named reference Rummel1997 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    41. ^ "Korean War | Combatants, Summary, Years, Map, Casualties, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica.
    42. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Hickey was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    43. ^ Cite error: The named reference Li111 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    44. ^ Xu, Yang (30 October 2014). "抗美援朝烈士新确认为197653人 副军长儿子到场" [Martyrs from the War to Resist America and Aid Korea are newly identified as 197,653, and the deputy commander's son is present]. People's Daily Online (in Chinese (China)). Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. Retrieved 16 July 2021. 在安葬仪式上,记者获悉,现已确认的抗美援朝烈士共有197653名。确认的抗美援朝烈士名录包括抗美援朝战争期间牺牲和失踪的志愿军官兵、支前民兵民工、支前工作人员,以及停战后至志愿军回国前帮助朝鲜民主主义共和国生产建设牺牲和因伤复发牺牲的人员。 [At the burial ceremony, the reporter was informed that there are now 197,653 confirmed martyrs of the War to Resist America and Aid Korea. The list of confirmed martyrs includes the officers and soldiers of the volunteer army who died and went missing during the War to Resist America and Aid Korea, the militia and militia workers who supported the front, the staff who supported the front, as well as those who died after the armistice until the return of the volunteer army to help the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in production and construction and those who died due to recurrence of injuries.]
    45. ^ "180,000 Chinese soldiers killed in Korean War, says Chinese general" Archived 3 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. China Daily, 28 June 2010. State Council Information Office, Chinese government, Beijing. "According to statistics compiled by the army's medical departments and hospitals, 114,084 servicemen were killed in military action or accidents, and 25,621 soldiers had gone missing. The other about 70,000 casualties died from wounds, illness and other causes, he said. To date, civil affairs departments have registered 183,108 war martyrs, Xu said."
    46. ^ Cite error: The named reference Krivosheev1997 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    47. ^ Cite error: The named reference Cumings p. 35 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    48. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lewy pp. 450-453 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    49. ^ "The creation of an independent South Korea became UN policy in early 1948. Southern communists opposed this, and by autumn partisan warfare had engulfed parts of every Korean province below the 38th parallel. The fighting expanded into a limited border war between the South's newly formed Republic of Korea Army (ROKA) and the North Korean border constabulary as well as the North's Korean People's Army (KPA)."Millett (PHD), Allan. "Korean War". britannica.com. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
    50. ^ Cumings 2005, pp. 247–53.
    51. ^ Stueck 2002, p. 71.
    52. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Devine 2007 819-821 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    53. ^ Historian Kim Hakjoon argues that, “the many telegrams that Moscow and P’yǒngyang exchanged from January to June 1950, and, more important, the secret meetings between Stalin and Kim [Il Sung] in Moscow in April and Mao and Kim in Beijing during May, confirmed that the three Communist leaders were responsible for starting the Korean War on the morning of June 25, 1950.” quoted in Steven Lee, “The Korean War in History and Historiography.” Journal of American-East Asian Relations 21, no. 2 (2014): 185–206. doi:10.1163/18765610-02102010 at p 190.
    54. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 83
    55. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 82
    56. ^ Derek W. Bowett, United Nations Forces: A Legal Study of United Nations Practice, Stevens, London, 1964, pp. 29–60
    57. ^ "United Nations Security Council - History". Encyclopedia Britannica.
    58. ^ Pembroke, Michael (2018). Korea: Where the American Century Began. Hardie Grant Books. p. 141.
    59. ^ He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun (2013). Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis in the Asia Pacific: Rational Leaders and Risky Behavior. Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 978-1135131197. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017.
    60. ^ Li, Narangoa; Cribb, Robert (2014). Historical Atlas of Northeast Asia, 1590–2010: Korea, Manchuria, Mongolia, Eastern Siberia. Columbia University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0231160704. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017.
    61. ^ "Kim becomes first North Korean leader to cross border into South since war". Reuters. 27 April 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
    62. ^ "North and South Korean leaders hold historic summit: Live updates". CNN. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
    63. ^ Fisher, Max (3 August 2015). "Americans have forgotten what we did to North Korea". Vox. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
    64. ^ Cite error: The named reference Robinson 119-120 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    28 June 1982Aeroflot Flight 8641 crashes in Mazyr, Belarus, killing 132 people.

    Aeroflot Flight 8641

    Aeroflot Flight 8641 was a Yakovlev Yak-42 airliner on a domestic scheduled passenger flight from Leningrad to Kyiv. On 28 June 1982, the flight crashed south of Mozyr, Belorussian SSR, killing all 132 people on board. The accident was both the first and deadliest crash of a Yakovlev Yak-42, and remains the deadliest aviation accident in Belarus.[1][2]

    The cause was a failure of the jackscrew controlling the horizontal stabilizer due to a design flaw.

    1. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Yakovlev 42 CCCP-42529 Mozyr". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
    2. ^ "УПАВШИЕ С НЕБА. Архив БГ. №29 (345) 29 июля 2002 г. БелГазета. Новости Беларуси. Белорусские новости". www.belgazeta.by. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
     
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    1
    29 June 2007Apple Inc. releases its first mobile phone, the iPhone.

    IPhone

    The iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. These devices use Apple's iOS mobile operating system. The first-generation iPhone was announced by then-Apple CEO Steve Jobs on January 9, 2007. Since then, Apple has annually released new iPhone models and iOS updates. As of November 1, 2018, more than 2.2 billion iPhones had been sold.

    The iPhone has a user interface built around a multi-touch screen. It connects to cellular networks or Wi-Fi, and can make calls, browse the web, take pictures, play music and send and receive emails and text messages. Since the iPhone's launch further features have been added, including larger screen sizes, shooting video, waterproofing, the ability to install third-party mobile apps through an app store, and many accessibility features. Up to iPhone 8 and 8 Plus, iPhones used a layout with a single button on the front panel that returns the user to the home screen. Since iPhone X, iPhone models have switched to a nearly bezel-less front screen design with app switching activated by gesture recognition. The older layout today is still used for Apple's currently-produced iPhone SE series.

    The iPhone is one of the two largest smartphone platforms in the world alongside Android, forming a large part of the luxury market. The iPhone has generated large profits for Apple, making it one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. The first-generation iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry and subsequent models have also garnered praise. The iPhone has been credited with popularizing the smartphone and slate form factor, and with creating a large market for smartphone apps, or "app economy". As of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications for the iPhone.

    1. ^ "How Many iPhones have been sold". Lifewire. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
    2. ^ "iPhone 5 – View all the technical specifications". Apple Inc. Retrieved June 13, 2013.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    30 June 1860 – The 1860 Oxford evolution debate at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History takes place.

    1860 Oxford evolution debate

    The debate took place in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

    The 1860 Oxford evolution debate took place at the Oxford University Museum in Oxford, England, on 30 June 1860, seven months after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.[1] Several prominent British scientists and philosophers participated, including Thomas Henry Huxley, Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, Benjamin Brodie, Joseph Dalton Hooker and Robert FitzRoy.[1]

    The encounter is often known as the Huxley–Wilberforce debate or the Wilberforce–Huxley debate, although this description is somewhat misleading. It was not a formal debate between the two, but rather it was an animated discussion after the presentation of a paper by John William Draper of New York University, on the intellectual development of Europe with relation to Darwin's theory (one of a number of scientific papers presented during the week as part of the British Association's annual meeting).[2] Although Huxley and Wilberforce were not the only participants in the discussion, they were reported to be the two dominant parties.[2]

    The debate is best remembered today for a heated exchange in which Wilberforce supposedly asked Huxley whether it was through his grandfather or his grandmother that he claimed his descent from a monkey.[3] Huxley is said to have replied that he would not be ashamed to have a monkey for his ancestor, but he would be ashamed to be connected with a man who used his great gifts to obscure the truth.[3] However, what Huxley and Wilberforce actually said is uncertain,[3][4][5] and subsequent accounts were subject to distortion[6] since no verbatim account of the debate exists.[1] One eyewitness suggests that Wilberforce's question to Huxley may have been "whether, in the vast shaky state of the law of development, as laid down by Darwin, any one can be so enamoured of this so-called law, or hypothesis, as to go into jubilation for his great great grandfather having been an ape or a gorilla?",[7] whereas another suggests he may have said that "it was of little consequence to himself whether or not his grandfather might be called a monkey or not."[8]

    1. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference thomson was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b Oxford Chronicle, 7 July 1860. See also the recent essay by James C. Ungureanu, "A Yankee at Oxford: John William Draper at the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford, 30 June 1860," Notes and Records: The Royal Society Journal for the History of Science, (2015).
    3. ^ a b c Lucas, J. R. (1979). "Wilberforce and Huxley: a legendary encounter". The Historical Journal. 22 (2): 313–330. doi:10.1017/S0018246X00016848. PMID 11617072. S2CID 19198585. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference brooke was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Frank A. J. L. James (2005). "An 'open clash between science and the church'? Wilberforce, Huxley and Hooker on Darwin at the British Association, Oxford, 1960". In David M. Knight & Matthew D. Eddy (ed.). Science and Beliefs: From Natural Philosophy to Natural Selection. Ashgate. pp. 171–193. ISBN 978-0-7546-3996-1.
    6. ^ Numbers, Ronald, ed. (2009). Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and Religion. Harvard University Press. p. 155. ISBN 9780674033276.
    7. ^ The Morning Chronicle, 9 July 1860. The writer of the letter calls himself "Harpocrates".
    8. ^ Glasgow Herald, 4 July 1860. The writer of the letter is identified as "a well-known townsman" called "J.S."
     
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    1 July 1770Lexell's Comet is seen closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of 0.0146 astronomical units (2,180,000 km; 1,360,000 mi).

    Lexell's Comet

    D/1770 L1, popularly known as Lexell's Comet after its orbit computer Anders Johan Lexell, was a comet discovered by astronomer Charles Messier in June 1770.[note 1] It is notable for having passed closer to Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of only 0.015 astronomical units (2,200,000 km; 1,400,000 mi).[1][8][9] The comet has not been seen since 1770 and is considered a lost comet.

    Lexell's Comet's 1770 passing still holds the record of closest observed approach of Earth by a comet.[9] However, if approaches deduced from orbit calculations are included, it has been beaten by a small sungrazing comet, P/1999 J6 (SOHO), which passed even closer at about 0.012 AU (1,800,000 km; 1,100,000 mi) from Earth on June 12, 1999,[10] albeit unobserved.[11]

    1. ^ a b Kronk, G. Cometography: D/1770 L1 (Lexell), accessed November 20, 2008.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Quan-ZhiYe2018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference MPC-object-529668 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference jpldata-529668 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Mainzer-2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Blaauw-2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "ALCDEF: Asteroid Photometry Database". alcdef. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
    8. ^ Kronk, G. The Closest Approaches of Comets to Earth, accessed November 20, 20, 2008. It was thought that C/1491 B1 may have approached even closer on February 20, 1491, but its orbit was retracted in 2002 due to a misunderstanding of the records. See Approximate Orbits of Ancient and Medieval Comets: 3. Remarks and Discussion
    9. ^ a b "Closest Approaches to the Earth by Comets". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
    10. ^ "JPL Close-Approach Data: P/1999 J6 (SOHO)" (2010-04-22 last obs (arc=10.9 yr; JFC)). Retrieved June 28, 2012.
    11. ^ Sekanina, Zdenek; Chodas, Paul W. (December 2005). "Origin of the Marsden and Kracht Groups of Sunskirting Comets. I. Association with Comet 96P/Machholz and Its Interplanetary Complex" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 151 (2): 551–586. Bibcode:2005ApJS..161..551S. doi:10.1086/497374. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 16, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    2 July 1504Bogdan III the One-Eyed becomes Voivode of Moldavia.

    Bogdan III the One-Eyed

    Bogdan III the One-Eyed (Romanian: Bogdan al III-lea cel Chior) or Bogdan III the Blind (Bogdan al III-lea cel Orb) (March 18, 1479 – April 20, 1517) was Voivode of Moldavia from July 2, 1504, to 1517.

     
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    4 July 1817 – In Rome, New York, construction on the Erie Canal begins.

    Erie Canal

    The Erie Canal is a historic canal in upstate New York that runs east-west between the Hudson River and Lake Erie. Completed in 1825, the canal was the first navigable waterway connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, vastly reducing the costs of transporting people and goods across the Appalachians. In effect, the canal accelerated the settlement of the Great Lakes region, the westward expansion of the United States, and the economic ascendancy of New York State. It has been called "The Nation's First Superhighway."[2]

    A canal from the Hudson to the Great Lakes was first proposed in the 1780s, but a formal survey was not conducted until 1808. The New York State Legislature authorized construction in 1817. Political opponents of the canal, and of its lead supporter New York Governor DeWitt Clinton, denigrated the project as "Clinton's Folly" and "Clinton's Big Ditch". Nonetheless, the canal saw quick success upon opening on October 26, 1825, with toll revenue covering the state's construction debt within the first year of operation. The westward connection gave New York City a strong advantage over all other U.S. ports and brought major growth to canal cities such as Albany, Utica, Syracuse, Rochester, and Buffalo.

    The construction of the Erie Canal was a landmark civil engineering achievement in the early history of the United States. When built, the 363-mile (584 km) canal was the second-longest in the world (after the Grand Canal in China). Initially 40 feet (12 m) wide and 4 feet (1.2 m) deep, the canal was expanded several times, most notably from 1905 to 1918 when the "Barge Canal" was built and over half the original route was abandoned. The modern Barge Canal measures 351 miles (565 km) long, 120 feet (37 m) wide, and 12 feet (3.7 m) deep. It has 34 locks, including the Waterford Flight, the steepest locks in the United States. When leaving the canal, boats must also traverse the Black Rock Lock to reach Lake Erie or the Troy Federal Lock to reach the tidal Hudson. The overall elevation difference is about 565 feet (172 m).

    The Erie's peak year was 1855, when 33,000 commercial shipments took place. It continued to be competitive with railroads until about 1902, when tolls were abolished. Commercial traffic declined heavily in the latter half of the 20th century due to competition from trucking and the 1959 opening of the larger St. Lawrence Seaway. The canal's last regularly-scheduled hauler, the Day Peckinpaugh, ended service in 1994.

    Today, the Erie Canal is mainly used by recreational watercraft. It connects the three other canals in the New York State Canal System: the Champlain, Oswego, and Cayuga–Seneca. Some long-distance boaters take the Erie as part of the Great Loop. The canal has also become a tourist attraction in its own right—a number of parks and museums are dedicated to its history. The Erie Canalway Trail is a popular cycling path that follows the canal across the state. In 2000, Congress designated the Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor to protect and promote the system.

    1. ^ "Locks on the Erie Canal". The Erie Canal. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
    2. ^ Christopher Maag (November 2, 2008). "Hints of Comeback for Nation's First Superhighway". The New York Times.
     
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    5 July 1934 – "Bloody Thursday": the police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco.

    1934 West Coast waterfront strike

    The 1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike (also known as the 1934 West Coast Longshoremen's Strike, as well as a number of variations on these names) lasted 83 days, and began on May 9, 1934 when longshoremen in every US West Coast port walked out. Organized by the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU), the strike peaked with the death of two workers on "Bloody Thursday" and the San Francisco General Strike which stopped all work in the major port city for four days and led ultimately to the settlement of the West Coast Longshoremen's Strike.

    The result of the strike was the unionization of all of the West Coast ports of the United States. The San Francisco General Strike of 1934, along with the Toledo Auto-Lite Strike of 1934 led by the American Workers Party and the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934 led by the Communist League of America, were catalysts for the rise of industrial unionism in the 1930s, much of which was organized through the Congress of Industrial Organizations.[1]

    1. ^ a b Preis, Art (1974). Labor's giant step: twenty years of the CIO. Pathfinder Press. pp. 31–33. ISBN 9780873480246.
    2. ^ Kimeldorf, Howard (1988). Reds or Rackets?: The Making of Radical and Conservative Unions on the Waterfront. University of California Press. p. 101. ISBN 9780520912779.
     
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    6 July 1560 – The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed by Scotland and England.

    Treaty of Edinburgh

    The Treaty of Edinburgh (also known as the Treaty of Leith) was a treaty drawn up on 5 July 1560 between the Commissioners of Queen Elizabeth I of England with the assent of the Scottish Lords of the Congregation, and the French representatives of King Francis II of France (husband of Mary Queen of Scots) to formally conclude the siege of Leith and replace the Auld Alliance with France with a new Anglo-Scottish accord, while maintaining the peace between England and France agreed by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis.

     
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    7 July 1865 – Four conspirators in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln are hanged.

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    On April 14, 1865, Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, was assassinated by well-known stage actor John Wilkes Booth, while attending the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. Shot in the head as he watched the play,[2] Lincoln died the following day at 7:22 am in the Petersen House opposite the theater.[3] He was the first U.S. president to be assassinated,[4] with his funeral and burial marking an extended period of national mourning.

    Occurring near the end of the American Civil War, Lincoln's assassination was part of a larger conspiracy intended by Booth to revive the Confederate cause by eliminating the three most important officials of the United States government. Conspirators Lewis Powell and David Herold were assigned to kill Secretary of State William H. Seward, and George Atzerodt was tasked with killing Vice President Andrew Johnson. Beyond Lincoln's death, the plot failed: Seward was only wounded, and Johnson's would-be attacker became drunk instead of killing the Vice President. After a dramatic initial escape, Booth was killed at the climax of a twelve-day chase. Powell, Herold, Atzerodt, and Mary Surratt were later hanged for their roles in the conspiracy.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Evidence was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Abel, E. Lawrence (2015). A Finger in Lincoln's Brain: What Modern Science Reveals about Lincoln, His Assassination, and Its Aftermath. ABC-CLIO. p. 63. ISBN 9781440831195. Forensic evidence clearly indicates Booth could not have fired at point-blank range ... At a distance of three or more feet, the gunshot did not leave any stippling or any other residues on the surface of Lincoln's head ... Dr. Robert Stone, the Lincoln's' family physician, was explicit: "The hair or scalp (on Lincoln's head) was not in the least burn[t]."
    3. ^ Richard A. R. Fraser, MD (February–March 1995). "How Did Lincoln Die?". American Heritage. 46 (1).
    4. ^ "Lincoln Shot at Ford's Theater".


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    8 July 1937 – Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Afghanistan sign the Treaty of Saadabad.

    Treaty of Saadabad

    The Treaty of Saadabad (or the Saadabad Pact) was a non-aggression pact signed by Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan on July 8, 1937, and lasted for five years. The treaty was signed in Tehran's Saadabad Palace and was part of an initiative for greater Middle Eastern-Oriental relations spearheaded by King Mohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan. Ratifications were exchanged in Tehran on June 25, 1938, and the treaty became effective on the same day. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on July 19, 1938.[1]

    In Iraq, the left-leaning Bakr Sidqi military government of 1936–1937 was less Arab nationalist than other Iraqi governments. Sidqi was a Kurd and his prime minister, Hikmat Sulayman, was a Turkmen. They were, therefore, interested in diplomacy with Iraq's eastern, non-Arab neighbours. Turkey sought friendly relations with its neighbours and was still recovering from its defeat in World War I and the costly victory in the Turkish War of Independence.

    In 1943, the treaty was automatically extended for a further five years because none of the signatories had renounced it.

    1. ^ League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 190, pp. 22–27.
     
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    9 July 1540 – King Henry VIII of England annuls his marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves.

    Anne of Cleves

    Anne of Cleves (German: Anna von Kleve; 1515 – 16 July 1557)[2] was Queen of England from 6 January to 12 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII.[2] Not much is known about Anne before 1527, when she became betrothed to Francis, Duke of Bar, son and heir of Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, although their marriage did not proceed. In March 1539, negotiations for Anne's marriage to Henry began, as Henry believed that he needed to form a political alliance with her brother, William, who was a leader of the Protestants of western Germany, to strengthen his position against potential attacks from Catholic France and the Holy Roman Empire.[3]

    Anne arrived in England on 27 December 1539 and married Henry on 6 January 1540, but after six months, the marriage was declared unconsummated and, as a result, she was not crowned queen consort. Following the annulment, Henry gave her a generous settlement, and she was thereafter known as the King's Beloved Sister.[4][5] Remaining in England, she lived to see the reign of Edward VI, and the coronation of Mary I, outliving the rest of Henry's wives.[6]

    1. ^ Weir 2007, p. 424.
    2. ^ a b Weir 2002, p. 155.
    3. ^ Sanders, Kevin (22 September 2017). "Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves: journey to a doomed marriage?". English Heritage Blog.
    4. ^ Norton 2009, p. 107.
    5. ^ Warnicke 2000, p. 252.
    6. ^ Norton 2009, p. 161.
     
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    10 July 1553Lady Jane Grey takes the throne of England.

    Lady Jane Grey

    Lady Jane Grey (c. 1537 – 12 February 1554), later known as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage)[4] and as the "Nine Days' Queen",[7] was a teenage English noblewoman who claimed the throne of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553.

    Jane was the great granddaughter of Henry VII through his younger daughter Mary, and was a first cousin once removed of Edward VI. She had an excellent humanist education, and a reputation as one of the most learned young women of her day.[8] In May 1553, she married Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of Edward's chief minister John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. In June 1553, Edward VI wrote his will, nominating Jane and her male heirs as successors to the Crown, in part because his half-sister Mary was Catholic, while Jane was a committed Protestant and would support the reformed Church of England, whose foundation Edward laid. The will removed his half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, from the line of succession on account of their illegitimacy, subverting their claims under the Third Succession Act.

    After Edward's death, Jane was proclaimed queen on 10 July 1553, and awaited coronation in the Tower of London. Support for Mary grew quickly, and most of Jane's supporters abandoned her. The Privy Council of England suddenly changed sides, and proclaimed Mary as queen on 19 July 1553, deposing Jane. Her primary supporter, her father-in-law, the Duke of Northumberland, was accused of treason, and executed less than a month later. Jane was held prisoner in the Tower, and was convicted of high treason in November 1553, which carried a sentence of death.

    Mary initially spared her life; however, Jane soon became viewed as a threat to the Crown when her father, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, became involved with Wyatt's rebellion against Queen Mary's intention to marry Philip II of Spain. Jane and her husband were executed on 12 February 1554.[5]

    1. ^ Williamson, David (2010). Kings & Queens. National Portrait Gallery Publications. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-85514-432-3
    2. ^ Ives 2009, p. 36
    3. ^ Florio 1607, p. 68
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference odnbJane was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b "Lady Jane Grey | Biography, Facts, & Execution". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference potter was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Ives 2009, p. 2
    8. ^ Ascham 1863, p. 213
     
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    11 July 1804A duel occurs in which the Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr mortally wounds former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton.

    Burr–Hamilton duel

    The Burr–Hamilton duel took place in Weehawken, New Jersey, between Aaron Burr, the Vice President of the United States, and Alexander Hamilton, the first and former Secretary of the Treasury, on the morning of July 11, 1804. The duel was the culmination of a bitter rivalry that had developed between both men who had become high-profile politicians in postcolonial America. In the duel Burr fatally shot Hamilton, while Hamilton fired into a tree branch above and behind Burr's head. Hamilton was taken back across the Hudson River and died the following day in New York.[1]

    The death of Hamilton led to the permanent weakening of the Federalist Party and its demise in American domestic politics. It also effectively ended the political career of Burr, who was vilified for shooting Hamilton; he never held another high office after his tenure of vice president ended in 1805.

    1. ^ "Today in History: July 11". Library of Congress. Retrieved April 23, 2007.
     
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    12 July 1789 – In response to the dismissal of the French finance minister Jacques Necker, the radical journalist Camille Desmoulins gives a speech which results in the storming of the Bastille two days later.

    Storming of the Bastille

    The Storming of the Bastille (French: Prise de la Bastille [pʁiz də la bastij]) occurred in Paris, France, on 14 July 1789, when revolutionary insurgents stormed and seized control of the medieval armoury, fortress, and political prison known as the Bastille. At the time, the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. The prison contained only seven inmates at the time of its storming, but was seen by the revolutionaries as a symbol of the monarchy's abuse of power; its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.

    In France, 14 July is the national holiday, usually called Bastille Day in English. However, the expression Bastille Day is properly incorrect, as the event celebrated during the national holiday is the Fête de la Fédération of 1790, which was itself the 1st anniversary of the Bastille Day.

    1. ^ Lüsebrink and Reichardt p.43
     
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    13 July 1249Coronation of Alexander III as King of Scots.

    Alexander III of Scotland

    Alexander III (Medieval Scottish Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Alaxandair; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Alasdair; 4 September 1241 – 19 March 1286) was King of Scots from 1249 until his death. He concluded the Treaty of Perth, by which Scotland acquired sovereignty over the Western Isles and the Isle of Man. His heir, Margaret, Maid of Norway, died before she could be crowned.

     
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    14 July 1430Joan of Arc, taken by the Burgundians in May, is handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais.

    Joan of Arc

    Joan of Arc (French: Jeanne d'Arc pronounced [ʒan daʁk]; c. 1412 – 30 May 1431) is a patron saint of France, who achieved fame for her role in the siege of Orléans and the coronation of Charles VII of France during the Hundred Years' War against England. After successfully leading several French military actions, she was captured, handed over to English authorities, convicted as a heretic, and burnt at the stake in 1431. Twenty-five years later, her conviction was formally overturned. She was canonized by the Roman Catholic Church in 1920, 488 years after her death.

    Joan was born to a peasant family of some means at Domrémy in northeast France. In 1428, she traveled to Vaucouleurs and requested to be taken to Charles, later testifying that she had received visions from the archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine instructing her to support Charles and recover France from English domination. Her request to see Charles was rejected twice, but she was finally given an escort to meet Charles at Chinon. After their interview, Charles sent Joan, who was about 17 years old, to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She arrived at the city on 29 April 1429, weilding her banner and bringing faith to the French army that she could bring them victory. The English were defeated in a series of battles, and nine days after Joan's arrival they abandoned the seige. Joan encouraged the French to aggressively pursue the English during the Loire Campaign, which culminated in the decisive defeat of the English at the Battle of Patay. This opened the way for the French army to advance on Reims unopposed. It entered the city on 16 July. The next day, Charles was crowned as the King of France in Reims Cathedral with Joan at his side. These victories boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory in the Hundred Years' War at Castillon in 1453.

    After Charles's coronation, Joan and John II, Duke of Alençon's army besieged Paris. An assault on the city was launched on 8 September. It failed, and Joan was wounded. The French army withdrew and was disbanded. In October, Joan was participating in an attack on the territory of Perrinet Gressart, a mercenary who had been in the service of the English and their French allies, the Burgundians. After some initial successes, the campaign ended in a failed attempt to take Gressart's stronghold. At the end of the 1429, Joan and her family were ennobled by Charles.

    In early 1430, Joan organized a company of volunteers to relieve Compiègne, which had been besieged by the Burgundians. She was captured by Burgundian troops on 23 May and exchanged to the English. She was put on trial by the bishop, Pierre Cauchon, on an accusation of heresy. She was charged with twelve article, which included blaspheming by wearing men's clothes, listening to voices that were demonic, and that she refusing to submit her words and deeds to the judgement of the Church. She was declared guilty and burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about 19 years of age. In 1456, Pope Callixtus III authorized an inquisitorial court to investigate the original trial. The court nullified the trial's verdict, declaring it was tainted by deceit and procedural errors, and Joan was exonerated. Since her death, Joan has been popularly revered as a martyr. After the French Revolution she became a national symbol of France. She was canonized in 1920, and declared a one of the patron saints of France in 1922. Joan of Arc is portrayed in modern literature, painting, sculpture, music, and other cultural works.

    1. ^ Contamine 2007, p. 199: Cette miniature du XVe siècle, très soignée (l'étendard correspond exactement à la description que Jeanne d'Arc elle-même en donnera lors de son procès) ... Mais c'est précisément cette exactitude, et cette coïncidence, trop belle pour être vraie, qui éveillent—ou plutôt auraient dû éveiller—les soupçons ... [This miniature from the 15th century, very neat (the banner corresponds exactly to the description that Joan of Arc herself will give during her trial) ... But it is precisely this exactitude, and this coincidence, too good to be true, which arouses—or rather should have aroused—suspicion ...]
    2. ^ The Calendar 2021.
     

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