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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

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    6th April - the first day of the Modern Olympics in 1896:
    The links in this Wikipedia insert are clickable

    1896 Summer Olympics

    The 1896 Summer Olympics (Modern Greek: Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896, Therinoí Olympiakoí Agó̱nes 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history. Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.

    Winners were given a silver medal, while runners-up received a copper medal. Retroactively, the IOC has converted these to gold and silver, and awarded bronze medals to third placed athletes. Ten of the 14 participating nations earned medals. The United States won the most gold medals, 11; host nation Greece won the most medals overall, 46. The highlight for the Greeks was the marathon victory by their compatriot Spyridon Louis. The most successful competitor was German wrestler and gymnast Carl Schuhmann, who won four events.

    Athens had been unanimously chosen to stage the inaugural modern Games during a congress organised by Coubertin in Paris on 23 June 1894, during which the IOC was also created, because Greece was the birthplace of the Ancient Olympic Games. The main venue was the Panathenaic Stadium, where athletics and wrestling took place; other venues included the Neo Phaliron Velodrome for cycling, and the Zappeion for fencing. The opening ceremony was held in the Panathenaic Stadium on 6 April, during which most of the competing athletes were aligned on the infield, grouped by nation. After a speech by the president of the organising committee, Crown Prince Constantine, his father officially opened the Games. Afterwards, nine bands and 150 choir singers performed an Olympic Hymn, composed by Spyridon Samaras, with words by poet Kostis Palamas.

    The 1896 Olympics were regarded as a great success. The Games had the largest international participation of any sporting event to that date. The Panathenaic Stadium, the only Olympic stadium used in the 1800s, overflowed with the largest crowd ever to watch a sporting event.[3] After the Games, Coubertin and the IOC were petitioned by several prominent figures, including Greece's King George and some of the American competitors in Athens, to hold all the following Games in Athens. However, the 1900 Summer Olympics were already planned for Paris and, except for the Intercalated Games of 1906, the Olympics did not return to Greece until the 2004 Summer Olympics, 108 years later.

    1. ^ The number, given by the International Olympic Committee, is open to interpretation and could be as few as 10 and as many as 15. There are numerous reasons for the disparity: National teams hardly existed at the time, and most athletes represented themselves or their clubs. In addition, countries were not always as well-defined as they are today. The number of countries here reflects the number used by most modern sources. See the relevant section for further details.
    2. ^ This number of competitors is according to the International Olympic Committee. The identities of 179 competitors are known. Mallon & Widlund calculate 245 athletes, while De Wael finds 246.
    3. ^ Young (1996), 153
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    7th April. Those in Australia will remember this disruption 10 years ago today:

    1998 Australian waterfront dispute

    April 1998 ABC news report on the Waterfront Dispute.

    The Australian waterfront dispute of 1998 was a event in Australian industrial relations history, in which the Patrick Corporation undertook a restructuring of their operations for the purpose of increasing the productivity of their workforce. The restructuring by Patrick Corporation was later ruled illegal by Australian courts. The dispute involved Patrick Corporation locking out their workers after the restructuring had taken place, with many of these workers members of the dominant Maritime Union of Australia. The resulting dismissal and locking out of their unionised workforce was supported and backed by the then Australian Liberal/National Coalition Government.

    Major events in the dispute occurred in four major ports, where the Patrick Corporation had significant operations, Melbourne, Brisbane, Fremantle and Sydney.[1] It revolved around attempts by Patrick Corporation and the federal government to improve efficiency on Australia's wharves; primarily by reducing staffing numbers and the power of the Maritime Union of Australia.

    Also 7th April is:

    World Health Day

    The World Health Day is a global health awareness day celebrated every year on 7 April, under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as other related organisations.

    In 1948, the WHO held the First World Health Assembly. The Assembly decided to celebrate 7 April of each year, with effect from 1950, as the World Health Day. The World Health Day is held to mark WHO's founding, and is seen as an opportunity by the organization to draw worldwide attention to a subject of major importance to global health each year.[1] The WHO organizes international, regional and local events on the Day related to a particular theme. World Health Day is acknowledged by various governments and non-governmental organizations with interests in public health issues, who also organize activities and highlight their support in media reports, such as the Global Health Council.[2]

    World Health Day is one of eight official global health campaigns marked by WHO, along with World Tuberculosis Day, World Immunization Week, World Malaria Day, World No Tobacco Day, World AIDS Day, World Blood Donor Day, and World Hepatitis Day.[3]

    1. ^ World Health Organization: World Health Day. Accessed 16 March 2011.
    2. ^ Global Health Council: World Health Day by Lara Endreszl, 7 April 2009.
    3. ^ World Health Organization: WHO campaigns.

    ...and also on this day in 1948, the WHO came into being:

    World Health Organization

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 22 July 1946 headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations.

    The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by 61 countries on 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office international d'hygiène publique and the League of Nations Health Organization. Since its creation, it has played a leading role in the eradication of smallpox. Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases; sexual and reproductive health, development, and ageing; nutrition, food security and healthy eating; occupational health; substance abuse; and driving the development of reporting, publications, and networking.

    The WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, the worldwide World Health Survey, and World Health Day. The Director-General of WHO is Tedros Adhanom who started his five-year term on 1 July 2017.[1]

    Last edited: Apr 7, 2008
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    9th April:

    Alaska purchase

    Redirect to:

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    April 11: Apollo 13 launches:

    Apollo 13

    Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The craft was launched on April 11, 1970, at 13:13 CST (19:13 UTC) from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days later, crippling the Service Module (SM) upon which the Command Module (CM) had depended. Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to make makeshift repairs to the carbon dioxide removal system, the crew returned safely to Earth on April 17, 1970, six days after launch.

    The flight passed the far side of the Moon at an altitude of 254 kilometers (137 nautical miles) above the lunar surface, and 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth, a spaceflight record marking the farthest humans have ever traveled from Earth. The mission was commanded by James A. Lovell with John L. "Jack" Swigert as Command Module Pilot and Fred W. Haise as Lunar Module Pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for the original CM pilot Ken Mattingly, who was grounded by the flight surgeon after exposure to German measles.

    The story of the Apollo 13 mission has been dramatized multiple times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13.

    1. ^ Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Table of Contents". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Retrieved April 15, 2012. 
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    12 April; the first Space Shuttle is launched:


    STS-1 (Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program. The first orbiter, Columbia, launched on 12 April 1981 and returned on 14 April, 54.5 hours later, having orbited the Earth 37 times. Columbia carried a crew of two – mission commander John W. Young and pilot Robert L. Crippen. It was the first American manned space flight since the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in 1975. STS-1 was also the only maiden test flight of a new US spacecraft to carry a crew, though it was preceded by atmospheric testing of the orbiter and ground testing of the space shuttle system.

    The launch occurred on the 20th anniversary of the first-ever human spaceflight. This was a coincidence rather than a celebration of the anniversary; a technical problem had prevented STS-1 from launching two days earlier, as was planned.

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    April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 262 days remaining until the end of the year.

    It is also the Ides (middle day) of April.

    and in 1997, Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win golf's Masters Tournament.

    Tiger Woods

    Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods[5] (born December 30, 1975)[6][7] is an American professional golfer who is among the most successful golfers of all time. He has been one of the highest-paid athletes in the world for several years.

    Following an outstanding junior, college, and amateur career, Woods was 20 years old when he turned professional at the end of the summer in 1996. By April 1997, he had already won three PGA tour events in addition to his first major, the 1997 Masters. Woods won this tournament by 12 strokes in a record-breaking performance and pocketed $486,000. He first reached the number one position in the world rankings in June 1997, less than a year after turning pro. Throughout the 2000s, Woods was the dominant force in golf. He was the top-ranked golfer in the world from August 1999 to September 2004 (264 weeks) and again from June 2005 to October 2010 (281 weeks).

    Woods took a hiatus from professional golf from December 2009 to early April 2010 in order to focus on difficult issues in his personal life. He and his estranged wife Elin eventually divorced. His many alleged extramarital indiscretions were revealed by several women, through many worldwide media sources.[8] This was followed by a loss of golf form, and his ranking gradually fell to a low of No. 58 in November 2011.[9][10] He ended a career-high winless streak of 107 weeks when he triumphed in the Chevron World Challenge in December 2011.[10] After winning the Arnold Palmer Invitational on March 25, 2013, he ascended to the No.1 ranking once again, holding the top spot until May 2014. Woods had back surgery in April 2014 and September 2015[11] and has struggled since to regain his dominant form. By March 29, 2015, Woods had fallen to #104, outside of the top 100 for the first time since 1996.[12] In May 2016, Woods dropped out of the world top 500 for the first time in his professional career.[13] In July 2017, the Official World Golf Ranking placed Woods at number 1,005, the worst of his career and only time he has ever been out of the top 1,000. He had ranked number one for a total of 683 weeks, more than any other player in history.[14]

    Woods has broken numerous golf records. He has been World Number One for the most consecutive weeks and for the greatest total number of weeks of any golfer. He has been awarded PGA Player of the Year a record eleven times,[15] the Byron Nelson Award for lowest adjusted scoring average a record eight times, and has the record of leading the money list in ten different seasons. He has won 14 professional major golf championships, where he trails only Jack Nicklaus who leads with 18, and 79 PGA Tour events, second all-time behind Sam Snead, who had 82 wins.[16] Woods leads all active golfers in career major wins and career PGA Tour wins. He is the youngest player to achieve the career Grand Slam, and the youngest and fastest to win 50 tournaments on tour. Additionally, Woods is only the second golfer (after Nicklaus) to have achieved a career Grand Slam three times. Woods has won 18 World Golf Championships, and won at least one of those events in each of the first 11 years after they began in 1999. Woods and Rory McIlroy are the only golfers to win both The Silver Medal and The Gold Medal at The Open Championship.

    1. ^ a b "Tiger Woods – Profile". PGA Tour. Retrieved June 7, 2015. 
    2. ^ This is calculated by adding Woods' 79 PGA Tour victories, 8 regular European Tour titles, 2 Japan Tour wins, 1 Asian Tour crown, and the 16 other wins in his career.
    3. ^ These are the 14 majors, 18 WGC events, and his eight tour wins.
    4. ^ 2009 European Tour Official Guide Section 4 Page 577 PDF 21. European Tour. Retrieved April 21, 2009. Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference decree was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Sounes, Howard (2004). The Wicked Game: Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Tiger Woods, and the Story of Modern Golf. Harper Collins. pp. 120–121, 293. ISBN 0-06-051386-1. 
    7. ^ "Tiger Woods Biography: Golfer (1975–)". Biography.com (FYI / A&E Networks). Retrieved May 3, 2015. 
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference legend was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "Westwood becomes world number one". BBC News. October 31, 2010. 
    10. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference chevron was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ "Tiger Undergoes Successful Back Surgery, Is Hopeful To Return In Early 2016". TigerWoods.com. September 18, 2015. Retrieved April 6, 2015. 
    12. ^ "Tiger Woods decides to play in the Masters". USA Today. April 3, 2015. 
    13. ^ Inglis, Martin (May 3, 2016). "Tiger Woods falls out of world top 500". bunkered. 
    14. ^ Zak, Sean (2017-07-17). "Tiger Woods no longer a top 1,000 player in the world golf ranking". Golf.com. Retrieved 2017-07-18. 
    15. ^ Kelley, Brent (October 20, 2009). "Woods Clinches PGA Player of the Year Award". About.com: Golf. Retrieved December 2, 2009. 
    16. ^ "Tracking Tiger". NBC Sports. Retrieved June 3, 2009. 
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    1860 - The first Pony Express rider reaches Sacramento, U.S..

    Pony Express

    Pony Express advertisement
    Pony Express Postmark, 1860, westbound

    The Pony Express was a mail service delivering messages, newspapers, and mail.

    Officially operating as the Leavenworth and Pike's Peak Express Company of 1859, in 1860 it became the Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express Company; this firm was founded by William H. Russell, Alexander Majors, and William B. Waddell, all of whom were notable in the freighting business.[1]

    During its 19 months of operation, it reduced the time for messages to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts to about 10 days.[2] From April 3, 1860 to October 1861, it became the West's most direct means of east–west communication before the telegraph was established and was vital for tying the new state of California with the rest of the United States.

    1. ^ Bradley (1913), p. 21.
    2. ^ Bradley (1913), pp. 25–29.
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    April 1912 -The British passenger liner RMS Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic

    RMS Titanic

    RMS Titanic (/tˈtænɪk/) was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early morning hours of 15 April 1912, after it collided with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. There were an estimated 2,224 passengers and crew aboard the ship, and more than 1,500 died, making it one of the deadliest commercial peacetime maritime disasters in modern history. The RMS Titanic was the largest ship afloat at the time it entered service and was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line. The Titanic was built by the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast. Thomas Andrews, her architect, died in the disaster.[2]

    Titanic was under the command of Edward Smith, who also went down with the ship. The ocean liner carried some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as hundreds of emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland, Scandinavia and elsewhere throughout Europe who were seeking a new life in the United States. The first-class accommodation was designed to be the pinnacle of comfort and luxury, with an on-board gymnasium, swimming pool, libraries, high-class restaurants and opulent cabins. A high-powered radiotelegraph transmitter was available for sending passenger "marconigrams" and for the ship's operational use. [3] Although Titanic had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, there were not enough lifeboats to accommodate all of those aboard, due to outdated maritime safety regulations. Titanic only carried enough lifeboats for 1,178 people—slightly more than half of the number on board, and one third of her total capacity. The ship carried a total of 16 lifeboat davits which could lower three lifeboats each, for a total of 48 boats. However, Titanic carried only a total of 20 lifeboats, four of which were collapsible and proved to be hard to launch during the sinking. [4]

    After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland before heading west to New York.[5] On 14 April, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles (600 km) south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 p.m. ship's time. The collision caused the ship's hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard (right) side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea; she could only survive four flooding. Meanwhile, passengers and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only partially loaded. A disproportionate number of men were left aboard because of a "women and children first" protocol for loading lifeboats.[6] At 2:20 a.m., she broke apart and foundered—with well over one thousand people still aboard. Just under two hours after the Titanic sank, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived at the scene, where she brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors.

    The disaster was met with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that had led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), which still governs maritime safety today. Additionally, several new wireless regulations were passed around the world in an effort to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications—which could have saved many more passengers.[7]

    The wreck of Titanic was first discovered in 1985 (more than 70 years after the disaster), and the vessel remains on the seabed. The ship was split in two and is gradually disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet (3,784 m). Since her discovery in 1985, thousands of artefacts have been recovered and put on display at museums around the world. Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history; her memory is kept alive by numerous works of popular culture, including books, folk songs, films, exhibits, and memorials. Titanic is the second largest ocean liner wreck in the world, only beaten by her sister HMHS Britannic, the largest ever sunk.

    1. ^ Beveridge & Hall 2004, p. 1.
    2. ^ Official investigation report - the sinking of RMS Titanic (PDF) (1 ed.). London: The final board of inquiry. Retrieved 27 July 2017. 
    3. ^ Hsu, J. (April 17, 2012). "How Marconi's Wireless Tech Helped Save Titanic Passengers", New York: NBC NEWS. Assessed at: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/47046053/ns/technology_and_science-innovation/t/how-marconis-wireless-tech-helped-save-titanic-passengers/#.WgSS4Fu3z3g
    4. ^ Vander Hook, S. (2008). Titanic. Edina, Minnesota: ABDO Publishing Company., p. 18.
    5. ^ "Titanic Ship Listing". Chris' Cunard Page. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012. 
    6. ^ Second Officer Lightoller insisted on excluding men, while First Officer Murdoch, on the other side of the ship, permitted men and women to board the lifeboats.
    7. ^ "Patrick S. Ryan, The ITU and the Internet's Titanic Moment" (PDF). Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
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    April 16. 2007 - Virginia Tech massacre: the deadliest mass shooting in modern American history, in which a gunman shoots 32 people to death and injures 23 others before committing suicide.

    Virginia Tech massacre

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    April 17:

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961. A counter-revolutionary military group (made up of mostly Cuban exiles who traveled to the United States after Castro's takeover, but also of some US military personnel[6]), trained and funded by the CIA, Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF) and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro. Launched from Guatemala and Nicaragua, the invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, under the direct command of Castro.

    The coup of 1952 led by General Fulgencio Batista, an ally of the United States, against President Carlos Prio, forced Prio into exile to Miami, Florida. Prio's exile was the reason for the 26th July Movement led by Castro. The movement, which did not succeed until after the Cuban Revolution of 31 December 1958, severed the country's formerly strong links with the US after nationalizing American economic assets (banks, oil refineries, sugar and coffee plantations, along with other American owned businesses).

    It was after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, that Castro forged strong economic links with the Soviet Union, with which, at the time, the United States was engaged in the Cold War. US President Dwight D. Eisenhower was very concerned at the direction Castro's government was taking, and in March 1960 he allocated $13.1 million to the CIA to plan Castro's overthrow (though the plan to overthrow Castro was put off for Kennedy to decide). The CIA proceeded to organize the operation with the aid of various Cuban counter-revolutionary forces, training Brigade 2506 in Guatemala. Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy, approved the final invasion plan on 4 April 1961.

    Over 1,400 paramilitaries, divided into five infantry battalions and one paratrooper battalion, assembled in Guatemala before setting out for Cuba by boat on 13 April 1961. Two days later, on 15 April, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers attacked Cuban airfields and then returned to the US. On the night of 16 April, the main invasion landed at a beach named Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs. It initially overwhelmed a local revolutionary militia. The Cuban Army's counter-offensive was led by José Ramón Fernández, before Castro decided to take personal control of the operation. As the US involvement became apparent to the world, and with the initiative turning against the invasion, Kennedy decided against providing further air cover.[7] As a result, the operation only had half the forces the CIA had deemed necessary. The original plan devised during Eisenhower's presidency had required both air and naval support. On 20 April, the invaders surrendered after only three days, with the majority being publicly interrogated and put into Cuban prisons.

    The failed invasion helped to strengthen the position of Castro's leadership, made him a national hero, and cemented the rocky relationship between the former allies. It also strengthened the relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union. This eventually led to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The invasion was a major failure for US foreign policy; Kennedy ordered a number of internal investigations across Latin America. Cuban forces under Castro's leadership clashed directly with US forces during the Invasion of Grenada over 20 years later.

    1. ^ Kellner 1989, pp. 69–70. "Historians give Guevara, who was director of instruction for Cuba's armed forces, a share of credit for the victory".
    2. ^ Szulc (1986), p. 450. "The revolutionaries won because Castro's strategy was vastly superior to the Central Intelligence Agency's; because the revolutionary morale was high; and because Che Guevara as the head of the militia training program and Fernández as commander of the militia officers' school, had done so well in preparing 200,000 men and women for war."
    3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference szulc1986 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b FRUS X, documents 19, 24, 35, 245, 271.
    5. ^ Fineman, Mark (1990-01-24). "Mongolia Reform Group Marches to Rock Anthem". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-12-26. Mongolia-watchers in Beijing said that... the democracy movement is rooted more in nationalism than in dissent.... 'Watching it unfold, you get the feeling this is more a pro-nationalist and pro-Mongolian movement than it is anti-party or anti-government,' said a diplomat who left Ulan Bator on Monday. 
    6. ^ "Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Alabama Air National Guard | Encyclopedia of Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 2017-11-20. 
    7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
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    April 18: 1923 - Yankee Stadium, "The House that Ruth Built", opens.

    Yankee Stadium

    Yankee Stadium is a stadium located in the Concourse section of the Bronx, a borough of New York City. It serves as the home ballpark for the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball (MLB), and is also the home park for New York City FC of Major League Soccer (MLS). The $2.3 billion stadium, built with $1.2 billion in public subsidies,[16] replaced the original Yankee Stadium in 2009. It is located one block north of the original, on the 24-acre (9.7 ha) former site of Macombs Dam Park; the 8-acre (3.2 ha) site of the original stadium is now a public park called Heritage Field.

    The stadium incorporates replicas of some design elements from the original Yankee Stadium, and like its predecessor, it has hosted additional events, including college football games, soccer matches, two outdoor NHL games, and concerts. Although Yankee Stadium's construction began in August 2006, the project spanned many years and faced many controversies, including the high public cost and the loss of public parkland. The overall price tag makes the new Yankee Stadium the most expensive stadium ever built.[20]

    1. ^ Mushnick, Phil. "Yankees brass turned Stadium games into a funeral". nypost.com. The New York Post. Retrieved August 29, 2017. Given the Stadium was short roughly 15,000 who might’ve otherwise been there... 
    2. ^ Popper, Daniel. "Young star Aaron Judge the talk of Yankees' Old-Timers' Day at the Stadium". nydailynews.com. The New York Daily News. Retrieved August 29, 2017. Many of the greatest living Yankees from the past half-century graced the field at the Stadium Sunday for Old-Timers’ Day... 
    3. ^ "The House That Jeter Built". MLB.com. Retrieved November 19, 2014. 
    4. ^ "New York Yankees on the Forbes MLB Team Valuations List". Forbes. April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017. 
    5. ^ Kronheim, David P. (2016). "2015 MLB Attendance Analysis" (PDF). Flushing, NY: Number Tamer. pp. 11, 165. Retrieved February 18, 2017. 
    6. ^ "New York Yankees on the Forbes MLB Team Valuations List". Forbes. March 25, 2015. Archived from the original on June 4, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2016. 
    7. ^ Marchand, Andrew; Matthews, Wallace (March 25, 2014). "Question 4: Will Jeter Lure 4 Million Fans?". ESPN. Retrieved March 26, 2014. 
    8. ^ Perrotto, John (October 12, 2012). "Yankee Stadium Sea of Blue – Empty Seats – at Game Time". USA Today. Retrieved March 16, 2013. 
    9. ^ Shpigel, Ben (October 14, 2010). "Vazquez's Final Pitch in Pinstripes?". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2014. 
    10. ^ Booth, Mark. "What's New for NYCFC This Season?". NYCFC.com. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
    11. ^ a b "New York City FC outline plans for Yankee Stadium's baseball-to-soccer conversion". Major League Soccer. April 21, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014. 
    12. ^ "Notre Dame Shut Downs Army, Rolls In New Yankee Stadium Debut". University of Notre Dame Official Athletic Site. Associated Press. November 20, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2016. 
    13. ^ "Tigers Beat Yankees 3-2, Head to ALCS vs Texas". Sports Illustrated. Associated Press. October 6, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2013. 
    14. ^ Manchester City 2-2 Liverpool: Simon Mignolet the hero as Reds win on spot-kicks
    15. ^ Notre Dame Shut Downs Army, Rolls In New Yankee Stadium Debut
    16. ^ a b http://www.fieldofschemes.com/documents/Yanks-Mets-costs.pdf
    17. ^ "Yankee Stadium". Populous. Retrieved March 10, 2013. 
    18. ^ a b Scarangello, Thomas Z.; Squarzini, Michael J. (July 2009). "New Yankee Stadium respects its rich history". Structural Engineer. Retrieved September 19, 2011. 
    19. ^ "Yankee Stadium". Ballparks Munsey and Suppes. Retrieved March 16, 2013. 
    20. ^ "NYC baseball stadium subsidies: Do I hear $1.8B?". Field of Schemes. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
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    April 19 1995 - Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, is bombed, killing 168.

    Oklahoma City bombing

    The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States on April 19, 1995. Perpetrated by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, the bombing killed 168 people,[1] injured more than 680 others, and destroyed one-third of the building.[2] The blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings within a 16-block radius, shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, and destroyed or burned 86 cars,[3][4] causing an estimated $652 million worth of damage.[5] Extensive rescue efforts were undertaken by local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies in the wake of the bombing, and substantial donations were received from across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated eleven of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations.[6][7] The Oklahoma City bombing was the deadliest terrorist attack on American soil until the September 11 attacks six years later, and it still remains the deadliest incident of domestic terrorism in United States history.

    Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma Highway Patrolman Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for illegal weapons possession.[8][9] Forensic evidence quickly linked McVeigh and Nichols to the attack; Nichols was arrested,[10] and within days, both were charged. Michael and Lori Fortier were later identified as accomplices. McVeigh, a veteran of the Gulf War and a U.S. militia movement sympathizer, had detonated a Ryder rental truck full of explosives parked in front of the building. His co-conspirator, Nichols, had assisted with the bomb's preparation. Motivated by his dislike for the U.S. federal government and angry about its handling of the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992 and the Waco siege in 1993, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the deadly fire that ended the siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas.[11][12]

    The official investigation, known as "OKBOMB", saw FBI agents conduct 28,000 interviews, amass 3.5 short tons (3,200 kg) of evidence, and collect nearly one billion pieces of information.[13][14][15] The bombers were tried and convicted in 1997. McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001, and Nichols was sentenced to life in prison in 2004. Michael and Lori Fortier testified against McVeigh and Nichols; Michael was sentenced to 12 years in prison for failing to warn the United States government, and Lori received immunity from prosecution in exchange for her testimony.

    As a result of the bombing, the U.S. Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, which tightened the standards for habeas corpus in the United States,[16] as well as legislation designed to increase the protection around federal buildings to deter future terrorist attacks. On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building, commemorating the victims of the bombing. Annual remembrance services are held at the same time of day as the explosion occurred.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference VictimAges was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Shariat, Sheryll; Sue Mallonee; Shelli Stephens-Stidham (December 1998). "Oklahoma City Bombing Injuries" (PDF). Injury Prevention Service, Oklahoma State Department of Health.  Shariat & al. count only 167 killed "as a direct result of the bombing or during escape". They did not include Rebecca Needham Anderson, who – having seen the bombing on TV in Midwest City, Oklahoma – came to the rescue and was killed by a piece of falling debris.The Final Sacrifice of a Gallant Nurse
    3. ^ "Oklahoma City Police Department Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing After Action Report" (PDF). Terrorism Info. p. 58. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2007. 
    4. ^ "Case Study 30: Preventing glass from becoming a lethal weapon". Safety Solutions Online. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. 
    5. ^ Hewitt, Christopher (2003). Understanding Terrorism in America: from the Klan to al Qaeda. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-415-27765-5. 
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference USDJ2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "FEMA Urban Search And Rescue (USAR) Summaries" (PDF). Federal Emergency Management Agency. p. 64. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2006. 
    8. ^ "Timothy McVeigh is apprehended". NBC News Report. April 22, 1995. Archived from the original (Video, 3 minutes) on February 27, 2011. 
    9. ^ Ottley, Ted (April 14, 2005). "License Tag Snag". truTV. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011. 
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference TerrorFamily was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Feldman, Paul (June 18, 1995). "Militia Groups Growing, Study Says Extremism: Despite negative publicity since Oklahoma bombing, membership has risen, Anti-Defamation League finds" (Fee required). Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
    12. ^ "McVeigh offers little remorse in letters". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. June 10, 2001. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011. 
    13. ^ Serano, Richard. One of Ours: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing. pp. 139–141. 
    14. ^ "Lessons learned, and not learned, 11 years later". MSNBC. Associated Press. April 16, 2006. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011. 
    15. ^ Hamm, Mark S. Apocalypse in Oklahoma. p. vii. ISBN 1-55553-300-0. 
    16. ^ Doyle, Charles (June 3, 1996). "Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary". FAS. Archived from the original on March 18, 2011. 
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    April 21: 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome

    Romulus and Remus

    La Lupa Capitolina "the Capitoline Wolf". Traditional scholarship says the wolf-figure is Etruscan, 5th century BC. The figures of Romulus and Remus were added in the 15th century AD by Antonio Pollaiuolo. Recent studies suggest that the she-wolf may be a medieval sculpture dating from the 13th century AD.[1] The work's attribution attests to the enduring nature of the myth.
    Altar to Mars (divine father of Romulus and Remus) and Venus (their divine ancestress) depicting elements of their legend. Tiberinus, the Father of the Tiber and the infant twins being suckled by a she-wolf in the Lupercal are below. A vulture from the contest of augury and Palatine hill are to the left. (From Ostia, now at the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme).
    The Shepherd Faustulus Bringing Romulus and Remus to His Wife, Nicolas Mignard (1654)

    In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus are twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus. The killing of Remus by his brother, and other tales from their story, have inspired artists throughout the ages. Since ancient times, the image of the twins being suckled by a she-wolf has been a symbol of the city of Rome and the Roman people. Although the tale takes place before the founding of Rome around 750 BC, the earliest known written account of the myth is from the late 3rd century BC. Possible historical basis for the story, as well as whether the twins' myth was an original part of Roman myth or a later development is a subject of ongoing debate.

    1. ^ Adriano La Regina, "La lupa del Campidoglio è medievale la prova è nel test al carbonio". La Repubblica. 9 July 2008
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    April 22: 1509 - Henry VIII ascends the throne of England after the death of his father.

    Henry VIII of England

    Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII.

    Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority and appointing himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings.[2]

    Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, he greatly expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, and those accused were often executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder. He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry's administration. He was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money that was formerly paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly continental wars, particularly with Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, as he sought to enforce his claim to the Kingdom of France. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland.

    His contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated and accomplished king. He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne".[3] He was an author and composer. As he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.[4] He was succeeded by his son Edward VI.

    1. ^ Westminsterabbey 2017.
    2. ^ Scarisbrick 1997, p. 361
    3. ^ Guy 2000, p. 41.
    4. ^ Ives 2006, pp. 28–36
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    April 23: 1985 - Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. (The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.)

    New Coke

    New Coke was the unofficial name for the reformulation of Coca-Cola introduced in April 1985 by the Coca-Cola Company to replace the original formula of its flagship soft drink, Coca-Cola (also called Coke). New Coke originally had no separate name of its own but was simply known as "the new taste of Coca-Cola" until 1992, when it was renamed Coke II.

    Coca-Cola's market share had been losing ground to diet soft drinks and non-cola beverages for many years. Consumers who were purchasing regular colas seemed to prefer the sweeter taste of rival Pepsi-Cola, as Coca-Cola learned in conducting blind taste tests. However, the American public's reaction to the change was negative, even hostile, and the new cola was a major failure. The subsequent, rapid reintroduction of Coke's original formula, rebranded "Coca-Cola Classic" and put back into market within three months of New Coke's debut, resulted in a significant gain in sales. This led to speculation that the introduction of the New Coke formula was just a marketing ploy; however, the company has maintained it was a genuine attempt to replace the original product.[1]

    New Coke was discontinued in July 2002. It remains influential as a cautionary tale against tampering too extensively with a well-established and successful brand.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snopes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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    April 24: 1980 - Eight U.S. servicemen died in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempted to end the Iran hostage crisis.

    Operation Eagle Claw

    Operation Eagle Claw (or Operation Evening Light or Operation Rice Bowl), known as Operation Tabas (Persian: عملیات طبس‎) in Iran,[1] was a United States Armed Forces operation ordered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter to attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis by rescuing 52 embassy staff held captive at the Embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980. Its failure, and the humiliating public debacle that ensued, damaged U.S. prestige worldwide. Carter himself blamed his loss in the 1980 U.S. presidential election mainly on his failure to win the release of the hostages.[2]

    The operation encountered many obstacles and was eventually aborted. Eight helicopters were sent to the first staging area, Desert One, but only five arrived in operational condition.[3] One encountered hydraulic problems, another got caught in a cloud of very fine sand, and the last one showed signs of a cracked rotor blade. During planning it was decided that the mission would be aborted if fewer than six helicopters remained, despite only four being absolutely necessary.[3] In a move that is still discussed in military circles, the field commanders advised mission abort, which President Carter accepted and confirmed.[4]

    As the U.S. force prepared to leave, one of the helicopters crashed into a transport aircraft which contained both servicemen and jet fuel. The resulting fire destroyed both aircraft and killed eight servicemen.[3] Operation Eagle Claw was one of Delta Force's first missions.[5][Note 1]

    1. ^ AFSOC.af.mil Archived 16 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
    2. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Iran hostage rescue should have worked". USA Today. 17 September 2010. 
    3. ^ a b c Bowden, Mark. "The Desert One Debacle". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
    4. ^ "V28N2 - Operation Eagle Claw, 1980: A Case Study In Crisis Management and Military Planning". 
    5. ^ a b Gabriel (1985), pp. 106–116.

    Cite error: There are <ref group=Note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=Note}} template (see the help page).

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    1916 - Anzac Day commemorated for the first time, on the first anniversary of the landing at Anzac Cove

    Anzac Day

    Anzac Day /ˈænzækˈdæi/ is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served".[1][2] Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who fought at Gallipoli against the Ottoman Empire during World War I.

    Anzac Day is also observed in the Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, and Tonga, and previously was a national holiday in Papua New Guinea and Samoa.[3][4]

    1. ^ "ANZAC Day". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
    2. ^ "Anzac Day Today". Anzac.govt.nz. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
    3. ^ Qpp Studio [1] Retrieved on 25 April 2014
    4. ^ Air New Zealand International, Samoa to commemorate ANZAC day without a public holiday, 25 April 2008
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    1974_Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon

    Carnation Revolution

    The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (Portuguese: vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.[1] The revolution started as a military coup organized by the Armed Forces Movement (Portuguese: Movimento das Forças Armadas, MFA) composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but the movement was soon coupled with an unanticipated and popular campaign of civil resistance. This movement would lead to the fall of the Estado Novo and the withdrawal of Portugal from its African colonies.

    The name "Carnation Revolution" comes from the fact that almost no shots were fired and that when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship and war in the colonies, carnations were put into the muzzles of rifles and on the uniforms of the army men. In Portugal, 25 April is a national holiday, known as Freedom Day (Portuguese: Dia da Liberdade), to celebrate the event.

    1. ^ "1974: Rebels seize control of Portugal", On This Day, 25 April, BBC, 25 April 1974, retrieved 2 January 2010 
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    April 26: 1986 - In Ukraine, a nuclear reactor accident occurs at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, creating the world's worst nuclear disaster.

    Chernobyl plant

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    April 28: 1996 - In Tasmania, Australia, Martin Bryant goes on a shooting spree, killing 35 people and seriously injuring 37 more.

    Martin Bryant

    Martin John Bryant[1] (born 7 May 1967) is an Australian man who is known for murdering 35 people and injuring 23 others in the Port Arthur massacre, one of the world's deadliest shooting sprees, in Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia between 28–29 April 1996. He is currently serving 35 life sentences plus 1,035 years without parole in Hobart's Risdon Prison.

    1. ^ Wainwright, Robert; Totaro, Paola (27 April 2009). "A dangerous mind: what turned Martin Bryant into a mass murderer?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
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    April 29: 1992 - 1992 Los Angeles riots: Riots in Los Angeles, California, follow the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. Over the next three days 53 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.

    1992 Los Angeles riots

    The 1992 Los Angeles riots, also known as the Rodney King riots, the South Central riots, the 1992 Los Angeles civil disturbance, the 1992 Los Angeles civil unrest, and the Los Angeles uprising,[4] were a series of riots, lootings, arsons, and civil disturbances that occurred in Los Angeles County, California in April and May 1992. The unrest began in South Central Los Angeles on April 29, after a trial jury acquitted four officers of the Los Angeles Police Department for usage of excessive force in the videotaped arrest and beating of Rodney King. It then spread throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area as thousands of people rioted over a six-day period following the announcement of the verdict.

    Widespread looting, assault, arson, and killings occurred during the riots, and estimates of property damage were over $1 billion. Order was only restored after members of the California Army National Guard, the 7th Infantry Division, and the 1st Marine Division were called in to stop the rioting when local police could not control the situation. In total, 63 people were killed during the riots, 2,383 people were injured, and more than 12,000 were arrested. LAPD chief of police Daryl Gates, who had already announced his resignation by the time of the riots, took much of the institutional blame.

    1. ^ "Los Angeles riots: Remember the 63 people who died". April 26, 2012. 
    2. ^ Harris, Paul (1999). Black Rage Confronts the Law. NYU Press. p. 186. ISBN 9780814735923. Retrieved 25 October 2017. 
    3. ^ Rayner, Richard (1998). The Granta Book of Reportage. Granta Books. p. 424. ISBN 9781862071933. Retrieved 25 October 2017. 
    4. ^ "Rodney King Case and the Los Angeles Uprising - UCLA Film & Television Archive". www.cinema.ucla.edu. 
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    30 April: 1975 - Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gain control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ends with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh.

    Fall of Saigon

    The Liberation or (depending on the context) the Fall of Saigon[1][2] was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic.

    North Vietnamese forces, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhất Airport killed the last two American servicemen to die in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge.[3] By the afternoon of the next day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace. The South Vietnamese government capitulated shortly afterwards. The city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the Democratic Republic's late President Hồ Chí Minh.

    The capture of the city was preceded by the evacuation of almost all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians who had been associated with the southern regime.[4] The evacuation culminated in Operation Frequent Wind, the largest helicopter evacuation in history.[5] In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and the institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city's population.[6]

    1. ^ Los Angeles Times (29 April 2015). "Is it Liberation Day or Defeat Day in Saigon?". latimes.com. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
    2. ^ "Giai Phong! The Fall and Liberation of Saigon". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
    3. ^ McMahon and Judge
    4. ^ A few Americans chose not to be evacuated. Documented accounts include the following:
    5. ^ Dunham and Quinlan, 202.
    6. ^ Desbarats, Jacqueline. "Repression in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Executions and Population Relocation", from The Vietnam Debate (1990) by John Morton Moore.
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    1 May: 1328 - Wars of Scottish Independence end: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton – England recognises Scotland as an independent nation.

    Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton

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    2 May: 1946 - "Battle of Alcatraz" - Alcatraz Federal prison, San Francisco is taken over by six inmates following failed escape attempt

    Battle of Alcatraz

    The Battle of Alcatraz, which lasted from May 2 to 4, 1946, was the result of an unsuccessful escape attempt at Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary. Two guards—William A. Miller and Harold Stites—were killed along with three of the inmates. Eleven guards and one uninvolved convict were also injured. Two of the surviving convicts were later executed for their roles.[1]

    1. ^ "A Brief History of Alcatraz". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
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    May 3: 1979 - Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher to become United Kingdom's first female prime minister as the Labour government is ousted in parliamentary elections.

    Margaret Thatcher

    Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS, FRIC (née Roberts; 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to have been appointed. A Soviet journalist dubbed her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.

    A research chemist before becoming a barrister, Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his Conservative government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition and became the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. She became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election.

    On moving into 10 Downing Street, Thatcher introduced a series of political and economic initiatives intended to reverse high unemployment and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an ongoing recession.[nb 1] Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Thatcher's popularity during her first years in office waned amid recession and increasing unemployment, until victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her decisive re-election in 1983. She survived an assassination attempt in 1984.

    Thatcher was re-elected for a third term in 1987. During this period her support for a Community Charge (referred to as the "poll tax") was widely unpopular, and her views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet. She resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership. After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher (of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire) which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. In 2013 she died of a stroke in London at the age of 87. Always a controversial figure, she has nonetheless been lauded as one of the greatest, most influential and widest-known politicians in British history, even as arguments over Thatcherism persist.

    1. ^ "1979 Conservative Party General Election Manifesto". PoliticalStuff.co.uk. Retrieved 28 July 2009. 

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    May 4: 1924 - The 1924 Summer Olympics open in Paris, France.

    1924 Summer Olympics

    The 1924 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France. It was the second time Paris hosted the games, after 1900. The selection process for the 1924 Summer Olympics consisted of six bids, and Paris was selected ahead of Amsterdam, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Prague, and Rome. The selection was made at the 20th IOC Session in Lausanne in 1921.[1]

    The cost of the Games of the VIII Olympiad was estimated to be 10,000,000. With total receipts at 5,496,610₣, the Olympics resulted in a hefty loss despite crowds that reached 60,000 people at a time.[2]

    1. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
    2. ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
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    May 5; 1494 - Christopher Columbus discovers the island of Jamaica and claims it for Spain.

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo [kriˈstɔːforo koˈlombo];[a]c. 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer. Born in the Republic of Genoa,[3] under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the permanent European colonization of the New World.

    At a time when European kingdoms were beginning to establish new trade routes and colonies, motivated by imperialism and economic competition, Columbus proposed to reach the East Indies (South and Southeast Asia) by sailing westward. This eventually received the support of the Spanish Crown, which saw a chance to enter the spice trade with Asia through this new route. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving in Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three more voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America, claiming all of it for the Crown of Castile.

    Though preceded by short-lived Norse colonization of North America led by Leif Erikson in the 11th century,[4][5] Columbus is the European explorer credited with establishing and documenting routes to the Americas, securing lasting European ties to the Americas, and inaugurating a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for centuries. His exertions thereby strongly contributed to the development of the modern Western world. He also founded the transatlantic slave trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion.[6]

    Columbus had set course in hopes of finding a western route to the Indies (Asia). He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios (Spanish for "Indians").[7][8][9] His strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and dismissal as governor of the settlements on the island of Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.

    1. ^ Portraits of Christopher Columbus – Columbus Monuments Pages. Vanderkrogt.
    2. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Columbus, Diego. The youngest brother of Christopher Columbus". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.  – The names Giacomo and Diego are cognates, along with James, all sharing a common origin. See Behind the Name, Mike Campbell, pages Giacomo, Diego, and James. All retrieved 2017-02-03.
    3. ^ Beazley 1911, p. 741.
    4. ^ "History – Leif Erikson (11th century)". BBC. Retrieved 12 October 2015. 
    5. ^ "Why Do We Celebrate Columbus Day and Not Leif Erikson Day?". National Geographic. 11 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015. 
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference EB-online was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Hoxie, Frederick (1996). Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-395-66921-1. 
    8. ^ Herbst, Philip (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1. Retrieved 2016-02-28. 
    9. ^ Wilton, David (2 December 2004). Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends. Oxford University Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-0-19-517284-3. 

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

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    May 5: 1954 - Roger Bannister becomes the first person to run the mile in under four minutes.

    Roger Bannister

    Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister, CH, CBE (born 23 March 1929) is an English former middle-distance athlete, physician and academic, who ran the first sub-four-minute mile.

    In the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Bannister set a British record in the 1500 metres and finished fourth. This strengthened his resolve to be the first 4-minute miler. He achieved this feat on 6 May 1954 at Iffley Road track in Oxford, with Chris Chataway and Chris Brasher providing the pacing. When the announcer, Norris McWhirter, declared "The time was three...", the cheers of the crowd drowned out Bannister's exact time, which was 3 minutes 59.4 seconds. Bannister's record lasted just 46 days. He had reached this record with minimal training, while practising as a junior doctor.

    Bannister went on to become a distinguished neurologist and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, before retiring in 1993. When asked whether the 4-minute mile was his proudest achievement, he said he felt prouder of his contribution to academic medicine through research into the responses of the nervous system. Bannister was patron of the MSA Trust. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 2011.[2]

    1. ^ a b c All-Athletics. "Profile of Roger Bannister". 
    2. ^ Sale, Jerome (2 May 2014). "Sir Roger Bannister reveals Parkinson's disease battle" – via www.bbc.co.uk. 
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    May 7: 2007 - The tomb of Herod the Great is discovered.

    Herod the Great

    Herod (/ˈhɛrəd/; Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, Modern Hordos Tiberian Hōrádōs, Greek: Ἡρῴδης, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE),[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea,[10][11][12] referred to as the Herodian kingdom. The history of his legacy has polarized opinion, as he is known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (Herod's Temple), the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima, the fortress at Masada and Herodium. Vital details of his life are recorded in the works of the 1st century CE Roman–Jewish historian Josephus. Herod also appears in the Christian Gospel of Matthew as the ruler of Judea who orders the Massacre of the Innocents at the time of the birth of Jesus. Despite his successes, including singlehandedly forging a new aristocracy from practically nothing,[13] he still garnered criticism from various historians. His reign polarizes opinion amongst scholars and historians, some viewing his legacy as evidence of success, or a reminder of his tyrannical rule.

    Upon Herod's death the Romans divided his kingdom among three of his sons and his sister—Archelaus became ethnarch of the tetrarchy of Judea, Herod Antipas became tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, Philip became tetrarch of territories north and east of the Jordan, and Salome I was given a toparchy including the cities of Jabneh, Ashdod, and Phasaelis.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Marshall 2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Steinmann 2009, pp. 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Steinmann 2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Filmer was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Perowne. Herod the Great. p. 72. ISBN 0 7509 3273 2. 
    6. ^ Knoblet, Jerry. Herod the Great (University Press of America, 2005), p. 179.
    7. ^ Perowne, Stewart. Herod the Great. p. 75. ISBN 0 7509 3273 2. 
    8. ^ Perowne. Herod the Great. pp. 77–79. ISBN 0 7509 3273 2. 
    9. ^ Perowne. Herod the Great. pp. 79–80. ISBN 0 7509 3273 2. 
    10. ^ Perowne. Herod the Great. pp. 92–93. ISBN 0 7509 3273 2. 
    11. ^ Peters, Francis E. (2005). The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Volume II: The Words and Will of God The Words And Will of God. Princeton University Press. 
    12. ^ Kasher, Aryeh; Witztum, Eliezer (2007). King Herod: a persecuted persecutor : a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography. Translation by Karen Gold. Walter de Gruyter. 
    13. ^ Cohen, Shaye. Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Prentice Hall Biblical Archeological Society. p. 269. 
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    May 7: 1886 - Pharmacist John Styth Pemberton invents a carbonated beverage that would later be named "Coca-Cola".

    John Styth Pemberton

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    May 9: 1941 - World War II: The German submarine U-110 is captured by the Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.

    Enigma cryptography machine

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    May 10: 1908 - Mother's Day is observed for the first time in the United States - in Grafton, West Virginia.

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    May 11: 1997 - IBM Deep Blue, a chess-playing supercomputer, defeats Garry Kasparov in the last game of the rematch, becoming the first computer to beat a world-champion chess player.

    IBM Deep Blue

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    May 13: 1958 - Velcro's trade mark is registered


    Velcro Companies is a privately held company that produces a series of mechanical based fastening products, including fabric hook and loop fasteners, under the brand name "Velcro".

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    14 May: 1948 - Israel declared to be an independent state and a provisional government is established. Immediately after the declaration, Israel was attacked by the neighboring Arab states. The War of Independence begins.


    Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35

    Israel (/ˈɪzrəl/; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל‎; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎), officially the State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎; Arabic: دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل‎), is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip[8] to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area.[2][9] Israel's economy and technology center is Tel Aviv,[10] while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem is not recognised internationally.[11][12][13][note 2][14][15] The population of Israel was estimated in 2017 to be 8,783,640 people,[3] of whom 74.7% were Jewish, 20.8% Arab and 4.5% others.[1]

    The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age.[16][17] The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE.[18]Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.[19][20] The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Jewish kingdom in 110 BCE,[21] which came to an end in 63 BCE when Judea became a client state of the Roman Republic.[22]Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population[21] and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina.[23]Jewish presence in the Land of Israel has persisted over the centuries. In the 7th century Palestine was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman and later British Palestine.

    In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem.[24] The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, and rejected by Arab leaders.[25][26][27] The following year, the Jewish Agency declared "the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel."[28] Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states,[29] in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after 2005 disengagement).[note 3] It extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank.[30][31][32][33] Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times.[note 3][35]Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been implemented.

    In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state.[36] Israel is a representative democracy[37] with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage.[38][39] The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an OECD member,[40] with the 34th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016. The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[41] Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East,[7] and has one of the highest life expectancies in the world.[42]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ a b "Latest Population Statistics for Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. January 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017. 
    2. ^ a b "Israel". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
    3. ^ a b "Home page". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2017. 
    4. ^ Population Census 2008 (PDF) (Report). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
    5. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
    6. ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
    7. ^ a b Human Development Index and its components (Report). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 22 June 2017. 
    8. ^ "Palestinian Territories". State.gov. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
    9. ^ Skolnik 2007, pp. 132–232
    10. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
    11. ^ Jerusalem: Opposition to mooted Trump Israel announcement grows"Israeli sovereignty over Jerusalem has never been recognised internationally"
    12. ^ Whither Jerusalem (Lapidot) page 17: "Israeli control in west Jerusalem since 1948 was illegal and most states have not recognized its sovereignty there"
    13. ^ V. Kattan: "Competing claims, Contested City: The Sovereignty of Jerusalem under International Law" (page 2) : "No state recognizes Israel's sovereignty over Jerusalem in neither its eastern nor western half"
    14. ^ United Nations News Centre (28 October 2009). "Jerusalem must be capital of both Israel and Palestine, Ban says". UN News Centre. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
    15. ^ "Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel". Knesset. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Finkelstein was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pitcher was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Broshi 2001 174 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference BabylonianChronicles was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Jon L. Berquist (2007). Approaching Yehud: New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period. Society of Biblical Lit. pp. 195–. ISBN 978-1-58983-145-2. 
    21. ^ a b Peter Fibiger Bang; Walter Scheidel (31 January 2013). The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean. OUP USA. pp. 184–. ISBN 978-0-19-518831-8. 
    22. ^ Abraham Malamat (1976). A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. pp. 223–239. ISBN 978-0-674-39731-6. 
    23. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch; Geoffrey William Bromiley (2005). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-0-8028-2416-5. 
    24. ^ Cite error: The named reference 181(II) was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference FOOTNOTEMorris200866 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference FOOTNOTEMorris200875 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ Cite error: The named reference FOOTNOTEMorris2008396 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
    29. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 1
    30. ^ "The status of Jerusalem" (PDF). The Question of Palestine & the United Nations. United Nations Department of Public Information. East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory. 
    31. ^ "Analysis: Kadima's big plans". BBC News. 29 March 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
    32. ^ Kessner, BC (2 April 2006). "Israel's Hard-Learned Lessons". Homeland Security Today. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
    33. ^ Kumaraswamy, P. R. (5 June 2002). "The Legacy of Undefined Borders". Tel Aviv Notes. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
    34. ^ Cite error: The named reference occ was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    35. ^ See for example:
      * Hajjar, Lisa (2005). Courting Conflict: The Israeli Military Court System in the West Bank and Gaza. University of California Press. p. 96. ISBN 0520241940. The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is the longest military occupation in modern times. 
      * Anderson, Perry (July–August 2001). "Editorial: Scurrying Towards Bethlehem". New Left Review. 10. ...longest official military occupation of modern history—currently entering its thirty-fifth year 
      * Makdisi, Saree (2010). Palestine Inside Out: An Everyday Occupation. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393338447. ...longest-lasting military occupation of the modern age 
      * Kretzmer, David (Spring 2012). "The law of belligerent occupation in the Supreme Court of Israel" (PDF). International Review of the Red Cross. 94 (885): 207–236. doi:10.1017/S1816383112000446. This is probably the longest occupation in modern international relations, and it holds a central place in all literature on the law of belligerent occupation since the early 1970s 
      * Alexandrowicz, Ra'anan (24 January 2012), The Justice of Occupation, The New York Times, Israel is the only modern state that has held territories under military occupation for over four decades 
      * Weill, Sharon (2014). The Role of National Courts in Applying International Humanitarian Law. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780199685424. Although the basic philosophy behind the law of military occupation is that it is a temporary situation modem occupations have well demonstrated that rien ne dure comme le provisoire A significant number of post-1945 occupations have lasted more than two decades such as the occupations of Namibia by South Africa and of East Timor by Indonesia as well as the ongoing occupations of Northern Cyprus by Turkey and of Western Sahara by Morocco. The Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, which is the longest in all occupation's history has already entered its fifth decade. 
    36. ^ "Israel". Freedom in the World. Freedom House. 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
    37. ^ Augustus Richard Norton (2001). Civil society in the Middle East. 2 (2001). BRILL. p. 193. ISBN 90-04-10469-0. 
    38. ^ Rummel 1997, p. 257. "A current list of liberal democracies includes: Andorra, Argentina, ..., Cyprus, ..., Israel, ..."
    39. ^ "Global Survey 2006: Middle East Progress Amid Global Gains in Freedom". Freedom House. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
    40. ^ "Israel's accession to the OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
    41. ^ Education at a Glance: Israel (Report). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
    42. ^ "WHO: Life expectancy in Israel among highest in the world". Haaretz. 24 May 2009. 
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    May 15: 1940 - McDonald's opened its first restaurant in San Bernardino, California.


    McDonald's was founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, USA. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand. The first time a McDonald's franchise used the Golden Arches logo was in 1953 at the opening of Phoenix, Arizona, USA. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had it's original headquarters in Oak Brook, Illinois, but has approved plans to move its global headquarters to Chicago by 2018.[3][4]

    McDonald's remains one of the world's largest restaurant chains, serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries[5] across approximately 36,900 outlets as of 2016.[6] Although McDonald's is known for its hamburgers, they also sell cheeseburgers, chicken products, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes, wraps, and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food,[7] the company has added to its menu salads, fish, smoothies, and fruit. The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent, royalties, and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to a BBC report published in 2012, McDonald's is the world's second largest private employer (behind Walmart with 1.9 million employees), 1.5 million of whom work for franchises.

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