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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    29 September 2013 – Over 42 people are killed by members of Boko Haram at the College of Agriculture in Nigeria.

    Gujba college massacre

    On 29 September 2013, gunmen from Boko Haram entered the male dormitory in the College of Agriculture in Gujba, Yobe State, Nigeria, killing forty-four students and teachers.[1]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference AP was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  2. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    30 September 1968 – The Boeing 747 is rolled out and shown to the public for the first time.

    Boeing 747

    The Boeing 747 is a large, long–range wide-body airliner and cargo aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States. After introducing the 707 in October 1958, Pan Am wanted a jet 2½ times its size, to reduce its seat cost by 30% to democratize air travel.[9] In 1965, Joe Sutter left the 737 development program to design the 747, the first twin aisle airliner. In April 1966, Pan Am ordered 25 747-100 aircraft and in late 1966, Pratt & Whitney agreed to develop its JT9D, a high-bypass turbofan. On September 30, 1968, the first 747 was rolled out of the custom-built Everett Plant, the largest building in the world by volume. The first flight took place on February 9, 1969 and the 747 was certified in December of that year. It entered service with Pan Am on January 22, 1970; it was the first airplane dubbed a "Jumbo Jet".

    The 747 is a quadjet airliner, initially powered by JT9D turbofan engines, then GE CF6 and Rolls-Royce RB211 engines for the original variants. With a ten-abreast economy seating, it typically accommodates 366 passengers in three travel classes. It has a pronounced 37.5° wing sweep, allowing a Mach 0.85 (490 kn; 900 km/h) cruise speed, and its heavy weight is supported by four main landing gear legs with four-wheel bogies each. The partial double-deck aircraft was designed with a raised cockpit so it could be converted to a freighter airplane by installing a front cargo door, as it was initially thought that it would eventually be superseded by supersonic transports.

    Boeing introduced the -200 in 1971, with more powerful engines for a heavier maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 833,000 lb (378 t) from the initial 735,000 lb (333 t), for a longer 6,560 nmi (12,150 km) range up from 4,620 nmi (8,560 km). It was shortened for the longer-range 747SP in 1976, and the 747-300 followed in 1983 with a stretched upper deck for up to 400 seats in three classes. The heavier 747-400 with improved RB-211 and CF6 versions, along with the PW4000 (the JT9D successor), and a two-crew glass cockpit, was introduced in 1989 and is the most common variant. After several studies, the stretched 747-8 was launched on November 14, 2005, with new General Electric GEnx engines, and was first delivered in October 2011. The 747 is the basis for several government and military variants, like the VC-25 (call sign Air Force One) or the E-4 Emergency Airborne Command Post, and some experimental testbeds like the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.

    By June 2020, 1,556 aircraft had been built, with 15 747-8s remaining on order.[4] Initial competition came from the smaller trijet widebodies: the Lockheed L-1011 (introduced in 1972), Douglas DC-10 (1971) and later MD-11 (1990). Airbus competed with later variants with the heaviest versions of the A340 until surpassing the 747 in size with the A380, introduced in 2007.[10] As of 2020, 61 of the jets have been lost in accidents, in which a total of 3,722 people have died.[11]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference ucfc747 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Time_Jumbo-Gremlins was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "About the 747 Family". Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Archived from the original on October 2, 2012.
    4. ^ a b "747 Model Orders and Deliveries data." The Boeing Company, June 2020. Retrieved: October 24, 2020.
    5. ^ "N7470 Boeing Boeing 747-100". Planespotters.
    6. ^ "N828BA Boeing Boeing 747-8". Planespotters.
    7. ^ "Building a legend". Flight International. June 24, 1989.
    8. ^ "Airliner price index". Flight International. August 10, 1972. p. 183.
    9. ^ Branson, Richard (December 7, 1998). "Pilot of the Jet Age". Time.
    10. ^ "A380 superjumbo lands in Sydney". BBC. October 25, 2007. The superjumbo's advent ends a reign of nearly four decades by the Boeing 747 as the world's biggest airliner
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference ASNstats was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  3. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    1 October 2017 – An independence referendum, declared illegal by the Constitutional Court of Spain, takes place in Catalonia.

    2017 Catalan independence referendum

    The Catalan independence referendum of 2017, also known by the numeronym 1-O (for "1 October") in Spanish media, was an independence referendum held on 1 October 2017 in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, passed by the Parliament of Catalonia as the Law on the Referendum on Self-determination of Catalonia and called by the Generalitat de Catalunya.[2][3][4] It was declared unconstitutional[5][6][7] on 7 September 2017 and suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain after a request from the Spanish government, who declared it a breach of the Spanish Constitution.[8][9][10] Additionally, in early September the High Court of Justice of Catalonia had issued orders to the police to try to prevent it, including the detention of various persons responsible for its preparation.[11][12][13] Due to alleged irregularities during the voting process as well as to the use of force by the National Police Corps and Civil Guard, international observers invited by the Generalitat declared that the referendum failed to meet the minimum international standards for elections.[14][15][16]

    The referendum was approved by the Catalan parliament in a session on 6 September 2017 along with the Law of juridical transition and foundation of the Republic of Catalonia the following day 7 September, which stated that independence would be binding with a simple majority, without requiring a minimum turnout.[17][18] After being suspended, the law was finally declared void on 17 October,[19] being also unconstitutional according to the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia which requires a two-thirds majority, 90 seats, in the Catalan parliament for any change to Catalonia's status.[20][21][22]

    The referendum question, which voters answered with "Yes" or "No", was "Do you want Catalonia to become an independent state in the form of a republic?". The "Yes" side won, with 2,044,038 (92.01%) voting for independence and 177,547 (7.99%) voting against, on a turnout of 43.03%. The Catalan government estimated that up to 770,000 votes were not cast due to polling stations being closed off during the police crackdown,[1][23][24][25] although the "universal census" system introduced earlier in the day allowed electors to vote at any given polling station.[26][27] Catalan government officials have argued that the turnout would have been higher were it not for Spanish and Catalan police suppression of the vote.[28][29][30] On the other hand, many voters who did not support Catalan independence did not turn out,[31] as the constitutional political parties asked citizens not to participate in what they considered an illegal referendum.[32][33]

    On the day of the referendum, the inaction of part of the autonomous police force of Catalonia, the Mossos d'Esquadra, allowed many polling stations to open. The Spanish National Police Corps and the Guardia Civil intervened and raided several polling stations after they opened.[34][35] 893 civilians and 111 agents of the National Police and the Guardia Civil were reported to have been injured.[35][36][37][38] According to various sources these previously reported figures may have been exaggerated.[39] According to the judge from Barcelona who is currently investigating the accusations of police violence, there were 218 persons injured on that day in the city of Barcelona alone, 20 of whom were agents.[40][41] According to the official final report by the Catalan Health Service (CatSalut) of the Generalitat 1066 civilians, 11 agents of the National Police and the Guardia Civil and 1 agent of the regional police, the Mossos d'Esquadra, were injured.[42] The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein, urged the Spanish government to prove all acts of violence that took place to prevent the referendum.[43][44] The police action also received criticism from Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch which defined it as an "excessive and unnecessary use of force".[45][46] Spanish Supreme Court judge Pablo Llarena stated Puigdemont ignored the repeated warnings he received about the escalation of violence if the referendum was held.[47][48]

    Mossos d'Esquadra are being investigated for disobedience, for allegedly not having complied with the orders of the High Court of Justice of Catalonia to prevent the referendum.[49] Including Josep Lluís Trapero Álvarez, the Mossos d'Esquadra Major, who is being investigated for sedition by the Spanish National Court.[50] Mossos d'Esquadra deny those accusations and allege they obeyed the orders but applied the principle of proportionality, which is required by Spanish law in all police operations.[51]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Results was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Giles, Ciaran; Parra, Aritz (17 October 2017). "Spain: Top court officially rules Catalan referendum illegal". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
    3. ^ "El gobierno de Cataluña convocó para el 1 de octubre el referéndum de autodeterminación". Infobae (in Spanish). 6 September 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
    4. ^ Jones, Sam (6 September 2017). "Catalonia to hold independence vote despite anger in Madrid". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
    5. ^ "Why the referendum on Catalan independence is illegal". The Economist. 26 September 2017.
    6. ^ "How to Stage an Illegal Referendum". Bloomberg.com. 20 September 2017.
    7. ^ Alandete, David (10 October 2017). "Independence in Catalonia – now what?". El País.
    8. ^ "Spain Catalonia: Court blocks independence referendum". BBC News. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
    9. ^ "Recurso de inconstitucionalidad n.º 4334-2017, contra la Ley del Parlamento de Cataluña 19/2017, de 6 de septiembre, del Referéndum de Autodeterminación" (PDF) (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
    10. ^ Duarte, Esteban (11 September 2017). "Catalan Separatists Plot Show of Force in Battle With Madrid". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
    11. ^ Carranco, Rebeca; García, Jesús (21 September 2017). "La justicia desmonta la organización del referéndum ilegal de Cataluña". El País (in Spanish).
    12. ^ "Una juez ordena a Google eliminar la aplicación sobre el referéndum catalán" (in Spanish). Reuters.
    13. ^ "Catalonia's Superior Court also orders Catalan Police to close off planned polling stations". El Nacional.
    14. ^ Colomé, Jordi Pérez (3 October 2017). "La misión de observadores concluye que el referéndum no cumple los "estándares internacionales"". El País (in Spanish). "La Misión debe concluir que el referéndum, tal y como se hizo, no puede cumplir con los estándares internacionales" The Mission must conclude that the referendum, as it was done, can not meet international standards
    15. ^ "Did the referendum comply with basic voting regulations?". El País. 3 October 2017.
    16. ^ Gallego-Díaz, Soledad (5 October 2017). "Mediaciones e instituciones". Hoy por hoy (in Spanish). Cadena SER.
    17. ^ "Catalonia to hold independence vote despite anger in Madrid". The Guardian. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017. The Catalan government has not set a threshold for minimum turnout, arguing the vote will be binding regardless of the level of participation.
    18. ^ Jones, Sam (10 September 2017). "Catalans to celebrate their national day with independence protests". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
    19. ^ "Spain just declared Catalan referendum law void". The Independent. 17 October 2017.
    20. ^ "Catalonia plans an independence vote whether Spain lets it or not". The Economist.
    21. ^ "Catalan independence referendum". The Daily Star. 10 October 2017.
    22. ^ Ríos, Pere (6 September 2017). "Las diez claves de la ley del referéndum de Cataluña". El País. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mundo-2Oct17 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Independent-2Oct17 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference CNN-2Oct17 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference Universal was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ "El 'sí' obtuvo más votos que personas censadas en 71 municipios" (in Spanish). El País. 3 October 2017.
    28. ^ Hilary Clarke, Isa Soares and Vasco Cotovio (2 October 2017). "Catalonia referendum plunges Spain into political crisis". CNN. Retrieved 4 October 2017. Turnout was about 42% of the 5.3 million eligible voters... Turull said more people would have voted had it not been for Spanish police suppression. Up to 770,000 votes were lost as a result of the crackdowns at police stations, the Catalan government estimated.
    29. ^ Gerard Pruina (2 October 2017). "El 'sí' a la independència s'imposa amb 2.020.144 vots, el 90%". Ara.Cat. Retrieved 4 October 2017. Els encarregats de donar els resultats des del Centre Internacional de Premsa, el vicepresident, Oriol Junqueras; el conseller de la Presidència, Jordi Turull, i el conseller d'Exteriors, Raül Romeva, han remarcat contínuament que, tot i que els 2.248.000 vots no suposen 'per se' el 50% del cens, els càlculs dels experts apunten que sense pressió policial i tancament de col·legis s'hauria pogut arribar al 55% de participació.
    30. ^ "Los Mossos cerraron más colegios el 1-O". La Vanguardia. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
    31. ^ Erickson, Amanda (30 September 2017). "Catalonia independence vote: What you need to know". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
    32. ^ "Iceta pide a los catalanes que no acudan a votar para no "dar valor" al referéndum". ABC (in Spanish).
    33. ^ Molpeceres, Diego. "Referéndum en Cataluña - Un referéndum sin campaña por el 'no' a la independencia". Vozpópuli (in Spanish).
    34. ^ "1-O.La pasividad de los Mossos y las posteriores cargas policiales marcan un día de tensión con votaciones sin garantías" (in Spanish). Eldiario.es. 1 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
    35. ^ a b "Policías y guardias realizan cargas ante la pasividad de los Mossos y dejan más de 893 heridos el 1-O" (in Spanish). El Mundo. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
    36. ^ Giles, Aritz Parra and Ciaran (2 October 2017). "Catalonia urges mediation with Spain in secession dispute". AP – via www.washingtonpost.com.
    37. ^ Serra, Ot (20 April 2018). "El govern espanyol va quadruplicar la xifra d'agents ferits l'1-O". Ara (in Catalan). Retrieved 26 April 2018.
    38. ^ RESPUESTA D EL GOBIERNO 684/37958 (Report) (in Spanish). Senado. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. En relación con la pregunta de referencia, se informa que 111 miembros de las Fuerzas y Cuerpos de Seguridad del Estado fueron contusionados
    39. ^ Cite error: The named reference ElMundo09102017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    40. ^ Cite error: The named reference LaVanguardia10102017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    41. ^ Cite error: The named reference ElEspañol06102017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    42. ^ "Report on the incidents that took place from the 1st to the 4th of October 2017" (PDF). Catalan Health Service, Generalitat de Catalunya. 20 October 2017.
    43. ^ "UN human rights chief urges probe into violence during referendum in Catalonia". United Nations. UN News Center. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
    44. ^ "The Latest: UN chief hopes sides will solve Catalan crisis". CNBC. 2 October 2017.
    45. ^ "Spain: Excessive use of force by National Police and Civil Guard in Catalonia". Amnesty International. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
    46. ^ "Spain: Police Used Excessive Force in Catalonia". Human Rights Watch. 12 October 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
    47. ^ Cite error: The named reference ABC30032018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    48. ^ Cite error: The named reference ElMundo30032018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    49. ^ "Siete jueces investigan a los Mossos por desobediencia al no frenar el 1-O" (in Spanish). El Periódico de Catalunya. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
    50. ^ "Spanish judge calls on Catalan police chief to testify in sedition probe". EFE. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
    51. ^ Presno Linera, Miguel Ángel (3 October 2018). "La proporcionalidad policial el 1-O". Agenda Pública (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 June 2018.
     
  4. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    1 October 2017 – An independence referendum, declared illegal by the Constitutional Court of Spain, takes place in Catalonia.

    2017 Catalan independence referendum

    The Catalan independence referendum of 2017, also known by the numeronym 1-O (for "1 October") in Spanish media, was an independence referendum held on 1 October 2017 in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, passed by the Parliament of Catalonia as the Law on the Referendum on Self-determination of Catalonia and called by the Generalitat de Catalunya.[2][3][4] It was declared unconstitutional[5][6][7] on 7 September 2017 and suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain after a request from the Spanish government, who declared it a breach of the Spanish Constitution.[8][9][10] Additionally, in early September the High Court of Justice of Catalonia had issued orders to the police to try to prevent it, including the detention of various persons responsible for its preparation.[11][12][13] Due to alleged irregularities during the voting process as well as to the use of force by the National Police Corps and Civil Guard, international observers invited by the Generalitat declared that the referendum failed to meet the minimum international standards for elections.[14][15][16]

    The referendum was approved by the Catalan parliament in a session on 6 September 2017 along with the Law of juridical transition and foundation of the Republic of Catalonia the following day 7 September, which stated that independence would be binding with a simple majority, without requiring a minimum turnout.[17][18] After being suspended, the law was finally declared void on 17 October,[19] being also unconstitutional according to the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia which requires a two-thirds majority, 90 seats, in the Catalan parliament for any change to Catalonia's status.[20][21][22]

    The referendum question, which voters answered with "Yes" or "No", was "Do you want Catalonia to become an independent state in the form of a republic?". The "Yes" side won, with 2,044,038 (92.01%) voting for independence and 177,547 (7.99%) voting against, on a turnout of 43.03%. The Catalan government estimated that up to 770,000 votes were not cast due to polling stations being closed off during the police crackdown,[1][23][24][25] although the "universal census" system introduced earlier in the day allowed electors to vote at any given polling station.[26][27] Catalan government officials have argued that the turnout would have been higher were it not for Spanish and Catalan police suppression of the vote.[28][29][30] On the other hand, many voters who did not support Catalan independence did not turn out,[31] as the constitutional political parties asked citizens not to participate in what they considered an illegal referendum.[32][33]

    On the day of the referendum, the inaction of part of the autonomous police force of Catalonia, the Mossos d'Esquadra, allowed many polling stations to open. The Spanish National Police Corps and the Guardia Civil intervened and raided several polling stations after they opened.[34][35] 893 civilians and 111 agents of the National Police and the Guardia Civil were reported to have been injured.[35][36][37][38] According to various sources these previously reported figures may have been exaggerated.[39] According to the judge from Barcelona who is currently investigating the accusations of police violence, there were 218 persons injured on that day in the city of Barcelona alone, 20 of whom were agents.[40][41] According to the official final report by the Catalan Health Service (CatSalut) of the Generalitat 1066 civilians, 11 agents of the National Police and the Guardia Civil and 1 agent of the regional police, the Mossos d'Esquadra, were injured.[42] The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein, urged the Spanish government to prove all acts of violence that took place to prevent the referendum.[43][44] The police action also received criticism from Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch which defined it as an "excessive and unnecessary use of force".[45][46] Spanish Supreme Court judge Pablo Llarena stated Puigdemont ignored the repeated warnings he received about the escalation of violence if the referendum was held.[47][48]

    Mossos d'Esquadra are being investigated for disobedience, for allegedly not having complied with the orders of the High Court of Justice of Catalonia to prevent the referendum.[49] Including Josep Lluís Trapero Álvarez, the Mossos d'Esquadra Major, who is being investigated for sedition by the Spanish National Court.[50] Mossos d'Esquadra deny those accusations and allege they obeyed the orders but applied the principle of proportionality, which is required by Spanish law in all police operations.[51]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Results was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Giles, Ciaran; Parra, Aritz (17 October 2017). "Spain: Top court officially rules Catalan referendum illegal". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
    3. ^ "El gobierno de Cataluña convocó para el 1 de octubre el referéndum de autodeterminación". Infobae (in Spanish). 6 September 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
    4. ^ Jones, Sam (6 September 2017). "Catalonia to hold independence vote despite anger in Madrid". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
    5. ^ "Why the referendum on Catalan independence is illegal". The Economist. 26 September 2017.
    6. ^ "How to Stage an Illegal Referendum". Bloomberg.com. 20 September 2017.
    7. ^ Alandete, David (10 October 2017). "Independence in Catalonia – now what?". El País.
    8. ^ "Spain Catalonia: Court blocks independence referendum". BBC News. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
    9. ^ "Recurso de inconstitucionalidad n.º 4334-2017, contra la Ley del Parlamento de Cataluña 19/2017, de 6 de septiembre, del Referéndum de Autodeterminación" (PDF) (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
    10. ^ Duarte, Esteban (11 September 2017). "Catalan Separatists Plot Show of Force in Battle With Madrid". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
    11. ^ Carranco, Rebeca; García, Jesús (21 September 2017). "La justicia desmonta la organización del referéndum ilegal de Cataluña". El País (in Spanish).
    12. ^ "Una juez ordena a Google eliminar la aplicación sobre el referéndum catalán" (in Spanish). Reuters.
    13. ^ "Catalonia's Superior Court also orders Catalan Police to close off planned polling stations". El Nacional.
    14. ^ Colomé, Jordi Pérez (3 October 2017). "La misión de observadores concluye que el referéndum no cumple los "estándares internacionales"". El País (in Spanish). "La Misión debe concluir que el referéndum, tal y como se hizo, no puede cumplir con los estándares internacionales" The Mission must conclude that the referendum, as it was done, can not meet international standards
    15. ^ "Did the referendum comply with basic voting regulations?". El País. 3 October 2017.
    16. ^ Gallego-Díaz, Soledad (5 October 2017). "Mediaciones e instituciones". Hoy por hoy (in Spanish). Cadena SER.
    17. ^ "Catalonia to hold independence vote despite anger in Madrid". The Guardian. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017. The Catalan government has not set a threshold for minimum turnout, arguing the vote will be binding regardless of the level of participation.
    18. ^ Jones, Sam (10 September 2017). "Catalans to celebrate their national day with independence protests". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
    19. ^ "Spain just declared Catalan referendum law void". The Independent. 17 October 2017.
    20. ^ "Catalonia plans an independence vote whether Spain lets it or not". The Economist.
    21. ^ "Catalan independence referendum". The Daily Star. 10 October 2017.
    22. ^ Ríos, Pere (6 September 2017). "Las diez claves de la ley del referéndum de Cataluña". El País. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mundo-2Oct17 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Independent-2Oct17 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference CNN-2Oct17 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference Universal was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ "El 'sí' obtuvo más votos que personas censadas en 71 municipios" (in Spanish). El País. 3 October 2017.
    28. ^ Hilary Clarke, Isa Soares and Vasco Cotovio (2 October 2017). "Catalonia referendum plunges Spain into political crisis". CNN. Retrieved 4 October 2017. Turnout was about 42% of the 5.3 million eligible voters... Turull said more people would have voted had it not been for Spanish police suppression. Up to 770,000 votes were lost as a result of the crackdowns at police stations, the Catalan government estimated.
    29. ^ Gerard Pruina (2 October 2017). "El 'sí' a la independència s'imposa amb 2.020.144 vots, el 90%". Ara.Cat. Retrieved 4 October 2017. Els encarregats de donar els resultats des del Centre Internacional de Premsa, el vicepresident, Oriol Junqueras; el conseller de la Presidència, Jordi Turull, i el conseller d'Exteriors, Raül Romeva, han remarcat contínuament que, tot i que els 2.248.000 vots no suposen 'per se' el 50% del cens, els càlculs dels experts apunten que sense pressió policial i tancament de col·legis s'hauria pogut arribar al 55% de participació.
    30. ^ "Los Mossos cerraron más colegios el 1-O". La Vanguardia. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
    31. ^ Erickson, Amanda (30 September 2017). "Catalonia independence vote: What you need to know". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
    32. ^ "Iceta pide a los catalanes que no acudan a votar para no "dar valor" al referéndum". ABC (in Spanish).
    33. ^ Molpeceres, Diego. "Referéndum en Cataluña - Un referéndum sin campaña por el 'no' a la independencia". Vozpópuli (in Spanish).
    34. ^ "1-O.La pasividad de los Mossos y las posteriores cargas policiales marcan un día de tensión con votaciones sin garantías" (in Spanish). Eldiario.es. 1 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
    35. ^ a b "Policías y guardias realizan cargas ante la pasividad de los Mossos y dejan más de 893 heridos el 1-O" (in Spanish). El Mundo. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
    36. ^ Giles, Aritz Parra and Ciaran (2 October 2017). "Catalonia urges mediation with Spain in secession dispute". AP – via www.washingtonpost.com.
    37. ^ Serra, Ot (20 April 2018). "El govern espanyol va quadruplicar la xifra d'agents ferits l'1-O". Ara (in Catalan). Retrieved 26 April 2018.
    38. ^ RESPUESTA D EL GOBIERNO 684/37958 (Report) (in Spanish). Senado. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. En relación con la pregunta de referencia, se informa que 111 miembros de las Fuerzas y Cuerpos de Seguridad del Estado fueron contusionados
    39. ^ Cite error: The named reference ElMundo09102017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    40. ^ Cite error: The named reference LaVanguardia10102017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    41. ^ Cite error: The named reference ElEspañol06102017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    42. ^ "Report on the incidents that took place from the 1st to the 4th of October 2017" (PDF). Catalan Health Service, Generalitat de Catalunya. 20 October 2017.
    43. ^ "UN human rights chief urges probe into violence during referendum in Catalonia". United Nations. UN News Center. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
    44. ^ "The Latest: UN chief hopes sides will solve Catalan crisis". CNBC. 2 October 2017.
    45. ^ "Spain: Excessive use of force by National Police and Civil Guard in Catalonia". Amnesty International. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
    46. ^ "Spain: Police Used Excessive Force in Catalonia". Human Rights Watch. 12 October 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
    47. ^ Cite error: The named reference ABC30032018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    48. ^ Cite error: The named reference ElMundo30032018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    49. ^ "Siete jueces investigan a los Mossos por desobediencia al no frenar el 1-O" (in Spanish). El Periódico de Catalunya. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
    50. ^ "Spanish judge calls on Catalan police chief to testify in sedition probe". EFE. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
    51. ^ Presno Linera, Miguel Ángel (3 October 2018). "La proporcionalidad policial el 1-O". Agenda Pública (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 June 2018.
     
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    2 October 2004 – The first parkrun, then known as the Bushy Park Time Trial, takes place in Bushy Park, London, UK

    Parkrun

    Parkrun (stylised as parkrun) is a collection of 5-kilometre (3.1 mi) events for walkers, runners and volunteers that take place every Saturday morning at more than 2,000 locations in 22 countries across five continents. Junior Parkrun (stylised as junior parkrun) is a spin-off event that provides a 2 kilometres (1 14 mi) event for children aged 4–14 and their families weekly on a Sunday morning. Parkrun events are free to enter and are delivered by volunteers, supported by a small group of staff at its headquarters.

    Parkrun was founded by Paul Sinton-Hewitt on 2 October 2004 at Bushy Park in London, England. The event was originally called the Bushy Park Time Trial. It grew into a network of similar events called the UK Time Trials, before adopting the name Parkrun in 2008 and expanding into other countries. The first event outside of the United Kingdom was launched in Zimbabwe in 2007, followed by Denmark in 2009, South Africa and Australia in 2011 and the USA in 2012. Sinton-Hewitt received a CBE in 2014 for his services to grassroots sport. By October 2018 over 5 million runners were registered worldwide. Parkrun is funded mainly through sponsorship, with local organisers only needing to raise money when they launch an event.

    Events take place at a range of general locations including city parks, country parks, national parks, stately homes, castles, forests, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, canal towpaths, beaches, promenades, prisons, racecourses and nature reserves. Runners who have completed the "milestones" of 50, 100, 250 or 500 separate runs are rewarded with a free t-shirt. Juniors also receive a t-shirt for completing 10 runs. Runners can travel to and complete any Parkrun. Those that travel are termed "tourists" and can complete unofficial challenges such as "Londone" which involves running every event in London. The male world record holder is Andrew Baddeley who set a time of 13 minutes and 48 seconds at Bushy Parkrun on 11 August 2012. The female world record holder is Charlotte Arter who set a time of 15 minutes and 49 seconds at Cardiff Parkrun on 1 February 2020.

     
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    Articles:
    1
    2 October 2004 – The first parkrun, then known as the Bushy Park Time Trial, takes place in Bushy Park, London, UK

    Parkrun

    Parkrun (stylised as parkrun) is a collection of 5-kilometre (3.1 mi) events for walkers, runners and volunteers that take place every Saturday morning at more than 2,000 locations in 22 countries across five continents. Junior Parkrun (stylised as junior parkrun) is a spin-off event that provides a 2 kilometres (1 14 mi) event for children aged 4–14 and their families weekly on a Sunday morning. Parkrun events are free to enter and are delivered by volunteers, supported by a small group of staff at its headquarters.

    Parkrun was founded by Paul Sinton-Hewitt on 2 October 2004 at Bushy Park in London, England. The event was originally called the Bushy Park Time Trial. It grew into a network of similar events called the UK Time Trials, before adopting the name Parkrun in 2008 and expanding into other countries. The first event outside of the United Kingdom was launched in Zimbabwe in 2007, followed by Denmark in 2009, South Africa and Australia in 2011 and the USA in 2012. Sinton-Hewitt received a CBE in 2014 for his services to grassroots sport. By October 2018 over 5 million runners were registered worldwide. Parkrun is funded mainly through sponsorship, with local organisers only needing to raise money when they launch an event.

    Events take place at a range of general locations including city parks, country parks, national parks, stately homes, castles, forests, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, canal towpaths, beaches, promenades, prisons, racecourses and nature reserves. Runners who have completed the "milestones" of 50, 100, 250 or 500 separate runs are rewarded with a free t-shirt. Juniors also receive a t-shirt for completing 10 runs. Runners can travel to and complete any Parkrun. Those that travel are termed "tourists" and can complete unofficial challenges such as "Londone" which involves running every event in London. The male world record holder is Andrew Baddeley who set a time of 13 minutes and 48 seconds at Bushy Parkrun on 11 August 2012. The female world record holder is Charlotte Arter who set a time of 15 minutes and 49 seconds at Cardiff Parkrun on 1 February 2020.

     
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    1
    3 October 1995 – The O. J. Simpson murder case ended with a verdict of not guilty.

    O. J. Simpson murder case

    The O. J. Simpson murder case (officially The People of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson) was a criminal trial held in Los Angeles County Superior Court. Former National Football League (NFL) player, broadcaster and actor O. J. Simpson was tried and acquitted on two counts of murder for the June 12, 1994, slashing deaths of his ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ron Goldman. At 12:10 a.m. on June 13, 1994, Brown and Goldman were found stabbed to death outside her condominium in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles. Simpson became a person of interest after police found a bloody glove behind his house and was formally charged with the murders on June 17. When he did not turn himself in at the agreed time (having previously been released after perfunctory questioning by police detectives), he became the object of a low-speed pursuit in a white 1993 Ford Bronco SUV owned and driven by his friend Al Cowlings.[1] TV stations interrupted coverage of the 1994 NBA Finals to broadcast the incident. The pursuit was watched live by an estimated 95 million people.[2] The pursuit, arrest, and trial were among the most widely publicized events in American history. The trial—often characterized as the trial of the century because of its international publicity—spanned eleven months, from the jury's swearing-in on November 9, 1994.[3] Opening statements were made on January 24, 1995,[4] and the verdict was announced on October 3, 1995 when Simpson was acquitted on two counts of murder.[5][6] According to USA Today, the case has been described as the "most publicized" criminal trial in history.[7]

    Simpson was represented by a high-profile defense team, also referred to as the "Dream Team", which was initially led by Robert Shapiro[8][9][10] and subsequently directed by Johnnie Cochran. The team also included F. Lee Bailey, Alan Dershowitz, Robert Kardashian, Shawn Holley, Carl E. Douglas, and Gerald Uelmen. Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld were two additional attorneys who specialized in DNA evidence.

    Deputy District Attorneys Marcia Clark, William Hodgman and later Christopher Darden thought that they had a strong case against Simpson, but Cochran was able to convince the jury that there was reasonable doubt concerning the validity of the State's DNA evidence, which was a relatively new form of evidence in trials at that time.[11] The reasonable doubt theory included evidence that the blood sample had allegedly been mishandled by lab scientists and technicians, and there were questionable circumstances that surrounded other court exhibits.[12] Cochran and the defense team also alleged other misconduct by the LAPD related to systemic racism and incompetence, in particular actions and comments of Detective Mark Fuhrman.

    The trial became historically significant because of the reaction to the verdict.[13] The nation observed the same evidence presented at trial but a division along racial lines emerged in observers opinion of the verdict, which the media dubbed the "racial gap".[14] A poll of Los Angeles County residents showed that most African Americans felt that justice had been served by the "not guilty" verdict, while the majority of whites and Latinos felt it was a racially motivated jury nullification[15][16] by a mostly African-American jury.[17] Polling shows the gap has narrowed since the trial, with over half of polled black respondents in 2015 stating they believed Simpson was guilty.[18]

    After the trial, the families of Brown and Goldman filed a lawsuit against Simpson. On February 4, 1997, the jury unanimously found Simpson responsible for both deaths.[19] The families were awarded compensatory and punitive damages totaling $33.5 million ($53.4 million in 2019 dollars), but have received only a small portion of that monetary figure. In 2000, Simpson left California for Florida, one of the few states where personal assets such as homes and pensions cannot be seized to cover liabilities that were incurred in other states.

    1. ^ Mydans, Seth (June 18, 1994). "The Simpson Case: The Fugitive; Simpson Is Charged, Chased, Arrested". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    2. ^ Gilbert, Geis; Bienen, Leigh B. (1988). Crimes of the century: from Leopold and Loeb to O.J. Simpson. Northeastern University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-55553-360-1 – via Google Books.
    3. ^ Ford, Andrea; Newton, Jim (November 4, 1994). "12 Simpson Jurors Are Sworn In : Trial: The eight-woman, four-man panel is predominantly black. Fifteen alternates will be added in coming months ". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
    4. ^ "THE O. J. SIMPSON MURDER TRIAL : Excerpts of Opening Statements by Simpson Prosecutors". Los Angeles Times. January 25, 1995. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
    5. ^ Thomas L. Jones. "O. J. SIMPSON". truTV. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
    6. ^ "1995: OJ Simpson verdict: 'Not guilty'". On This Day: 3 October. BBC. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
    7. ^ "Confusion for Simpson kids 'far from over'". USA Today. February 12, 1997. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
    8. ^ Mydans, Seth (June 16, 1994). "Lawyer for O. J. Simpson Quits Case". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    9. ^ Newton, Jim (September 9, 1994). "Power Struggle in the Simpson Camp, Sources Say – Shapiro, Cochran Increasingly Compete For Limelight In Case". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    10. ^ "Simpson Expected To Shuffle Legal Team, Demote Lead Attorney". Daily News. January 2, 1995. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    11. ^ Meier, Barry (September 7, 1994). "Simpson Team Taking Aim at DNA Laboratory". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
    12. ^ "List of the evidence in the O. J. Simpson double-murder trial". USA Today. October 18, 1996. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
    13. ^ "the o.j. verdict". www.pbs.org. October 4, 2005. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    14. ^ "the o.j. verdict". www.pbs.org. October 4, 2005. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    15. ^ Chakravarti, Sonali (August 5, 2016). "The OJ Simpson Verdict, Jury Nullification and Black Lives Matter: The Power to Acquit". Public Seminar. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    16. ^ Monroe, Sylvester (June 16, 2016). "Black America was cheering for Cochran, not O.J." The Undefeated. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
    17. ^ Decker, Cathleen. "THE TIMES POLL : Most in County Disagree With Simpson Verdicts". Retrieved January 16, 2015.
    18. ^ "Most Black People Now Think O.J. Was Guilty". FiveThirtyEight. June 9, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    19. ^ "Jury unanimous: Simpson is liable". CNN. February 4, 1997. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
     
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    1
    3 October 1995 – The O. J. Simpson murder case ended with a verdict of not guilty.

    O. J. Simpson murder case

    The O. J. Simpson murder case (officially The People of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson) was a criminal trial held in Los Angeles County Superior Court. Former National Football League (NFL) player, broadcaster and actor O. J. Simpson was tried and acquitted on two counts of murder for the June 12, 1994, slashing deaths of his ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ron Goldman. At 12:10 a.m. on June 13, 1994, Brown and Goldman were found stabbed to death outside her condominium in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles. Simpson became a person of interest after police found a bloody glove behind his house and was formally charged with the murders on June 17. When he did not turn himself in at the agreed time (having previously been released after perfunctory questioning by police detectives), he became the object of a low-speed pursuit in a white 1993 Ford Bronco SUV owned and driven by his friend Al Cowlings.[1] TV stations interrupted coverage of the 1994 NBA Finals to broadcast the incident. The pursuit was watched live by an estimated 95 million people.[2] The pursuit, arrest, and trial were among the most widely publicized events in American history. The trial—often characterized as the trial of the century because of its international publicity—spanned eleven months, from the jury's swearing-in on November 9, 1994.[3] Opening statements were made on January 24, 1995,[4] and the verdict was announced on October 3, 1995 when Simpson was acquitted on two counts of murder.[5][6] According to USA Today, the case has been described as the "most publicized" criminal trial in history.[7]

    Simpson was represented by a high-profile defense team, also referred to as the "Dream Team", which was initially led by Robert Shapiro[8][9][10] and subsequently directed by Johnnie Cochran. The team also included F. Lee Bailey, Alan Dershowitz, Robert Kardashian, Shawn Holley, Carl E. Douglas, and Gerald Uelmen. Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld were two additional attorneys who specialized in DNA evidence.

    Deputy District Attorneys Marcia Clark, William Hodgman and later Christopher Darden thought that they had a strong case against Simpson, but Cochran was able to convince the jury that there was reasonable doubt concerning the validity of the State's DNA evidence, which was a relatively new form of evidence in trials at that time.[11] The reasonable doubt theory included evidence that the blood sample had allegedly been mishandled by lab scientists and technicians, and there were questionable circumstances that surrounded other court exhibits.[12] Cochran and the defense team also alleged other misconduct by the LAPD related to systemic racism and incompetence, in particular actions and comments of Detective Mark Fuhrman.

    The trial became historically significant because of the reaction to the verdict.[13] The nation observed the same evidence presented at trial but a division along racial lines emerged in observers opinion of the verdict, which the media dubbed the "racial gap".[14] A poll of Los Angeles County residents showed that most African Americans felt that justice had been served by the "not guilty" verdict, while the majority of whites and Latinos felt it was a racially motivated jury nullification[15][16] by a mostly African-American jury.[17] Polling shows the gap has narrowed since the trial, with over half of polled black respondents in 2015 stating they believed Simpson was guilty.[18]

    After the trial, the families of Brown and Goldman filed a lawsuit against Simpson. On February 4, 1997, the jury unanimously found Simpson responsible for both deaths.[19] The families were awarded compensatory and punitive damages totaling $33.5 million ($53.4 million in 2019 dollars), but have received only a small portion of that monetary figure. In 2000, Simpson left California for Florida, one of the few states where personal assets such as homes and pensions cannot be seized to cover liabilities that were incurred in other states.

    1. ^ Mydans, Seth (June 18, 1994). "The Simpson Case: The Fugitive; Simpson Is Charged, Chased, Arrested". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    2. ^ Gilbert, Geis; Bienen, Leigh B. (1988). Crimes of the century: from Leopold and Loeb to O.J. Simpson. Northeastern University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-55553-360-1 – via Google Books.
    3. ^ Ford, Andrea; Newton, Jim (November 4, 1994). "12 Simpson Jurors Are Sworn In : Trial: The eight-woman, four-man panel is predominantly black. Fifteen alternates will be added in coming months ". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
    4. ^ "THE O. J. SIMPSON MURDER TRIAL : Excerpts of Opening Statements by Simpson Prosecutors". Los Angeles Times. January 25, 1995. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
    5. ^ Thomas L. Jones. "O. J. SIMPSON". truTV. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
    6. ^ "1995: OJ Simpson verdict: 'Not guilty'". On This Day: 3 October. BBC. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
    7. ^ "Confusion for Simpson kids 'far from over'". USA Today. February 12, 1997. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
    8. ^ Mydans, Seth (June 16, 1994). "Lawyer for O. J. Simpson Quits Case". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    9. ^ Newton, Jim (September 9, 1994). "Power Struggle in the Simpson Camp, Sources Say – Shapiro, Cochran Increasingly Compete For Limelight In Case". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    10. ^ "Simpson Expected To Shuffle Legal Team, Demote Lead Attorney". Daily News. January 2, 1995. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    11. ^ Meier, Barry (September 7, 1994). "Simpson Team Taking Aim at DNA Laboratory". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
    12. ^ "List of the evidence in the O. J. Simpson double-murder trial". USA Today. October 18, 1996. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
    13. ^ "the o.j. verdict". www.pbs.org. October 4, 2005. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    14. ^ "the o.j. verdict". www.pbs.org. October 4, 2005. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    15. ^ Chakravarti, Sonali (August 5, 2016). "The OJ Simpson Verdict, Jury Nullification and Black Lives Matter: The Power to Acquit". Public Seminar. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    16. ^ Monroe, Sylvester (June 16, 2016). "Black America was cheering for Cochran, not O.J." The Undefeated. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
    17. ^ Decker, Cathleen. "THE TIMES POLL : Most in County Disagree With Simpson Verdicts". Retrieved January 16, 2015.
    18. ^ "Most Black People Now Think O.J. Was Guilty". FiveThirtyEight. June 9, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    19. ^ "Jury unanimous: Simpson is liable". CNN. February 4, 1997. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
     
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    4 October 2006WikiLeaks is launched.

    WikiLeaks

    WikiLeaks (/ˈwɪkilks/) is an international non-profit organisation that publishes news leaks[5] and classified media provided by anonymous sources.[6] Its website, initiated in 2006 in Iceland by the organisation Sunshine Press,[7] claimed in 2015 to have released online 10 million documents in its first 10 years.[8] Julian Assange, an Australian Internet activist, is generally described as its founder and director.[9] Since September 2018, Kristinn Hrafnsson has served as its editor-in-chief.[10][11]

    The group has released a number of prominent document caches. Early releases included documentation of equipment expenditures and holdings in the Afghanistan war,[12] a report informing a corruption investigation in Kenya,[13][14] and a manual for operations at the U.S. prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.[15][16] In April 2010, WikiLeaks released the Collateral Murder footage from the 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike in which Iraqi journalists were among those killed. Other releases in 2010 included the Afghan War Diary and the "Iraq War Logs". The latter allowed the mapping of 109,032 deaths in "significant" attacks by insurgents in Iraq that had been reported to Multi-National Force – Iraq, including about 15,000 that had not been previously published.[17][18] In 2010, WikiLeaks also released the US State Department diplomatic "cables", classified cables that had been sent to the US State Department. In April 2011, WikiLeaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners detained in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.[19] In 2012, WikiLeaks released the "Syria Files," over two million emails sent by Syrian politicians, corporations and government ministries.[20][21] In 2015, WikiLeaks published Saudi Arabian diplomatic cables,[22][23] documents detailing spying by the U.S. National Security Agency on successive French Presidents,[24][25] and the intellectual property chapter of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a controversial international trade agreement which had been negotiated in secret.[26][27]

    During the 2016 US presidential election campaign, WikiLeaks released emails and other documents from the Democratic National Committee and from Hillary Clinton's campaign manager, John Podesta.[28] These releases caused significant harm to the Clinton campaign, and have been attributed as a potential contributing factor to her loss.[29] The U.S. intelligence community expressed "high confidence" that the leaked emails had been hacked by Russia and supplied to WikiLeaks, while WikiLeaks denied their source was Russia or any other state.[30] During the campaign, WikiLeaks promoted conspiracy theories about Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party.[31][32][33]

    In 2016, WikiLeaks released nearly 300,000 emails it described as coming from Turkey's ruling Justice and Development Party,[34] later found to be taken from public mailing archives,[35] and over 50,000 emails from the Turkish minister of energy.[36] In 2017, WikiLeaks published internal CIA documents describing tools used by the agency to hack devices including mobile phones and routers.[37][38]

    WikiLeaks has drawn criticism for its alleged absence of whistleblowing on or criticism of Russia, and for criticising the Panama Papers' exposé of businesses and individuals with offshore bank accounts.[39][40] The organisation has additionally been criticised for inadequately curating its content and violating the personal privacy of individuals. WikiLeaks has, for instance, revealed Social Security numbers, medical information, credit card numbers and details of suicide attempts.[41][42][43][44]

    1. ^ "Wikileaks Mirrors". WikiLeaks. 24 August 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
    2. ^ "Wikileaks.org Traffic, Demographics and Competitors – Alexa". www.alexa.com. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
    3. ^ "About". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference whois was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Karhula, Päivikki (5 October 2012). "What is the effect of WikiLeaks for Freedom of Information?". International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
    6. ^ Editors, The (16 August 2012). "WikiLeaks". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2012.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    7. ^ Chatriwala, Omar (5 April 2010). "WikiLeaks vs the Pentagon". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
    8. ^ "What is Wikileaks". WikiLeaks. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
    9. ^ McGreal, Chris (5 April 2010). "Wikileaks reveals video showing US air crew shooting down Iraqi civilians". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
    10. ^ "WikiLeaks names one-time spokesman as editor-in-chief". Associated Press. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
    11. ^ Bridge, Mark (27 September 2018). "Loss of internet forces Assange to step down from Wikileaks editor role". The Times. Retrieved 11 April 2019.(subscription required)
    12. ^ Joseph, Channing (9 September 2007). "Wikileaks Releases Secret Report on Military Equipment". The New York Sun. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
    13. ^ Dahir, Abdi Latif (13 April 2019). "It all started in Nairobi: How Kenya gave Julian Assange's WikiLeaks its first major global scoop". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    14. ^ Rice, Xan (31 August 2007). "The looting of Kenya". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    15. ^ Ryan Singel (14 November 2007). "Sensitive Guantánamo Bay Manual Leaked Through Wiki Site". Wired magazine. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
    16. ^ "US: Leaked Gitmo Manual Out of Date". Associated Press. 14 November 2007. Archived from the original on 18 November 2007. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
    17. ^ "Wikileaks Iraq: data journalism maps every death". The Guardian. London. 23 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 January 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
    18. ^ "Wikileaks Iraq: what's wrong with the data?". The Guardian. London. 25 October 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
    19. ^ Leigh, David; Ball, James; Burke, Jason (25 April 2011). "Guantánamo files lift lid on world's most controversial prison". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
    20. ^ "Syria files: Wikileaks releases 2m 'embarrassing' emails". BBC. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    21. ^ Greenberg, Andy (5 July 2012). "WikiLeaks Announces Massive Release With The 'Syria Files': 2.4 Million Emails From Syrian Officials And Companies". Forbes. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    22. ^ Hubbard, Ben (20 June 2015). "Cables Released by WikiLeaks Reveal Saudis' Checkbook Diplomacy". New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    23. ^ Zorthian, Julia (19 June 2015). "WikiLeaks Begins Releasing Leaked Saudi Arabia Cables". Time Magazine. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    24. ^ Regan, James; John, Mark (23 June 2015). "NSA spied on French presidents: WikiLeaks". Reuters. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    25. ^ Rubin, Alyssa J.; Shane, Scott (24 June 2015). "Hollande Condemns Spying by U.S., but Not Too Harshly". New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    26. ^ Thielman, Sam (9 October 2015). "Wikileaks release of TPP deal text stokes 'freedom of expression' fears". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    27. ^ Bolton, Doug (9 October 2015). "TPP leaked: Wikileaks releases intellectual property chapter of controversial internet and medicine-regulating trade agreement". The Independent. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    28. ^ "Why it's entirely predictable that Hillary Clinton's emails are back in the news". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
    29. ^ "How Much Did WikiLeaks Hurt Hillary Clinton?". FiveThirtyEight. 23 December 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2018. The evidence suggests WikiLeaks is among the factors that might have contributed to her loss, but we really can't say much more than that.
    30. ^ Shabad, Rebecca (7 October 2016). "U.S. intel community 'confident' Russia directed hacks to influence election". Retrieved 23 October 2016.
    31. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (4 November 2016). "No, John Podesta didn't drink bodily fluids at a secret Satanist dinner". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
    32. ^ "WikiLeaks Fuels Conspiracy Theories About DNC Staffer's Death". NBC News. Retrieved 8 November 2016. WikiLeaks ... is fueling Internet conspiracy theories by offering a $20,000 reward for information on a Democratic National Committee staffer who was killed last month ... in what police say was robbery gone wrong ... Assange implied this week in an interview that Rich was the source of the leak and even offered a $20,000 reward for information leading to the arrest of his murderer. Meanwhile, the Russian government funded propaganda outlet RT had already been covering Rich's murder two weeks prior. RT and other Russian government propaganda outlets have also been working hard to deny the Russian government was the source of the leak, including by interviewing Assange about the Rich murder. ... The original conspiracy theory can be traced back to a notoriously unreliable conspiracy website
    33. ^ How Julian Assange turned WikiLeaks into Trump's best friend, Max Chafkin & Vernon Silver, 10 October 2016 (Bloomberg website)
    34. ^ Yeung, Peter (20 July 2016). "President Erdogan emails: What is in the Wikileaks release about Turkey's government?". The Independent. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    35. ^ Doctorow, Cory (29 July 2016). "Wikileaks' dump of "Erdogan emails" turn out to be public mailing list archives". BoingBoing. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    36. ^ Gramer, Robbie (7 December 2016). "Latest Wikileaks Dump Sheds New Light on Erdogan's Power In Turkey". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    37. ^ Menn, Joseph (29 March 2017). "A scramble at Cisco exposes uncomfortable truths about U.S. cyber defense". Reuters. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    38. ^ Shane, Scott; Rosenberg, Matthew; Lehren, Andrew W. (7 March 2017). "WikiLeaks Releases Trove of Alleged C.I.A. Hacking Documents". New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    39. ^ Erlanger, Jo Becker, Steven; Schmitt, Eric (31 August 2016). "How Russia Often Benefits When Julian Assange Reveals the West's Secrets". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
    40. ^ Harding, Alec Luhn Luke (7 April 2016). "Putin dismisses Panama Papers as an attempt to destabilise Russia". The Guardian. London. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
    41. ^ Joshua Brustein (29 July 2016). "Why Wikileaks Is Losing Its Friends". Bloomberg News.
    42. ^ Raphael Satter; Maggie Michael (23 August 2016). "Private lives are exposed as WikiLeaks spills its secrets". Associated Press.
    43. ^ Andrea Peterson. "Snowden and WikiLeaks clash over leaked Democratic Party emails". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
    44. ^ Tufekci, Zeynep (4 November 2016). "WikiLeaks Isn't Whistleblowing". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    1
    4 October 2006WikiLeaks is launched.

    WikiLeaks

    WikiLeaks (/ˈwɪkilks/) is an international non-profit organisation that publishes news leaks[5] and classified media provided by anonymous sources.[6] Its website, initiated in 2006 in Iceland by the organisation Sunshine Press,[7] claimed in 2015 to have released online 10 million documents in its first 10 years.[8] Julian Assange, an Australian Internet activist, is generally described as its founder and director.[9] Since September 2018, Kristinn Hrafnsson has served as its editor-in-chief.[10][11]

    The group has released a number of prominent document caches. Early releases included documentation of equipment expenditures and holdings in the Afghanistan war,[12] a report informing a corruption investigation in Kenya,[13][14] and a manual for operations at the U.S. prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.[15][16] In April 2010, WikiLeaks released the Collateral Murder footage from the 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike in which Iraqi journalists were among those killed. Other releases in 2010 included the Afghan War Diary and the "Iraq War Logs". The latter allowed the mapping of 109,032 deaths in "significant" attacks by insurgents in Iraq that had been reported to Multi-National Force – Iraq, including about 15,000 that had not been previously published.[17][18] In 2010, WikiLeaks also released the US State Department diplomatic "cables", classified cables that had been sent to the US State Department. In April 2011, WikiLeaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners detained in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.[19] In 2012, WikiLeaks released the "Syria Files," over two million emails sent by Syrian politicians, corporations and government ministries.[20][21] In 2015, WikiLeaks published Saudi Arabian diplomatic cables,[22][23] documents detailing spying by the U.S. National Security Agency on successive French Presidents,[24][25] and the intellectual property chapter of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a controversial international trade agreement which had been negotiated in secret.[26][27]

    During the 2016 US presidential election campaign, WikiLeaks released emails and other documents from the Democratic National Committee and from Hillary Clinton's campaign manager, John Podesta.[28] These releases caused significant harm to the Clinton campaign, and have been attributed as a potential contributing factor to her loss.[29] The U.S. intelligence community expressed "high confidence" that the leaked emails had been hacked by Russia and supplied to WikiLeaks, while WikiLeaks denied their source was Russia or any other state.[30] During the campaign, WikiLeaks promoted conspiracy theories about Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party.[31][32][33]

    In 2016, WikiLeaks released nearly 300,000 emails it described as coming from Turkey's ruling Justice and Development Party,[34] later found to be taken from public mailing archives,[35] and over 50,000 emails from the Turkish minister of energy.[36] In 2017, WikiLeaks published internal CIA documents describing tools used by the agency to hack devices including mobile phones and routers.[37][38]

    WikiLeaks has drawn criticism for its alleged absence of whistleblowing on or criticism of Russia, and for criticising the Panama Papers' exposé of businesses and individuals with offshore bank accounts.[39][40] The organisation has additionally been criticised for inadequately curating its content and violating the personal privacy of individuals. WikiLeaks has, for instance, revealed Social Security numbers, medical information, credit card numbers and details of suicide attempts.[41][42][43][44]

    1. ^ "Wikileaks Mirrors". WikiLeaks. 24 August 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
    2. ^ "Wikileaks.org Traffic, Demographics and Competitors – Alexa". www.alexa.com. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
    3. ^ "About". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference whois was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Karhula, Päivikki (5 October 2012). "What is the effect of WikiLeaks for Freedom of Information?". International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
    6. ^ Editors, The (16 August 2012). "WikiLeaks". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2012.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    7. ^ Chatriwala, Omar (5 April 2010). "WikiLeaks vs the Pentagon". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
    8. ^ "What is Wikileaks". WikiLeaks. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
    9. ^ McGreal, Chris (5 April 2010). "Wikileaks reveals video showing US air crew shooting down Iraqi civilians". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
    10. ^ "WikiLeaks names one-time spokesman as editor-in-chief". Associated Press. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
    11. ^ Bridge, Mark (27 September 2018). "Loss of internet forces Assange to step down from Wikileaks editor role". The Times. Retrieved 11 April 2019.(subscription required)
    12. ^ Joseph, Channing (9 September 2007). "Wikileaks Releases Secret Report on Military Equipment". The New York Sun. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
    13. ^ Dahir, Abdi Latif (13 April 2019). "It all started in Nairobi: How Kenya gave Julian Assange's WikiLeaks its first major global scoop". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    14. ^ Rice, Xan (31 August 2007). "The looting of Kenya". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    15. ^ Ryan Singel (14 November 2007). "Sensitive Guantánamo Bay Manual Leaked Through Wiki Site". Wired magazine. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
    16. ^ "US: Leaked Gitmo Manual Out of Date". Associated Press. 14 November 2007. Archived from the original on 18 November 2007. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
    17. ^ "Wikileaks Iraq: data journalism maps every death". The Guardian. London. 23 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 January 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
    18. ^ "Wikileaks Iraq: what's wrong with the data?". The Guardian. London. 25 October 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
    19. ^ Leigh, David; Ball, James; Burke, Jason (25 April 2011). "Guantánamo files lift lid on world's most controversial prison". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
    20. ^ "Syria files: Wikileaks releases 2m 'embarrassing' emails". BBC. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    21. ^ Greenberg, Andy (5 July 2012). "WikiLeaks Announces Massive Release With The 'Syria Files': 2.4 Million Emails From Syrian Officials And Companies". Forbes. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    22. ^ Hubbard, Ben (20 June 2015). "Cables Released by WikiLeaks Reveal Saudis' Checkbook Diplomacy". New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    23. ^ Zorthian, Julia (19 June 2015). "WikiLeaks Begins Releasing Leaked Saudi Arabia Cables". Time Magazine. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    24. ^ Regan, James; John, Mark (23 June 2015). "NSA spied on French presidents: WikiLeaks". Reuters. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    25. ^ Rubin, Alyssa J.; Shane, Scott (24 June 2015). "Hollande Condemns Spying by U.S., but Not Too Harshly". New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    26. ^ Thielman, Sam (9 October 2015). "Wikileaks release of TPP deal text stokes 'freedom of expression' fears". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    27. ^ Bolton, Doug (9 October 2015). "TPP leaked: Wikileaks releases intellectual property chapter of controversial internet and medicine-regulating trade agreement". The Independent. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    28. ^ "Why it's entirely predictable that Hillary Clinton's emails are back in the news". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
    29. ^ "How Much Did WikiLeaks Hurt Hillary Clinton?". FiveThirtyEight. 23 December 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2018. The evidence suggests WikiLeaks is among the factors that might have contributed to her loss, but we really can't say much more than that.
    30. ^ Shabad, Rebecca (7 October 2016). "U.S. intel community 'confident' Russia directed hacks to influence election". Retrieved 23 October 2016.
    31. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (4 November 2016). "No, John Podesta didn't drink bodily fluids at a secret Satanist dinner". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
    32. ^ "WikiLeaks Fuels Conspiracy Theories About DNC Staffer's Death". NBC News. Retrieved 8 November 2016. WikiLeaks ... is fueling Internet conspiracy theories by offering a $20,000 reward for information on a Democratic National Committee staffer who was killed last month ... in what police say was robbery gone wrong ... Assange implied this week in an interview that Rich was the source of the leak and even offered a $20,000 reward for information leading to the arrest of his murderer. Meanwhile, the Russian government funded propaganda outlet RT had already been covering Rich's murder two weeks prior. RT and other Russian government propaganda outlets have also been working hard to deny the Russian government was the source of the leak, including by interviewing Assange about the Rich murder. ... The original conspiracy theory can be traced back to a notoriously unreliable conspiracy website
    33. ^ How Julian Assange turned WikiLeaks into Trump's best friend, Max Chafkin & Vernon Silver, 10 October 2016 (Bloomberg website)
    34. ^ Yeung, Peter (20 July 2016). "President Erdogan emails: What is in the Wikileaks release about Turkey's government?". The Independent. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    35. ^ Doctorow, Cory (29 July 2016). "Wikileaks' dump of "Erdogan emails" turn out to be public mailing list archives". BoingBoing. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    36. ^ Gramer, Robbie (7 December 2016). "Latest Wikileaks Dump Sheds New Light on Erdogan's Power In Turkey". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    37. ^ Menn, Joseph (29 March 2017). "A scramble at Cisco exposes uncomfortable truths about U.S. cyber defense". Reuters. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    38. ^ Shane, Scott; Rosenberg, Matthew; Lehren, Andrew W. (7 March 2017). "WikiLeaks Releases Trove of Alleged C.I.A. Hacking Documents". New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
    39. ^ Erlanger, Jo Becker, Steven; Schmitt, Eric (31 August 2016). "How Russia Often Benefits When Julian Assange Reveals the West's Secrets". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
    40. ^ Harding, Alec Luhn Luke (7 April 2016). "Putin dismisses Panama Papers as an attempt to destabilise Russia". The Guardian. London. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
    41. ^ Joshua Brustein (29 July 2016). "Why Wikileaks Is Losing Its Friends". Bloomberg News.
    42. ^ Raphael Satter; Maggie Michael (23 August 2016). "Private lives are exposed as WikiLeaks spills its secrets". Associated Press.
    43. ^ Andrea Peterson. "Snowden and WikiLeaks clash over leaked Democratic Party emails". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
    44. ^ Tufekci, Zeynep (4 November 2016). "WikiLeaks Isn't Whistleblowing". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
     
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    5 October 1947 – President Truman makes the first televised Oval Office address.

    Oval Office address

    An Address to the Nation is a speech made from the White House by the President of the United States. It is traditionally made from the Oval Office.[1] It is considered among the most solemn settings for an address made by the President, and is most often delivered to announce a major new policy initiative, on the occasion of a President's departure from office, or during times of national emergency (natural disaster, war, etc.).[1]

    1. ^ a b Williams, Bronwyn; Zenger, Amy (2007). Popular Culture and Representations of Literacy. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-415-36095-1. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
     
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    6 October 1854 – In England the Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead leads to 53 deaths and hundreds injured.

    Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead

    The great fire of Gateshead and Newcastle was a tragic and spectacular series of events starting on Friday 6 October 1854, in which a substantial amount of property in the two North East of England towns was destroyed in a series of fires and an explosion which killed 53 and injured hundreds. There is only one building still extant on the Newcastle Quayside which predated the fire.[1]

    1. ^ "Last surviving building from Great Fire". Quayside Lives. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
     
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    6 October 1854 – In England the Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead leads to 53 deaths and hundreds injured.

    Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead

    The great fire of Gateshead and Newcastle was a tragic and spectacular series of events starting on Friday 6 October 1854, in which a substantial amount of property in the two North East of England towns was destroyed in a series of fires and an explosion which killed 53 and injured hundreds. There is only one building still extant on the Newcastle Quayside which predated the fire.[1]

    1. ^ "Last surviving building from Great Fire". Quayside Lives. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
     
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    7 October 1958 – The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état inaugurates a prolonged period of military rule.

    1958 Pakistani coup d'état

    The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen. Ayub Khan, the Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army. There were a number of Prime Ministers between 1956 and 1958 and it reached a stage when General Ayub Khan felt the army should take control to restore stability. East Pakistan’s politicians wanted more say in the running of the central government which increased tension. Iskander Mirza had lost the support of many of the leading politicians and was alarmed at a plan by Suhrawardy to unite the political leadership of Bengal and Punjab against him. Therefore he turned to Ayub Khan and the military for help.

     
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    8 October 2016 – In the wake of Hurricane Matthew, the death toll rises to nearly 900.

    Hurricane Matthew

    Hurricane Matthew was the first Category 5 Atlantic hurricane since Felix in 2007. Matthew caused catastrophic damage and a humanitarian crisis in Haiti, as well as widespread devastation in the southeastern United States. The deadliest Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Stan in 2005, Matthew was the thirteenth named storm, fifth hurricane and second major hurricane of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season. It caused extensive damage to landmasses in the Greater Antilles, and severe damage in several islands of the Bahamas which were still recovering from Joaquin, which had pounded such areas nearly a year earlier. At one point, the hurricane even threatened to be the first storm of Category 3 or higher intensity to strike the United States since Wilma in 2005, but Matthew stayed just offshore, paralleling the Florida coastline.

    Originating from a tropical wave that emerged off Africa on September 22, Matthew developed into a tropical storm just east of the Lesser Antilles on September 28. It became a hurricane north of Venezuela and Colombia on September 29, before undergoing explosive intensification, ultimately reaching Category 5 intensity on October 1 at just 13.4°N latitude – the lowest latitude ever recorded for a storm of this intensity in the Atlantic basin, breaking the record set by Hurricane Ivan in 2004.[1] Matthew weakened slightly and fluctuated in intensity while making a northward turn toward the Greater Antilles, remaining a strong Category 4 hurricane as it made its first landfall over Haiti's Tiburon Peninsula early on October 4, and then a second one in Cuba later that day. Matthew weakened somewhat but re-intensified as it tracked northwest, making landfall in the northern Bahamas. The storm then paralleled the coast of the southeastern United States over the next 36 hours, gradually weakening while remaining just offshore before making its fourth and final landfall over the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge near McClellanville, South Carolina as a Category 1 hurricane on the morning of October 8. Matthew re-emerged into the Atlantic shortly afterward, eventually completing its transition into an extratropical cyclone as it turned away from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina on October 9. The remnants of Matthew continued to accelerate towards Canada where it was absorbed by a cold front.[2]

    Widespread effects were felt from Matthew across its destructive path, however, the most significant impacts were felt in Haiti, with US$2.8 billion in damage and 546 deaths, making Matthew the worst disaster to affect the nation since the 2010 earthquake. The combination of flooding and high winds disrupted telecommunications and destroyed extensive swaths of land; around 80% of Jérémie sustained significant damage. Four people were killed in Cuba due to a bridge collapse, and total losses in the country amounted to US$2.58 billion, most of which occurred in the Guantánamo Province. Passing through the Bahamas as a major hurricane, Matthew spread damage across several islands. Grand Bahama was hit directly, where most homes sustained damage in the townships of Eight Mile Rock and Holmes Rock. Preparations began in earnest across the southeastern United States as Matthew approached, with several states declaring states of emergencies for either entire states or coastal counties; widespread evacuations were ordered for extensive areas of the coast because of predicted high wind speeds and flooding, especially in the Jacksonville Metropolitan Area. In Florida, over 1 million lost power as the storm passed to the east, with 478,000 losing power in Georgia and South Carolina. While damage was primarily confined to the coast in Florida and Georgia, torrential rains spread inland in the Carolinas and Virginia, causing widespread flooding.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference TCR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Matthew Storm History". The Weather Channel. October 3, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
     
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    9 October 1986The Phantom of the Opera, eventually the second longest running musical in London, opens at Her Majesty's Theatre.

    The Phantom of the Opera (1986 musical)

    The Phantom of the Opera is a British musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber, lyrics by Charles Hart, and a book by Lloyd Webber and Richard Stilgoe. Based on the 1910 French novel of the same name by Gaston Leroux, its central plot revolves around a beautiful soprano, Christine Daaé, who becomes the obsession of a mysterious, disfigured musical genius living in the subterranean labyrinth beneath the Paris Opéra House.[1]

    The musical opened in London's West End in 1986, and on Broadway in 1988. It won the 1986 Olivier Award and the 1988 Tony Award for Best Musical, and Michael Crawford (in the title role) won the Olivier and Tony Awards for Best Actor in a Musical.[2] It is currently the longest running show in Broadway history, and celebrated its 10,000th Broadway performance on 11 February 2012, the first production ever to do so.[3] It is the second longest-running West End musical, after Les Misérables, and the third longest-running West End show overall, after The Mousetrap.[4][5][6]

    With total estimated worldwide gross receipts of over $6 billion and total Broadway gross of over $1 billion,[7] Phantom was the most financially successful entertainment event until The Lion King surpassed it in 2014.[8][9][10] By 2011, it had been seen by over 130 million people in 145 cities across 27 countries.[8]

    1. ^ Rich, Frank (27 January 1988). "Stage: 'Phantom of the Opera'". New York Times.
    2. ^ "The Phantom of the Opera – The Show – Awards". Archived from the original on 30 May 2011.
    3. ^ Gerald Martin Bordman (2004). The Oxford companion to American theatre p.496. Oxford University Press. "A British musical based on Leroux's famous novel".
    4. ^ Top 10 Longest-Running London Theatre Shows Londonist.com. Retrieved 11 February 2012
    5. ^ The A to Z of the Broadway Musical p.266. Scarecrow Press, 2009
    6. ^ Smith, Tim (11 April 2010) 'Phantom of the Opera’ at the Hippodrome The Baltimore Sun
    7. ^ Cox, Gordon. "'Wicked' Surpasses 'The Phantom of the Opera' at the Broadway Box Office". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
    8. ^ a b "Phantom of the Opera Screening Earns Over £500,000 in the UK", BroadwayWorld.com, 5 October 2011
    9. ^ Jones, Kenneth (25 January 2006). "Phantom turns 18". Playbill. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
    10. ^ Gans, Andrew. "The Lion King Is Now Top-Earner in Box-Office History", Playbill, 22 September 2014.
     
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    9 October 1986The Phantom of the Opera, eventually the second longest running musical in London, opens at Her Majesty's Theatre.

    The Phantom of the Opera (1986 musical)

    The Phantom of the Opera is a British musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber, lyrics by Charles Hart, and a book by Lloyd Webber and Richard Stilgoe. Based on the 1910 French novel of the same name by Gaston Leroux, its central plot revolves around a beautiful soprano, Christine Daaé, who becomes the obsession of a mysterious, disfigured musical genius living in the subterranean labyrinth beneath the Paris Opéra House.[1]

    The musical opened in London's West End in 1986, and on Broadway in 1988. It won the 1986 Olivier Award and the 1988 Tony Award for Best Musical, and Michael Crawford (in the title role) won the Olivier and Tony Awards for Best Actor in a Musical.[2] It is currently the longest running show in Broadway history, and celebrated its 10,000th Broadway performance on 11 February 2012, the first production ever to do so.[3] It is the second longest-running West End musical, after Les Misérables, and the third longest-running West End show overall, after The Mousetrap.[4][5][6]

    With total estimated worldwide gross receipts of over $6 billion and total Broadway gross of over $1 billion,[7] Phantom was the most financially successful entertainment event until The Lion King surpassed it in 2014.[8][9][10] By 2011, it had been seen by over 130 million people in 145 cities across 27 countries.[8]

    1. ^ Rich, Frank (27 January 1988). "Stage: 'Phantom of the Opera'". New York Times.
    2. ^ "The Phantom of the Opera – The Show – Awards". Archived from the original on 30 May 2011.
    3. ^ Gerald Martin Bordman (2004). The Oxford companion to American theatre p.496. Oxford University Press. "A British musical based on Leroux's famous novel".
    4. ^ Top 10 Longest-Running London Theatre Shows Londonist.com. Retrieved 11 February 2012
    5. ^ The A to Z of the Broadway Musical p.266. Scarecrow Press, 2009
    6. ^ Smith, Tim (11 April 2010) 'Phantom of the Opera’ at the Hippodrome The Baltimore Sun
    7. ^ Cox, Gordon. "'Wicked' Surpasses 'The Phantom of the Opera' at the Broadway Box Office". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
    8. ^ a b "Phantom of the Opera Screening Earns Over £500,000 in the UK", BroadwayWorld.com, 5 October 2011
    9. ^ Jones, Kenneth (25 January 2006). "Phantom turns 18". Playbill. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
    10. ^ Gans, Andrew. "The Lion King Is Now Top-Earner in Box-Office History", Playbill, 22 September 2014.
     
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    10 October 1868 – The Ten Years' War begins against Spanish rule in Cuba.

    Ten Years' War

    The Ten Years' War (Spanish: Guerra de los Diez Años) (1868–1878), also known as the Great War (Guerra Grande) and the War of '68, was part of Cuba's fight for independence from Spain. The uprising was led by Cuban-born planters and other wealthy natives. On October 10, 1868 sugar mill owner Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and his followers proclaimed independence, beginning the conflict. This was the first of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Little War (1879–1880) and the Cuban War of Independence (1895–1898). The final three months of the last conflict escalated with United States involvement, leading to the Spanish–American War.[10][11]

    1. ^ Clodfelter 2017, p. 306.
    2. ^ a b Thomas, Hugh Swynnerton (1973). From Spanish domination to American domination, 1762-1909. Volume I of `` Cuba: the struggle for freedom, 1762-1970 . Barcelona; Mexico: Grijalbo, pp. 337. Edition of Neri Daurella. ISBN 9788425302916.
    3. ^ Thomas, 1973: 345. 1,500 to 2,000 rebels fled to Jamaica.
    4. ^ a b Ramiro Guerra Sánchez (1972). War of the 10 i.e. Ten years. Volume II Havana: Editorial De Ciencias Sociales, pp. 377
    5. ^ Florencio León Gutiérrez (1895). "Conference on the Cuban insurrection." Havana: Artillery Corps Printing, pp. 25
    6. ^ José Andrés-Gallego (1981). General History of Spain and America: Revolution and Restoration: (1868-1931) . Madrid: Rialp Editions, pp. 271. ISBN 978-8-43212-114-2. 20,000 Spaniards and 35,000 Cubans.
    7. ^ Nicolás María Serrano & Melchor Pardo (1875). Annals of the civil war: Spain from 1868 to 1876 . Volume I. Madrid: Astort Brothers, pp. 1263
    8. ^ as estimated by José Martí in his work "The Revolution of 1868" cited by Samuel Silva Gotay in "Catholicism and politics in Puerto Rico: under Spain and the United States" p. 39
    9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Military Historical Victimary".
    10. ^ Charles Campbell, The Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant (2017) pp 179-98.
    11. ^ Hugh Thomas, Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom (1971) pp 244-263.
     
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    11 October 1972A race riot occurs on the United States Navy aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk off the coast of Vietnam.

    USS Kitty Hawk riot

    The USS Kitty Hawk riot was a racial conflict between white and black sailors aboard the United States Navy aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk on the night of October 12/13, 1972, while positioned at Yankee Station off the coast of North Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

    1. ^ Faram, Mark D. (28 February 2017). "Race riot at sea — 1972 Kitty Hawk incident fueled fleet-wide unrest". Navy Times.
     
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    12 October 1810 – The citizens of Munich hold the first Oktoberfest.

    Oktoberfest

    Coordinates: 48°7′53″N 11°32′57″E / 48.13139°N 11.54917°E / 48.13139; 11.54917

    The Oktoberfest (German pronunciation: [ɔkˈtoːbɐˌfɛst]) is the world's largest Volksfest (beer festival and travelling funfair). Held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, it is a 16- to 18-day folk festival running from mid- or late September to the first Sunday in October, with more than six million people from around the world attending the event every year. Locally, it is called d’Wiesn, after the colloquial name for the fairgrounds, Theresienwiese. The Oktoberfest is an important part of Bavarian culture, having been held since the year 1810. Other cities across the world also hold Oktoberfest celebrations that are modeled after the original Munich event.

    During the event, large quantities of Oktoberfest Beer are consumed: during the 16-day festival in 2013, for example, 7.7 million litres (66,000 US bbl; 1,700,000 imp gal) were served.[1] Visitors also enjoy numerous attractions, such as amusement rides, sidestalls, and games. There is also a wide variety of traditional foods available.

    The Munich Oktoberfest originally took place in the 16-day period leading up to the first Sunday in October. In 1994, this longstanding schedule was modified in response to German reunification. As such, if the first Sunday in October falls on the 1st or the 2nd, then the festival would run until 3 October (German Unity Day). Thus, the festival now runs for 17 days when the first Sunday is 2 October and 18 days when it is 1 October. In 2010, the festival lasted until the first Monday in October (4 October), to mark the event's bicentennial.

    1. ^ "Oktoberfest Beer Consumption".
     
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    13 October 1972Aeroflot Flight 217 crashes outside Moscow, killing 174.

    Aeroflot Flight 217

    Aeroflot Flight 217 was a non-scheduled international passenger flight from Orly Airport in Paris to Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow, with a stopover at Shosseynaya Airport (now Pulkovo Airport) in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). On 13 October 1972, the Ilyushin Il-62 airliner operating the flight crashed on approach to Sheremetyevo, with the loss of all 164 passengers and crew of 10. The fatalities include 118 Russians, 38 Chileans, 6 Algerians, one East German and one Australian.[1] At the time, it was the world's deadliest aviation disaster, until it was surpassed by the Kano air disaster in 1973.[2] As of 2020, the accident remains the second-deadliest one involving an Il-62, after LOT Flight 5055, and the second-deadliest on Russian soil, after Aeroflot Flight 3352.[3][4][5]

    1. ^ [1]
    2. ^ Leddington, Roger (16 October 1972). "Death toll at 176 in Russian crash". Nashua Telegraph. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
    3. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 62 CCCP-86671 Moskva-Sheremetyevo Airport (SVO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
    4. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 62M SP-LBG Warszawa-Okecie Airport (WAW)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
    5. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 154B-1 CCCP-85243 Omsk Airport (OMS)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
     
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    14 October 2017 – A massive truck bombing in Somalia kills 358 people and injures more than 400 others

    14 October 2017 Mogadishu bombings

    On 14 October 2017, two truck bombings took place in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, killing at least 587 people and injuring 316 others.[1] Almost all of the casualties were caused by one of the trucks, which detonated when the driver, while attempting to escape from security officials, crashed through a barrier and exploded in the Hodan District, destroying a hotel; the intended target of the attack is believed to have been a secure compound housing international agencies and troops. The second blast happened close by, killing two people. A third explosives-laden truck was captured by police.[citation needed]

    Though no organisation claimed responsibility, officials stated that a key member of the cell that carried it out told them Islamist group Al-Shabaab was responsible.[2]

    The attack is the deadliest in Somalia's history, surpassing the 2011 Mogadishu bombing that killed 100 people, and the deadliest bombing in Africa.[3] It is also the third deadliest terrorist bombing attack and the sixth-deadliest act of terrorism in modern history, surpassed only by the 1990 massacre of Sri Lankan Police officers in Sri Lanka, the 2008 Christmas massacres in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007 Yazidi communities bombings, the 2014 Camp Speicher massacre in Iraq, and the September 11 attacks in the United States.[4] In response to the bombings, Somali president Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed declared three days of mourning.[5]

    1. ^ a b c "Committee: 1000 dead in Oct 14 terror attack". Hiiraan Online. 5 March 2018. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference graun17oct was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference veconomist was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Death toll from Mogadishu truck bombing rises to 512". BNO News. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
    5. ^ "Somalia Declares Three Days of Mourning for Mogadishu Attack". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
     
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    15 October 1888 – The "From Hell" letter allegedly sent by Jack the Ripper is received by investigators.

    From Hell letter

    The "From Hell" letter (also known as the "Lusk letter")[1][2] was a letter sent alongside half a preserved human kidney to the chairman of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee, George Lusk, in October 1888.[3] The author of this letter claimed to be the unidentified serial killer known as Jack the Ripper, who had murdered and mutilated at least four women in the Whitechapel and Spitalfields districts of London in the two months prior to Lusk receiving this letter, and whose vigilance committee Lusk led in community efforts to assist police in efforts to identify and apprehend the perpetrator.[2]

    The letter was postmarked on 15 October 1888 and was received by Lusk the following day.[4] An examination of the kidney revealed the individual from whom the organ originated had suffered from Bright's disease.[5] The author of this letter claimed to have fried and eaten the other half.

    Police, press, and public alike received many letters claiming to be from the Whitechapel Murderer, with investigators at one stage having to deal with an estimated 1,000 letters related to the case. However, the "From Hell" letter is one of the few articles of correspondence that has received serious consideration as to actually being genuine.[6] Nonetheless, opinions remain divided with regards to the letter's authenticity.[2]

    The murders committed by Jack the Ripper have attracted much attention in popular culture for decades, with several factual and fictional works directly making reference to the "From Hell" letter.[7]

    1. ^ Grove, Sophie (9 June 2008). "You Don't Know Jack: A new museum exhibition opens the case file on Jack the Ripper—and affords a grim look at the London of the time—a city made for murder". Newsweek. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
    2. ^ a b c Jones, Christopher (2008). The Maybrick A to Z. Countyvise Ltd. Publishers. pp. 162–165. ISBN 9781906823009.
    3. ^ Jack the Ripper: An Encyclopedia ISBN 978-1-844-54982-5 p. 160
    4. ^ Science Images and Popular Images of the Sciences ISBN 978-1-134-17580-2 p. 127
    5. ^ Jack the Ripper: An Encyclopedia ISBN 978-1-844-54982-5 p. 52
    6. ^ Jack the Ripper: An Encyclopedia ISBN 978-1-844-54982-5 p. 161
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Quest was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    16 October 1975 – The Australian Coalition sparks a constitutional crisis when they vote to defer funding for the government's annual budget.

    1975 Australian constitutional crisis

    The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, also known simply as the Dismissal, has been described as the greatest political and constitutional crisis in Australian history. It culminated on 11 November 1975 with the dismissal from office of the Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam of the Australian Labor Party (ALP), by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, who then commissioned the Leader of the Opposition, Malcolm Fraser of the Liberal Party, as caretaker Prime Minister.

    Whitlam's Labor government had been elected in 1972 with a small majority in the House of Representatives, but with the balance of power in the Senate held by the Democratic Labor Party, who usually supported the Liberal-Country Opposition. The 1974 election resulted in little change. While the Whitlam Government introduced many new policies and programmes, it was also rocked by scandals and political miscalculations. In October 1975, the Opposition used its control of the Senate to defer passage of appropriation bills needed to finance government expenditure, which had already been passed by the House of Representatives. The Opposition stated that they would continue to block supply unless Whitlam called an election for the House of Representatives, and urged Kerr to dismiss Whitlam unless he agreed to their demand. Whitlam believed that Kerr would not dismiss him, and Kerr did nothing to disabuse Whitlam of this notion.

    On 11 November 1975, Whitlam intended to call a half-Senate election in an attempt to break the deadlock. When he went to seek Kerr's approval for the election, Kerr instead dismissed him as Prime Minister and shortly thereafter installed Fraser as caretaker Prime Minister. Acting quickly before all ALP parliamentarians became aware of the change of government, Fraser and his allies were able to secure passage of the appropriation bills, and Kerr dissolved Parliament for a double dissolution election. Fraser and his government were elected with a massive majority in the election held the following month.

    The events of the Dismissal led to only minor constitutional change. The Senate retained its power to block supply, and the Governor-General the power to dismiss government ministers. However, these powers have not since been used to force a government from office. Kerr was widely criticised by Labor supporters for his actions, resigned early as Governor-General, and lived much of his remaining life abroad.

     
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    17 October 1933 – Albert Einstein flees Nazi Germany and moves to the United States.

    Albert Einstein

    Start of a speech by Albert Einstein. "Ladies (coughs) and gentlemen, our age is proud of the progress it has made in man's intellectual development. The search and striving for truth and knowledge is one of the highest of man's qualities ..." United Jewish Appeal, 11 April 1943. Radio Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina.

    Albert Einstein (/ˈnstn/ EYEN-styne;[4] German: [ˈalbɛʁt ˈʔaɪnʃtaɪn] (About this soundlisten); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist[5] who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).[3][6]:274 His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.[7][8] He is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation".[9] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect",[10] a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.

    The son of a salesman who later operated an electrochemical factory, Einstein was born in the German Empire, but moved to Switzerland in 1895 and renounced his German citizenship in 1896. Specializing in physics and mathematics, he received his academic teaching diploma from the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School (German: eidgenössische polytechnische Schule) in Zürich in 1900. The following year, he acquired Swiss citizenship, which he kept for his entire life. After initially struggling to find work, from 1902 to 1909 he was employed as a patent examiner at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern.

    Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led him to develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office. There is evidence—from Einstein's own writings—that he collaborated with his first wife, Mileva Marić on this work. The decision to publish only under his name seems to have been mutual, but the exact reason is unknown.[11] In 1905, called his annus mirabilis (miracle year), he published four groundbreaking papers, which attracted the attention of the academic world; the first outlined the theory of the photoelectric effect, the second paper explained Brownian motion, the third paper introduced special relativity, and the fourth mass-energy equivalence. That year, at the age of 26, he was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich.

    Although initially treated with skepticism from many in the scientific community, Einstein's works gradually came to be recognised as significant advancements. He was invited to teach theoretical physics at the University of Bern in 1908 and the following year moved to the University of Zurich, then in 1911 to Charles University in Prague before returning to ETH (the newly renamed Federal Polytechnic School) in Zürich in 1912. In 1914, he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin, where he remained for 19 years. Soon after publishing his work on special relativity, Einstein began working to extend the theory to gravitational fields; he then published a paper on general relativity in 1916, introducing his theory of gravitation. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light and the quantum theory of radiation, the basis of the laser, which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe.[12][13]

    In 1933, while Einstein was visiting the United States, Adolf Hitler came to power. Because of his Jewish background, Einstein did not return to Germany.[14] He settled in the United States and became an American citizen in 1940.[15] On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting FDR to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the US begin similar research. This eventually led to the Manhattan Project. Einstein supported the Allies, but he generally denounced the idea of using nuclear fission as a weapon. He signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto with British philosopher Bertrand Russell, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.

    He published more than 300 scientific papers and more than 150 non-scientific works.[12][16] His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius".[17] Eugene Wigner compared him to his contemporaries, writing that "Einstein's understanding was deeper even than Jancsi von Neumann's. His mind was both more penetrating and more original".[18]


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference 66xNO was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Pais (1982), p. 301.
    3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference frs was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference NDxay was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bio was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference YangHamilton2010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference xZQWt was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference 3UiiT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference LnLVo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Nobel Prize was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Gagnon, Pauline (19 December 2016). "The Forgotten Life of Einstein's First Wife". Scientific American Blog Network. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
    12. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Nobel was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYT-20151124 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference zE9Bz was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference BoyerDubofsky2001 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Paul Arthur Schilpp, editor 1951 730–746 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference wordnetweb.princeton.edu was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference zjqYe was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    18 October 1963Félicette, a black and white female Parisian stray cat becomes the first cat launched into space.

    Félicette

    Félicette (French pronunciation: ​[fe.liː.sɛt]) was the first cat launched into space, on 18 October 1963 as part of the French space program. Félicette was one of 14 female cats trained for spaceflight. The cats had electrodes implanted onto their skulls so their neurological activity could be monitored throughout the flight. Electrical impulses were applied to the brain and a leg during the flight to stimulate responses. The capsule was recovered 13 minutes after the rocket was ignited. Most of the data from the mission was of good quality, and Félicette survived the flight, the only cat to have survived spaceflight. A second feline was launched on 24 October, but the mission resulted in a fatality.

    Félicette had the designation of C 341 before the flight, and after the flight the media gave her the name Félix, after Félix the Cat. Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherches de Médecine Aéronautique (CERMA) modified this to the feminine Félicette and adopted it as her official name. She has been commemorated on postage stamps around the world and a statue with her likeness is on display at the International Space University. France's feline biological rocket payloads were preceded by rats and followed by monkeys.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference chatte was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    19 October 2003Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.

    Mother Teresa

    Mother Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu[6] (born Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu, Albanian: [aˈɲɛzə ˈɡɔndʒɛ bɔjaˈdʒiu]; 26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), honoured in the Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta,[7] was an Albanian-Indian[4] Roman Catholic nun and missionary.[8] She was born in Skopje (now the capital of North Macedonia), then part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. After living in Skopje for eighteen years, she moved to Ireland and then to India, where she lived for most of her life.

    In 1950, Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation that had over 4,500 nuns and was active in 133 countries in 2012. The congregation manages homes for people who are dying of HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis. It also runs soup kitchens, dispensaries, mobile clinics, children's and family counselling programmes, as well as orphanages and schools. Members take vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, and also profess a fourth vow – to give "wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor."[9]

    Teresa received a number of honors, including the 1962 Ramon Magsaysay Peace Prize and 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. She was canonised on 4 September 2016, and the anniversary of her death (5 September) is her feast day. A controversial figure during her life and after her death, Teresa was admired by many for her charitable work. She was praised and criticized on various counts, such as for her views on abortion and contraception, and was criticized for poor conditions in her houses for the dying. Her authorized biography was written by Navin Chawla and published in 1992, and she has been the subject of films and other books. On 6 September 2017, Teresa and St. Francis Xavier were named co-patrons of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Calcutta.

    1. ^ "Canonisation of Mother Teresa – September 4th". Diocese of Killala. September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
    2. ^ Manik Banerjee (6 September 2017). "Vatican declares Mother Teresa a patron saint of Calcutta". Associated Press, ABC News.com. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
    3. ^ "Mother Teresa to be named co-patron of Calcutta Archdiocese on first canonization anniversary". First Post. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
    4. ^ a b Cannon, Mae Elise (25 January 2013). Just Spirituality: How Faith Practices Fuel Social Action. InterVarsity Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8308-3775-5. Retrieved 3 September 2016. When asked about her personal history, Mother Teresa said: 'By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world. As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus.'
    5. ^ shqiptare, bota. "Kur Nënë Tereza vinte në Tiranë/2".
    6. ^ Chawla, Navin (2003). Mother Teresa. New Delhi: Penguin. p. 1. ISBN 9780143031789.
    7. ^ "Mother Teresa | Canonization, Awards, Facts, & Feast Day". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
    8. ^ Poplin, Mary (28 February 2011). Finding Calcutta: What Mother Teresa Taught Me About Meaningful Work and Service. InterVarsity Press. p. 112. ISBN 9780830868483. Remember, brother, I am a missionary and so are you.
    9. ^ Muggeridge (1971), chapter 3, "Mother Teresa Speaks", pp. 105, 113
     
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    20 October 1982 – During the UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, 66 people are crushed to death in the Luzhniki disaster.

    Luzhniki disaster

    Coordinates: 55°42′57″N 37°33′13″E / 55.71583°N 37.55361°E / 55.71583; 37.55361

    The Luzhniki disaster was a deadly human crush that took place at the Grand Sports Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium (Russian: Большая спортивная арена Центрального стадиона им. В. И. Ленина, now known as Luzhniki Stadium) in Moscow during the 1982–83 UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem on 20 October 1982. According to the official enquiry, 66 FC Spartak Moscow fans,[1][2][3] mostly adolescents,[4] died in the stampede, which made it Russia's worst sporting disaster.[5] The number of fatalities in this crush was not officially revealed until seven years later, in 1989. Until then, this figure varied in press reports from 3 to 340 fatalities. The circumstances of this disaster are similar to those of the second Ibrox disaster in Scotland.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference iz was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference ize was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference lan was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Мемориал памяти погибших (in Russian). Moscow: Проект "Двадцатое число". 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference jw was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    21 October 1987 – The Jaffna hospital massacre is carried out by Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka, killing 70 ethnic Tamil patients, doctors and nurses.

    Jaffna hospital massacre

    The Jaffna hospital massacre occurred on October 21 and 22, 1987, during the Sri Lankan Civil War, when troops of the Indian Peace Keeping Force entered the premises of the Jaffna Teaching Hospital in Jaffna, Sri Lanka, an island nation in South Asia, and killed between 60–70 patients and staff.[4] The rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam,[7] the government of Sri Lanka,[1] and independent observers such as the University Teachers for Human Rights[3] and others[2][5][6] have called it a massacre of civilians.

    However, the Indian Army maintains that the soldiers were fired upon[8] and the Indian army officer in charge of the military operations, Lt. Gen. Depinder Singh, claimed that these civilians were killed in a crossfire between soldiers and rebels.[9] Soldiers responsible for this massacre were not prosecuted by the Indian government.[3]

    1. ^ a b Dayasri, Gomin (2008-04-26). "Eminent Persons' displayed lack of independence". Ministry of Defense, Sri Lanka. Retrieved 2008-12-19. These crimes against humanity include the Mass Murders committed by the IPKF at the Jaffna Hospital on the 20th October 1987 when they entered the hospital and indiscriminately murdered patients, doctors, nurses and attendants by shooting and exploding grenades indiscriminately
    2. ^ a b c d e Cite error: The named reference Krishna was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference UTHR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b Somasundaram, Daya; Jamunanantha, CS (2002). de Jong, Joop (ed.). Trauma, War, and Violence: Public Mental Health in Socio-Cultural Context. Springer. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-30646709-7.
    5. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Dejong was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Richardson was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Jaffna Hospital massacre". LTTE peace secretariat. 2006-11-22. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference PP was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference Ghosh was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    22 October 1859 – Spain declares war on Morocco.

    Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–60)

    The Hispano-Moroccan War, also known as the Spanish–Moroccan War, the First Moroccan War, the Tetuán War, or, in Spain, as the African War (Spanish: Guerra de África), was fought from Spain's declaration of war on Morocco on 22 October 1859 until the Treaty of Wad-Ras on 26 April 1860. It began with a conflict over the borders of the Spanish city of Ceuta and was fought in northern Morocco. Morocco sued for peace after the Spanish victory at the Battle of Tetuán.

     
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    23 October 1707 – The First Parliament of Great Britain convenes.

    First Parliament of Great Britain

    The first Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain was established in 1707 after the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. It was in fact the 4th and last session of the 2nd Parliament of Queen Anne suitably renamed: no fresh elections were held in England, and the existing members of the House of Commons of England sat as members of the new House of Commons of Great Britain. In Scotland, prior to the union coming into effect, the Scottish Parliament appointed sixteen peers (see representative peers) and 45 Members of Parliaments to join their English counterparts at Westminster.

     
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    24 October 1945 – The United Nations Charter comes into effect

    Charter of the United Nations

    The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.[1] It establishes the purposes, governing structure, and overall framework of the UN system, including its six principal organs: the Secretariat, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Trusteeship Council.

    The UN Charter mandates that the UN and its member states maintain international peace and security, uphold international law, achieve "higher standards of living" for their citizens, address "economic, social, health, and related problems", and promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion."[2][3] As a charter and constituent treaty, its rules and obligations are binding on all members and supersede those of other treaties.[1][4]

    During the Second World War, the Allied powers, known formally as the United Nations, agreed on the necessity of establishing a new postwar international organization.[5] Pursuant to this goal, the UN Charter was discussed, prepared, and drafted during the San Francisco Conference that began 25 April 1945, which involved most of the world's sovereign nations.[6] Following two-thirds approval of each part, the final text was unanimously adopted by the delegates and opened for signature on 26 June 1945;[7][8] it was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco, United States, by 50 of the 51 original member countries.[7][Note 1]

    The Charter entered into force on 24 October 1945, following ratification by the original five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—the China,[Note 2] the France,[Note 3] the Soviet Union,[Note 4] the United Kingdom, and the United States—and a majority of the other signatories. Subsequently, 24 October was later declared as United Nations Day by the United Nations General Assembly.[9] The first UN General Assembly, representing the 51 original members, opened in London the following January. On the fourth anniversary of the Charter's entry into force, the cornerstone was laid for the present United Nations headquarters in New York City. With 193 parties, most countries in the world have now ratified the Charter.

    1. ^ a b "Introductory Note". Un.org. Archived from the original on 9 May 2005. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
    2. ^ Christopher N.J. Roberts (June 2017). "William H. Fitzpatrick's Editorials on Human Rights (1949)". Quellen zur Geschichte der Menschenrechte [Sources on the History of Human Rights]. Human Rights Working Group in the 20th Century. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
    3. ^ Editors, History com. "U.N. Charter signed". HISTORY. Retrieved 20 August 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    4. ^ "Chapter XVI: Miscellaneous Provisions". Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
    5. ^ "1944-1945: Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta". www.un.org. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
    6. ^ "1945: The San Francisco Conference". www.un.org. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
    7. ^ a b "1945: The San Francisco Conference". www.un.org. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
    8. ^ "United Nations Conference on International Organization Proceedings". Hoover Institution. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
    9. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 2 Resolution 168. United Nations Day A/RES/168(II) 31 October 1947. Retrieved 24 October 2008.


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    25 October 1949 – The Battle of Guningtou in the Taiwan Strait begins.

    Battle of Guningtou

    The Battle of Kuningtou[4] or Battle of Guningtou (Chinese: 古寧頭之役; pinyin: Gǔníngtóu zhī yì; Wade–Giles: Ku3-ning2-t’ou2 chih1 i4), also known as the Battle of Kinmen (金門戰役; Jīnmén Zhànyì), was a battle fought over Kinmen in the Taiwan Strait during the Chinese Civil War in 1949. The failure of the Communists to take the island left it in the hands of the Kuomintang (Nationalists) and crushed their chances of taking Taiwan to destroy the Nationalists completely in the war.[5][6][7]

    1. ^ https://www.historynet.com/gallery-the-battle-that-saved-taiwan.htm
    2. ^ 老衲 (2002). "古寧頭之役的回顧". 四海一家軍事網. Archived from the original on June 8, 2004. Retrieved June 1, 2004. Chinese language only. See 戰果
    3. ^ 老衲 [2002]. See 戰果.
    4. ^ "Chiang Kai-shek (1st - 5th terms)". Office of the President Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved September 29, 2019. 1949-10-26 Taiwan wins victory in Battle of Kuningtou against Chinese Communists in Kinmen.
    5. ^ "血戰古寧頭_1/3". YouTube (in Chinese). August 24, 2008.
    6. ^ "血戰古寧頭_2/3". YouTube (in Chinese). August 24, 2008.
    7. ^ "血戰古寧頭_3/3". YouTube (in Chinese). August 24, 2008.
     
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    26 October 2002 – Approximately 50 Chechen terrorists and 150 hostages die when Russian special forces troops storm a theater building in Moscow, which had been occupied by the terrorists during a musical performance three days before.

    Moscow theater hostage crisis

    The Moscow theater hostage crisis (also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege) was the seizure of a crowded Dubrovka Theater by 40 to 50 armed Chechens on 23 October 2002 that involved 850 hostages and ended with the deaths of at least 170 people. The attackers, led by Movsar Barayev, claimed allegiance to the Islamist separatist movement in Chechnya.[1] They demanded the withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya and an end to the Second Chechen War.

    Due to the layout of the theater, special forces would have had to fight through 30 metres (100 ft) of corridor and advance up a well-defended staircase before they could reach the hall in which the hostages were held. The attackers had numerous explosives, with the most powerful in the center of the auditorium. Spetsnaz operators from Federal Security Service (FSB) Alpha and Vympel, supported by a Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) SOBR unit, pumped an undisclosed chemical agent into the building's ventilation system and began the rescue operation.[1]

    All forty of the insurgents were killed,[2] and up to 204 hostages died during the siege, including nine foreigners, due to the toxic substance pumped into the theater.[3][4][5] The identity of the gas was never disclosed, although it is believed by some to have been a fentanyl derivative, such as carfentanil.[6]

    1. ^ a b "Modest Silin, Hostage, Nord-Ost siege, 2002". Russia Today. 27 October 2007. Archived from the original on 26 June 2008.
    2. ^ "Moscow theatre siege: Questions remain unanswered". BBC News. 24 October 2012.
    3. ^ Satter, David (13 December 2011). It Was a Long Time Ago, and It Never Happened Anyway: Russia and the Communist Past. Yale University Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-0300111453.
    4. ^ "Gas 'killed Moscow hostages'". 27 October 2002 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
    5. ^ "Moscow court begins siege claims". BBC News. 24 December 2002.
    6. ^ MacKenzie, Debora (29 October 2002). "Mystery of Russian gas deepens". New Scientist.
     
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    26 October 2002 – Approximately 50 Chechen terrorists and 150 hostages die when Russian special forces troops storm a theater building in Moscow, which had been occupied by the terrorists during a musical performance three days before.

    Moscow theater hostage crisis

    The Moscow theater hostage crisis (also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege) was the seizure of a crowded Dubrovka Theater by 40 to 50 armed Chechens on 23 October 2002 that involved 850 hostages and ended with the deaths of at least 170 people. The attackers, led by Movsar Barayev, claimed allegiance to the Islamist separatist movement in Chechnya.[1] They demanded the withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya and an end to the Second Chechen War.

    Due to the layout of the theater, special forces would have had to fight through 30 metres (100 ft) of corridor and advance up a well-defended staircase before they could reach the hall in which the hostages were held. The attackers had numerous explosives, with the most powerful in the center of the auditorium. Spetsnaz operators from Federal Security Service (FSB) Alpha and Vympel, supported by a Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) SOBR unit, pumped an undisclosed chemical agent into the building's ventilation system and began the rescue operation.[1]

    All forty of the insurgents were killed,[2] and up to 204 hostages died during the siege, including nine foreigners, due to the toxic substance pumped into the theater.[3][4][5] The identity of the gas was never disclosed, although it is believed by some to have been a fentanyl derivative, such as carfentanil.[6]

    1. ^ a b "Modest Silin, Hostage, Nord-Ost siege, 2002". Russia Today. 27 October 2007. Archived from the original on 26 June 2008.
    2. ^ "Moscow theatre siege: Questions remain unanswered". BBC News. 24 October 2012.
    3. ^ Satter, David (13 December 2011). It Was a Long Time Ago, and It Never Happened Anyway: Russia and the Communist Past. Yale University Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-0300111453.
    4. ^ "Gas 'killed Moscow hostages'". 27 October 2002 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
    5. ^ "Moscow court begins siege claims". BBC News. 24 December 2002.
    6. ^ MacKenzie, Debora (29 October 2002). "Mystery of Russian gas deepens". New Scientist.
     
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    27 October 312 – Constantine is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross.

    Battle of the Milvian Bridge

    The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. It takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important route over the Tiber. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle; his body was later taken from the river and decapitated, and his head was paraded through the streets of Rome on the day following the battle before being taken to Africa.[3]

    According to chroniclers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius, the battle marked the beginning of Constantine's conversion to Christianity. Eusebius of Caesarea recounts that Constantine and his soldiers had a vision sent by the Christian God. This was interpreted as a promise of victory if the sign of the Chi Rho, the first two letters of Christ's name in Greek, was painted on the soldiers' shields. The Arch of Constantine, erected in celebration of the victory, certainly attributes Constantine's success to divine intervention; however, the monument does not display any overtly Christian symbolism.

    1. ^ Cowen, p. 77
    2. ^ Cowen, p. 77
    3. ^ "Maxentius' Head and the Rituals of Civil War". p. 326. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
     

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