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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    6th April - the first day of the Modern Olympics in 1896:
    The links in this Wikipedia insert are clickable

    1896 Summer Olympics

    The 1896 Summer Olympics (Greek: Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896, romanizedTherinoí Olympiakoí Agónes 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad (Greek: Αγώνες της 1ης Ολυμπιάδας, romanizedAgónes tis 1is Olympiádas) and commonly known as Athens 1896 (Greek: Αθήνα 1896), was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history. Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by French aristocrat Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.[2]

    Fourteen nations (according to the IOC, though the number is subject to interpretation) and 241 athletes (all males; this number is also disputed) took part in the games.[3][2] Participants were all European, or living in Europe, with the exception of the United States team. Over 65% of the competing athletes were Greek. Winners were given a silver medal, while runners-up received a copper medal. Retroactively, the IOC has converted these to gold and silver, and awarded bronze medals to third placed athletes. Ten of the 14 participating nations earned medals. The United States won the most gold medals, 11, while host nation Greece won the most medals overall, 47. The highlight for the Greeks was the marathon victory by their compatriot Spyridon Louis. The most successful competitor was German wrestler and gymnast Carl Schuhmann, who won four events.

    Athens had been unanimously chosen to stage the inaugural modern Games during a congress organised by Coubertin in Paris on 23 June 1894, during which the IOC was also created, because Greece was the birthplace of the Ancient Olympic Games. The main venue was the Panathenaic Stadium, where athletics and wrestling took place; other venues included the Neo Phaliron Velodrome for cycling, and the Zappeion for fencing. The opening ceremony was held in the Panathenaic Stadium on 6 April, during which most of the competing athletes were aligned on the infield, grouped by nation. After a speech by the president of the organising committee, Crown Prince Constantine, his father officially opened the Games. Afterwards, nine bands and 150 choir singers performed an Olympic Hymn, composed by Spyridon Samaras, with words by poet Kostis Palamas.

    The 1896 Olympics were regarded as a great success. The Games had the largest international participation of any sporting event to that date. The Panathenaic Stadium overflowed with the largest crowd ever to watch a sporting event.[4] After the Games, Coubertin and the IOC were petitioned by several prominent figures, including Greece's King George and some of the American competitors in Athens, to hold all the following Games in Athens. However, the 1900 Summer Olympics were already planned for Paris and, with the exception of the Intercalated Games of 1906, the Olympics did not return to Greece until the 2004 Summer Olympics, 108 years later.

    1. ^ "Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
    2. ^ a b "First modern Olympic Games". HISTORY. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
    3. ^ "Athens 1896 Summer Olympics". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
    4. ^ Young (1996), 153
     
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    7th April. Those in Australia will remember this disruption 10 years ago today:

    1998 Australian waterfront dispute

    April 1998 ABC news report on the Waterfront Dispute.

    The Australian waterfront dispute of 1998 was an event in Australian industrial relations history, in which the Patrick Corporation undertook a restructuring of their operations for the purpose of dismissing their workforce. The restructuring by Patrick Corporation was later ruled illegal by Australian courts. The dispute involved Patrick Corporation terminating the employment of its workforce and locking out the workers of the workplace after the restructuring had taken place, with many of these workers members of the dominant Maritime Union of Australia. The resulting dismissal and locking out of their unionised workforce was supported and backed by the Australian Liberal/National Coalition Government.

    Major events in the dispute occurred in four major ports, where the Patrick Corporation had significant operations: Melbourne, Brisbane, Fremantle and Sydney.[1] It revolved around attempts by Patrick Corporation and the federal government to improve efficiency on Australia's wharves; primarily by reducing staffing numbers and the power of the Maritime Union of Australia.



    Also 7th April is:

    World Health Day

    World Health Day is a global health awareness day celebrated every year on 7 April, under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as other related organizations.

    In 1948, the WHO held the First World Health Assembly. The Assembly decided to celebrate 7 April of each year, with effect from 1950, as the World Health Day. The World Health Day is held to mark WHO's founding and is seen as an opportunity by the organization to draw worldwide attention to a subject of major importance to global health each year.[1] The WHO organizes international, regional and local events on the Day related to a particular theme. World Health Day is acknowledged by various governments and non-governmental organizations with interests in public health issues, who also organize activities and highlight their support in media reports, such as the Global Health Council.[2]

    World Health Day is one of 11 official global health campaigns marked by WHO, along with World Tuberculosis Day, World Immunization Week, World Malaria Day, World No Tobacco Day, World AIDS Day, World Blood Donor Day, World Chagas Disease Day, World Patient Safety Day, World Antimicrobial Awareness Week and World Hepatitis Day.[3]

    1. ^ World Health Organization: World Health Day. Accessed 16 March 2011.
    2. ^ Global Health Council: World Health Day Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine by Lara Endreszl, 7 April 2009.
    3. ^ World Health Organization: WHO campaigns. Archived 3 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine


    ...and also on this day in 1948, the WHO came into being:

    World Health Organization

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health.[2] It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has six regional offices and 150 field offices worldwide.[3]

    The WHO was established on April 7, 1948, and convened its first meeting on July 24 of that year.[4][5] It incorporated the assets, personnel, and duties of the League of Nations' Health Organization and the Paris-based Office International d'Hygiène Publique, including the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).[6] The agency's work began in earnest in 1951 after a significant infusion of financial and technical resources.[7]

    The WHO's official mandate is to promote health and safety while helping the vulnerable worldwide. It provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards, collects data on global health issues, and serves as a forum for scientific or policy discussions related to health.[2] Its official publication, the World Health Report, provides assessments of worldwide health topics.[8]

    The WHO has played a leading role in several public health achievements, most notably the eradication of smallpox, the near-eradication of polio, and the development of an Ebola vaccine. Its current priorities include communicable diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; non-communicable diseases such as heart disease and cancer; healthy diet, nutrition, and food security; occupational health; and substance abuse. The agency advocates for universal health care coverage, engagement with the monitoring of public health risks, coordinating responses to health emergencies, and promoting health and well-being generally.[9]

    The WHO is governed by the World Health Assembly (WHA), which is composed of its 194 member states. The WHA elects and advises an executive board made up of 34 health specialists; selects the WHO's chief administrator, the director-general (currently Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus of Ethiopia);[10] sets goals and priorities; and approves the budget and activities. The WHO is funded primarily by contributions from member states (both assessed and voluntary), followed by private donors. Its total approved budget for 2020–2021 is over $7.2 billion.,[2][11] while the approved budget for 2022–2023 is over $6.2 billion.

    1. ^ "Modernizing the WHO headquarters in Geneva" (PDF).
    2. ^ a b c "The U.S. Government and the World Health Organization". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 24 January 2019. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
    3. ^ "WHO (World Health Organisation)". Information Saves Lives | Internews. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
    4. ^ "History". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
    5. ^ "Constitution of the World Health Organization" (PDF). Basic Documents. World Health Organization: 20. October 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
    6. ^ "Milestones for health over 70 years". World Health Organization/Europe. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
    7. ^ "World Health Organization | History, Organization, & Definition of Health". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
    8. ^ "WHO | World health report 2013: Research for universal health coverage". WHO. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
    9. ^ "What we do". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
    10. ^ "Dr Tedros takes office as WHO Director-General". World Health Organization. 1 July 2017. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
    11. ^ "WHO | Programme Budget Web Portal". open.who.int. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
     
    Last edited: Apr 7, 2008
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    9th April:

    Alaska purchase

    Redirect to:

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    April 11: Apollo 13 launches:

    Apollo 13

    Apollo 13 (April 11–17, 1970) was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program and the third meant to land on the Moon. The craft was launched from Kennedy Space Center on April 11, 1970, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank in the service module (SM) ruptured two days into the mission, disabling its electrical and life-support system. The crew, supported by backup systems on the lunar module (LM), instead looped around the Moon in a circumlunar trajectory and returned safely to Earth on April 17. The mission was commanded by Jim Lovell, with Jack Swigert as command module (CM) pilot and Fred Haise as lunar module (LM) pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for Ken Mattingly, who was grounded after exposure to rubella.

    A routine stir of an oxygen tank ignited damaged wire insulation inside it, causing an explosion that vented the contents of both of the SM's oxygen tanks to space.[note 1] Without oxygen, needed for breathing and for generating electric power, the SM's propulsion and life support systems could not operate. The CM's systems had to be shut down to conserve its remaining resources for reentry, forcing the crew to transfer to the LM as a lifeboat. With the lunar landing canceled, mission controllers worked to bring the crew home alive.

    Although the LM was designed to support two men on the lunar surface for two days, Mission Control in Houston improvised new procedures so it could support three men for four days. The crew experienced great hardship, caused by limited power, a chilly and wet cabin and a shortage of potable water. There was a critical need to adapt the CM's cartridges for the carbon dioxide scrubber system to work in the LM; the crew and mission controllers were successful in improvising a solution. The astronauts' peril briefly renewed public interest in the Apollo program; tens of millions watched the splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean on television.

    An investigative review board found fault with preflight testing of the oxygen tank and Teflon being placed inside it. The board recommended changes, including minimizing the use of potentially combustible items inside the tank; this was done for Apollo 14. The story of Apollo 13 has been dramatized several times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13 based on Lost Moon, the 1994 memoir co-authored by Lovell – and an episode of the 1998 miniseries From the Earth to the Moon.

    1. ^ "Apollo 13 CM". N2YO.com. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
    2. ^ Orloff 2000, p. 309.
    3. ^ "Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM)". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
    4. ^ "Apollo 13 Lunar Module / EASEP". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
    5. ^ Orloff 2000, p. 307.
    6. ^ "Apollo 13". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
    7. ^ Williams, David. "The Apollo 13 accident". NASA. The Apollo 13 malfunction was caused by an explosion and rupture of oxygen tank no. 2 in the service module.
    8. ^ Cortright 1975, p. 248-249: "I did, of course, occasionally think of the possibility that the spacecraft explosion might maroon us... Thirteen minutes after the explosion, I happened to look out of the left-hand window, and saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. "
    9. ^ Accident report, p. 143.
    10. ^ Cooper 2013, p. 21: "Later, in describing what happened, NASA engineers avoided using the word "explosion;" they preferred the more delicate and less dramatic term "tank failure," and in a sense it was the more accurate expression, inasmuch as the tank did not explode in the way a bomb does but broke open under pressure."


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    12 April; the first Space Shuttle is launched:

    STS-1

    STS-1 (Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program. The first orbiter, Columbia, launched on April 12, 1981,[1] and returned on April 14, 1981, 54.5 hours later, having orbited the Earth 37 times. Columbia carried a crew of two—mission commander John W. Young and pilot Robert L. Crippen. It was the first American crewed space flight since the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) in 1975. STS-1 was also the maiden test flight of a new American spacecraft to carry a crew, though it was preceded by atmospheric testing (ALT) of the orbiter and ground testing of the Space Shuttle system.

    The launch occurred on the 20th anniversary of Vostok 1, the first human spaceflight, performed by Yuri Gagarin for the USSR. This was a coincidence rather than a celebration of the anniversary; a technical problem had prevented STS-1 from launching two days earlier, as was planned.

    1. ^ "'Yeeeow!' and 'Doggone!' Are Shouted on Beaches as Crowds Watch Liftoff".
     
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    April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 262 days remaining until the end of the year.

    It is also the Ides (middle day) of April.

    and in 1997, Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win golf's Masters Tournament.

    Tiger Woods

    Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods (born December 30, 1975) is an American professional golfer. He is tied for first in PGA Tour wins, ranks second in men's major championships, and holds numerous golf records.[4] Woods is widely regarded as one of the greatest golfers of all time and is one of the most famous athletes in modern history.[4] He is an inductee of the World Golf Hall of Fame.[5]

    Following an outstanding junior, college, and amateur golf career, Woods turned professional in 1996 at the age of 20. By the end of April 1997, he had won three PGA Tour events in addition to his first major, the 1997 Masters, which he won by 12 strokes in a record-breaking performance. He reached number one in the Official World Golf Ranking for the first time in June 1997, less than a year after turning pro. Throughout the first decade of the 21st century, Woods was the dominant force in golf. He was the top-ranked golfer in the world from August 1999 to September 2004 (264 consecutive weeks) and again from June 2005 to October 2010 (281 consecutive weeks). During this time, he won 13 of golf's major championships.

    The next decade of Woods's career was marked by comebacks from personal problems and injuries. He took a self-imposed hiatus from professional golf from December 2009 to early April 2010 in an attempt to resolve marital issues with his wife at the time, Elin. Woods admitted to multiple marital infidelities, and the couple eventually divorced.[6] He fell to number 58 in the world rankings in November 2011 before ascending again to the number-one ranking between March 2013 and May 2014.[7][8] However, injuries led him to undergo four back surgeries between 2014 and 2017.[9] Woods competed in only one tournament between August 2015 and January 2018, and he dropped off the list of the world's top 1,000 golfers.[10][11] On his return to regular competition, Woods made steady progress to the top of the game, winning his first tournament in five years at the Tour Championship in September 2018 and his first major in 11 years at the 2019 Masters.

    Woods has held numerous golf records. He has been the number one player in the world for the most consecutive weeks and for the greatest total number of weeks of any golfer in history. He has been awarded PGA Player of the Year a record 11 times[12] and has won the Byron Nelson Award for lowest adjusted scoring average a record eight times. Woods has the record of leading the money list in ten different seasons. He has won 15 professional major golf championships (trailing only Jack Nicklaus, who leads with 18) and 82 PGA Tour events (tied for first all time with Sam Snead).[13] Woods leads all active golfers in career major wins and career PGA Tour wins. Woods is the fifth (after Gene Sarazen, Ben Hogan, Gary Player and Jack Nicklaus) player to achieve the career Grand Slam, and the youngest to do so. He is also the second golfer out of two (after Nicklaus) to achieve a career Grand Slam three times.

    Woods has won 18 World Golf Championships. He was also part of the American winning team for the 1999 Ryder Cup. In May 2019, Woods was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Trump, the fourth golfer to receive the honor.[14]

    On February 23, 2021, Woods was hospitalized in serious but stable condition after a single-car collision and underwent emergency surgery to repair compound fractures sustained in his right leg in addition to a shattered ankle.[15] In an interview with Golf Digest in November 2021, Woods indicated that his full-time career as a professional golfer was over, although he would continue to play "a few events per year".[16] For the first time since the car crash, he returned to the PGA Tour at the 2022 Masters.

    1. ^ a b "Tiger Woods – Profile". PGA Tour. Archived from the original on September 10, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
    2. ^ "Week 24 1997 Ending 15 Jun 1997" (pdf). OWGR. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
    3. ^ 2009 European Tour Official Guide Section 4, p. 577 PDF 21. European Tour. Retrieved April 21, 2009. Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
    4. ^ a b
    5. ^ Harig, Bob (March 11, 2020). "Tiger Woods to be inducted into World Golf Hall of Fame in 2021". ESPN.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference legend was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Westwood becomes world number one". BBC News. October 31, 2010.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference chevron was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "Complete list of Tiger Woods' injuries". PGA Tour. March 5, 2019.
    10. ^ DiMeglio, Steve (August 1, 2018). "With game on point, Tiger Woods is in perfect place to win again at Firestone". USA Today. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
    11. ^ Reid, Philip (August 14, 2018). "For the new Tiger Woods, second place is far from first loser". The Irish Times. Dublin.
    12. ^ Kelley, Brent (October 20, 2009). "Woods Clinches PGA Player of the Year Award". About.com: Golf. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
    13. ^ "Tracking Tiger". NBC Sports. Archived from the original on June 3, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
    14. ^ Rogers, Katie (May 6, 2019). "'I've Battled,' Tiger Woods Says as He Accepts Presidential Medal of Freedom". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
    15. ^ Macaya, Melissa (February 23, 2021). "Tiger Woods injured in car crash". CNN. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
    16. ^ Rapaport, Dan (November 29, 2021). "Exclusive: Tiger Woods discusses golf future in first in-depth interview since car accident". Golf Digest. Retrieved November 30, 2021.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    1860 - The first Pony Express rider reaches Sacramento, U.S..

    Pony Express

    Pony Express advertisement
    Pony Express postmark, 1860, westbound

    The Pony Express was an American express mail service that used relays of horse-mounted riders. It operated from April 3, 1860, to October 26, 1861, between Missouri and California. It was operated by the Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express Company.

    During its 18 months of operation, the Pony Express reduced the time for messages to travel between the east and west US coast to about 10 days. It became the west's most direct means of east–west communication before the first transcontinental telegraph was established (October 24, 1861), and was vital for tying the new U.S. state of California with the rest of the United States.

    Despite a heavy subsidy, the Pony Express was not a financial success and went bankrupt in 18 months, when a faster telegraph service was established. Nevertheless, it demonstrated that a unified transcontinental system of communications could be established and operated year-round. When replaced by the telegraph, the Pony Express quickly became romanticized and became part of the lore of the American West. Its reliance on the ability and endurance of hardy riders and fast horses was seen as evidence of rugged American individualism of the frontier times.

     
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    April 1912 -The British passenger liner RMS Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic

    RMS Titanic

    Redirect to:

     
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    April 16. 2007 - Virginia Tech massacre: the deadliest mass shooting in modern American history, in which a gunman shoots 32 people to death and injures 23 others before committing suicide.

    Virginia Tech massacre

     
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    April 17:

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos, sometimes called Invasión de Playa Girón or Batalla de Playa Girón after the Playa Girón) was a failed military landing operation on the southwestern coast of Cuba in 1961 by Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF), consisting of Cuban exiles who opposed Fidel Castro's Cuban Revolution, covertly financed and directed by the U.S. government. The operation took place at the height of the Cold War, and its failure influenced relations between Cuba, the United States, and the Soviet Union.

    In 1952, the American-allied dictator General Fulgencio Batista led a coup against President Carlos Prío and forced Prío into exile in Miami, Florida. Prío's exile inspired Castro's 26th of July Movement against Batista. The movement succeeded in overthrowing Batista during the Cuban Revolution in January 1959. Castro nationalized American businesses, including banks, oil refineries, and sugar and coffee plantations. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) began planning the overthrow of Castro, which U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved in March 1960, and the U.S. began its embargo of the island. This led Castro to reach out to its Cold War rival, the Soviet Union, after which the US severed diplomatic relations. Cuban exiles who had moved to the U.S. following Castro's takeover had formed the counter-revolutionary military unit, Brigade 2506, which was the armed wing of the DRF. The CIA funded the brigade, which also included approximately 60 members of the Alabama Air National Guard,[6] and trained the unit in Guatemala.

    Over 1,400 paramilitaries, divided into five infantry battalions and one paratrooper battalion, assembled and launched from Guatemala and Nicaragua by boat on 17 April 1961. Two days earlier, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers had attacked Cuban airfields and then returned to the U.S. On the night of 17 April, the main invasion force landed on the beach at Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs, where it overwhelmed a local revolutionary militia. Initially, José Ramón Fernández led the Cuban Revolutionary Army counter-offensive; later, Castro took personal control. As the invasion force lost the strategic initiative, the international community found out about the invasion, and U.S. President John F. Kennedy decided to withhold further air support.[7] The plan, devised during Eisenhower's presidency, had required the involvement of U.S. air and naval forces. Without further air support, the invasion was being conducted with fewer forces than the CIA had deemed necessary. The American force, Brigade 2506 invading force were defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias – FAR) and surrendered on 20 April. Most of the surrendered counter-revolutionary troops were publicly interrogated and put into Cuban prisons.

    The invasion was a U.S. foreign policy failure. The Cuban government's victory solidified Castro's role as a national hero and widened the political division between the two formerly allied countries, as well as embolden other Latin American groups to undermine US influence in the region. It also pushed Cuba closer to the Soviet Union, setting the stage for the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference fernandez was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference szulc1986 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b FRUS X, documents 19, 24, 35, 245, 271.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference triay was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b Quesada 2009, p. 46.
    6. ^ "Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Alabama Air National Guard". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
    7. ^ Voss, Michael (14 April 2011). "The 'perfect failure' of Cuba invasion". BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    April 18: 1923 - Yankee Stadium, "The House that Ruth Built", opens.

    Yankee Stadium

    Yankee Stadium is a baseball stadium located in the Bronx in New York City. The stadium is the home ballpark for Major League Baseball’s New York Yankees as well as the home venue for New York City FC of Major League Soccer.

    The stadium opened in April 2009, replacing the original Yankee Stadium that operated from 1923 to 2008; it is situated on the 24-acre (9.7 ha) former site of Macombs Dam Park, one block north of the original stadium's site. The new Yankee Stadium replicates design elements of the original Yankee Stadium, including its exterior and trademark frieze, while incorporating larger spaces and modern amenities. It has the sixth-largest seating capacity among the 30 stadiums of Major League Baseball.

    Construction on the stadium began in August 2006, and the project spanned many years and faced many controversies, including the high public cost and the loss of public park land. The $2.3 billion stadium was built with $1.2 billion in public subsidies[7] and is one of the most expensive stadiums ever built.[25]

    Yankee Stadium became the home field of the MLS expansion club New York City FC in 2014, which is owned by City Football Group and the Yankees. It will be an interim venue for the club until a soccer-specific stadium is constructed. It has also occasionally hosted college football games, including the annual Pinstripe Bowl, concerts, and other athletic and entertainment events.

    1. ^ Mushnick, Phil (June 26, 2017). "Yankees brass turned Stadium games into a funeral". New York Post. New York: News Corp. Archived from the original on March 1, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2017. Given the Stadium was short roughly 15,000 who might've otherwise been there...
    2. ^ Popper, Daniel. "Young star Aaron Judge the talk of Yankees' Old-Timers' Day at the Stadium". Daily News. New York: Tribune Publishing. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2017. Many of the greatest living Yankees from the past half-century graced the field at the Stadium Sunday for Old-Timers' Day...
    3. ^ "The House That Jeter Built". MLB Advanced Media. Archived from the original on December 20, 2021. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
    4. ^ Russ, Hilary (August 29, 2016). "New York Yankees baseball team to refinance $1 billion of stadium debt". Reuters.com. Archived from the original on December 26, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
    5. ^ a b "S&P raises Yankee Stadium bonds to 'BBB'". Reuters.com. July 31, 2012. Archived from the original on December 26, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
    6. ^ Brown, Maury. "Yankees parent group carrying nearly $2 billion in debt". TheFreeLibrary.com (Business of Sports Network). Archived from the original on December 26, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
    7. ^ a b Demause, Neil (January 2009). "Private/public Cost Breakdown for New Yankees/mets Stadiums" (PDF). Field of Schemes. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 28, 2016.
    8. ^ "Yankee Stadium". Populous. Archived from the original on November 27, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
    9. ^ a b Scarangello, Thomas Z.; Squarzini, Michael J. (July 2009). "New Yankee Stadium respects its rich history". Structural Engineer. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
    10. ^ "Yankee Stadium". Ballparks Munsey and Suppes. Archived from the original on November 15, 2015. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
    11. ^ a b "New York City FC outline plans for Yankee Stadium's baseball-to-soccer conversion". Major League Soccer. April 21, 2014. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
    12. ^ "2020 Official Media Guide and Record Book" (PDF). Major League Baseball Advanced Media. February 24, 2020. p. 372. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 3, 2021. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
    13. ^ "2021 Official Media Guide and Record Book" (PDF). Major League Baseball Advanced Media. March 2021. p. 376. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 4, 2021. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
    14. ^ "2018 Official Media Guide and Record Book". Major League Baseball Advanced Media. February 22, 2018. p. 347. Archived from the original on November 2, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
    15. ^ "New York Yankees on the Forbes MLB Team Valuations List". Forbes. April 11, 2017. Archived from the original on December 8, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
    16. ^ Kronheim, David P. (2016). "2015 MLB Attendance Analysis" (PDF). Flushing, NY: Number Tamer. pp. 11, 165. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 24, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
    17. ^ "New York Yankees on the Forbes MLB Team Valuations List". Forbes. March 25, 2015. Archived from the original on June 4, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
    18. ^ Marchand, Andrew; Matthews, Wallace (March 25, 2014). "Question 4: Will Jeter Lure 4 Million Fans?". ESPN. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
    19. ^ Perrotto, John (October 12, 2012). "Yankee Stadium Sea of Blue – Empty Seats – at Game Time". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
    20. ^ Shpigel, Ben (October 14, 2010). "Vazquez's Final Pitch in Pinstripes?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 26, 2021. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
    21. ^ Booth, Mark. "What's New for NYCFC This Season?". NYCFC.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
    22. ^ "Notre Dame Shut Downs Army, Rolls In New Yankee Stadium Debut". University of Notre Dame Official Athletic Site. Associated Press. November 20, 2010. Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
    23. ^ "Tigers Beat Yankees 3–2, Head to ALCS vs Texas". Sports Illustrated. Associated Press. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on March 9, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
    24. ^ "Notre Dame Shut Downs Army, Rolls In New Yankee Stadium Debut". Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
    25. ^ "NYC baseball stadium subsidies: Do I hear $1.8B?". Field of Schemes. Archived from the original on March 21, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
     
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    April 19 1995 - Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, is bombed, killing 168.

    Oklahoma City bombing

    The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States, on April 19, 1995, the second anniversary of the end to the Waco siege. The bombing was the deadliest act of terrorism in U.S. history prior to the September 11 attacks in 2001, and remains the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in U.S. history. On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building, commemorating the victims of the bombing. Remembrance services are held every year on April 19, at the time of the explosion.

    Perpetrated by two anti-government extremists and white supremacists,[1][2] Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, the bombing occurred at 9:02 a.m. and killed 168 people, injured 680, and destroyed more than one-third of the building, which had to be demolished. The blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings and caused an estimated $652 million worth of damage.[3][4][5] Local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies engaged in extensive rescue efforts in the wake of the bombing. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated 11 of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers.[6][7]

    Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma Highway Patrolman Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for illegal weapons possession.[8][9] Forensic evidence quickly linked McVeigh and Nichols to the attack; Nichols was arrested,[10] and within days, both were charged. Michael and Lori Fortier were later identified as accomplices. McVeigh, a veteran of the Gulf War and a sympathizer with the U.S. militia movement, had detonated a Ryder rental truck full of explosives he parked in front of the building. Nichols had assisted with the bomb's preparation. Motivated by his dislike for the U.S. federal government and its handling of Ruby Ridge in 1992 and the Waco siege in 1993, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the fire that ended the siege in Waco.[11][12]

    The official FBI investigation, known as "OKBOMB", involved 28,000 interviews, 3,200 kg of evidence, and nearly one billion pieces of information.[13] When the FBI raided McVeigh's home, it found a telephone number that led them to a farm where McVeigh had purchased supplies for the bombing.[14][15][16] The bombers were tried and convicted in 1997. McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001, at the U.S. federal penitentiary in Terre Haute, Indiana. Nichols was sentenced to life in prison in 2004. In response to the bombing, the U.S. Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, which limited access to habeas corpus in the United States, among other provisions.[17] It also passed legislation to increase the protection around federal buildings to deter future terrorist attacks.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference SPLC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Belew2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Oklahoma City Police Department Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing After Action Report (PDF). Terrorism Info. p. 58. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2007.
    4. ^ "Case Study 30: Preventing glass from becoming a lethal weapon". Safety Solutions Online. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007.
    5. ^ Hewitt, Christopher (2003). Understanding Terrorism in America: From the Klan to al Qaeda. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-415-27765-5.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference USDJ2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "FEMA Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) Summaries" (PDF). Federal Emergency Management Agency. p. 64. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2006.
    8. ^ "Timothy McVeigh is apprehended" (Video, 3 minutes). NBC News Report. April 22, 1995.
    9. ^ Ottley, Ted (April 14, 2005). "License Tag Snag". truTV. Archived from the original on August 29, 2011.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference TerrorFamily was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Feldman, Paul (June 18, 1995). "Militia Groups Growing, Study Says Extremism: Despite negative publicity since Oklahoma bombing, membership has risen, Anti-Defamation League finds". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
    12. ^ "McVeigh offers little remorse in letters". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. June 10, 2001. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012.
    13. ^ "Oklahoma City Bombing". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 7, 2023.
    14. ^ Serano, Richard. One of Ours: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing. pp. 139–141.
    15. ^ "Lessons learned, and not learned, 11 years later". NBC News. Associated Press. April 16, 2006.
    16. ^ Hamm, Mark S (1997). Apocalypse in Oklahoma. Northeastern University Press. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-55553-300-7.
    17. ^ Doyle, Charles (June 3, 1996). "Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary". FAS. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011.
     
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    April 21: 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome

    Romulus and Remus

    La Lupa Capitolina "the Capitoline Wolf". Traditional scholarship says the wolf-figure is Etruscan, 5th century BC. The figures of Romulus and Remus were added in the 15th century AD by Antonio del Pollaiuolo. Some modern research suggests that the she-wolf may be a Romanesque sculpture dating from the 13th century AD.[1]
    Altar to Mars (divine father of Romulus and Remus) and Venus (their divine ancestress) depicting elements of their legend. The god Tiberinus ("Father Tiber") and the infant twins being suckled by a she-wolf in the Lupercal are below. A vulture from the contest of augury and Palatine hill are to the left. (From Ostia, now at the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme.)
    The Shepherd Faustulus Bringing Romulus and Remus to His Wife, Nicolas Mignard (1654)

    In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus (Latin: [ˈroːmʊlʊs], [ˈrɛmʊs]) are twin brothers whose story tells of the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus, following his fratricide of Remus. The image of a she-wolf suckling the twins in their infancy has been a symbol of the city of Rome and the ancient Romans since at least the 3rd century BC. Although the tale takes place before the founding of Rome around 750 BC, the earliest known written account of the myth is from the late 3rd century BC. Possible historical bases for the story, and interpretations of its local variants, are subjects of ongoing debate.

    1. ^ Adriano La Regina, "La lupa del Campidoglio è medievale la prova è nel test al carbonio". La Repubblica. 9 July 2008
     
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    April 22: 1509 - Henry VIII ascends the throne of England after the death of his father.

    Henry VIII of England

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    April 23: 1985 - Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. (The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.)

    New Coke

    New Coke was the unofficial name of a reformulation of the soft drink Coca-Cola, introduced by The Coca-Cola Company in April 1985. It was renamed Coke II in 1990,[1] and discontinued in July 2002.

    By 1985, Coca-Cola had been losing market share to diet soft drinks and non-cola beverages for several years. Blind taste tests suggested that consumers preferred the sweeter taste of the competing product Pepsi-Cola, and so the Coca-Cola recipe was reformulated. The American public reacted negatively, and New Coke was considered a major failure.

    The company reintroduced the original formula within three months, rebranded "Coca-Cola Classic", resulting in a significant sales boost. This led to speculation that the New Coke formula had been a ploy to stimulate sales of the original Coca-Cola, which the company has vehemently denied.[2] The story of New Coke remains influential as a cautionary tale against tampering with an established successful brand.

    1. ^ Jamieson, Sean (April 5, 1990). "Coke II makes its Spokane debut". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). p. A8.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snopes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    April 24: 1980 - Eight U.S. servicemen died in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempted to end the Iran hostage crisis.

    Operation Eagle Claw

    Operation Eagle Claw was a failed operation by the United States Armed Forces ordered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter to attempt the rescue of 52 embassy staff held captive at the Embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980.

    The operation, one of Delta Force's first,[1] encountered many obstacles and failures and was subsequently aborted. Eight helicopters were sent to the first staging area called Desert One, but only five arrived in operational condition.[2] One had encountered hydraulic problems, another was caught in a sand storm, and the third showed signs of a cracked rotor blade. During the operational planning, it was decided that the mission would be aborted if fewer than six helicopters remained operational upon arrival at the Desert One site, despite only four being absolutely necessary.[2] In a move that is still discussed in military circles, the field commanders advised President Carter to abort the mission, which he did.[3]

    As the U.S. forces prepared to withdraw from Desert One, one of the remaining helicopters crashed into a transport aircraft that contained both servicemen and jet fuel. The resulting fire destroyed both aircraft and killed eight servicemen.[2]

    In the context of the Iranian Revolution, Iran's new leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, stated that the mission had been stopped by an act of God ("angels of God") who had foiled the U.S. mission in order to protect Iran and his new Islamist government. In turn, Carter blamed his loss in the 1980 U.S. presidential election mainly on his failure to secure the release of the hostages. The American hostages were released the day of Ronald Reagan's inauguration.[4]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gabriel106 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b c Bowden, Mark (May 2006). "The Desert One Debacle". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
    3. ^ "Operation Eagle Claw, 1980: A Case Study in Crisis Management and Military Planning". www.mindef.gov.sg. Archived from the original on 10 November 2003.
    4. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Iran hostage rescue should have and could have worked if the US was more prepared". USA Today. 17 September 2010. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
     
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    1916 - Anzac Day commemorated for the first time, on the first anniversary of the landing at Anzac Cove

    Anzac Day

    The remembrance poppy is an artificial flower that has been used since 1921 to commemorate war dead.
    Flags on the cenotaph in Wellington for the 2007 Dawn March. From left to right, the flags of New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Anzac Day (/ˈænzæk/; Māori: Rā Whakamahara ki ngā Hōia o Ahitereiria me Aotearoa[2] or Rā o ngā Hōia)[1] is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served".[3][4] Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally devised to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who served in the Gallipoli campaign, their first engagement in the First World War (1914–1918).

    1. ^ a b "Rā o Ngā Hōia". Te Aka Māori Dictionary. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
    2. ^ "Rā Whakamahara ki ngā Hōia o Ahitereiria me Aotearoa – te Aka Māori Dictionary".
    3. ^ "ANZAC Day". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
    4. ^ "Anzac Day Today". Anzac.govt.nz. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
     
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    1974_Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon

    Carnation Revolution

    The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April (Portuguese: 25 de Abril), was a military coup by left-leaning military officers that overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo government on 25 April 1974 in Lisbon,[1] producing major social, economic, territorial, demographic, and political changes in Portugal and its overseas colonies through the Processo Revolucionário Em Curso. It resulted in the Portuguese transition to democracy and the end of the Portuguese Colonial War.[2]

    The revolution began as a coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement (Portuguese: Movimento das Forças Armadas, MFA), composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it was soon coupled with an unanticipated popular civil resistance campaign. Negotiations with African independence movements began, and by the end of 1974, Portuguese troops were withdrawn from Portuguese Guinea, which became a UN member state as Guinea-Bissau. This was followed in 1975 by the independence of Cape Verde, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and Angola in Africa and the declaration of independence of East Timor in Southeast Asia. These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories (mostly from Angola and Mozambique), creating over a million Portuguese refugees – the retornados.[3][4]

    The Carnation Revolution got its name from the fact that almost no shots were fired and from restaurant worker Celeste Caeiro offering carnations to the soldiers when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship, with other demonstrators following suit and carnations placed in the muzzles of guns and on the soldiers' uniforms.[5] In Portugal, 25 April is a national holiday (Portuguese: Dia da Liberdade, Freedom Day) that commemorates the revolution.

    1. ^ "1974: Rebels seize control of Portugal", On This Day, 25 April, BBC, 25 April 1974, retrieved 2 January 2010
    2. ^ Rezola, Maria Inácia (2024). The Portuguese Revolution of 1974-1975: An Unexpected Path to Democracy. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-1-83553-657-5.
    3. ^ "Flight from Angola". The Economist. 16 August 1975.
    4. ^ "MOZAMBIQUE: Dismantling the Portuguese Empire". Time. 7 July 1975. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
    5. ^ Booker, Peter (24 April 2019). "Why April 25th is a holiday – the Carnation Revolution and the events of 1974". Retrieved 29 December 2017.
     
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    April 26: 1986 - In Ukraine, a nuclear reactor accident occurs at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, creating the world's worst nuclear disaster.

    Chernobyl plant

     
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    April 28: 1996 - In Tasmania, Australia, Martin Bryant goes on a shooting spree, killing 35 people and seriously injuring 37 more.

    Martin Bryant

    Martin John Bryant (born 7 May 1967) is an Australian mass murderer[1] who shot and killed 35 people and injured 23 others in the Port Arthur massacre between 28 and 29 April 1996.[2] He is serving 35 life sentences plus 1,652 years without the possibility of parole at Risdon Prison in Hobart.

    1. ^ "Witnesses recall horror of Martin Bryant's mass shooting in Tasmania". ABC News. Port Arthur. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
    2. ^ Wainwright, Robert; Totaro, Paola (27 April 2009). "A dangerous mind: What turned Martin Bryant into a mass murderer?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
     
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    April 29: 1992 - 1992 Los Angeles riots: Riots in Los Angeles, California, follow the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. Over the next three days 53 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.

    1992 Los Angeles riots

    The 1992 Los Angeles riots (also called the Rodney King riots or the 1992 Los Angeles uprising[4][5]) were a series of riots and civil disturbances that occurred in Los Angeles County, California, United States, during April and May 1992. Unrest began in South Central Los Angeles on April 29, after a jury acquitted four officers of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) charged with using excessive force in the arrest and beating of Rodney King. The incident had been videotaped by George Holliday, who was a bystander to the incident, and was heavily broadcast in various news and media outlets.

    The rioting took place in several areas in the Los Angeles metropolitan area as thousands of people rioted over six days following the verdict's announcement. Widespread looting, assault, and arson occurred during the riots, which local police forces had difficulty controlling. The situation in the Los Angeles area was resolved after the California National Guard, United States military, and several federal law enforcement agencies deployed more than 10,000 of their armed first responders to assist in ending the violence and unrest.[6]

    When the riots had ended, 63 people had been killed,[7] 2,383 had been injured, more than 12,000 had been arrested, and estimates of property damage were over $1 billion, making it the most destructive period of local unrest in U.S. history. Koreatown, situated just to the north of South Central LA, was disproportionately damaged. Much of the blame for the extensive nature of the violence was attributed to LAPD Chief of Police Daryl Gates, who had already announced his resignation by the time of the riots, for failure to de-escalate the situation and overall mismanagement.[8][9]

    1. ^ "Los Angeles Riots: Remember the 63 people who died". April 26, 2012.
    2. ^ Harris, Paul (1999). Black Rage Confronts the Law. NYU Press. p. 186. ISBN 9780814735923. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
    3. ^ Rayner, Richard (1998). The Granta Book of Reportage. Granta Books. p. 424. ISBN 9781862071933. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
    4. ^ Danver, Steven L., ed. (2011). "Los Angeles Uprising (1992)". Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia, Volume 3. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. pp. 1095–1100. ISBN 978-1-59884-222-7.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bergesen & Herman was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "Trump invoking Insurrection Act could undo years of police reform, experts warn". NBC News. June 4, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2021.
    7. ^ Miranda, Carolina A. (April 28, 2017). "Of the 63 people killed during '92 riots, 23 deaths remain unsolved – artist Jeff Beall is mapping where they fell". Los Angeles Times.
    8. ^ Cannon, Lou; Lee, Gary (May 2, 1992). "Much Of Blame Is Laid On Chief Gates". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 22, 2018.
    9. ^ Mydans, Seth (October 22, 1992). "Failures of City Blamed for Riot In Los Angeles". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 23, 2018. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
     
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    30 April: 1975 - Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gain control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ends with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh.

    Fall of Saigon

    The fall of Saigon,[9] was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by North Vietnam on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the collapse of the South Vietnamese state, leading to a transition period and the formal reunification of Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam under communist rule on July 2 1976.[10]

    The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Viet Cong, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on 29 April 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. By the afternoon of the next day, the PAVN and the Viet Cong had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace.

    The capture of the city was preceded by Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of almost all American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians who had been associated with the Republic of Vietnam regime. A few Americans chose not to be evacuated. United States ground combat units had left South Vietnam more than two years prior to the fall of Saigon and were not available to assist with either the defense of Saigon or the evacuation.[11] The evacuation was the largest helicopter evacuation in history.[12]: 202  In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and the institution of new rules by the communist government contributed to a decline[13] in the city's population until 1979, after which the population increased again.[14]

    On 3 July 1976, the National Assembly of the unified Vietnam renamed Saigon in honor of Hồ Chí Minh, the late Chairman of the Workers' Party of Vietnam and founder of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam).[15]

    1. ^ Ho Chi Minh Campaign (30 April 1975) (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Hồ Chí Minh lịch sử (30/4/1975))
    2. ^ "Trận chiến bi hùng của Bộ đội xe tăng Trung đoàn 273: 9 xe bị bắn cháy ngay trước giờ toàn thắng". Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
    3. ^ Lam, Andrew (29 April 2015). "Op-Ed: Is it Liberation Day or Defeat Day in Saigon?". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
    4. ^ Austin, Lewis C. (1 October 1976). "Giai Phong! The Fall and Liberation of Saigon, by Tiziano Terzani". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
    5. ^ Long, Ngo Vinh (1993). "Post-Paris Agreement Struggles and the Fall of Saigon". In Werner, Jayne Susan; Huynh, Luu Doan (eds.). The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American Perspectives. M.E. Sharpe. p. 204. ISBN 9780765638632. Archived from the original on 30 April 2023. Retrieved 7 September 2019.; Thap, Nguyen Thi (2012). "Returning to my Home Village". In Dutton, George; Werner, Jayne; Whitmore, John K. (eds.). Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 547–53. ISBN 9780231511100. Archived from the original on 30 April 2023. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
    6. ^ Yoshida, Kenichi (23 April 2017). "Was it 'fall' or 'liberation' of Saigon?". The Nation Thailand. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
    7. ^ "Chào mừng kỷ niệm 47 năm Ngày Giải phóng Miền Nam (30/4/1975 – 30/4/2022)" [Welcoming the 47th anniversary of the Liberation of the South (30/4/1975 – 30/4/2022)]. Online Newspaper of the Communist Party of Vietnam (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
    8. ^ "Reliving the fall of Saigon with Vietnam vets and journalists". PBS NewsHour. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
    9. ^ [3][4][5][6][7][8]
    10. ^ Walsh, Kenneth T. (30 April 2015). "The U.S. and Vietnam: 40 Years After the Fall of Saigon". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018..
    11. ^ Multiple sources:
    12. ^ Dunham, Maj. George R.; Quinlan, Col. David A. (1990). U.S. Marines in Vietnam: The Bitter End, 1973–1975 (Marine Corps Vietnam Operational Histories Series) (PDF). Washington DC: History & Museums Division; Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. ISBN 978-0-16-026455-9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 July 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
    13. ^ Desbarats, Jacqueline. "Repression in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Executions and Population Relocation", from The Vietnam Debate (1990) by John Morton Moore.
    14. ^ Bharath, Deepa (29 April 2011). "O.C. Black April events commemorate fall of Saigon". Orange County Register. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
    15. ^ Nguyen, Hien. "How Saigon became Ho Chi Minh City". VnExpress International. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
     
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    1 May: 1328 - Wars of Scottish Independence end: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton – England recognises Scotland as an independent nation.

    Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton

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    2 May: 1946 - "Battle of Alcatraz" - Alcatraz Federal prison, San Francisco is taken over by six inmates following failed escape attempt

    Battle of Alcatraz

    The Battle of Alcatraz, which lasted from May 2 to 4, 1946, was the result of an escape attempt at Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary by armed convicts. Two Federal Bureau of Prisons officers—William A. Miller and Harold Stites—were killed (Miller by one of the inmates who attempted escape, Joseph Cretzer, and Stites by friendly fire) along with three of the perpetrators.[1] Fourteen other officers and one uninvolved convict were also injured. Two of the perpetrators were executed in 1948 for their roles.[2]

    1. ^ DeNevi, Don (1974). Alcatraz '46;: The anatomy of a classic prison tragedy. San Rafael, California: Leswing Press. p. 164. ISBN 0883392968.
    2. ^ "A Brief History of Alcatraz". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 2009-06-17.
     
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    May 3: 1979 - Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher to become United Kingdom's first female prime minister as the Labour government is ousted in parliamentary elections.

    Margaret Thatcher

    Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, DStJ, PC, FRS, HonFRSC (née Roberts; 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013), was a British stateswoman and Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to hold the position. As prime minister, she implemented economic policies that became known as Thatcherism. A Soviet journalist dubbed her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style.

    Thatcher studied chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford, and worked briefly as a research chemist before becoming a barrister. She was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her secretary of state for education and science in his 1970–1974 government. In 1975, she defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become leader of the opposition, the first woman to lead a major political party in the UK.

    On becoming prime minister after winning the 1979 general election, Thatcher introduced a series of economic policies intended to reverse high inflation and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an oncoming recession.[nb 1] Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised greater individual liberty, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Her popularity in her first years in office waned amid recession and rising unemployment. Victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her landslide re-election in 1983. She survived an assassination attempt by the Provisional IRA in the 1984 Brighton hotel bombing and achieved a political victory against the National Union of Mineworkers in the 1984–85 miners' strike. In 1986, Thatcher oversaw the deregulation of UK financial markets, leading to an economic boom, in what came to be known as the Big Bang.

    Thatcher was re-elected for a third term with another landslide in 1987, but her subsequent support for the Community Charge (also known as the "poll tax") was widely unpopular, and her increasingly Eurosceptic views on the European Community were not shared by others in her cabinet. She resigned as prime minister and party leader in 1990, after a challenge was launched to her leadership, and was succeeded by John Major, the chancellor of the Exchequer.[nb 2] After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher (of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire) which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. In 2013, she died of a stroke at the Ritz Hotel, London, at the age of 87.

    A polarising figure in British politics, Thatcher is nonetheless viewed by historians as one of the greatest prime ministers in British history. Her tenure constituted a realignment towards neoliberal policies in Britain, and the complex legacy attributed to this shift continues to be debated into the 21st century.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference PoliticalStuff.co.uk was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Heffer was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


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    May 4: 1924 - The 1924 Summer Olympics open in Paris, France.

    1924 Summer Olympics

    The 1924 Summer Olympics (French: Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially the Games of the VIII Olympiad (French: Jeux de la VIIIe olympiade) and also known as Paris 1924, were an international multi-sport event held in Paris, France. The opening ceremony was held on 5 July, but some competitions had already started on 4 May. The Games were the second to be hosted by Paris (after 1900), making it the first city to host the Olympics twice.

    The selection process for the 1924 Summer Olympics consisted of six bids, and Paris was selected ahead of Amsterdam, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Prague, and Rome. The selection was made at the 20th IOC Session in Lausanne in 1921.[2] The cost of these Games was estimated to be 10,000,000F. With total receipts at 5,496,610F, the Olympics resulted in a hefty loss despite crowds that reached up to 60,000 in number daily.[3] The United States won the most gold and overall medals, having 229 athletes competing compared to France's 401.

    1. ^ "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
    2. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
    3. ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
     
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    May 5; 1494 - Christopher Columbus discovers the island of Jamaica and claims it for Spain.

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus[b] (/kəˈlʌmbəs/;[2] between 25 August and 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian[3][c] explorer and navigator from the Republic of Genoa who completed four Spanish-based voyages across the Atlantic Ocean sponsored by the Catholic Monarchs, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and European colonization of the Americas. His expeditions were the first known European contact with the Caribbean and Central and South America.

    The name Christopher Columbus is the anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. Growing up on the coast of Liguria, he went to sea at a young age and travelled widely, as far north as the British Isles and as far south as what is now Ghana. He married Portuguese noblewoman Filipa Moniz Perestrelo, who bore a son Diego, and was based in Lisbon for several years. He later took a Castilian mistress, Beatriz Enríquez de Arana, who bore a son, Ferdinand.[5][6][7]

    Largely self-educated, Columbus was knowledgeable in geography, astronomy, and history. He developed a plan to seek a western sea passage to the East Indies, hoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade. After the Granada War, and Columbus's persistent lobbying in multiple kingdoms, the Catholic Monarchs, Queen Isabella I and King Ferdinand II, agreed to sponsor a journey west. Columbus left Castile in August 1492 with three ships and made landfall in the Americas on 12 October, ending the period of human habitation in the Americas now referred to as the pre-Columbian era. His landing place was an island in the Bahamas, known by its native inhabitants as Guanahani. He then visited the islands now known as Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti. Columbus returned to Castile in early 1493, with captured natives. Word of his voyage soon spread throughout Europe.

    Columbus made three further voyages to the Americas, exploring the Lesser Antilles in 1493, Trinidad and the northern coast of South America in 1498, and the east coast of Central America in 1502. Many names he gave to geographical features, particularly islands, are still in use. He gave the name indios ("Indians") to the indigenous peoples he encountered. The extent to which he was aware the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain; he never clearly renounced his belief he had reached the Far East. As a colonial governor, Columbus was accused by some of his contemporaries of significant brutality and removed from the post. Columbus's strained relationship with the Crown of Castile and its colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the privileges he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.

    Columbus's expeditions inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for centuries, thus bringing the Americas into the European sphere of influence. The transfer of plants, animals, precious metals, culture, human populations, technology, diseases, and ideas between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange. These events and the effects which persist to the present are often cited as the beginning of the modern era.[8][9] Columbus was widely celebrated in the centuries after his death, but public perception fractured in the 21st century due to greater attention to the harms committed under his governance, particularly the beginning of the depopulation of Hispaniola's indigenous Taínos, caused by Old World diseases and mistreatment, including slavery. Many places in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the South American country of Colombia, the Canadian province of British Columbia, the American city Columbus, Ohio, and the U.S. capital, the District of Columbia.

    1. ^ Lester, Paul M. (January 1993). "Looks are deceiving: The portraits of Christopher Columbus". Visual Anthropology. 5 (3–4): 211–227. doi:10.1080/08949468.1993.9966590.
    2. ^ "Columbus" Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary
    3. ^ Delaney, Carol (2011). Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem (1st ed.). United States of America: Free Press/Simon and Schuster. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-4391-0237-4.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
    4. ^ Flint, Valerie I.J. (16 May 2021). "Christopher Columbus". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
    5. ^ Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (2010). Columbus on Himself. Hackett Publishing. p. 270. ISBN 978-1-60384-317-1. The date of Fernando's birth, November 1488, gives a terminus ante quem early in that year for the start of Columbus's liaison with Beatriz Enríquez. She was of peasant parentage, but, when Columbus met her, was the ward of a well-to-do relative in Cordoba. A meat business gave her income of her own, mentioned in the only other record of Columbus's solicitude for her: a letter to Diego, written in 1502, just before departure on the fourth Atlantic crossing, in which the explorer enjoins his son to 'take Beatriz Enriquez in your care for love of me, as you your own mother'. Varela, Cristóbal Colón, p. 309.
    6. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio (2016). "Beatriz de Arana". In Bedini, Silvio A. (ed.). The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. Springer. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-1-349-12573-9. Columbus never married Beatriz. When he returned from the first voyage, he was given the greatest of honors and elevated to the highest position in Spain. Because of his discovery, he became one of the most illustrious persons at the Spanish court and had to submit, like all the great persons of the time, to customary legal restrictions on matters of marriage and extramarital relations. The Alphonsine laws forbade extramarital relations of concubinage for "illustrious people" (king, princes, dukes, counts, marquis) with plebeian women, if they themselves were or their forefathers had been of inferior social condition.
    7. ^ Phillips & Phillips 1992, p. 126.
    8. ^ Caf Dowlah (2020). Cross-Border Labor Mobility: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9783030365066. Most researchers however trace the beginning of the early modern era to Christopher Columbus's discovery of the Americas in the 1490s
    9. ^ Mills, Keneth and Taylor, William B., Colonial Spanish America: A Documentary History, p. 36, SR Books, 1998, ISBN 0-8420-2573-1


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    May 5: 1954 - Roger Bannister becomes the first person to run the mile in under four minutes.

    Roger Bannister

    Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister CH CBE FRCP (23 March 1929 – 3 March 2018) was an English neurologist and middle-distance athlete who ran the first sub-4-minute mile.

    At the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Bannister set a British record in the 1500 metres and finished in fourth place. This achievement strengthened his resolve to become the first athlete to finish the mile run in under four minutes. He accomplished this feat on 6 May 1954 at Iffley Road track in Oxford, with Chris Chataway and Chris Brasher providing the pacing. When the announcer, Norris McWhirter, declared "The time was three...", the cheers of the crowd drowned out Bannister's exact time, which was 3 minutes and 59.4 seconds. He had attained this record with minimal training, while practising as a junior doctor. Bannister's record lasted just 46 days.

    Bannister went on to become a neurologist and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, before retiring in 1993. As Master of Pembroke, he was on the governing body of Abingdon School from 1986 to 1993.[3] When asked whether the 4-minute mile was his proudest achievement, he said he felt prouder of his contribution to academic medicine through research into the responses of the nervous system. Bannister was patron of the MSA Trust. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 2011.[4]

    1. ^ a b c "Roger Bannister at sports-reference.com". sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
    2. ^ All-Athletics. "Profile of Roger Bannister". Archived from the original on 4 April 2016.
    3. ^ "Abingdon School Athletics" (PDF). The Abingdonian. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 October 2018.
    4. ^ Sale, Jerome (2 May 2014). "Sir Roger Bannister reveals Parkinson's disease battle". BBC News.
     
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    May 7: 2007 - The tomb of Herod the Great is discovered.

    Herod the Great

    Herod I[2][3][a] or Herod the Great (c. 72 BCE – c. 4 BCE) was a Roman Jewish client king of the Herodian Kingdom of Judea.[4][5][6] He is known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea. Among these works are the rebuilding of the Second Temple in Jerusalem and the expansion of its base[7][8][9]—the Western Wall being part of it. Vital details of his life are recorded in the works of the 1st century CE Roman–Jewish historian Josephus.[10]

    Herod also appears in the Christian Gospel of Matthew as the ruler of Judea who orders the Massacre of the Innocents at the time of the birth of Jesus, although most Herod biographers do not believe that this event occurred.[11] Despite his successes, including single-handedly forging a new aristocracy from practically nothing,[12] he has still been criticized by various historians. His reign polarizes opinion among historians, some viewing his legacy as evidence of success, and some viewing it as a reminder of his tyrannical rule.[10]

    While Herod the Great is described in the Christian Bible as the author of the Massacre of the Innocents, the remainder of the Biblical references to the "two Herods of the Bible" are all ascribed to Herod Antipas, Herod the Great's son. Upon Herod's death in 4 BCE, the Romans divided his kingdom among three of his sons and his sister: his son Herod Antipas received the tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea.

    Other family members of Herod the Great include Herod's son Herod Archelaus who became ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea; Herod's son Philip who became tetrarch of territories north and east of the Jordan River; and Herod's sister Salome I, who was given a toparchy including the cities of Jabneh, Ashdod, and Phasaelis.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Steinmann 2009, pp. 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Judaica was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference JE was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Perowne 2003, pp. 92–93.
    5. ^ Peters, Francis E. (2005). The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Volume II: The Words and Will of God The Words And Will of God. Princeton University Press.
    6. ^ Kasher, Aryeh; Witztum, Eliezer (2007). King Herod: a persecuted persecutor : a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography. Translation by Karen Gold. Walter de Gruyter.
    7. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, 15.11.6.
    8. ^ Cf. Babylonian Talmud (Ta'anit 23a).
      • Herod the Great rebuilt the Temple sanctuary and expanded the Temple Mount at its north side around the older Temple courts, and "enclosed an area double the former size." Formerly, according to the Mishnah (Middot 2:1), the Temple Mount had measured 500 cubits x 500 cubits square, and its expansion was done to accommodate the pilgrims.
    9. ^ The Jewish War, 1.21.1.
    10. ^ a b Schwartz, Seth (2014). "Herod to Florus". The Ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 59–62. ISBN 978-1-107-04127-1.
    11. ^ Maier, Paul L. (1998). "Herod and the Infants of Bethlehem". In Summers, Ray; Vardaman, Jerry (eds.). Chronos, Kairos, Christos II: Chronological, Nativity, and Religious Studies in Memory of Ray Summers. Mercer University Press. pp. 170–171. ISBN 978-0-86554-582-3.
    12. ^ Cohen 1999, p. 269.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    May 7: 1886 - Pharmacist John Styth Pemberton invents a carbonated beverage that would later be named "Coca-Cola".

    John Styth Pemberton

     
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    May 9: 1941 - World War II: The German submarine U-110 is captured by the Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.

    Enigma cryptography machine

    Redirect to:

     
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    May 10: 1908 - Mother's Day is observed for the first time in the United States - in Grafton, West Virginia.

    Mother%27s_Day
     
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    May 11: 1997 - IBM Deep Blue, a chess-playing supercomputer, defeats Garry Kasparov in the last game of the rematch, becoming the first computer to beat a world-champion chess player.

    IBM Deep Blue

     
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    May 12: 1942 - 1,500 Jews are sent to gas chambers in Auschwitz.

    Auschwitz

     
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    May 13: 1958 - Velcro's trade mark is registered

    Velcro

    Velcro,[2][4][5] officially known as Velcro IP Holdings LLC and trading as Velcro Companies,[1] is a British privately held company, founded by Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral in the 1950s. It is the original manufacturer of hook-and-loop fasteners, which de Mestral invented.[2]

    1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Company Information". www.Velcro.co.uk. Velcro IP Holdings LLC. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
    2. ^ a b c Stephens, Thomas (4 January 2007). "How a Swiss invention hooked the world". www.SwissInfo.ch. Swiss Broadcasting Corporation SRG SSR. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
    3. ^ "Alfatex Group history". www.Velcro.co.uk. Velcro IP Holdings LLC. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
    4. ^ "Velcro - Meaning of Velcro in English". www.Lexico.com. Oxford English Dictionary online. Archived from the original on 13 January 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
    5. ^ Suddath, Claire (15 June 2010). "A brief history of: Velcro". content.Time.com. TIME USA, LLC. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
     
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    14 May: 1948 - Israel declared to be an independent state and a provisional government is established. Immediately after the declaration, Israel was attacked by the neighboring Arab states. The War of Independence begins.

    Israel

    Israel, officially the State of Israel,[fn 5] is a country in West Asia. It is bordered by Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan to the east, the Red Sea to the south, Egypt to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, and the Palestinian territories – the West Bank along the east and the Gaza Strip along the southwest.[21] Tel Aviv is the financial, economic, and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.[22][fn 6]

    Israel is located in the Southern Levant, a region known historically as Canaan, Palestine, or the Holy Land. In antiquity, it was home to several Canaanite, Israelite and Jewish kingdoms, and is referred to as the Land of Israel in Jewish tradition. The region was ruled by powers such as the Assyrians, Babylonians, Achaemenids, Greeks, and Romans. During Roman rule, Jews became a minority in Palestine. The region later came under Byzantine and Arab rule. In the Middle Ages, it was part of the Islamic Caliphates, the Crusader Kingdom, and the Ottoman Empire. The late 19th century saw the rise of Zionism, a movement advocating for the establishment of a Jewish homeland. Under the British Mandate placed by the League of Nations after World War I, Jewish immigration to the region increased considerably leading to intercommunal conflict between Jews and the Arab majority.[24] The 1947 UN partition plan triggered a civil war between these groups which would see the expulsion or fleeing of most Palestinians from Mandatory Palestine. The British terminated the Mandate on 14 May 1948, and Israel declared independence on the same day.

    On 15 May 1948, the armies of five neighboring Arab states invaded the area of the former Mandatory Palestine, starting the First Arab–Israeli War. An armistice in 1949 left Israel in control of more territory than the UN partition plan had called for;[25] no new Arab state was created, as the rest of the former Mandate territory was divided between Egypt, which occupied the Gaza Strip, and Jordan, which annexed the West Bank.[26][fn 7][27] The 1967 Six-Day War ended with Israel occupying both the West Bank and Gaza alongside the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula and the Syrian Golan Heights. Israel has since effectively annexed both East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, and has established settlements across the occupied territories, actions which are deemed illegal under international law. Since the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel has signed peace treaties with Egypt, returning the Sinai Peninsula, and with Jordan, and more recently normalized relations with several Arab countries. However, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not succeeded. Israel's practices, in the longest military occupation in modern history, have drawn international condemnation for violating the human rights of the Palestinians.[28]

    The country has a parliamentary system elected by proportional representation. The prime minister serves as head of government, and is elected by the Knesset, Israel's unicameral legislature.[29] Israel has the highest Human Development Index of all countries in the Middle East and is one of the richest countries in the Middle East and Asia,[30][31][32][33] and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member since 2010.[34] It has the highest standards of living in the Middle East, and has been ranked as one of the most advanced and technological countries,[35][36][37] with a population of nearly 10 million people, as of 2023.[38] It has the world's 29th-largest economy by nominal GDP and 16th by nominal GDP per capita.[18]

    1. ^ "Foreign Ministry statement regarding Palestinian-Israeli settlement". mid.ru. 6 April 2017. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
    2. ^ "Czech Republic announces it recognizes West Jerusalem as Israel's capital". The Jerusalem Post. 6 December 2017. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 6 December 2017. The Czech Republic currently, before the peace between Israel and Palestine is signed, recognizes Jerusalem to be in fact the capital of Israel in the borders of the demarcation line from 1967." The Ministry also said that it would only consider relocating its embassy based on "results of negotiations.
    3. ^ "Honduras recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital". The Times of Israel. 29 August 2019. Archived from the original on 3 December 2019. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
    4. ^ "Guatemala se suma a EEUU y también trasladará su embajada en Israel a Jerusalén" [Guatemala joins US, will also move embassy to Jerusalem]. Infobae (in Spanish). 24 December 2017. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2017. Guatemala's embassy was located in Jerusalem until the 1980s, when it was moved to Tel Aviv.
    5. ^ "Nauru recognizes J'lem as capital of Israel". Israel National News. 29 August 2019. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
    6. ^ "Trump Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's Capital and Orders U.S. Embassy to Move". The New York Times. 6 December 2017. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
    7. ^ The Legal Status of East Jerusalem (PDF), Norwegian Refugee Council, December 2013, pp. 8, 29, archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2021, retrieved 26 October 2021
    8. ^ "Constitution for Israel". knesset.gov.il. Archived from the original on 4 August 2023. Retrieved 9 December 2023.
    9. ^ "Arabic in Israel: an official language and a cultural bridge". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 18 December 2016. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
    10. ^ "Israel Passes 'National Home' Law, Drawing Ire of Arabs". The New York Times. 19 July 2018. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
    11. ^ Lubell, Maayan (19 July 2018). "Israel adopts divisive Jewish nation-state law". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference population_stat2022 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ "Israel". Central Intelligence Agency. 27 February 2023. Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2023 – via CIA.gov.
    14. ^ "Israel country profile". BBC News. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
    15. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". OECD.Stat. OECD. Archived from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
    16. ^ "Home page". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
    17. ^ Population Census 2008 (PDF) (Report). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
    18. ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Israel)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Archived from the original on 20 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
    19. ^ "Income inequality". OECD Data. OECD. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
    20. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
    21. ^ "When will be the right time for Israel to define its borders? - analysis". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. 12 June 2022.
    22. ^ Akram, Susan M., Michael Dumper, Michael Lynk, and Iain Scobbie, eds. 2010. International Law and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Rights-Based Approach to Middle East Peace. Routledge. p. 119: "UN General Assembly Resolution 181 recommended the creation of an international zone, or corpus separatum, in Jerusalem to be administered by the UN for a 10-year period, after which there would be a referendum to determine its future. This approach applies equally to West and East Jerusalem and is not affected by the occupation of East Jerusalem in 1967. To a large extent it is this approach that still guides the diplomatic behaviour of states and thus has greater force in international law."
    23. ^ Kellerman 1993, p. 140.
    24. ^ Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001: Morris, Benny: 9780679744757: Amazon.com: Books. The fear of territorial displacement and dispossession was to be the chief motor of Arab antagonism to Zionism down to 1948 (and indeed after 1967 as well).[permanent dead link]
    25. ^ "Zionism | Definition, History, Examples, & Facts | Britannica". britannica.com. 19 October 2023. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
    26. ^ a b Fischbach 2008, p. 26–27.
    27. ^ Meir-Glitzenstein, Esther (Fall 2018). "Turning Points in the Historiography of Jewish Immigration from Arab Countries to Israel". Israel Studies. Indiana University Press. 23 (3): 114–122. doi:10.2979/israelstudies.23.3.15. JSTOR 10.2979/israelstudies.23.3.15. S2CID 150208821. The mass immigration from Arab countries began in mid-1949 and included three communities that relocated to Israel almost in their entirety: 31,000 Jews from Libya, 50,000 from Yemen, and 125,000 from Iraq. Additional immigrants arrived from Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, Iran, India, and elsewhere. Within three years, the Jewish population of Israel doubled. The ethnic composition of the population shifted as well, as immigrants from Muslim counties and their offspring now comprised one third of the Jewish population—an unprecedented phenomenon in global immigration history. From 1952–60, Israel regulated and restricted immigration from Muslim countries with a selective immigration policy based on economic criteria, and sent these immigrants, most of whom were North African, to peripheral Israeli settlements. The selective immigration policy ended in 1961 when, following an agreement between Israel and Morocco, about 100,000 Jews immigrated to the State. From 1952–68 about 600,000 Jews arrived in Israel, three quarters of whom were from Arab countries and the remaining immigrants were largely from Eastern Europe. Today fewer than 30,000 remain in Muslim countries, mostly concentrated in Iran and Turkey.
    28. ^ Totten, S. (2017). Last Lectures on the Prevention and Intervention of Genocide. Routledge Studies in Genocide and Crimes against Humanity. Taylor & Francis. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-315-40976-4. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnn was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ Human Development Report 2021-22 (Report). United Nations. 8 September 2022. Archived from the original on 12 January 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
    31. ^ "30 Countries with Highest GDP per Capita". Yahoo Finance. 23 March 2023. Archived from the original on 23 November 2023. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
    32. ^ "Global Wealth Report". Credit Suisse. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
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  40. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    May 15: 1940 - McDonald's opened its first restaurant in San Bernardino, California.

    McDonald's

    McDonald's Corporation is an American multinational fast food chain, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, and later turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and in 1961 bought out the McDonald brothers. Previously headquartered in Oak Brook, Illinois, it moved to nearby Chicago in June 2018.[9][10][11][12] McDonald's is also a real estate company through its ownership of around 70% of restaurant buildings and 45% of the underlying land (which it leases to its franchisees).[13][14]

    McDonald's is the world's largest fast food restaurant chain,[15] serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries[16] in more than 40,000 outlets as of 2021.[17][18] McDonald's is best known for its hamburgers, cheeseburgers and french fries, although their menu also includes other items like chicken, fish, fruit, and salads. Their best-selling licensed item are their french fries, followed by the Big Mac.[19] The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent, royalties, and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. McDonald's is the world's second-largest private employer with 1.7 million employees (behind Walmart with 2.3 million employees), the majority of whom work in the restaurant's franchises.[20][21] As of 2022, McDonald's has the sixth-highest global brand valuation.[22]

    McDonald's has been subject to criticism over the health effects of its products,[23][24] its treatment of employees,[25] and its participation in various legal cases.


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    24. ^ "McDonald's customer horrified after 3-year-old finds dangerous item in play area". Oh!mymag.co.uk. May 19, 2023. Archived from the original on May 22, 2023. Retrieved May 23, 2023 – via Microsoft News.
    25. ^ "Behind the Arches: How McDonald's Fails to Protect Workers From Workplace Violence". National Employment Law Project. Archived from the original on September 29, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Sep 28, 2016

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