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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    6th April - the first day of the Modern Olympics in 1896:
    The links in this Wikipedia insert are clickable

    1896 Summer Olympics

    The 1896 Summer Olympics (Greek: Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896, romanized: Therinoí Olympiakoí Agónes 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history. Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.

    Fourteen nations and 241, all male, athletes took part in the games. Participants were all European, or living in Europe, with the exception of the United States team. Winners were given a silver medal, while runners-up received a copper medal. Retroactively, the IOC has converted these to gold and silver, and awarded bronze medals to third placed athletes. Ten of the 14 participating nations earned medals. The United States won the most gold medals, 11, host nation Greece won the most medals overall, 46. The highlight for the Greeks was the marathon victory by their compatriot Spyridon Louis. The most successful competitor was German wrestler and gymnast Carl Schuhmann, who won four events.

    Athens had been unanimously chosen to stage the inaugural modern Games during a congress organised by Coubertin in Paris on 23 June 1894, during which the IOC was also created, because Greece was the birthplace of the Ancient Olympic Games. The main venue was the Panathenaic Stadium, where athletics and wrestling took place; other venues included the Neo Phaliron Velodrome for cycling, and the Zappeion for fencing. The opening ceremony was held in the Panathenaic Stadium on 6 April, during which most of the competing athletes were aligned on the infield, grouped by nation. After a speech by the president of the organising committee, Crown Prince Constantine, his father officially opened the Games. Afterwards, nine bands and 150 choir singers performed an Olympic Hymn, composed by Spyridon Samaras, with words by poet Kostis Palamas.

    The 1896 Olympics were regarded as a great success. The Games had the largest international participation of any sporting event to that date. The Panathenaic Stadium overflowed with the largest crowd ever to watch a sporting event.[4] After the Games, Coubertin and the IOC were petitioned by several prominent figures, including Greece's King George and some of the American competitors in Athens, to hold all the following Games in Athens. However, the 1900 Summer Olympics were already planned for Paris and, except for the Intercalated Games of 1906, the Olympics did not return to Greece until the 2004 Summer Olympics, 108 years later.

    1. ^ The number, given by the International Olympic Committee, is open to interpretation and could be as few as 10 and as many as 15. There are numerous reasons for the disparity: National teams hardly existed at the time, and most athletes represented themselves or their clubs. In addition, countries were not always as well-defined as they are today. The number of countries here reflects the number used by most modern sources. See the relevant section for further details.
    2. ^ This number of competitors is according to the International Olympic Committee. The identities of 179 competitors are known. Mallon & Widlund calculate 245 athletes, while De Wael finds 246.
    3. ^ "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
    4. ^ Young (1996), 153
     
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    7th April. Those in Australia will remember this disruption 10 years ago today:

    1998 Australian waterfront dispute

    April 1998 ABC news report on the Waterfront Dispute.

    The Australian waterfront dispute of 1998 was an event in Australian industrial relations history, in which the Patrick Corporation undertook a restructuring of their operations for the purpose of dismissing their workforce. The restructuring by Patrick Corporation was later ruled illegal by Australian courts. The dispute involved Patrick Corporation terminating the employment of its workforce and locking out the workers of the workplace after the restructuring had taken place, with many of these workers members of the dominant Maritime Union of Australia. The resulting dismissal and locking out of their unionised workforce was supported and backed by the then Australian Liberal/National Coalition Government.

    Major events in the dispute occurred in four major ports, where the Patrick Corporation had significant operations: Melbourne, Brisbane, Fremantle and Sydney.[1] It revolved around attempts by Patrick Corporation and the federal government to improve efficiency on Australia's wharves; primarily by reducing staffing numbers and the power of the Maritime Union of Australia.



    Also 7th April is:

    World Health Day

    The World Health Day is a global health awareness day celebrated every year on 7 April, under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as other related organizations.

    In 1948, the WHO hold the First World Health Assembly. The Assembly decided to celebrate 7 April of each year, with effect from 1950, as the World Health Day. The World Health Day is held to mark WHO's founding, and is seen as an opportunity by the organization to draw worldwide attention to a subject of major importance to global health each year.[1] The WHO organizes international, regional and local events on the Day related to a particular theme. World Health Day is acknowledged by various governments and non-governmental organizations with interests in public health issues, who also organize activities and highlight their support in media reports, such as the Global Health Council.[2]

    World Health Day is one of eight official global health campaigns marked by WHO, along with World Tuberculosis Day, World Immunization Week, World Malaria Day, World No Tobacco Day, World AIDS Day, World Blood Donor Day, and World Hepatitis Day.[3]

    1. ^ World Health Organization: World Health Day. Accessed 16 March 2011.
    2. ^ Global Health Council: World Health Day by Lara Endreszl, 7 April 2009.
    3. ^ World Health Organization: WHO campaigns.


    ...and also on this day in 1948, the WHO came into being:

    World Health Organization

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations.

    The constitution of the WHO has been signed by 61 countries (all 51 member countries and 10 others) on 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office International d'Hygiène Publique and the League of Nations Health Organization. Since its establishment, it has played a leading role in the eradication of smallpox. Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases such as sexual and reproductive health, development, and aging; nutrition, food security and healthy eating; occupational health; substance abuse; and driving the development of reporting, publications, and networking.

    The WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, the worldwide World Health Survey, and World Health Day. The current Director-General of the WHO is Tedros Adhanom, who served as Ethiopian Health Minister from 2005 to 2012 and as Ethiopian Foreign Minister from 2012 to 2016. Adhanom started his five-year term on 1 July 2017.[1]

    1. ^ "Dr Tedros takes office as WHO Director-General". World Health Organization. 1 July 2017.
     
    Last edited: Apr 7, 2008
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    9th April:

    Alaska purchase

    Redirect to:

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    April 11: Apollo 13 launches:

    Apollo 13

    Apollo 13 was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The craft was launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on April 11, 1970, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank in the service module (SM) failed two days into the mission. The crew instead looped around the Moon, and returned safely to Earth on April 17, 1970. The mission was commanded by Jim Lovell with Jack Swigert as command module pilot (CMP) and Fred Haise as lunar module pilot (LMP). Swigert was a late replacement for the original CMP Ken Mattingly, who was grounded after exposure to rubella.

    The oxygen tank failure was caused by accidental ignition of damaged wire insulation inside it during a routine tank stirring operation. The SM soon lost all its oxygen, needed for breathing and for generating electrical power. Command module (CM) power had to be shut down to conserve its remaining resources for reentry, forcing the crew to transfer to the lunar module (LM) as a lifeboat. With the lunar landing cancelled, mission controllers worked feverishly to bring the crew home alive.

    Although the LM was designed to support two men on the lunar surface for two days, Mission Control in Houston improvised new procedures so it could support three men for four days. The crew experienced great hardship caused by limited power, a chilly and wet cabin and a shortage of potable water. There was a critical need to adapt the CM's cartridges for the carbon dioxide removal system to work in the LM; the crew and mission controllers were successful in improvising a solution. The astronauts' peril sparked renewed interest in the Apollo program, with tens of millions watching the splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean by television.

    An investigative review board found fault with the testing of the oxygen tank and the fact combustible Teflon was placed inside it; a number of changes were made for Apollo 14. The flight passed the far side of the Moon at an altitude of 254 kilometers (137 nautical miles) above the lunar surface, and 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth, a spaceflight record marking the farthest humans have traveled from Earth. The story of Apollo 13 has been dramatized multiple times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13.

    1. ^ "Apollo 13 CM". N2YO.com. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
     
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    12 April; the first Space Shuttle is launched:

    STS-1

    STS-1 (Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program. The first orbiter, Columbia, launched on 12 April 1981 and returned on 14 April, 54.5 hours later, having orbited the Earth 36 times. Columbia carried a crew of two – mission commander John W. Young and pilot Robert L. Crippen. It was the first American manned space flight since the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project in 1975. STS-1 was also the only maiden test flight of a new American spacecraft to carry a crew, though it was preceded by atmospheric testing of the orbiter and ground testing of the Space Shuttle system.

    The launch occurred on the 20th anniversary of the first human spaceflight. This was a coincidence rather than a celebration of the anniversary; a technical problem had prevented STS-1 from launching two days earlier, as was planned.

     
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    April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 262 days remaining until the end of the year.

    It is also the Ides (middle day) of April.

    and in 1997, Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win golf's Masters Tournament.

    Tiger Woods

    Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods (born December 30, 1975) is an American professional golfer. He ranks second all-time in both men's major championships and PGA Tour wins and also holds numerous golf records.[5] Woods is widely regarded as one of the greatest golfers in the history of the sport, and as one of the most famous athletes of all time.

    Following an outstanding junior, college, and amateur golf career, Woods turned professional in 1996 at the age of 20. By the end of April 1997, he had won three PGA Tour events in addition to his first major, the 1997 Masters, which he won by 12 strokes in a record-breaking performance. He first reached the number one position in the world rankings in June 1997, less than a year after turning pro. Throughout the first decade of the 21st century, Woods was the dominant force in golf; he was the top-ranked golfer in the world from August 1999 to September 2004 (264 weeks) and again from June 2005 to October 2010 (281 weeks). During this time, he won 13 of golf's major championships.

    The next decade of Woods' career was marked by comebacks from personal problems and injuries. He took a self-imposed hiatus from professional golf from December 2009 to early April 2010 in an attempt to resolve marital issues with his then-wife, Elin. Extramarital affairs involving Woods were alleged by several women through the media, and the couple eventually divorced.[6] Woods fell to number 58 in the world rankings in November 2011 before ascending to the No.1 ranking between March 2013 and May 2014.[7][8] However, injuries led him to undergo four back surgeries between 2014 and 2017.[9] Woods competed in only one tournament between August 2015 and January 2018, and he dropped off the list of the world's top 1,000 golfers.[10][11] On his return to regular competition, Woods made steady progress to the top of the game, winning his first tournament in five years at the Tour Championship in September 2018 and his first major in 11 years at the 2019 Masters.

    Woods has broken numerous golf records. He has been the number one player in the world for the most consecutive weeks and for the greatest total number of weeks of any golfer in history. He has been awarded PGA Player of the Year a record 11 times[12] and has won the Byron Nelson Award for lowest adjusted scoring average a record eight times. Woods has the record of leading the money list in ten different seasons. He has won 15 professional major golf championships (trailing only Jack Nicklaus, who leads with 18) and 81 PGA Tour events (second all time behind Sam Snead, who won 82).[13] Woods leads all active golfers in career major wins and career PGA Tour wins. He is the youngest player to achieve the career Grand Slam, and is only the second golfer (after Nicklaus) to have achieved a career Grand Slam three times. Woods has won 18 World Golf Championships. In May 2019, Woods was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and is the fourth golfer to receive the honor.[14]

    1. ^ a b "Tiger Woods – Profile". PGA Tour. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
    2. ^ This is calculated by adding Woods' 81 PGA Tour victories, 8 regular European Tour titles, 2 Japan Tour wins, 1 Asian Tour crown, and the 16 other wins in his career.
    3. ^ "Week 24 1997 Ending 15 Jun 1997" (pdf). OWGR. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
    4. ^ 2009 European Tour Official Guide Section 4 Page 577 PDF 21. European Tour. Retrieved April 21, 2009. Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
    5. ^
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference legend was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Westwood becomes world number one". BBC News. October 31, 2010.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference chevron was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "Complete list of Tiger Woods' injuries". PGA Tour.
    10. ^ "With game on point, Tiger Woods is in perfect place to win again at Firestone". USA Today. August 1, 2018.
    11. ^ Reid, Philip (August 14, 2018). "For the new Tiger Woods, second place is far from first loser". The Irish Times. Dublin.
    12. ^ Kelley, Brent (October 20, 2009). "Woods Clinches PGA Player of the Year Award". About.com: Golf. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
    13. ^ "Tracking Tiger". NBC Sports. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
    14. ^ Rogers, Katie (May 6, 2019). "'I've Battled,' Tiger Woods Says as He Accepts Presidential Medal of Freedom". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=notes> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=notes}} template (see the help page).

     
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    1860 - The first Pony Express rider reaches Sacramento, U.S..

    Pony Express

    Pony Express advertisement
    Pony Express Postmark, 1860, westbound

    The Pony Express was a mail service delivering messages, newspapers, and mail using relays of horse-mounted riders that operated from April 3, 1860, to October 1861 between Missouri and California in the United States of America.

    Operated by Central Overland California and Pike's Peak Express Company, the Pony Express was a great financial investment to the U.S. During its 18 months of operation, it reduced the time for messages to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts to about 10 days. Many people used the Pony Express as a communication link. It also encouraged catalogues to be created, allowing people to buy goods and have them brought by horse to the customers. [1] It became the West's most direct means of east-west communication before the transcontinental telegraph was established (October 24, 1861), and was vital for tying the new U.S. state of California with the rest of the United States.

    The Pony Express demonstrated that a unified transcontinental system of communications could be established and operated year-round. When replaced by the telegraph, the Pony Express quickly became romanticized and became part of the lore of the American West. Its reliance on the ability and endurance of individual young, hardy riders and fast horses was seen as evidence of rugged American individualism of the Frontier times.

    1. ^ Bradley (1913), pp. 25–29.
     
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    April 1912 -The British passenger liner RMS Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic

    RMS Titanic

    RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1912 after striking an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. Of the estimated 2,224 passengers and crew aboard, more than 1,500 died, making the sinking one of modern history's deadliest peacetime commercial marine disasters. RMS Titanic was the largest ship afloat at the time she entered service and was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line. She was built by the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast. Thomas Andrews, chief naval architect of the shipyard at the time, died in the disaster.[4]

    Titanic was under the command of Capt. Edward Smith, who also went down with the ship. The ocean liner carried some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as hundreds of emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland, Scandinavia and elsewhere throughout Europe who were seeking a new life in the United States. The first-class accommodation was designed to be the pinnacle of comfort and luxury, with a gymnasium, swimming pool, libraries, high-class restaurants and opulent cabins. A high-powered radiotelegraph transmitter was available for sending passenger "marconigrams" and for the ship's operational use.[5] Although Titanic had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, it only carried enough lifeboats for 1,178 people—about half the number on board, and one third of her total capacity—due to outdated maritime safety regulations. The ship carried 16 lifeboat davits which could lower three lifeboats each, for a total of 48 boats. However, Titanic carried only a total of 20 lifeboats, four of which were collapsible and proved hard to launch during the sinking.[6]

    After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland before heading west to New York.[7] On 14 April, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles (600 km) south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 p.m. ship's time. The collision caused the hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard (right) side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea; she could only survive four flooding. Meanwhile, passengers and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only partially loaded. A disproportionate number of men were left aboard because of a "women and children first" protocol for loading lifeboats.[8] At 2:20 a.m., she broke apart and foundered with well over one thousand people still aboard. Just under two hours after Titanic sank, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived and brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors.

    The disaster was met with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), which still governs maritime safety. Several new wireless regulations were passed around the world in an effort to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications—which could have saved many more passengers.[9]

    The wreck of Titanic was discovered in 1985 (more than 70 years after the disaster) during a US military mission,[10] and it remains on the seabed. The ship was split in two and is gradually disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet (3,784 m). Thousands of artefacts have been recovered and displayed at museums around the world. Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history, depicted in numerous works of popular culture, including books, folk songs, films, exhibits, and memorials. Titanic is the second largest ocean liner wreck in the world, only beaten by her sister HMHS Britannic, the largest ever sunk; however, she is the largest sunk while in service as a liner as Britannic was in use as a hospital ship at the time of her sinking. The final survivor of the sinking, Millvina Dean, aged two months at the time, died in 2009 at the age of 97.

    1. ^ "Titanic History, Facts and Stories". Titanic Museum Belfast. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
    2. ^ "Titanic Centenary". Newcastle University Library. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
    3. ^ Beveridge & Hall 2004, p. 1.
    4. ^ Official investigation report – the sinking of RMS Titanic (PDF) (1 ed.). London: The final board of inquiry. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
    5. ^ Hsu, J. (17 April 2012). "How Marconi's Wireless Tech Helped Save Titanic Passengers", New York: NBC NEWS. Assessed at: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/47046053/ns/technology_and_science-innovation/t/how-marconis-wireless-tech-helped-save-titanic-passengers/#.WgSS4Fu3z3g
    6. ^ Vander Hook, S. (2008). Titanic. Edina, Minnesota: ABDO Publishing Company., p. 18.
    7. ^ "Titanic Ship Listing". Chris' Cunard Page. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
    8. ^ Second Officer Lightoller insisted on excluding men, while First Officer Murdoch, on the other side of the ship, permitted men and women to board the lifeboats.
    9. ^ Ryan, Patrick S. (18 July 2012). "The ITU and the Internet's Titanic Moment". Stanford Technology Law Review. 2012 (8). SSRN 2110509.
    10. ^ "Inside the secret US military mission that located the Titanic".
     
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    April 16. 2007 - Virginia Tech massacre: the deadliest mass shooting in modern American history, in which a gunman shoots 32 people to death and injures 23 others before committing suicide.

    Virginia Tech massacre

     
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    April 17:

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored rebel group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961. A counter-revolutionary military group (made up of mostly Cuban exiles who had traveled to the United States after Castro's takeover, but also some US military personnel[6]), trained and funded by the CIA, Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF) and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro. Launched from Guatemala and Nicaragua, the invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, under the direct command of Castro.

    The coup of 1952 led by General Fulgencio Batista, an ally of the United States, against President Carlos Prio, forced him to take exile in Miami. Prio's exile was the reason for the 26th July Movement led by Castro. The movement, which did not succeed until after the Cuban Revolution of 31 December 1958, severed the country's formerly strong links with the US after nationalizing American industrial assets (banks, oil refineries, sugar and coffee plantations) along with other American owned businesses.

    It was after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 that Castro forged strong economic links with the Soviet Union whom the United States primarily engaged in the Cold War. US President Dwight D. Eisenhower was very concerned at the direction Castro's government was taking, and in March 1960 he allocated $13.1 million to the CIA to plan Castro's overthrow. The CIA proceeded to organize the operation with the aid of various Cuban counter-revolutionary forces, training Brigade 2506 in Guatemala. Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy, approved the final invasion plan on 4 April 1961.

    Over 1,400 paramilitaries, divided into five infantry battalions and one paratrooper battalion, assembled in Guatemala before setting out for Cuba by boat on 13 April 1961. Two days later, on 15 April, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers attacked Cuban airfields and then returned to the US. On the night of 16 April, the main invasion landed at a beach named Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs. It initially overwhelmed a local revolutionary militia. The Cuban Army's counter-offensive was led by José Ramón Fernández before Castro decided to take personal control of the operation. As the US involvement became apparent to the world, and with the initiative turning against the invasion, Kennedy decided against providing further air cover.[7] As a result, the operation only had half the forces the CIA had deemed necessary. The original plan devised during Eisenhower's presidency had required both air and naval support. On 20 April, the invaders surrendered after only three days, with the majority being publicly interrogated and put into Cuban prisons.

    The failed invasion helped to strengthen the position of Castro's leadership, made him a national hero, and entrenched the rocky relationship between the former allies. It also reinforced the relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union. Strengthened Soviet-Cuban relations eventually led to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The invasion was a significant failure for Kennedy's US foreign policy.

    1. ^ Kellner 1989, pp. 69–70. "Historians give Guevara, who was director of instruction for Cuba's armed forces, a share of credit for the victory".
    2. ^ Szulc (1986), p. 450. "The revolutionaries won because Castro's strategy was vastly superior to the Central Intelligence Agency's because the revolutionary morale was high and because Che Guevara as the head of the militia training program and Fernández as commander of the militia officers' school, had done so well in preparing 200,000 men and women for war."
    3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference szulc1986 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b FRUS X, documents 19, 24, 35, 245, 271.
    5. ^ a b Quesada 2009, p. 46.
    6. ^ "Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Alabama Air National Guard | Encyclopedia of Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
    7. ^ Voss, Michael (14 April 2011). "The 'perfect failure' of Cuba invasion". BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
     
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    April 18: 1923 - Yankee Stadium, "The House that Ruth Built", opens.

    Yankee Stadium

    Yankee Stadium is a baseball park located in Concourse, Bronx, New York City. It is the home field for the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball (MLB), and New York City FC of Major League Soccer (MLS). The $2.3 billion stadium, built with $1.2 billion in public subsidies,[20] replaced the original Yankee Stadium in 2009. It is located one block north of the original, on the 24-acre (9.7 ha) former site of Macombs Dam Park; the 8-acre (3.2 ha) site of the original stadium is now a public park called Heritage Field.

    The stadium incorporates replicas of some design elements from the original Yankee Stadium, and like its predecessor, it has hosted additional events, including college football games, soccer matches, two outdoor NHL games, and concerts. Although Yankee Stadium's construction began in August 2006, the project spanned many years and faced many controversies, including the high public cost and the loss of public parkland. The overall price tag makes the new Yankee Stadium the most expensive stadium ever built.[24]

    1. ^ Mushnick, Phil. "Yankees brass turned Stadium games into a funeral". nypost.com. The New York Post. Retrieved August 29, 2017. Given the Stadium was short roughly 15,000 who might’ve otherwise been there...
    2. ^ Popper, Daniel. "Young star Aaron Judge the talk of Yankees' Old-Timers' Day at the Stadium". nydailynews.com. The New York Daily News. Retrieved August 29, 2017. Many of the greatest living Yankees from the past half-century graced the field at the Stadium Sunday for Old-Timers’ Day...
    3. ^ "The House That Jeter Built". MLB.com. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
    4. ^ Russ, Hilary. "New York Yankees baseball team to refinance $1 billion of stadium debt". Reuters.com.
    5. ^ a b "S&P raises Yankee Stadium bonds to 'BBB'". Reuters.com.
    6. ^ Brown, Maury. "Yankees parent group carrying nearly $2 billion in debt". TheFreeLibrary.com (Business of Sports Network).
    7. ^ "2018 Official Media Guide and Record Book". Major League Baseball Advanced Media. February 22, 2018. p. 347. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
    8. ^ "New York Yankees on the Forbes MLB Team Valuations List". Forbes. April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
    9. ^ Kronheim, David P. (2016). "2015 MLB Attendance Analysis" (PDF). Flushing, NY: Number Tamer. pp. 11, 165. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
    10. ^ "New York Yankees on the Forbes MLB Team Valuations List". Forbes. March 25, 2015. Archived from the original on June 4, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
    11. ^ Marchand, Andrew; Matthews, Wallace (March 25, 2014). "Question 4: Will Jeter Lure 4 Million Fans?". ESPN. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
    12. ^ Perrotto, John (October 12, 2012). "Yankee Stadium Sea of Blue – Empty Seats – at Game Time". USA Today. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
    13. ^ Shpigel, Ben (October 14, 2010). "Vazquez's Final Pitch in Pinstripes?". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
    14. ^ Booth, Mark. "What's New for NYCFC This Season?". NYCFC.com. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
    15. ^ a b "New York City FC outline plans for Yankee Stadium's baseball-to-soccer conversion". Major League Soccer. April 21, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
    16. ^ "Notre Dame Shut Downs Army, Rolls In New Yankee Stadium Debut". University of Notre Dame Official Athletic Site. Associated Press. November 20, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
    17. ^ "Tigers Beat Yankees 3–2, Head to ALCS vs Texas". Sports Illustrated. Associated Press. October 6, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
    18. ^ Manchester City 2–2 Liverpool: Simon Mignolet the hero as Reds win on spot-kicks
    19. ^ Notre Dame Shut Downs Army, Rolls In New Yankee Stadium Debut
    20. ^ a b http://www.fieldofschemes.com/documents/Yanks-Mets-costs.pdf
    21. ^ "Yankee Stadium". Populous. Archived from the original on November 27, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
    22. ^ a b Scarangello, Thomas Z.; Squarzini, Michael J. (July 2009). "New Yankee Stadium respects its rich history". Structural Engineer. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
    23. ^ "Yankee Stadium". Ballparks Munsey and Suppes. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
    24. ^ "NYC baseball stadium subsidies: Do I hear $1.8B?". Field of Schemes. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
     
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    April 19 1995 - Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, is bombed, killing 168.

    Oklahoma City bombing

    The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building[1] in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States on April 19, 1995. Perpetrated by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, the bombing happened at 9:02 am and killed at least 168 people,[2] injured more than 680 others, and destroyed one-third of the building.[3] The blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings within a 16-block radius, shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, and destroyed or burned 86 cars,[4][5] causing an estimated $652 million worth of damage.[6] Local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies engaged in extensive rescue efforts in the wake of the bombing, and substantial donations were received from across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated 11 of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations.[7][8] Until the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Oklahoma City bombing was the deadliest terrorist attack in the history of the United States, and remains the deadliest incident of domestic terrorism in the country's history.

    Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma Highway Patrolman Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for illegal weapons possession.[9][10] Forensic evidence quickly linked McVeigh and Nichols to the attack; Nichols was arrested,[11] and within days, both were charged. Michael and Lori Fortier were later identified as accomplices. McVeigh, a veteran of the Gulf War and a U.S. militia movement sympathizer, had detonated a Ryder rental truck full of explosives parked in front of the building. His co-conspirator, Nichols, had assisted with the bomb's preparation. Motivated by his dislike for the U.S. federal government and unhappy about its handling of the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992 and the Waco siege in 1993, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the deadly fire that ended the siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas.[12][13]

    The official investigation, known as "OKBOMB", saw FBI agents conduct 28,000 interviews, amass 3.5 short tons (3,200 kg) of evidence, and collected nearly one billion pieces of information.[14][15][16] The bombers were tried and convicted in 1997. McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001 at the U.S. Federal Penitentiary in Terre Haute, Indiana, and Nichols was sentenced to life in prison in 2004. Michael and Lori Fortier testified against McVeigh and Nichols; Michael was sentenced to 12 years in prison for failing to warn the United States government, and Lori received immunity from prosecution in exchange for her testimony.

    As a result of the bombing, the U.S. Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, which tightened the standards for habeas corpus in the United States,[17] as well as legislation designed to increase the protection around federal buildings to deter future terrorist attacks. On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building, commemorating the victims of the bombing. Remembrance services are held every year on April 19, at the time of the explosion.

    1. ^ Ellis, Randy (March 18, 2018). "Dismissal of pharmacies from opioids abuse lawsuit upheld". NewsOK.com. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference VictimsList was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Shariat, Sheryll; Sue Mallonee; Shelli Stephens-Stidham (December 1998). "Oklahoma City Bombing Injuries" (PDF). Injury Prevention Service, Oklahoma State Department of Health. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 18, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014. Shariat et al. count only 167 killed "as a direct result of the bombing or during escape". They did not include Rebecca Needham Anderson, who – having seen the bombing on TV in Midwest City, Oklahoma – came to the rescue and was killed by a piece of falling debris.The Final Sacrifice of a Gallant Nurse Archived August 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
    4. ^ "Oklahoma City Police Department Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing After Action Report" (PDF). Terrorism Info. p. 58. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2007.
    5. ^ "Case Study 30: Preventing glass from becoming a lethal weapon". Safety Solutions Online. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007.
    6. ^ Hewitt, Christopher (2003). Understanding Terrorism in America: from the Klan to al Qaeda. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-415-27765-5.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference USDJ2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "FEMA Urban Search And Rescue (USAR) Summaries" (PDF). Federal Emergency Management Agency. p. 64. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2006.
    9. ^ "Timothy McVeigh is apprehended". NBC News Report. April 22, 1995. Archived from the original (Video, 3 minutes) on May 11, 2010.
    10. ^ Ottley, Ted (April 14, 2005). "License Tag Snag". truTV. Archived from the original on August 29, 2011.
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference TerrorFamily was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Feldman, Paul (June 18, 1995). "Militia Groups Growing, Study Says Extremism: Despite negative publicity since Oklahoma bombing, membership has risen, Anti-Defamation League finds" (Fee required). Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
    13. ^ "McVeigh offers little remorse in letters". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. June 10, 2001. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012.
    14. ^ Serano, Richard. One of Ours: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing. pp. 139–141.
    15. ^ "Lessons learned, and not learned, 11 years later". MSNBC. Associated Press. April 16, 2006. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011.
    16. ^ Hamm, Mark S (1997). Apocalypse in Oklahoma. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-55553-300-7.
    17. ^ Doyle, Charles (June 3, 1996). "Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary". FAS. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011.
     
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    April 21: 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome

    Romulus and Remus

    La Lupa Capitolina "the Capitoline Wolf". Traditional scholarship says the wolf-figure is Etruscan, 5th century BC. The figures of Romulus and Remus were added in the 15th century AD by Antonio Pollaiuolo. Recent studies suggest that the she-wolf may be a medieval sculpture dating from the 13th century AD.[1] The work's attribution attests to the enduring nature of the myth.
    Altar to Mars (divine father of Romulus and Remus) and Venus (their divine ancestress) depicting elements of their legend. Tiberinus, the Father of the Tiber and the infant twins being suckled by a she-wolf in the Lupercal are below. A vulture from the contest of augury and Palatine hill are to the left. (From Ostia, now at the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme).
    The Shepherd Faustulus Bringing Romulus and Remus to His Wife, Nicolas Mignard (1654)

    In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus (

    /ˈrɒmjʊləs, -jəl- ... ˈrməs/

    ) are twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus. The killing of Remus by his brother, and other tales from their story, have inspired artists throughout the ages. Since ancient times, the image of the twins being suckled by a she-wolf has been a symbol of the city of Rome and the Roman people. Although the tale takes place before the founding of Rome around 750 BC, the earliest known written account of the myth is from the late 3rd century BC. Possible historical basis for the story, as well as whether the twins' myth was an original part of Roman myth or a later development, is a subject of ongoing debate.

    1. ^ Adriano La Regina, "La lupa del Campidoglio è medievale la prova è nel test al carbonio". La Repubblica. 9 July 2008
     
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    April 22: 1509 - Henry VIII ascends the throne of England after the death of his father.

    Henry VIII of England

    Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. He was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is also known as "the father of the Royal Navy"; he invested heavily in the Navy, increasing its size greatly from a few to more than 50 ships.

    Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings. He also greatly expanded royal power during his reign. He frequently used charges of treason and heresy to quell dissent, and those accused were often executed without a formal trial by means of bills of attainder. He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in his administration.

    Henry was an extravagant spender, using the proceeds from the dissolution of the monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament. He also converted the money that was formerly paid to Rome into royal revenue. Despite the money from these sources, he was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance, as well as his numerous costly and largely unsuccessful continental wars, particularly with King Francis I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, and he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542.

    Henry's contemporaries considered him an attractive, educated, and accomplished king. He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne".[1] He was an author and composer. As he aged, however, he became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.[2] He was succeeded by his son Edward VI.

    1. ^ Guy 2000, p. 41.
    2. ^ Ives 2006, pp. 28–36
     
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    April 23: 1985 - Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. (The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.)

    New Coke

    New Coke was the unofficial name for the reformulation of Coca-Cola introduced in April 1985 by the Coca-Cola Company. In 1992, it was renamed Coke II.[1]

    By 1985, Coca-Cola had been losing market share to diet soft drinks and non-cola beverages for many years. Blind taste tests indicated that consumers seemed to prefer the sweeter taste of rival Pepsi-Cola, and so the Coca-Cola recipe was reformulated. However, the American public's reaction to the change was negative, and "New Coke" was considered a major failure. The company reintroduced Coke's original formula within three months, rebranded "Coca-Cola Classic", resulting in a significant sales boost. This led to speculation New Coke formula had been a marketing ploy to stimulate sales of original Coca-Cola, which the company has denied.[2]

    Coke II was discontinued in July 2002. It remains influential as a cautionary tale against tampering with a well-established and successful brand. In May 2019, it was announced that the 1985 formulation (bearing the name "New Coke") would be reintroduced to promote the third season of the Netflix series Stranger Things which takes place in 1985.[3]

    1. ^ Jamieson, Sean (April 5, 1990). "Coke II makes its Spokane debut". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). p. A8.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snopes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ New Coke is coming back and it's all because of Netflix's hit show "Stranger Things" CBS News, May 21, 2019
     
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    April 24: 1980 - Eight U.S. servicemen died in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempted to end the Iran hostage crisis.

    Operation Eagle Claw

    Operation Eagle Claw, known as Operation Tabas (Persian: عملیات طبس‎) in Iran,[1] was a United States Armed Forces operation ordered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter to attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis by rescuing 52 embassy staff held captive at the Embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980. Its failure, and the humiliating public debacle that ensued, damaged U.S. prestige worldwide. Carter blamed his loss in the 1980 U.S. presidential election mainly on his failure to secure the release of the hostages.[2]

    The operation, one of Delta Force's first,[3] encountered many obstacles and was eventually aborted. Eight helicopters were sent to the first staging area, Desert One, but only five arrived in operational condition.[4] One encountered hydraulic problems, another was caught in a sand storm, and another showed signs of a cracked rotor blade.

    During the operation's planning it was decided that the mission would be aborted if fewer than six helicopters remained operational, despite only four being absolutely necessary.[4] In a move that is still discussed in military circles, the field commanders advised President Carter to abort the mission, which he did.[5]

    As the U.S. force prepared to withdraw, one of the helicopters crashed into a transport aircraft which contained both servicemen and jet fuel. The resulting fire destroyed both aircraft and killed eight servicemen.[4]

    In the context of the Iranian Revolution, Iran's new leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, used the failed operation as a propaganda tool. He claimed that the mission had been stopped by an act of Allah ("angels of Allah") who foiled the U.S. mission in order to protect Iran and his new conservative theocratic government.

    1. ^ AFSOC.af.mil Archived 16 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Iran hostage rescue should have and could have worked if the US was more prepared". USA Today. 17 September 2010.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gabriel106 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b c Bowden, Mark. "The Desert One Debacle". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
    5. ^ "Operation Eagle Claw, 1980: A Case Study In Crisis Management and Military Planning".
     
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    1916 - Anzac Day commemorated for the first time, on the first anniversary of the landing at Anzac Cove

    Anzac Day

    The remembrance poppy is an artificial flower that has been used since 1921 to commemorate war dead.
    Flags on the cenotaph in Wellington for the 2007 Dawn March. From left to right, the flags of New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Australia

    Anzac Day (/ˈænzæk/) is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served".[1][2] Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally devised to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who served in the Gallipoli Campaign, their first engagement in the First World War (1914–1918).

    1. ^ "ANZAC Day". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
    2. ^ "Anzac Day Today". Anzac.govt.nz. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
     
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    1974_Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon

    Carnation Revolution

    The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April (Portuguese: 25 de Abril), was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup in Lisbon which overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime.[1] The revolution began as a coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement (Portuguese: Movimento das Forças Armadas, MFA), composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it was soon coupled with an unanticipated, popular civil resistance campaign. The revolution led to the fall of the Estado Novo, terminated the Portuguese Colonial War, and started a revolutionary process that would result in a democratic Portugal.

    Its name arose from the fact that almost no shots were fired, and Celeste Caeiro offered carnations to the soldiers when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship; other demonstrators followed suit, and carnations were placed in the muzzles of guns and on the soldiers' uniforms.[2] In Portugal, 25 April is a national holiday (Portuguese: Dia da Liberdade, Freedom Day) which commemorates the revolution.

    1. ^ "1974: Rebels seize control of Portugal", On This Day, 25 April, BBC, 25 April 1974, retrieved 2 January 2010
    2. ^ Association, Peter Booker, Algarve History. "Why April 25th is a holiday – the Carnation Revolution and the events of 1974". Retrieved 29 December 2017.
     
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    April 26: 1986 - In Ukraine, a nuclear reactor accident occurs at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, creating the world's worst nuclear disaster.

    Chernobyl plant

     
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    April 28: 1996 - In Tasmania, Australia, Martin Bryant goes on a shooting spree, killing 35 people and seriously injuring 37 more.

    Martin Bryant

    Martin John Bryant[1] (born 7 May 1967) is an Australian man who is known for murdering 35 people and injuring 23 others in the Port Arthur massacre, one of the world's deadliest shooting sprees, in Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia, between 28–29 April 1996. He is concurrently serving 35 life sentences, plus 1,035 years, all without the possibility of parole (thus meaning that the life sentence imposed is for the term of his natural life) in Hobart's Risdon Prison.

    1. ^ Wainwright, Robert; Totaro, Paola (27 April 2009). "A dangerous mind: what turned Martin Bryant into a mass murderer?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
     
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    April 29: 1992 - 1992 Los Angeles riots: Riots in Los Angeles, California, follow the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. Over the next three days 53 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.

    1992 Los Angeles riots

    The 1992 Los Angeles riots were a series of riots and civil disturbances that occurred in Los Angeles County in April and May 1992. Unrest began in South Central Los Angeles on April 29, after a trial jury acquitted four officers of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) for usage of excessive force in the arrest and beating of Rodney King, which had been videotaped and widely viewed in TV broadcasts.

    The rioting spread throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area, as thousands of people rioted over a six-day period following the announcement of the verdict. Widespread looting, assault, arson, and murder occurred during the riots, and estimates of property damage were over $1 billion. With local police overwhelmed in controlling the situation, Governor of California Pete Wilson sent in the California Army National Guard, and President George H. W. Bush deployed the 7th Infantry Division and the 1st Marine Division.

    Consequently, order and peace were restored throughout L.A. County, but 63 people were killed, 2,383 people were injured, with more than 12,000 arrests. LAPD Chief of Police Daryl Gates, who had already announced his resignation by the time of the riots, was attributed with much of the blame.[4][5]

    1. ^ "Los Angeles riots: Remember the 63 people who died". April 26, 2012.
    2. ^ Harris, Paul (1999). Black Rage Confronts the Law. NYU Press. p. 186. ISBN 9780814735923. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
    3. ^ Rayner, Richard (1998). The Granta Book of Reportage. Granta Books. p. 424. ISBN 9781862071933. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
    4. ^ Cannon, Lou; Lee, Gary (May 2, 1992). "Much Of Blame Is Laid On Chief Gates". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 22, 2018.
    5. ^ Mydans, Seth (October 22, 1992). "Failures of City Blamed for Riot In Los Angeles". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 23, 2018. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
     
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    30 April: 1975 - Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gain control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ends with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh.

    Fall of Saigon

    The Fall of Saigon,[1][2] also known as the Liberation of Saigon,[3] was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Viet Cong on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.[4]

    The PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tan Son Nhat International Airport killed the last two American servicemen in combat in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge.[5] By the afternoon of the next day, the PAVN had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace. The city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the late North Vietnamese President Hồ Chí Minh.

    The capture of the city was preceded by Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of almost all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians who had been associated with the southern regime.[6] The evacuation was the largest helicopter evacuation in history.[7] In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and the institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city's population.[8]

    1. ^ Los Angeles Times (29 April 2015). "Is it Liberation Day or Defeat Day in Saigon?". latimes.com. Archived from the original on 2016-02-16. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
    2. ^ "Giai Phong! The Fall and Liberation of Saigon". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2016-02-16. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
    3. ^ Long, Ngo Vinh (1993). "Post-Paris Agreement Struggles and the Fall of Saigon". In Werner, Jayne Susan; Huynh, Luu Doan (eds.). The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American Perspectives. M.E. Sharpe. p. 204. ISBN 9780765638632.; Thap, Nguyen Thi (2012). "Returning to my Home Village". In Dutton, George; Werner, Jayne; Whitmore, John K. (eds.). Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 547–53. ISBN 9780231511100.
    4. ^ "The U.S. and Vietnam: 40 Years After the Fall of Saigon". Archived from the original on 2018-11-04. Retrieved 2018-11-03..
    5. ^ McMahon and Judge
    6. ^ A few Americans chose not to be evacuated. Documented accounts include the following:
    7. ^ Dunham and Quinlan, 202.
    8. ^ Desbarats, Jacqueline. "Repression in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Executions and Population Relocation", from The Vietnam Debate (1990) by John Morton Moore.
     
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    1 May: 1328 - Wars of Scottish Independence end: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton – England recognises Scotland as an independent nation.

    Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton

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    2 May: 1946 - "Battle of Alcatraz" - Alcatraz Federal prison, San Francisco is taken over by six inmates following failed escape attempt

    Battle of Alcatraz

    The Battle of Alcatraz, which lasted from May 2 to 4, 1946, was the result of an unsuccessful escape attempt at Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary. Two corrections officers—William A. Miller and Harold Stites—were killed along with three of the inmates. Fourteen corrections officers and one uninvolved convict were also injured. Two of the surviving convicts were later executed for their roles.[1]

    1. ^ "A Brief History of Alcatraz". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 2009-06-17.
     
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    May 3: 1979 - Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher to become United Kingdom's first female prime minister as the Labour government is ousted in parliamentary elections.

    Margaret Thatcher

    Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, DStJ, PC, FRS, HonFRSC (née Roberts; 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to hold that office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her "The Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies known as Thatcherism.

    She studied chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford, and worked briefly as a research chemist, before becoming a barrister. Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his 1970–1974 government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition, the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. She became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election.

    Thatcher introduced a series of economic policies intended to reverse high unemployment and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an ongoing recession.[nb 1] Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Thatcher's popularity in her first years in office waned amid recession and rising unemployment, until victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her decisive re-election in 1983. She survived an assassination attempt in the Brighton hotel bombing in 1984.

    Thatcher was re-elected for a third term in 1987, but her subsequent support for the Community Charge ("poll tax") was widely unpopular, and her views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet. She resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership. After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher (of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire) which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. In 2013, she died of a stroke at the Ritz Hotel in London, at the age of 87.

    Although a controversial figure in British political culture, she is nonetheless viewed favourably in historical rankings of British prime ministers. Her tenure constituted a realignment towards neoliberal policies in the United Kingdom and debate over the complicated legacy of Thatcherism persists into the 21st century.

    1. ^ "1979 Conservative Party General Election Manifesto". PoliticalStuff.co.uk. Retrieved 28 July 2009.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

     
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    May 4: 1924 - The 1924 Summer Olympics open in Paris, France.

    1924 Summer Olympics

    The 1924 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.

    It was the second time Paris hosted the games, after 1900. The selection process for the 1924 Summer Olympics consisted of six bids, and Paris was selected ahead of Amsterdam, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Prague, and Rome. The selection was made at the 20th IOC Session in Lausanne in 1921.[2]

    The cost of the Games of the VIII Olympiad was estimated to be 10,000,000. With total receipts at 5,496,610₣, the Olympics resulted in a hefty loss despite crowds that reached 60,000 people at a time.[3]

    1. ^ "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
    2. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
    3. ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
     
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    May 5; 1494 - Christopher Columbus discovers the island of Jamaica and claims it for Spain.

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus[a] (/kəˈlʌmbəs/;[3] before 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian navigator and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon. While pursuing a route to the Far East, he discovered a viable sailing route to the Americas, then unknown to the Old World. He led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, initiating the opening of the New World for conquest and settlement by Europeans and the permanent European colonization of the Americas.

    Columbus's early life is somewhat obscure, but scholars generally agree that he was born in the Republic of Genoa and spoke a dialect of Ligurian as his first language. He went to sea at a young age and travelled widely, as far north as the British Isles (and possibly Iceland) and as far south as what is now Ghana. He married Portuguese noblewoman Filipa Moniz Perestrelo and was based in Lisbon for several years, but later took a Castilian mistress; he had one son with each woman. Though largely self-educated, Columbus was widely read in geography, astronomy, and history. He formulated a plan to seek a western sea passage to the East Indies, hoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade.

    After Columbus lobbied them for years, the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon agreed to sponsor a journey west, in the name of the Crown of Castile. Columbus left Castile in August 1492 with three ships, and after a stopover in the Canary Islands made landfall in the Americas on 12 October (now celebrated as Columbus Day). His landing place was an island in the Bahamas, known by its native inhabitants as Guanahani; its exact location is uncertain. Columbus subsequently visited Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti—the first European settlement in the Americas since the Norse colonies almost 500 years earlier. He arrived back in Castile in early 1493, bringing a number of captive natives with him. Word of his discoveries soon spread throughout Europe.

    Columbus made three further voyages to the New World, exploring the Lesser Antilles in 1493, Trinidad and the northern coast of South America in 1498, and the eastern coast of Central America in 1502. Many of the names he gave to geographical features—particularly islands—are still in use. He continued to seek a passage to the East Indies, and the extent to which he was aware that the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain; he gave the name indios ("Indians") to the indigenous peoples he encountered. Columbus's strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.

    Columbus's expeditions inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for centuries, helping create the modern Western world. The transfers between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange, and the period of human habitation in the Americas prior to his arrival is known as the Pre-Columbian era. Columbus's legacy continues to be debated. He was widely venerated in the centuries after his death, but public perceptions have changed as recent scholars have given attention to negative aspects of his life, such as his role in the extinction of the Taíno people, his promotion of slavery, and allegations of tyranny towards Spanish colonists. Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia.

    1. ^ Lester, Paul Martin. "Looks Are Deceiving: the Portraits of Christopher Columbus." Visual Anthropology, Vol. 5, 1993, Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH. pp. 211–227. Portraits may be seen here: Portraits of Christopher Columbus – Columbus Monuments Pages. Vanderkrogt.
    2. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Columbus, Diego. The youngest brother of Christopher Columbus" . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead. – The names Giacomo and Diego are cognates, along with James, all sharing a common origin. See Behind the Name, Mike Campbell, pages Giacomo, Diego, and James. All retrieved 2017-02-03.
    3. ^ "Columbus". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    May 5: 1954 - Roger Bannister becomes the first person to run the mile in under four minutes.

    Roger Bannister

    Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister CH CBE FRCP (23 March 1929 – 3 March 2018) was a British middle-distance athlete and neurologist who ran the first sub-4-minute mile.

    At the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Bannister set a British record in the 1500 metres and finished in fourth place. This achievement strengthened his resolve to become the first athlete to finish the mile run in under four minutes. He accomplished this feat on 6 May 1954 at Iffley Road track in Oxford, with Chris Chataway and Chris Brasher providing the pacing. When the announcer, Norris McWhirter, declared "The time was three...", the cheers of the crowd drowned out Bannister's exact time, which was 3 minutes and 59.4 seconds. He had attained this record with minimal training, while practising as a junior doctor. Bannister's record lasted just 46 days.

    Bannister went on to become a distinguished neurologist and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, before retiring in 1993. As Master of Pembroke, he was on the governing body of Abingdon School from 1986 to 1993.[3] When asked whether the 4-minute mile was his proudest achievement, he said he felt prouder of his contribution to academic medicine through research into the responses of the nervous system. Bannister was patron of the MSA Trust. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 2011.[4]

    1. ^ a b c "Roger Bannister at sports-reference.com". www.sports-reference.com. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
    2. ^ a b c All-Athletics. "Profile of Roger Bannister". Archived from the original on 4 April 2016.
    3. ^ "Abingdon School Athletics" (PDF). The Abingdonian.
    4. ^ Sale, Jerome (2 May 2014). "Sir Roger Bannister reveals Parkinson's disease battle". BBC News.
     
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    May 7: 2007 - The tomb of Herod the Great is discovered.

    Herod the Great

    Herod (/ˈhɛrəd/; Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, Modern: Hordos, Tiberian: Hōreḏōs, Greek: Ἡρῴδης, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE),[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea,[10][11][12] referred to as the Herodian kingdom. The history of his legacy has polarized opinion, as he is known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (Herod's Temple), the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima, the fortress at Masada, and Herodium. Vital details of his life are recorded in the works of the 1st century CE Roman–Jewish historian Josephus.[13] Herod also appears in the Christian Gospel of Matthew as the ruler of Judea who orders the Massacre of the Innocents at the time of the birth of Jesus. Despite his successes, including singlehandedly forging a new aristocracy from practically nothing,[14] he has still garnered criticism from various historians. His reign polarizes opinion amongst scholars and historians, some viewing his legacy as evidence of success, and some as a reminder of his tyrannical rule.[13]

    Upon Herod's death, the Romans divided his kingdom among three of his sons and his sister—Archelaus became ethnarch of the tetrarchy of Judea, Herod Antipas became tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, Philip became tetrarch of territories north and east of the Jordan, and Salome I was given a toparchy including the cities of Jabneh, Ashdod, and Phasaelis.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Marshall 2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Steinmann 2009, pp. 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Steinmann 2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Filmer was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Perowne (2003). Herod the Great. p. 72. ISBN 0 7509 3273 2.
    6. ^ Knoblet, Jerry. Herod the Great (University Press of America, 2005), p. 179.
    7. ^ Perowne, Stewart (2003). Herod the Great. p. 75. ISBN 0 7509 3273 2.
    8. ^ Perowne (2003). Herod the Great. pp. 77–79. ISBN 0 7509 3273 2.
    9. ^ Perowne (2003). Herod the Great. pp. 79–80. ISBN 0 7509 3273 2.
    10. ^ Perowne (2003). Herod the Great. pp. 92–93. ISBN 0 7509 3273 2.
    11. ^ Peters, Francis E. (2005). The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Volume II: The Words and Will of God The Words And Will of God. Princeton University Press.
    12. ^ Kasher, Aryeh; Witztum, Eliezer (2007). King Herod: a persecuted persecutor : a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography. Translation by Karen Gold. Walter de Gruyter.
    13. ^ a b Schwartz, Seth (2014). "Herod to Florus". The Ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 59–62. ISBN 978-1-107-04127-1.
    14. ^ Cohen, Shaye. Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Prentice Hall Biblical Archeological Society. p. 269.
     
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    May 7: 1886 - Pharmacist John Styth Pemberton invents a carbonated beverage that would later be named "Coca-Cola".

    John Styth Pemberton

     
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    May 9: 1941 - World War II: The German submarine U-110 is captured by the Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.

    Enigma cryptography machine

    Redirect to:

     
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    May 10: 1908 - Mother's Day is observed for the first time in the United States - in Grafton, West Virginia.

    Mother%27s_Day
     
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    May 11: 1997 - IBM Deep Blue, a chess-playing supercomputer, defeats Garry Kasparov in the last game of the rematch, becoming the first computer to beat a world-champion chess player.

    IBM Deep Blue

     
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    May 12: 1942 - 1,500 Jews are sent to gas chambers in Auschwitz.

    Auschwitz

    • From an alternative name: This is a redirect from a title that is another name such as a pseudonym, a nickname, or a synonym of the target, or of a name associated with the target.
      • This redirect leads to the title in accordance with the naming conventions for common names to aid searches and writing. It is not necessary to replace these redirected links with a piped link.
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    May 13: 1958 - Velcro's trade mark is registered

    Velcro

    Velcro BVBA is a privately held company that produces fasteners and other products. It is known for being the original patentor of the hook-and-loop fastener.

    1. ^ "Company Information". Velcro. Velcro BVBA. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
     
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    14 May: 1948 - Israel declared to be an independent state and a provisional government is established. Immediately after the declaration, Israel was attacked by the neighboring Arab states. The War of Independence begins.

    Israel

    Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35

    Israel (/ˈɪzriəl, ˈɪzrəl/; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎), also known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל), is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip[20] to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area.[21][22] Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv,[23] while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition.[24][25][26][27][fn 4]

    Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa.[28] Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age,[29][30] while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age.[31][32] The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE.[33] Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.[34][35] The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE,[36] which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea.[37] Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction,[36] the expulsion of the Jewish population[36][38] and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina.[39] Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and later Mandatory Palestine.

    In 1947, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem.[40] The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders.[41][42][43] The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states.[44] Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries,[45] and since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim).[46][47][48][fn 5] It extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank.[49][50][51][52] Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times.[fn 5][54] Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.

    In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the Jewish people.[55] The country has a liberal democracy (one of only two in the Middle East and North Africa region, the other being Tunisia),[56][57] with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage.[58][59] The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. With a population of around 9 million as of 2019,[60] Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member,[61] and has the 31st or 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product (GDP). Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East,[19] and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training,[62] percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree,[63] research and development spending by GDP percentage,[64] women's safety,[65] life expectancy,[66] innovativeness,[67] and happiness.[68]

    1. ^ "Australia recognises West Jerusalem as Israeli capital". BBC. 15 December 2018.
    2. ^ "Foreign Ministry statement regarding Palestinian-Israeli settlement". www.mid.ru. 6 April 2017.
    3. ^ "Czech Republic announces it recognizes West Jerusalem as Israel's capital". Jerusalem Post. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017. The Czech Republic currently, before the peace between Israel and Palestine is signed, recognizes Jerusalem to be in fact the capital of Israel in the borders of the demarcation line from 1967." The Ministry also said that it would only consider relocating its embassy based on "results of negotiations.
    4. ^ "Honduras recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital". The Times of Israel. 29 August 2019.
    5. ^ "Guatemala se suma a EEUU y también trasladará su embajada en Israel a Jerusalén" [Guatemala joins US, will also move embassy to Jerusalem]. Infobae (in Spanish). 24 December 2017. Guatemala's embassy was located in Jerusalem until the 1980s, when it was moved to Tel Aviv.
    6. ^ "Nauru recognizes J'lem as capital of Israel". Israel National News. 29 August 2019.
    7. ^ "Trump Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's Capital and Orders U.S. Embassy to Move". The New York Times. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
    8. ^ "Arabic in Israel: an official language and a cultural bridge". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 18 December 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
    9. ^ "Israel Passes 'National Home' Law, Drawing Ire of Arabs". The New York Times. 19 July 2018.
    10. ^ Lubell, Maayan (19 July 2018). "Israel adopts divisive Jewish nation-state law". Reuters.
    11. ^ "Press Releases from the Knesset". Knesset website. 19 July 2018. The Arabic language has a special status in the state; Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law.
    12. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference population_stat2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ "Home page". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
    14. ^ Population Census 2008 (PDF) (Report). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
    15. ^ OECD 2011.
    16. ^ Quarterly Economic and Social Monitor, Volume 26, October 2011, p. 57: "When Israel bid in March 2010 for membership in the 'Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development'... some members questioned the accuracy of Israeli statistics, as the Israeli figures (relating to gross domestic product, spending and number of the population) cover geographical areas that the Organization does not recognize as part of the Israeli territory. These areas include East Jerusalem, Israeli settlements in the West Bank and the Golan Heights."
    17. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. April 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
    18. ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
    19. ^ a b "Human Development Index and its components". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
    20. ^ "Palestinian Territories". State.gov. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
    21. ^ "Israel". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
    22. ^ Skolnik 2007, pp. 132–232
    23. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
    24. ^ The Controversial Sovereignty over the City of Jerusalem (22 June 2015, The National Catholic Reporter) "No U.S. president has ever officially acknowledged Israeli sovereignty over any part of Jerusalem (...) The refusal to recognize Jerusalem as Israeli territory is a near universal policy among Western nations."
    25. ^ "UN General Assembly Resolution 181 recommended the creation of an international zonea, or corpus separatum, in Jerusalem to be administered by the UN for a 10-year period, after which there would be referendum to determine its future. This approach applies equally to West and East Jerusalem and is not affected by the occupation of East jerusalem in 1967. To a large extent it is this approach that still guides the diplomatic behaviour of states and thus has greater force in international law" (Susan M. Akram, Michael Dumper, Michael Lynk, Iain Scobbie (eds.), International Law and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Rights-Based Approach to Middle East Peace, Routledge, 2010 p. 119. )
    26. ^ Jerusalem: Opposition to mooted Trump Israel announcement grows"Israeli sovereignty over Jerusalem has never been recognised internationally"
    27. ^ Whither Jerusalem (Lapidot) p. 17: "Israeli control in west Jerusalem since 1948 was illegal and most states have not recognized its sovereignty there"
    28. ^ Charles A. Repenning & Oldrich Fejfar, Evidence for earlier date of 'Ubeidiya, Israel, hominid site Nature 299, 344–347 (23 September 1982)
    29. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica article on Canaan
    30. ^ Cite error: The named reference Golden was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    31. ^ Cite error: The named reference Finkelstein was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    32. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pitcher was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    33. ^ Cite error: The named reference Broshi 2001 174 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    34. ^ Cite error: The named reference BabylonianChronicles was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    35. ^ Jon L. Berquist (2007). Approaching Yehud: New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period. Society of Biblical Lit. pp. 195–. ISBN 978-1-58983-145-2.
    36. ^ a b c Peter Fibiger Bang; Walter Scheidel (2013). The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean. Oxford University Press. pp. 184–187. ISBN 978-0-19-518831-8.
    37. ^ Abraham Malamat (1976). A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. pp. 223–239. ISBN 978-0-674-39731-6.
    38. ^ Yohanan Aharoni (15 September 2006). The Jewish People: An Illustrated History. A&C Black. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-0-8264-1886-9.
    39. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch; Geoffrey William Bromiley (2005). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-0-8028-2416-5.
    40. ^ Cite error: The named reference 181(II) was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    41. ^ Cite error: The named reference FOOTNOTEMorris200866 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    42. ^ Cite error: The named reference FOOTNOTEMorris200875 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    43. ^ Cite error: The named reference FOOTNOTEMorris2008396 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    44. ^ "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
    45. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 1
    46. ^ "Debate Map: Israel".
    47. ^ "Israel, Occupied Territories". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    48. ^ Cuyckens, Hanne (1 October 2016). "Is Israel Still an Occupying Power in Gaza?". Netherlands International Law Review. 63 (3): 275–295. doi:10.1007/s40802-016-0070-1.
    49. ^ "The status of Jerusalem" (PDF). The Question of Palestine & the United Nations. United Nations Department of Public Information. East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory.
    50. ^ "Analysis: Kadima's big plans". BBC News. 29 March 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
    51. ^ Kessner, BC (2 April 2006). "Israel's Hard-Learned Lessons". Homeland Security Today. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
    52. ^ Kumaraswamy, P.R. (5 June 2002). "The Legacy of Undefined Borders". Tel Aviv Notes. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
    53. ^ Cite error: The named reference occ was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    54. ^ See for example:
      * Hajjar, Lisa (2005). Courting Conflict: The Israeli Military Court System in the West Bank and Gaza. University of California Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-520-24194-7. The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is the longest military occupation in modern times.
      * Anderson, Perry (July–August 2001). "Editorial: Scurrying Towards Bethlehem". New Left Review. 10. longest official military occupation of modern history—currently entering its thirty-fifth year
      * Makdisi, Saree (2010). Palestine Inside Out: An Everyday Occupation. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-33844-7. longest-lasting military occupation of the modern age
      * Kretzmer, David (Spring 2012). "The law of belligerent occupation in the Supreme Court of Israel" (PDF). International Review of the Red Cross. 94 (885): 207–236. doi:10.1017/S1816383112000446. This is probably the longest occupation in modern international relations, and it holds a central place in all literature on the law of belligerent occupation since the early 1970s
      * Alexandrowicz, Ra'anan (24 January 2012), "The Justice of Occupation", The New York Times, Israel is the only modern state that has held territories under military occupation for over four decades
      * Weill, Sharon (2014). The Role of National Courts in Applying International Humanitarian Law. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-968542-4. Although the basic philosophy behind the law of military occupation is that it is a temporary situation modem occupations have well demonstrated that rien ne dure comme le provisoire A significant number of post-1945 occupations have lasted more than two decades such as the occupations of Namibia by South Africa and of East Timor by Indonesia as well as the ongoing occupations of Northern Cyprus by Turkey and of Western Sahara by Morocco. The Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, which is the longest in all occupation's history has already entered its fifth decade.
      * Azarova, Valentina. 2017, Israel's Unlawfully Prolonged Occupation: Consequences under an Integrated Legal Framework, European Council on Foreign Affairs Policy Brief: "June 2017 marks 50 years of Israel's belligerent occupation of Palestinian territory, making it the longest occupation in modern history."
    55. ^ "Israel". Freedom in the World. Freedom House. 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
    56. ^ "Tunisia holds first post-revolution presidential poll". BBC News. 23 November 2014.
    57. ^ "Freedom in the World 2018". freedomhouse.org. 13 January 2018.
    58. ^ Rummel 1997, p. 11. "A current list of liberal democracies includes: Andorra, Argentina, ..., Cyprus, ..., Israel, ..."
    59. ^ "Global Survey 2006: Middle East Progress Amid Global Gains in Freedom". Freedom House. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
    60. ^ "Latest Population Statistics for Israel". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
    61. ^ "Israel's accession to the OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
    62. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 339-340
    63. ^ Education at a Glance: Israel (Report). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
    64. ^ "Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D - OECD Data". data.oecd.org. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
    65. ^ Australia, Chris Pash, Business Insider. "The 10 safest countries in the world for women". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
    66. ^ "Health status - Life expectancy at birth - OECD Data". theOECD.
    67. ^ "These Are the World's Most Innovative Countries". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
    68. ^ Report, World Happiness (14 March 2018). "World Happiness Report 2018". World Happiness Report. Retrieved 26 February 2019.


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    May 15: 1940 - McDonald's opened its first restaurant in San Bernardino, California.

    McDonald's

    McDonald's Corporation is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, and later turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, Illinois, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in early 2018.[5][6][7]

    McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue,[8] serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries[9] across 37,855 outlets as of 2018.[10][11] Although McDonald's is best known for its hamburgers, cheeseburgers and french fries, they also feature chicken products, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes, wraps, and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food,[12] the company has added to its menu salads, fish, smoothies, and fruit. The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent, royalties, and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to two reports published in 2018, McDonald's is the world's second-largest private employer with 1.7 million employees (behind Walmart with 2.3 million employees).[13][14]

    1. ^ Bomkamp, Samantha (June 13, 2016). "Mcdonald's HQ Move Is Boldest Step Yet in Effort to Transform Itself". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
    2. ^ "Enrique Hernandez, Jr". McDonalds.com.
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