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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    6th April - the first day of the Modern Olympics in 1896:
    The links in this Wikipedia insert are clickable

    1896 Summer Olympics

    The 1896 Summer Olympics (Modern Greek: Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896, Therinoí Olympiakoí Agó̱nes 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history. Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.

    Winners were given a silver medal, while runners-up received a copper medal. Retroactively, the IOC has converted these to gold and silver, and awarded bronze medals to third placed athletes. Ten of the 14 participating nations earned medals. The United States won the most gold medals, 11; host nation Greece won the most medals overall, 46. The highlight for the Greeks was the marathon victory by their compatriot Spyridon Louis. The most successful competitor was German wrestler and gymnast Carl Schuhmann, who won four events.

    Athens had been unanimously chosen to stage the inaugural modern Games during a congress organised by Coubertin in Paris on 23 June 1894, during which the IOC was also created, because Greece was the birthplace of the Ancient Olympic Games. The main venue was the Panathenaic Stadium, where athletics and wrestling took place; other venues included the Neo Phaliron Velodrome for cycling, and the Zappeion for fencing. The opening ceremony was held in the Panathenaic Stadium on 6 April, during which most of the competing athletes were aligned on the infield, grouped by nation. After a speech by the president of the organising committee, Crown Prince Constantine, his father officially opened the Games. Afterwards, nine bands and 150 choir singers performed an Olympic Hymn, composed by Spyridon Samaras, with words by poet Kostis Palamas.

    The 1896 Olympics were regarded as a great success. The Games had the largest international participation of any sporting event to that date. The Panathenaic Stadium, the only Olympic stadium used in the 1800s, overflowed with the largest crowd ever to watch a sporting event.[3] After the Games, Coubertin and the IOC were petitioned by several prominent figures, including Greece's King George and some of the American competitors in Athens, to hold all the following Games in Athens. However, the 1900 Summer Olympics were already planned for Paris and, except for the Intercalated Games of 1906, the Olympics did not return to Greece until the 2004 Summer Olympics, 108 years later.

    1. ^ The number, given by the International Olympic Committee, is open to interpretation and could be as few as 10 and as many as 15. There are numerous reasons for the disparity: National teams hardly existed at the time, and most athletes represented themselves or their clubs. In addition, countries were not always as well-defined as they are today. The number of countries here reflects the number used by most modern sources. See the relevant section for further details.
    2. ^ This number of competitors is according to the International Olympic Committee. The identities of 179 competitors are known. Mallon & Widlund calculate 245 athletes, while De Wael finds 246.
    3. ^ Young (1996), 153
     
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    7th April. Those in Australia will remember this disruption 10 years ago today:

    1998 Australian waterfront dispute

    April 1998 ABC news report on the Waterfront Dispute.

    The Australian waterfront dispute of 1998 was a watershed event in Australian industrial relations history, in which the Patrick Corporation undertook an illegal restructuring of their operations for the purpose of increasing the productivity of their workforce. This dispute involved Patrick Corporation locking out their workers after the restructuring had taken place, with many of these workers members of the dominant Maritime Union of Australia. The resulting dismissal and locking out of their unionised workforce was supported and backed by the then Australian Liberal/National Coalition Government.

    Major events in the dispute occurred in four major ports, where the Patrick Corporation had significant operations, Melbourne, Brisbane, Fremantle and Sydney.[1] It revolved around attempts by Patrick Corporation and the federal government to improve efficiency on Australia's wharves; primarily by reducing staffing numbers and the power of the Maritime Union of Australia.

    1. ^ Steve O'Neill, "Outline of the Waterfront Dispute", Current Issues Brief, (Parliamentary Library), n15, 1998. Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.


    Also 7th April is:

    World Health Day

    The World Health Day is a global health awareness day celebrated every year on 7 April, under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO).

    In 1948, the WHO held the First World Health Assembly. The Assembly decided to celebrate 7 April of each year, with effect from 1950, as the World Health Day. The World Health Day is held to mark WHO's founding, and is seen as an opportunity by the organization to draw worldwide attention to a subject of major importance to global health each year.[1] The WHO organizes international, regional and local events on the Day related to a particular theme. World Health Day is acknowledged by various governments and non-governmental organizations with interests in public health issues, who also organize activities and highlight their support in media reports, such as the Global Health Council.[2]

    World Health Day is one of eight official global public health campaigns marked by WHO, along with World Tuberculosis Day, World Immunization Week, World Malaria Day, World No Tobacco Day, World Diabetes Day, World Blood Donor Day, World Hepatitis Day, and World AIDS Day.[3]

    1. ^ World Health Organization: World Health Day. Accessed 16 March 2011.
    2. ^ Global Health Council: World Health Day by Lara Endreszl, 7 April 2009.
    3. ^ World Health Organization: WHO campaigns.


    ...and also on this day in 1948, the WHO came into being:

    World Health Organization

    "WHO" redirects here. For other uses, see Who (disambiguation).

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations.

    The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by 61 countries on 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office international d'hygiène publique and the League of Nations Health Organization. Since its creation, it has played a leading role in the eradication of smallpox. Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases; sexual and reproductive health, development, and aging; nutrition, food security and healthy eating; occupational health; substance abuse; and driving the development of reporting, publications, and networking.

    The WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, a leading international publication on health, the worldwide World Health Survey, and World Health Day (7 April of every year). The head of WHO is Margaret Chan.

    The 2014/2015 proposed budget of the WHO is about US$4 billion.[1] About US$930 million are to be provided by member states with a further US$3 billion to be from voluntary contributions.[1]

    1. ^ a b "Programme budget 2014–2015" (PDF). who.int. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
     
    Last edited: Apr 7, 2008
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    9th April:

    Alaska purchase

    Redirect to:

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    April 11: Apollo 13 launches:

    Apollo 13

    This article is about the Apollo mission. For the film based upon it, see Apollo 13 (film). For the Lovell-authored book called Apollo 13, see Lost Moon.

    Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the American Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The craft was launched on April 11, 1970, at 13:13 CST from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days later, crippling the Service Module (SM) upon which the Command Module (CM) depended. Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to make makeshift repairs to the carbon dioxide removal system, the crew returned safely to Earth on April 17.

    The flight passed the far side of the Moon at an altitude of 254 kilometers (137 nautical miles) above the lunar surface, and 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth, a spaceflight record marking the farthest humans have ever traveled from Earth. The mission was commanded by James A. Lovell with John L. "Jack" Swigert as Command Module Pilot and Fred W. Haise as Lunar Module Pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for the original CM pilot Ken Mattingly, who was grounded by the flight surgeon after exposure to German measles.

    1. ^ Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Table of Contents". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Retrieved April 15, 2012. 
     
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    12 April; the first Space Shuttle is launched:

    STS-1

    This article is about the Space Shuttle flight. For Synchronous Transport Signal (level)-1 in the SONET hierarchy, see Synchronous optical networking. For the gene, see STS-1 (gene).

    STS-1 (Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program. The first orbiter, Columbia, launched on 12 April 1981 and returned on 14 April, 54.5 hours later, having orbited the Earth 37 times. Columbia carried a crew of two – mission commander John W. Young and pilot Robert L. Crippen. It was the first American manned space flight since the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in 1975. STS-1 was also the only maiden test flight of a new US spacecraft to carry a crew, though it was preceded by atmospheric testing of the orbiter and ground testing of the space shuttle system.

    The launch occurred on the 20th anniversary of the first-ever human spaceflight. This was a coincidence rather than a celebration of the anniversary; a technical problem had prevented STS-1 from launching two days earlier, as was planned.

     
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    April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 262 days remaining until the end of the year.

    It is also the Ides (middle day) of April.

    and in 1997, Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win golf's Masters Tournament.

    Tiger Woods

    "How I Play Golf" redirects here. For the 1931 instructional film series, see Bobby Jones (golfer).

    Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods[5] (born December 30, 1975)[6][7] is an American professional golfer who is among the most successful golfers of all time. He has been one of the highest-paid athletes in the world for several years.

    Following an outstanding amateur and two-year college golf career, Woods turned professional at age 20 in late summer 1996. By April 1997 he had already won his first major, the 1997 Masters, in a record-breaking performance, winning the tournament by 12 strokes and pocketing $486,000. He first reached the number one position in the world rankings in June 1997. Through the 2000s, Woods was the dominant force in golf, spending 264 weeks from August 1999 to September 2004 and 281 weeks from June 2005 to October 2010 as World Number One.

    From December 2009 to early April 2010, Woods took leave from professional golf to focus on his marriage after he admitted infidelity, but he and his wife Elin Nordegren eventually divorced. His many extramarital indiscretions were revealed by several different women, through many worldwide media sources.[8] This was followed by a loss of golf form, and his ranking gradually fell to a low of No. 58 in November 2011.[9][10] He ended a career-high winless streak of 107 weeks when he captured the Chevron World Challenge in December 2011.[10] After winning the Arnold Palmer Invitational on March 25, 2013, he ascended to the No.1 ranking once again, holding the top spot until May 2014. Woods had back surgery in April 2014 and September 2015[11] and has struggled since to regain his dominant form. By March 29, 2015, Woods had fallen to #104, outside of the top 100 for the first time since the week prior to his first Tour title win in 1996.[12] In May 2016, Woods dropped out of the world top 500 for the first time in his professional career.[13]

    Woods has broken numerous golf records. He has been World Number One for the most consecutive weeks and for the greatest total number of weeks of any golfer. He has been awarded PGA Player of the Year a record eleven times,[14] the Byron Nelson Award for lowest adjusted scoring average a record eight times, and has the record of leading the money list in ten different seasons. He has won 14 professional major golf championships, the second-highest of any player (Jack Nicklaus leads with 18), and 79 PGA Tour events, second all time behind Sam Snead, who had 82 wins.[15] He has more career major wins and career PGA Tour wins than any other active golfer. He is the youngest player to achieve the career Grand Slam, and the youngest and fastest to win 50 tournaments on tour. Additionally, Woods is only the second golfer, after Nicklaus, to have achieved a career Grand Slam three times. Woods has won 18 World Golf Championships, and won at least one of those events in each of the first 11 years after they began in 1999. Woods and Rory McIlroy are the only golfers to win both The Silver Medal and The Gold Medal at The Open Championship.

    1. ^ a b "Tiger Woods – Profile". PGA Tour. Retrieved June 7, 2015. 
    2. ^ This is calculated by adding Woods' 79 PGA Tour victories, 8 regular European Tour titles, 2 Japan Tour wins, 1 Asian Tour crown, and the 16 other wins in his career.
    3. ^ These are the 14 majors, 18 WGC events, and his eight tour wins.
    4. ^ 2009 European Tour Official Guide Section 4 Page 577 PDF 21. European Tour. Retrieved April 21, 2009. Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference decree was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Sounes, Howard (2004). The Wicked Game: Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Tiger Woods, and the Story of Modern Golf. Harper Collins. pp. 120–121, 293. ISBN 0-06-051386-1. 
    7. ^ "Tiger Woods Biography: Golfer (1975–)". Biography.com (FYI / A&E Networks). Retrieved May 3, 2015. 
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference legend was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "Westwood becomes world number one". BBC News. October 31, 2010. 
    10. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference chevron was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ "Tiger Undergoes Successful Back Surgery, Is Hopeful To Return In Early 2016". TigerWoods.com. September 18, 2015. Retrieved April 6, 2015. 
    12. ^ "Tiger Woods decides to play in the Masters". USA Today. April 3, 2015. 
    13. ^ Inglis, Martin (May 3, 2016). "Tiger Woods falls out of world top 500". bunkered. 
    14. ^ Kelley, Brent (October 20, 2009). "Woods Clinches PGA Player of the Year Award". About.com: Golf. Retrieved December 2, 2009. 
    15. ^ "Tracking Tiger". NBC Sports. Retrieved June 3, 2009. 
     
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    1860 - The first Pony Express rider reaches Sacramento, U.S..

    Pony Express

    This article is about the fast mail service of 1860–1861. For other meanings of "Pony Express", see Pony Express (disambiguation).
    Pony Express advertisement
    Pony Express Postmark, 1860, westbound

    The Pony Express was a mail service delivering messages, newspapers, mail, and small packages from St. Joseph, Missouri, across the Great Plains, over the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada to Sacramento, California, by horseback, using a series of relay stations.

    Officially operating as the Leavenworth and Pike's Peak Express Company of 1859, in 1860 it became the Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express Company; this firm was founded by William H. Russell, Alexander Majors, and William B. Waddell, all of whom were notable in the freighting business.[1]

    During its 19 months of operation, it reduced the time for messages to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts to about 10 days.[2] From April 3, 1860 to October 1861, it became the West's most direct means of east–west communication before the telegraph was established and was vital for tying the new state of California with the rest of the United States.

    1. ^ Bradley (1913), p. 21.
    2. ^ Bradley (1913), pp. 25–29.
     
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    April 1912 -The British passenger liner RMS Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic

    RMS Titanic

    "Titanic" redirects here. For the film by James Cameron, see Titanic (1997 film). For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation).

    RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early morning of 15 April 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. Of the 2,224 passengers and crew aboard, more than 1,500 died in the sinking, making it one of the deadliest commercial peacetime maritime disasters in modern history. The largest ship afloat at the time it entered service, the RMS Titanic was the second of three Olympic class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line, and was built by the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast. Thomas Andrews, her architect, died in the disaster.

    Under the command of Edward Smith, the ship carried some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as hundreds of emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland, Scandinavia and elsewhere throughout Europe seeking a new life in North America. A high-power radiotelegraph transmitter was available for sending passenger "marconigrams" and for the ship's operational use. Although Titanic had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, there were not enough lifeboats to accommodate all of those aboard due to outdated maritime safety regulations. Titanic only carried enough lifeboats for 1,178 people—slightly more than half of the number on board, and one third of her total capacity.

    After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland before heading west to New York.[2] On 14 April 1912, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles (600 km) south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 p.m. ship's time. The collision caused the ship's hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea; the ship gradually filled with water. Meanwhile, passengers and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only partially loaded. A disproportionate number of men were left aboard because of a "women and children first" protocol for loading lifeboats.[3] At 2:20 a.m., she broke apart and foundered—with well over one thousand people still aboard. Just under two hours after Titanic sank, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived on the scene of the sinking, where she brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors.

    The disaster was greeted with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that had led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), which still governs maritime safety today. Additionally, several new wireless regulations were passed around the world in an effort to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications—which could have saved many more passengers.[4]

    The wreck of Titanic, first discovered over 70 years after the sinking, remains on the seabed, split in two and gradually disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet (3,784 m). Since her discovery in 1985, thousands of artefacts have been recovered and put on display at museums around the world. Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history; her memory is kept alive by numerous works of popular culture, including books, folk songs, films, exhibits, and memorials.

    1. ^ Beveridge & Hall 2004, p. 1.
    2. ^ "Titanic Ship Listing". Chris' Cunard Page. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012. 
    3. ^ Second Officer Lightoller insisted on excluding men, while First Officer Murdoch, on the other side of the ship, permitted men and women to board the lifeboats.
    4. ^ "Patrick S. Ryan, The ITU and the Internet's Titanic Moment" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-07-04. 
     
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    April 16. 2007 - Virginia Tech massacre: the deadliest mass shooting in modern American history, in which a gunman shoots 32 people to death and injures 23 others before committing suicide.

    Virginia Tech massacre

     
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    April 17:

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    "Invasion of Cuba" redirects here. For the British invasion in 1741, see Invasion of Cuba (1741).

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961. A counter-revolutionary military, trained and funded by the United States government's Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF) and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro. Launched from Guatemala & Nicaragua, the invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, under the direct command of Prime Minister Fidel Castro.

    The Cuban Revolution of 1952 to 1959 had forced dictator Fulgencio Batista, an ally of the United States, into exile. He was replaced by the 26th July Movement led by Castro, which severed the country's formerly strong links with the US after nationalizing American economic assets (banks, oil refineries, sugar and coffee plantations, along with other American owned businesses), and developing strong economic links with the Soviet Union, with whom, at the time, the United States was engaged in the Cold War. US President Dwight D. Eisenhower was very concerned at the direction Castro's government was taking, and in March 1960 he allocated $13.1 million to the CIA to plan Castro's overthrow (though the plan to overthrow Castro was put off for Kennedy to decide). The CIA proceeded to organize the operation with the aid of various Cuban counter-revolutionary forces, training Brigade 2506 in Guatemala. Eisenhower's successor John F. Kennedy approved the final invasion plan on 4 April 1961.

    Over 1,400 paramilitaries, divided into five infantry battalions and one paratrooper battalion, assembled in Guatemala before setting out for Cuba by boat on 13 April 1961. Two days later on 15 April, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers attacked Cuban airfields and then returned to the US. On the night of 16 April, the main invasion landed at a beach named Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs. It initially overwhelmed a local revolutionary militia. The Cuban Army's counter-offensive was led by José Ramón Fernández, before Castro decided to take personal control of the operation. As the US involvement became apparent to the world, Kennedy decided against providing further air cover for the invasion.[5] As a result, the operation only had half the forces the CIA had deemed necessary. The original plan devised during Eisenhower's presidency had required both air and naval support. On 20 April, the invaders surrendered after only three days, with the majority being publicly interrogated and put into Cuban prisons.

    The failed invasion helped to strengthen the position of Castro's leadership, making him a national hero, and cemented the rocky relationship between the former allies. It also strengthened the relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union. This led eventually to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The invasion was a major failure for US foreign policy; Kennedy ordered a number of internal investigations across Latin America. Cuban forces under Castro's leadership clashed directly with US forces during the Invasion of Grenada over 20 years later.

    1. ^ Kellner 1989, pp. 69–70. "Historians give Guevara, who was director of instruction for Cuba's armed forces, a share of credit for the victory".
    2. ^ Szulc (1986), p. 450. "The revolutionaries won because Castro's strategy was vastly superior to the Central Intelligence Agency's; because the revolutionary morale was high; and because Che Guevara as the head of the militia training program and Fernández as commander of the militia officers' school, had done so well in preparing 200,000 men and women for war."
    3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference szulc1986 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b FRUS X, documents 19, 24, 35, 245, 271.
    5. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-13066561
     
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    April 18: 1923 - Yankee Stadium, "The House that Ruth Built", opens.

    Yankee Stadium

    This article is about the stadium that opened in 2009. For the original stadium, see Yankee Stadium (1923). For other uses, see Yankee Stadium (disambiguation).

    Yankee Stadium is a stadium located in the Bronx, a borough of New York City. It serves as the home ballpark for the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball (MLB), and the home stadium of New York City FC of Major League Soccer (MLS). The $2.3 billion stadium, built with $1.2 billion in public subsidies,[11] replaced the original Yankee Stadium in 2009. It is one block north of the original, on the 24-acre former site of Macombs Dam Park; the 8-acre site of the original stadium is now a public park called Heritage Field. The stadium incorporates replicas of some design elements from the original Yankee Stadium and like its predecessor it has hosted additional events, including college football games, soccer matches, and concerts. Although Yankee Stadium's construction began in August 2006, the project spanned many years and faced many controversies, including the high public cost and the loss of public parkland. The overall price tag makes the new Yankee Stadium the most expensive stadium ever built.[15]

    1. ^ Rashbaum, William. "Cracks Emerge in Ramps at New Yankee Stadium". New York Times. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
    2. ^ "The House That Jeter Built". MLB.com. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
    3. ^ "New York Yankees on the Forbes MLB Team Valuations List". Forbes. March 25, 2015. Archived from the original on June 4, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2016. 
    4. ^ Marchand, Andrew; Matthews, Wallace (March 25, 2014). "Question 4: Will Jeter Lure 4 Million Fans?". ESPN. Retrieved March 26, 2014. 
    5. ^ Perrotto, John (October 12, 2012). "Yankee Stadium Sea of Blue – Empty Seats – at Game Time". USA Today. Retrieved March 16, 2013. 
    6. ^ Shpigel, Ben (October 14, 2010). "Vazquez's Final Pitch in Pinstripes?". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2014. 
    7. ^ a b "New York City FC outline plans for Yankee Stadium's baseball-to-soccer conversion". Major League Soccer. April 21, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014. 
    8. ^ "Notre Dame Shut Downs Army, Rolls In New Yankee Stadium Debut". University of Notre Dame Official Athletic Site. Associated Press. November 20, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
    9. ^ "Tigers Beat Yankees 3-2, Head to ALCS vs Texas". Sports Illustrated. Associated Press. October 6, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2013. 
    10. ^ Manchester City 2-2 Liverpool: Simon Mignolet the hero as Reds win on spot-kicks
    11. ^ a b http://www.fieldofschemes.com/documents/Yanks-Mets-costs.pdf
    12. ^ "Yankee Stadium". Populous. Retrieved March 10, 2013. 
    13. ^ a b Scarangello, Thomas Z.; Squarzini, Michael J. (July 2009). "New Yankee Stadium respects its rich history". Structural Engineer. Retrieved September 19, 2011. 
    14. ^ "Yankee Stadium". Ballparks Munsey and Suppes. Retrieved March 16, 2013. 
    15. ^ "NYC baseball stadium subsidies: Do I hear $1.8B?". Field of Schemes. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
     
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    April 19 1995 - Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, is bombed, killing 168.

    Oklahoma City bombing

    The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City, in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995. Carried out by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, the bombing destroyed one-third of the building, killed 168 people,[1] and injured more than 680 others.[2] The blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings within a 16-block radius, shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, and destroyed or burned 86 cars,[3][4] causing an estimated $652 million worth of damage.[5] Extensive rescue efforts were undertaken by local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies in the wake of the bombing, and substantial donations were received from across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated eleven of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations.[6][7]

    Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma State Trooper Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for illegal weapons possession.[8][9] Forensic evidence quickly linked McVeigh and Nichols to the attack; Nichols was arrested,[10] and within days both were charged. Michael and Lori Fortier were later identified as accomplices. McVeigh, a U.S. militia movement sympathizer who was a Gulf War veteran, had detonated a Ryder rental truck full of explosives parked in front of the building. McVeigh's co-conspirator, Nichols, had assisted in the bomb preparation. Motivated by his hatred of the U.S. federal government and angered by its handling of the 1993 Waco siege and the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the deadly fire that ended the siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas.[11][12]

    The official investigation, known as "OKBOMB", saw FBI agents conduct 28,000 interviews, amass 3.5 short tons (3.2 tonnes) of evidence, and collect nearly one billion pieces of information.[13][14][15] The bombers were tried and convicted in 1997. McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001, and Nichols was sentenced to life in prison in 2004. Michael and Lori Fortier testified against McVeigh and Nichols; Michael was sentenced to 12 years in prison for failing to warn the United States government, and Lori received immunity from prosecution in exchange for her testimony.

    As a result of the bombing, the U.S. Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, which tightened the standards for habeas corpus in the United States,[16] as well as legislation designed to increase the protection around federal buildings to deter future terrorist attacks. On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building, commemorating the victims of the bombing. Annual remembrance services are held at the same time of day as the explosion occurred. It was the deadliest terrorist attack on American soil until the September 11 attacks and still remains the deadliest domestic terrorism incident in United States history.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference VictimAges was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Shariat, Sheryll; Sue Mallonee; Shelli Stephens-Stidham (December 1998). "Oklahoma City Bombing Injuries" (PDF). Injury Prevention Service, Oklahoma State Department of Health.  Shariat & al. count only 167 killed "as a direct result of the bombing or during escape". They did not include Rebecca Needham Anderson, who – having seen the bombing on TV in Midwest City, Oklahoma – came to the rescue and was killed by a piece of falling debris. The Final Sacrifice of a Gallant Nurse
    3. ^ "Oklahoma City Police Department Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing After Action Report" (PDF). Terrorism Info. p. 58. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2007. 
    4. ^ "Case Study 30: Preventing glass from becoming a lethal weapon". Safety Solutions Online. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. 
    5. ^ Hewitt, Christopher (2003). Understanding Terrorism in America: from the Klan to al Qaeda. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-415-27765-5. 
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference USDJ2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "FEMA Urban Search And Rescue (USAR) Summaries" (PDF). Federal Emergency Management Agency. p. 64. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2006. 
    8. ^ "Timothy McVeigh is apprehended". NBC News Report. April 22, 1995. Archived from the original (Video, 3 minutes) on February 27, 2011. 
    9. ^ Ottley, Ted (April 14, 2005). "License Tag Snag". truTV. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011. 
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference TerrorFamily was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Feldman, Paul (June 18, 1995). "Militia Groups Growing, Study Says Extremism: Despite negative publicity since Oklahoma bombing, membership has risen, Anti-Defamation League finds" (Fee required). Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
    12. ^ "McVeigh offers little remorse in letters". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. June 10, 2001. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011. 
    13. ^ Serano, Richard. One of Ours: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing. pp. 139–141. 
    14. ^ "Lessons learned, and not learned, 11 years later". MSNBC. Associated Press. April 16, 2006. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011. 
    15. ^ Hamm, Mark S. Apocalypse in Oklahoma. p. vii. ISBN 1-55553-300-0. 
    16. ^ Doyle, Charles (June 3, 1996). "Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary". FAS. Archived from the original on March 17, 2011. 
     
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    April 21: 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome

    Romulus and Remus

    "Romulus" and "Remus" redirect here. For other uses, see Romulus (disambiguation) and Remus (disambiguation).
    Capitoline Wolf. Traditional scholarship says the wolf-figure is Etruscan, 5th century BC, with figures of Romulus and Remus added in the 15th century AD by Antonio Pollaiuolo. Recent studies suggest that the wolf may be a medieval sculpture dating from the 13th century AD.[1]

    Romulus /ˈrɒmjᵿləs/ and Remus /ˈrməs/ were the twin brothers and main characters of Rome's foundation myth. (The pronunciation in English is different from the Latin original Rōmulus and Rĕmus). According to Roman tradition, of which Livy's account is now the earliest to survive in full, their mother was Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa. Before their conception, Numitor's brother Amulius seized power, killed Numitor's male heirs and forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, sworn to chastity. Rhea Silvia conceived the twins by the god Mars. Once the twins were born, Amulius had them abandoned to die in the Tiber river. They were saved by a series of miraculous interventions: the river carried them to safety, a she-wolf found and suckled them, and a woodpecker fed them. A shepherd and his wife found them and fostered them to manhood as simple shepherds. The twins, still ignorant of their true origins, proved to be natural leaders. Each acquired many followers. When they discovered the truth of their birth, they killed Amulius and restored Numitor to his throne. Rather than wait to inherit Alba Longa, they chose to found a new city.

    While Romulus wanted to found the new city on the Palatine Hill, Remus preferred the Aventine Hill.[2] They agreed to determine the site through augury but when each claimed the results in his own favor, they quarreled and Remus was killed.[3] Romulus founded the new city, named it Rome, after himself, and created its first legions and senate. The new city grew rapidly, swelled by landless refugees; as most of these were male and unmarried, Romulus arranged the abduction of women from the neighboring Sabines. The ensuing war ended with the joining of Sabines and Romans as one Roman people. Thanks to divine favour and Romulus's inspired leadership, Rome became a dominant force, but Romulus himself became increasingly autocratic, and disappeared or died in mysterious circumstances. In later forms of the myth, he ascended to heaven and was identified with Quirinus, the divine personification of the Roman people.

    The legend as a whole encapsulates Rome's ideas of itself, its origins and moral values. For modern scholarship, it remains one of the most complex and problematic of all foundation myths, particularly Remus's death. Ancient historians had no doubt that Romulus gave his name to the city. Most modern historians believe his name a back-formation from the name Rome; the basis for Remus's name and role remain subjects of ancient and modern speculation. The myth was fully developed into something like an "official", chronological version in the Late Republican and early Imperial era; Roman historians dated the city's foundation to between 758 and 728 BC, and Plutarch reckoned the twins' birth year as c. 27/28 March 771 BC. An earlier tradition that gave Romulus a distant ancestor in the semi-divine Trojan prince Aeneas was further embellished, and Romulus was made the direct ancestor of Rome's first Imperial dynasty. Possible historical bases for the broad mythological narrative remain unclear and disputed.[4] The image of the she-wolf suckling the divinely fathered twins became an iconic representation of the city and its founding legend, making Romulus and Remus preeminent among the feral children of ancient mythography.

    1. ^ Adriano La Regina, "La lupa del Campidoglio è medievale la prova è nel test al carbonio". La Repubblica. 9 July 2008
    2. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnasus, Roman Antiquities, 1.85
    3. ^ Ovid has Romulus invent the festival of Lemuria to appease Remus's resentful ghost. Ovid Fasti 5.461
    4. ^ The archaeologist Andrea Carandini is one of very few modern scholars who accept Romulus and Remus as historical figures, based on the 1988 discovery of an ancient wall on the north slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome. Carandini dates the structure to the mid-8th century BC and names it the Murus Romuli. See Carandini, La nascita di Roma. Dèi, lari, eroi e uomini all'alba di una civiltà (Torino: Einaudi, 1997) and Carandini. Remo e Romolo. Dai rioni dei Quiriti alla città dei Romani (775/750 - 700/675 a. C. circa) (Torino: Einaudi, 2006)
     
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    April 22: 1509 - Henry VIII ascends the throne of England after the death of his father.

    Henry VIII of England

    "Henry VIII" redirects here. For other uses, see Henry VIII (disambiguation).

    Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was the first English King of Ireland, and continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII.

    Henry is known for his consequential role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church, besides his six marriages and many extramarital affairs, as well as his effort to obtain an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which led to conflict with the Pope. His disagreements with the Pope led Henry to separate the Church of England from papal authority, with himself as king and as the Supreme Head of the Church of England; the disputes also led to the Dissolution of the Monasteries. His principal dispute was with papal authority rather than with doctrinal matters, and he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings despite his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church.[1] Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. He is also well known for a long personal rivalry with both Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, with whom he frequently warred.

    Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, thus initiating the English Reformation, he greatly expanded royal power. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, and those accused were often executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder. He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. People such as Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer figured prominently in Henry's administration. He was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert money into royal revenue that was formerly paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly continental wars.

    His contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated, and accomplished king, and he has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne".[2] Besides ruling with considerable power, he was also an author and composer. His desire to provide England with a male heir stemmed partly from personal vanity and partly from his belief that a daughter would be unable to consolidate Tudor power and maintain the fragile peace that existed following the Wars of the Roses.[3] This led to the two things for which Henry is most remembered: his six marriages and his break with the Pope (who would not allow an annulment of Henry's first marriage). As he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.[4] He was succeeded by his son Edward VI.

    1. ^ Scarisbrick 1997, p. 361
    2. ^ Guy 2000, p. 41.
    3. ^ Wilkinson 2009, p. 70
    4. ^ Ives 2006, pp. 28–36
     
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    April 23: 1985 - Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. (The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.)

    New Coke

    New Coke was the unofficial name for the reformulation of Coca-Cola introduced in April 1985 by The Coca-Cola Company to replace the original formula of its flagship soft drink, Coca-Cola (also called Coke). New Coke originally had no separate name of its own, but was simply known as "the new taste of Coca-Cola" until 1992 when it was officially renamed Coke II.

    Coca-Cola's market share had been steadily losing ground to diet soft drinks and non-cola beverages for many years; meanwhile the consumers who were purchasing regular colas seemed to prefer the sweeter taste of Pepsi, as Coca-Cola soon learned in conducting blind taste tests. However, the American public's reaction to the change was negative, even hostile, and the new cola was a major marketing failure. The subsequent, rapid reintroduction of Coke's original formula (the original formula was re-branded as "Coca-Cola Classic" and was put into market within three months of New Coke's debut) resulted in a significant gain in sales. This led to speculation that the introduction of the New Coke formula was just a marketing ploy; however, the company has always claimed it was actually an attempt to replace the original product.[1]

    New Coke was only on the market in the United States for a short period, but it remains influential as a cautionary tale against tampering too extensively with a well-established and successful brand. It was discontinued internationally in July 2002.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snopes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    April 24: 1980 - Eight U.S. servicemen died in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempted to end the Iran hostage crisis.

    Operation Eagle Claw

    This article is about the operation during the Iran Hostage Crisis. For the operation during the Iraq War, see Operation Eagle Claw XI.
    "Operation Rice Bowl" redirects here. It is not to be confused with the Catholic Relief Services program to end hunger and poverty.

    Operation Eagle Claw (Persian: عملیات طبس‎‎) (or Operation Evening Light or Operation Rice Bowl)[1] was a United States Armed Forces operation ordered by US President Jimmy Carter to attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis by rescuing 52 embassy staff held captive at the Embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980. Its failure, and the humiliating public debacle that ensued, damaged US prestige worldwide. Carter himself blamed his loss in the 1980 US presidential election mainly on his failure to win the release of U.S. hostages held captive in Iran.[2]

    The operation encountered many obstacles and was eventually aborted. Eight helicopters were sent to the first staging area, Desert One, but only five arrived in operational condition.[3] One encountered hydraulic problems, another got caught in a cloud of very fine sand, and the last one showed signs of a cracked rotor blade. During planning it was decided that the mission would be aborted if fewer than six helicopters remained, despite only four being absolutely necessary.[3] In a move that is still discussed in military circles, the field commanders advised mission abort, which President Carter accepted and confirmed.[4]

    As the U.S. force prepared to leave, one of the helicopters crashed into a transport aircraft which contained both servicemen and jet fuel. The resulting fire destroyed both aircraft and killed eight servicemen.[3] Operation Eagle Claw was one of Delta Force's first missions.[5][Note 1]

    1. ^ AFSOC.af.mil Archived 16 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
    2. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Iran hostage rescue should have worked". USA Today. 17 September 2010. 
    3. ^ a b c Bowden, Mark. "The Desert One Debacle". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
    4. ^ "V28N2 - Operation Eagle Claw, 1980: A Case Study In Crisis Management and Military Planning". 
    5. ^ a b Gabriel (1985), pp. 106–116.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=Note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=Note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    1916 - Anzac Day commemorated for the first time, on the first anniversary of the landing at Anzac Cove

    Anzac Day

    Anzac Day /ˈænzæk/ is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served."[1][2] Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who fought at Gallipoli against the Ottoman Empire during World War I.

    Anzac Day is also observed in the Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, and Tonga, and previously also as a national holiday in Papua New Guinea and Samoa.[3][4]

    1. ^ "ANZAC Day". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
    2. ^ "Anzac Day Today". Anzac.govt.nz. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
    3. ^ Qpp Studio [1] Retrieved on 25 April 2014
    4. ^ Air New Zealand International Samoa to commemorate ANZAC day without a public holiday 25 April 2008
     
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    1974_Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon

    Carnation Revolution

    The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25 April (Portuguese: 25 de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the regime of the Estado Novo.[1] The revolution started as a military coup organized by the Armed Forces Movement (Portuguese: Movimento das Forças Armadas, MFA) composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but the movement was soon coupled with an unanticipated and popular campaign of civil resistance. This movement would lead to the fall of the Estado Novo and the withdrawal of Portugal from its African colonies and East Timor.

    The name "Carnation Revolution" comes from the fact that almost no shots were fired and when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship and war in the colonies, carnations were put into the muzzles of rifles and on the uniforms of the army men. In Portugal, the 25th of April is a national holiday, known as Freedom Day (Portuguese: Dia da Liberdade), to celebrate the event.

    1. ^ "1974: Rebels seize control of Portugal", On This Day, 25 April, BBC, 25 April 1974, retrieved 2 January 2010 
     
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    April 26: 1986 - In Ukraine, a nuclear reactor accident occurs at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, creating the world's worst nuclear disaster.

    Chernobyl plant

     
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    April 28: 1996 - In Tasmania, Australia, Martin Bryant goes on a shooting spree, killing 35 people and seriously injuring 37 more.

    Martin Bryant

    For the British computer programmer, see Martin Bryant (programmer).

    Martin John Bryant[1] (born 7 May 1967) is an Australian mass murderer who pleaded guilty to murdering 35 people and injuring 23 others in the Port Arthur massacre, a shooting spree in Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia, in 1996. He is currently serving 35 life sentences plus 1,035 years without parole in Risdon Prison.

    1. ^ Wainwright, Robert; Totaro, Paola (27 April 2009). "A dangerous mind: what turned Martin Bryant into a mass murderer?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
     
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    April 29: 1992 - 1992 Los Angeles riots: Riots in Los Angeles, California, follow the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. Over the next three days 53 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.

    1992 Los Angeles riots

    The 1992 Los Angeles riots, also known as the Rodney King riots, the South Central riots, the 1992 Los Angeles civil disturbance, the 1992 Los Angeles civil unrest, and the Los Angeles uprising,[1] were a series of riots, lootings, arsons, and civil disturbance that occurred in Los Angeles County, California, in 1992. The riot started in South Central Los Angeles and then spread out into other areas over a six-day period within the Los Angeles metropolitan area in California, beginning in April 1992. The riots started on April 29 after a trial jury acquitted four police officers of the Los Angeles Police Department of the use of excessive force in the videotaped arrest and beating of Rodney King, following a high-speed police chase. Thousands of people throughout the metropolitan area in Los Angeles rioted over six days following the announcement of the verdict.

    Widespread looting, assault, arson, and killings occurred during the riots, and estimates of property damage was over $1 billion. The rioting ended after members of the California Army National Guard, the 7th Infantry Division, and the 1st Marine Division were called in to stop the rioting when the local police could not control the situation. In total, 55 people were killed during the riots and over 2,000 people were injured. LAPD chief of police Daryl Gates, who had already announced his resignation by the time of the riots, took much of the institutional blame for them.

    1. ^ http://www.cinema.ucla.edu/collections/rodney-king-case-and-los-angeles-uprising
     
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    30 April: 1975 - Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gain control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ends with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh.

    Fall of Saigon

    The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, depending on context,[1][2] was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People’s Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on April 30, 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic.

    North Vietnamese forces, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhứt Airport killed the last two American servicemen to die in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge.[3] By the afternoon of the next day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace. The South Vietnamese government capitulated shortly afterward. The city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the Democratic Republic's late President Hồ Chí Minh.

    The capture of the city was preceded by the evacuation of almost all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians associated with the southern regime.[4] The evacuation culminated in Operation Frequent Wind, the largest helicopter evacuation in history.[5] In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city’s population.[6]

    1. ^ Los Angeles Times (29 April 2015). "Is it Liberation Day or Defeat Day in Saigon?". latimes.com. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
    2. ^ "Giai Phong! The Fall and Liberation of Saigon". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
    3. ^ McMahon and Judge
    4. ^ A few Americans chose not to be evacuated. Documented accounts include the following:
    5. ^ Dunham and Quinlan, 202.
    6. ^ Desbarats, Jacqueline. "Repression in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Executions and Population Relocation", from The Vietnam Debate (1990) by John Morton Moore.
     
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    1 May: 1328 - Wars of Scottish Independence end: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton – England recognises Scotland as an independent nation.

    Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton

     
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    2 May: 1946 - "Battle of Alcatraz" - Alcatraz Federal prison, San Francisco is taken over by six inmates following failed escape attempt

    Battle of Alcatraz

    The Battle of Alcatraz, which lasted from May 2 to 4, 1946, was the result of an unsuccessful escape attempt at Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary. Two guards—William A. Miller and Harold Stites—were killed along with three of the inmates. Eleven guards and one uninvolved convict were also injured. Two of the surviving convicts were later executed for their roles.[1]

    1. ^ "A Brief History of Alcatraz". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
     
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    May 3: 1979 - Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher to become United Kingdom's first female prime minister as the Labour government is ousted in parliamentary elections.

    Margaret Thatcher

    "The Iron Lady" redirects here. For the film, see The Iron Lady (film).

    Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS, FRIC (née Roberts; 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century, and the first woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.

    Originally a research chemist before becoming a barrister, Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his 1970 government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition and became the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. She became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election.

    On moving into 10 Downing Street, Thatcher introduced a series of political and economic initiatives intended to reverse high unemployment and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an ongoing recession.[nb 1] Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Thatcher's popularity during her first years in office waned amid recession and high unemployment, until victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her re-election in 1983.

    Thatcher was re-elected for a third term in 1987. During this period her support for a Community Charge (referred to as the "poll tax") was widely unpopular, and her views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet. She resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership. After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the county of Lincolnshire, which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. After a series of small strokes in 2002, she was advised to withdraw from public speaking. Despite this, she managed to prerecord a eulogy to Ronald Reagan prior to his death, which was broadcast at his funeral in 2004.[2] In 2013, she died of another stroke in London at the age of 87.

    1. ^ Thatcher, Margaret (1979). "Conservative Party Manifesto 1979". Foreword. conservativemanifesto.com. Retrieved 28 July 2009. 
    2. ^ Russell, Alec; Sparrow, Andrew (7 June 2004). "Thatcher's taped eulogy at Reagan funeral". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 July 2016. 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

     
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    May 4: 1924 - The 1924 Summer Olympics open in Paris, France.

    1924 Summer Olympics

    The 1924 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France. It was the second time Paris hosted the games, after 1900. The selection process for the 1924 Summer Olympics consisted of six bids, and Paris was selected ahead of Amsterdam, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Prague, and Rome. The selection was made at the 20th IOC Session in Lausanne in 1921.[1]

    The cost of the Games of the VIII Olympiad was estimated to be 10,000,000. With total receipts at 5,496,610₣, the Olympics resulted in a hefty loss despite crowds that reached 60,000 people at a time.[2]

    1. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
    2. ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 24 March 2007. 
     
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    May 5; 1494 - Christopher Columbus discovers the island of Jamaica and claims it for Spain.

    Christopher Columbus

    This article is about the explorer. For other uses, see Christopher Columbus (disambiguation).
    "Cristoforo Colombo" redirects here. For other uses, see Cristoforo Colombo (disambiguation).
    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox officeholder with unknown parameter "other_names" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Christopher Columbus (/kəˈlʌmbəs/; Italian: Cristoforo Colombo; Spanish: Cristóbal Colón; Portuguese: Cristóvão Colombo; Latin: Christophorus Columbus; born between 31 October 1450 and 30 October 1451 in Genoa – died on 20 May 1506 in Valladolid) was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer, and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World.

    Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of trade routes and colonies. Columbus proposed to reach the East Indies by sailing westward, and this eventually received the support of the Spanish Crown which saw a chance to enter the spice trade with Asia through a new westward route. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago which he named "San Salvador". Over the course of three more voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America, claiming all of it for the Crown of Castile.

    Columbus was not the first European explorer to reach the Americas, having been preceded by the Vikinger expedition led by Leif Erikson in the 11th century,[3][4] but his voyages led to the first lasting European contact with the Americas, inaugurating a period of European exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for several centuries. These voyages had, therefore, an enormous impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic slave trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion.[5]

    Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios (Spanish for "Indians").[6][7][8] His strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and dismissal as governor of the settlements on the island of Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits which he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.

    1. ^ Portraits of Christopher Columbus – COLUMBUS MONUMENTS PAGES. Vanderkrogt.
    2. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Gilman, D. C.; Thurston, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Columbus, Diego. The youngest brother of Christopher Columbus". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead. 
    3. ^ "History – Leif Erikson (11th century)". BBC. Retrieved 12 October 2015. 
    4. ^ "Why Do We Celebrate Columbus Day and Not Leif Erikson Day?". National Geographic. 11 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015. 
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference EB-online was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Hoxie, Frederick (1996). Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-395-66921-1. 
    7. ^ Philip Herbst (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1. Retrieved 2016-02-28. 
    8. ^ David Wilton (2 December 2004). Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends. Oxford University Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-0-19-517284-3. 
     
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    May 5: 1954 - Roger Bannister becomes the first person to run the mile in under four minutes.

    Roger Bannister

    Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister CBE (born 23 March 1929) is an English former middle-distance athlete, physician and academic, who ran the first sub-four-minute mile.

    In the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Bannister set a British record in the 1500 metres but finished fourth. This strengthened his resolve to be the first 4-minute miler.[citation needed]

    He achieved this feat on 6 May 1954 at Iffley Road track in Oxford, with Chris Chataway and Chris Brasher providing the pacing. When the announcer declared "The time was three...", the cheers of the crowd drowned out Bannister's exact time, which was 3 min 59.4 sec.

    Bannister's record lasted just 46 days. He had reached this record with minimal training, while practising as a junior doctor.

    Bannister went on to become a distinguished neurologist and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, before retiring in 1993. When asked whether the 4-minute mile was his proudest achievement, he said he felt prouder of his contribution to academic medicine through research into the responses of the nervous system. Bannister is patron of the MSA Trust. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 2011.[2]

    1. ^ a b c All-Athletics. "Profile of Roger Bannister". 
    2. ^ Roger Bannister reveals Parkinson's
     
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    May 7: 2007 - The tomb of Herod the Great is discovered.

    Herod the Great

    Herod (/ˈhɛrəd/; Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, Hordos, Greek: Ἡρῴδης, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – 4 BCE),[1][2][3][4][5] also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea,[6][7][8] referred to as the Herodian kingdom. The history of his legacy has polarized opinion, as he is known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (Herod's Temple), the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima, the fortress at Masada and Herodium. Vital details of his life are recorded in the works of the 1st century CE Roman–Jewish historian Josephus. Herod also appears in the Christian Gospel of Matthew as the ruler of Judea who orders the Massacre of the Innocents at the time of the birth of Jesus. Despite his successes, including singlehandedly forging a new aristocracy from practically nothing,[9] he still garnered criticism from various historians. His reign polarizes opinion amongst scholars and historians, some viewing his legacy as evidence of success, or a reminder of his tyrannical rule.

    Upon Herod's death, the Romans divided his kingdom among three of his sons and his sister—Archelaus became ethnarch of the tetrarchy of Judea, Herod Antipas became tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, Philip became tetrarch of territories east of the Jordan, and Salome I was given a toparchy including the cities of Jabneh, Ashdod, and Phasaelis.

    1. ^ Richardson, Peter. Herod: King of the Jews and friend of the Romans, (Continuum International Publishing Group, 1999) pp. xv–xx.
    2. ^ Knoblet, Jerry. Herod the Great (University Press of America, 2005), p. 179.
    3. ^ Rocca, Samuel. Herod's Judaea: a Mediterranean state in the classical world (Mohr Siebeck, 2008) p. 159.
    4. ^ Millar, Fergus; Schürer, Emil; Vermes, Geza. The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (Continuum International Publishing Group, 1973) p. 327.
    5. ^ Wright, N. T. The New Testament and the People of God (SPCK, 1992), p. 172.
    6. ^ McGonigle, Thomas C.; McGonigle, Thomas D.; Quigley, James F. (1988). A History of the Christian Tradition: From its Jewish Origins to the Reformation Volume 1 of A History of the Christian Tradition. Paulist Press. 
    7. ^ Peters, Francis E. (2005). The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Volume II: The Words and Will of God The Words And Will of God. Princeton University Press. 
    8. ^ Kasher, Aryeh; Witztum, Eliezer (2007). King Herod: a persecuted persecutor : a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography. Translation by Karen Gold. Walter de Gruyter. 
    9. ^ Cohen, Shaye. Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Prentice Hall Biblical Archeological Society. p. 269. 
     
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    May 7: 1886 - Pharmacist John Styth Pemberton invents a carbonated beverage that would later be named "Coca-Cola".

    John Styth Pemberton

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    May 9: 1941 - World War II: The German submarine U-110 is captured by the Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.

    Enigma cryptography machine

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    May 10: 1908 - Mother's Day is observed for the first time in the United States - in Grafton, West Virginia.

    Mother%27s_Day
     
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    May 11: 1997 - IBM Deep Blue, a chess-playing supercomputer, defeats Garry Kasparov in the last game of the rematch, becoming the first computer to beat a world-champion chess player.

    IBM Deep Blue

     
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    May 13: 1958 - Velcro's trade mark is registered

    Velcro

    This article is about a company. For other uses, see Velcro (disambiguation).
    For discussion of the fastener, see Hook and loop fastener.

    Velcro Companies is a privately held company that produces a series of mechanical based fastening products, including fabric hook and loop fasteners, under the brand name "Velcro".

     
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    14 May: 1948 - Israel declared to be an independent state and a provisional government is established. Immediately after the declaration, Israel was attacked by the neighboring Arab states. The War of Independence begins.

    Israel

    This article is about the modern country. For other uses, see Israel (disambiguation).

    Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35

    Israel (/ˈɪzrəl/; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל‎‎ Yisrā'el; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎‎ Isrāʼīl), officially known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎‎ About this sound Medīnat Yisrā'el [mediˈnat jisʁaˈʔel]; Arabic: دولة إِسْرَائِيل‎‎ Dawlat Isrāʼīl [dawlat ʔisraːˈʔiːl]), is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip[7] to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. It contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area.[8][9] Israel's financial center and technology hub is Tel Aviv.[10]Jerusalem is the proclaimed capital, although Israeli sovereignty over Jerusalem is internationally unrecognized.[note 1][11][12]

    On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine. This specified borders for new Arab and Jewish states and an area of Jerusalem which was to be administered by the UN under an international regime.[13][14] The end of the British Mandate for Palestine was set for midnight on 14 May 1948. That day, David Ben-Gurion, the executive head of the Zionist Organization and president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, declared "the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel", which would start to function from the termination of the mandate.[15][16][17] The borders of the new state were not specified in the declaration.[14][18] Neighboring Arab armies invaded the former British mandate on the next day and fought the Israeli forces.[19][20] Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states,[21] in the course of which it has occupied the West Bank, Sinai Peninsula (1956–57, 1967–82), part of Southern Lebanon (1982–2000), Gaza Strip (1967–2005; still considered occupied after 2005 disengagement) and the Golan Heights. It extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank.[22][23][24][25]Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed. Israel's occupation of Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem is the world's longest military occupation in modern times.[note 2][27]

    The population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2016 to be 8,541,000 people. It is the world's only Jewish-majority state, with 6,388,800 citizens, or 74.8%, being designated as Jewish. The country's second largest group of citizens are Arabs, numbering 1,775,400 people (including the Druze and most East Jerusalem Arabs).[1][2] The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins; the rest are Christians and Druze. Other minorities include Arameans, Assyrians, Samaritans, Armenians, Circassians, Dom people, Maronites and Vietnamese. The Black Hebrew Israelites are subject to a slow process of deeper integration, but are still in their majority permanent residents rather than citizens.[28][29][30][31] Israel also hosts a significant population of non-citizen foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia,[32] including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea and other Sub-Saharan Africans.

    In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state.[33] Israel is a representative democracy[34] with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage.[35][36] The prime minister serves as head of government and the Knesset serves as the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an OECD member,[37] with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2015. The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with the one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[38][39] The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the fourth highest in Asia,[40][41][42] and has one of the highest life expectancies in the world.[43]

    1. ^ a b "Latest Population Statistics for Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. January 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016. 
    2. ^ a b "Population, by Population Group" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016. 
    3. ^ "The 2008 Israel Integrated Census of Population and Housing" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 28 December 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
    4. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
    5. ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 18 February 2016. 
    6. ^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
    7. ^ "Palestinian Territories". State.gov. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
    8. ^ "Israel". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012. 
    9. ^ Skolnik 2007, pp. 132–232
    10. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
    11. ^ United Nations News Centre (28 October 2009). "Jerusalem must be capital of both Israel and Palestine, Ban says". UN News Centre. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
    12. ^ "''Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel''". Knesset.gov.il. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
    13. ^ Galnoor, Itzhak. The Partition of Palestine: Decision Crossroads in the Zionist Movement. SUNY Press, 1995. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
    14. ^ a b Harris, J. (1998) The Israeli Declaration of Independence The Journal of the Society for Textual Reasoning, Vol. 7
    15. ^ "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
    16. ^ Brenner, Michael; Frisch, Shelley (April 2003). Zionism: A Brief History. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 184. 
    17. ^ "Zionist Leaders: David Ben-Gurion 1886–1973". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
    18. ^ Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    19. ^ The Arab-Israeli War of 1948 (US Department of State, Office of the Historian)"Arab forces joining the Palestinian Arabs in attacking territory in the former Palestinian mandate."
    20. ^ Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, 2006 — Chap.8 "The Arab Regular Armies' Invasion of Palestine".
    21. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 1
    22. ^ "The status of Jerusalem" (PDF). The Question of Palestine & the United Nations. United Nations Department of Public Information. East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory. 
    23. ^ "Analysis: Kadima's big plans". BBC News. 29 March 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
    24. ^ Kessner, BC (2 April 2006). "Israel's Hard-Learned Lessons". Homeland Security Today. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
    25. ^ Kumaraswamy, P. R. (5 June 2002). "The Legacy of Undefined Borders". Tel Aviv Notes. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference occ was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ See for example:
      * Hajjar, Lisa (2005). Courting Conflict: The Israeli Military Court System in the West Bank and Gaza. University of California Press. p. 96. ISBN 0520241940. The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is the longest military occupation in modern times. 
      * Anderson, Perry (July–August 2001). "Editorial: Scurrying Towards Bethlehem". New Left Review. 10. ...longest official military occupation of modern history—currently entering its thirty-fifth year 
      * Makdisi, Saree (2010). Palestine Inside Out: An Everyday Occupation. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393338447. ...longest-lasting military occupation of the modern age 
      * Kretzmer, David (Spring 2012). "The law of belligerent occupation in the Supreme Court of Israel" (PDF). International Review of the Red Cross. 94 (885): 207–236. doi:10.1017/S1816383112000446. This is probably the longest occupation in modern international relations, and it holds a central place in all literature on the law of belligerent occupation since the early 1970s 
      * Alexandrowicz, Ra'anan (24 January 2012), The Justice of Occupation, The New York Times, Israel is the only modern state that has held territories under military occupation for over four decades 
      * Weill, Sharon (2014). The Role of National Courts in Applying International Humanitarian Law. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780199685424. Although the basic philosophy behind the law of military occupation is that it is a temporary situation modem occupations have well demonstrated that rien ne dure comme le provisoire A significant number of post-1945 occupations have lasted more than two decades such as the occupations of Namibia by South Africa and of East Timor by Indonesia as well as the ongoing occupations of Northern Cyprus by Turkey and of Western Sahara by Morocco. The Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, which is the longest in all occupation's history has already entered its fifth decade. 
    28. ^ Alush, Zvi (February 2, 2009). "First Black Hebrew Gets Israeli Citizenship". Ynetnews. Retrieved 2012-02-12. 
    29. ^ Ben Levy, Sholomo. "The Black Jewish or Hebrew Israelite Community". Retrieved 2007-12-15. 
    30. ^ Leader of African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem dies By Jeremy Sharon, 12/28/2014
    31. ^ Rice, Stephanie (4 May 2009). "The Black Hebrews of Israel". GlobalPost. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
    32. ^ Cite error: The named reference Adriana_Kemp was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    33. ^ "Israel". Freedom in the World. Freedom House. 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
    34. ^ Augustus Richard Norton (2001). Civil society in the Middle East. 2 (2001). BRILL. p. 193. ISBN 90-04-10469-0. 
    35. ^ Rummel 1997, p. 257. "A current list of liberal democracies includes: Andorra, Argentina, ... , Cyprus, ... , Israel, ..."
    36. ^ "Global Survey 2006: Middle East Progress Amid Global Gains in Freedom". Freedom House. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
    37. ^ "Israel's accession to the OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
    38. ^ Andreas Schleicher (2013). "ISRAEL – Education at a Glance 2013" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved 4 July 2015. 
    39. ^ LIDAR GRAVE-LAZI (9 September 2014). "OECD report: Israel has large expenditure on education but lower spending per student". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 4 July 2015. 
    40. ^ "Human development index (HDI)". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
    41. ^ "Worldwide, Median Household Income About $10,000". Gallup. 
    42. ^ "Average annual wages, 2013 USD PPPs and 2013 constant prices". Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD. 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
    43. ^ "WHO: Life expectancy in Israel among highest in the world". Haaretz. 24 May 2009. 


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    May 15: 1940 - McDonald's opened its first restaurant in San Bernardino, California.

    McDonald%27s
     

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