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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

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    14 January 1858Napoleon III of France escapes an assassination attempt made by Felice Orsini and his accomplices in Paris.

    Napoleon III

    Napoleon III (Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873), the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first president of France, from 1848 to 1852, and the last French monarch, from 1852 to 1870. First elected president of the Second French Republic in 1848, he seized power by force in 1851, when he could not constitutionally be re-elected, and became the Emperor of the French. He founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor, reigning until the defeat of the French Army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the French overseas empire, and engaged in the Crimean War, the Second Italian War of Independence, and the ultimately disastrous war of 1870, in which he served alongside his soldiers during the fight, an uncommon action for a head of state to perform in the modern era.

    Napoleon III commissioned a grand reconstruction of Paris carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann, and launched similar public works projects in Marseille, Lyon and other French cities. Napoleon III modernized the French banking system, expanded and consolidated the French railway system, and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world. He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, which ended famines in France and made France an agricultural exporter. Napoleon III negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with France's other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving French workers the right to strike and the right to organize. The first female students were admitted at the Sorbonne and educational opportunities for women were increased, as did the list of required subjects in public schools.

    In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence in Europe and around the world. In Europe, he allied with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War (1853–56). His regime assisted Italian unification by defeating the Austrian Empire in the Franco-Austrian War and later annexed Savoy and the County of Nice as its deferred reward. At the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy. He was also favorable towards the union of the Danubian Principalities (24 January 1859), which resulted in the establishment of Romania. Napoleon III doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific and Africa. On the other hand, the French invasion of Mexico, which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection, ended in total failure.

    From 1866, Napoleon had to face the mounting power of Prussia as its Chancellor Otto von Bismarck sought German unification under Prussian leadership. In July 1870, Napoleon reluctantly declared war on Prussia after pressure by the public and, without allies and with inferior military forces, the French Army was rapidly defeated and Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan. He was swiftly dethroned and the French Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris. He went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.

     
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    14 January 1858Napoleon III of France escapes an assassination attempt made by Felice Orsini and his accomplices in Paris.

    Napoleon III

    Napoleon III (Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873), the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first president of France, from 1848 to 1852, and the last French monarch, from 1852 to 1870. First elected president of the Second French Republic in 1848, he seized power by force in 1851, when he could not constitutionally be re-elected, and became the Emperor of the French. He founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor, reigning until the defeat of the French Army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the French overseas empire, and engaged in the Crimean War, the Second Italian War of Independence, and the ultimately disastrous war of 1870, in which he served alongside his soldiers during the fight, an uncommon action for a head of state to perform in the modern era.

    Napoleon III commissioned a grand reconstruction of Paris carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann, and launched similar public works projects in Marseille, Lyon and other French cities. Napoleon III modernized the French banking system, expanded and consolidated the French railway system, and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world. He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, which ended famines in France and made France an agricultural exporter. Napoleon III negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with France's other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving French workers the right to strike and the right to organize. The first female students were admitted at the Sorbonne and educational opportunities for women were increased, as did the list of required subjects in public schools.

    In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence in Europe and around the world. In Europe, he allied with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War (1853–56). His regime assisted Italian unification by defeating the Austrian Empire in the Franco-Austrian War and later annexed Savoy and the County of Nice as its deferred reward. At the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy. He was also favorable towards the union of the Danubian Principalities (24 January 1859), which resulted in the establishment of Romania. Napoleon III doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific and Africa. On the other hand, the French invasion of Mexico, which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection, ended in total failure.

    From 1866, Napoleon had to face the mounting power of Prussia as its Chancellor Otto von Bismarck sought German unification under Prussian leadership. In July 1870, Napoleon reluctantly declared war on Prussia after pressure by the public and, without allies and with inferior military forces, the French Army was rapidly defeated and Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan. He was swiftly dethroned and the French Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris. He went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.

     
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    15 January 1889The Coca-Cola Company, then known as the Pemberton Medicine Company, is incorporated in Atlanta.

    The Coca-Cola Company

    The Coca-Cola Company is an American multinational beverage corporation incorporated under Delaware's General Corporation Law[a] and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The Coca-Cola Company has interests in the manufacturing, retailing, and marketing of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. The company produces Coca-Cola, invented in 1886 by pharmacist John Stith Pemberton. In 1889, the formula and brand were sold for $2,300 to Asa Griggs Candler, who incorporated The Coca-Cola Company in Atlanta in 1892.

    The company has operated a franchised distribution system since 1889.[2] The Company largely produces syrup concentrate, which is then sold to various bottlers throughout the world who hold exclusive territories. The company owns its anchor bottler in North America, Coca-Cola Refreshments.[3] The company's stock is listed on the NYSE and is part of DJIA and the S&P 500 and S&P 100 indexes. The Coca-Cola Company is the world's largest producer of plastic waste.

    1. ^ a b c d e f "2019 Annual Report (Form 10-K)" (PDF). The Coca-Cola Company. February 24, 2020. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
    2. ^ "The Story of Coca-Cola: A Successful Franchising Strategy". Prestige Franchising Limited. April 27, 2017. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
    3. ^ Merced, Michael J. de la (February 25, 2010). "Coke Acquires North American Unit of Bottler (Published 2010)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 30, 2020.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    16 January 1862Hartley Colliery disaster: Two hundred and four men and boys killed in a mining disaster, prompting a change in UK law which henceforth required all collieries to have at least two independent means of escape

    Hartley Colliery disaster

    The Hartley Colliery disaster (also known as the Hartley Pit disaster or Hester Pit disaster) was a coal mining accident in Northumberland, England, that occurred on 16 January 1862 and resulted in the deaths of 204 men. The beam of the pit's pumping engine broke and fell down the shaft, trapping the men below. The disaster prompted a change in British law that required all collieries to have at least two independent means of escape.[1]

     
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    17 January 1595 – During the French Wars of Religion, Henry IV of France declares war on Spain.

    French Wars of Religion

    The French Wars of Religion were a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598. It is estimated that three million people perished in this period from violence, famine, or disease in what is considered the second deadliest religious war in European history (surpassed only by the Thirty Years' War, which took eight million lives).[1]

    Much of the conflict took place during the long regency of Queen Catherine de' Medici, widow of Henry II of France, for her minor sons. It also involved a dynastic power struggle between powerful noble families in the line for succession to the French throne: the wealthy, ambitious, and fervently Catholic ducal House of Guise (a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine, who claimed descent from Charlemagne) and their ally Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France (i.e., commander in chief of the French armed forces) versus the less wealthy House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon), princes of the blood in the line of succession to the throne who were sympathetic to Calvinism. Foreign allies provided financing and other assistance to both sides, with Habsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supporting the Guises, and England supporting the Protestant side led by the Condés and by the Protestant Jeanne d'Albret, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, and her son, Henry of Navarre.

    Moderates, primarily associated with the French Valois monarchy and its advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid open bloodshed. This group (pejoratively known as Politiques) put their hopes in the ability of a strong centralized government to maintain order and harmony. In contrast to the previous hardline policies of Henry II and his father Francis I, they began introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. A most notable moderate, at least initially, was the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici. Catherine, however, later hardened her stance and, at the time of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, sided with the Guises. This pivotal historical event involved a complete breakdown of state control resulting in series of riots and massacres in which Catholic mobs killed between 5,000 and 30,000 Protestants over a period of weeks throughout the entire kingdom.

    At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, heir to the French throne, converted to Catholicism and was crowned Henry IV of France. He issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted Huguenots substantial rights and freedoms though this did not end Catholic hostility towards them or towards him, personally. The wars of religion threatened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Catherine's three sons and the last Valois kings: Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III. This changed under the reign of their Bourbon successor Henry IV. The edict of Nantes was revoked later in 1685 with the Edict of Fontainebleau by Louis XIV of France. Henry IV's wise governance and selection of able administrators did leave a legacy of a strong centralized government, stability, and economic prosperity that has gained him the reputation as France's best and most beloved monarch, earning him the designation "Good King Henry".

    1. ^ Knecht 2002, p. 91.
     
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    18 January 1977 – Australia's worst rail disaster occurs at Granville, Sydney killing 83.

    Granville rail disaster

    The Granville rail/train disaster occurred on Tuesday 18 January 1977 at Granville, New South Wales, a western suburb of Sydney, when a crowded commuter train derailed, running into the supports of a road bridge that collapsed onto two of the train's passenger carriages. The official enquiry found the primary cause of the crash to be poor fastening of the track.

    It remains the worst rail disaster in Australian history and the greatest loss of life in a confined area post-war: 83 people died, more than 213 were injured, and 1,300 were affected.[1] An 84th victim, an unborn child, was added to the fatality list in 2017.[2]

    1. ^ "The rail disaster that changed Australia". BBC News. 17 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
    2. ^ "Unborn child victim remembered at Granville memorial after 40 years".
     
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    19 January 1942 – World War II: The Japanese conquest of Burma begins.

    Japanese invasion of Burma

    The Japanese invasion of Burma was the opening phase of the Burma campaign in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945. During the first year of the campaign, the Japanese Army (with aid from Thai Phayap Army and Burmese insurgents) drove British Empire and Chinese forces out of Burma, then began the Japanese occupation of Burma and formed a nominally independent Burmese administrative government.

    1. ^ a b Bradford, James. International Encyclopedia of Military History. Routledge, 19 Sep 2006, pg. 221
    2. ^ a b Facts on File: World War II in the China-Burma-India theater Retrieved 20 March 2016
    3. ^ Bayly and Harper (2005) Forgotten Armies: Britain's Asian Empire and the War with Japan (London: Penguin Books)pp.170
    4. ^ Bayly and Harper, pp.170
    5. ^ Donald M. Seekins, Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar) (Scarecrow Press, 2006), 123–26 and 354.
    6. ^ Reynolds, Bruce E. (1994). Thailand and Japan's Southern Advance, 1940-1945. Palgrave Macmillan US. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-312-10402-3.
    7. ^ a b c Japanese conquest of Burma, December 1941 – May 1942 Retrieved 20 March 2016
    8. ^ McLynn, The Burma Campaign: Disaster into Triumph, 1942–1945, pg. 67.
    9. ^ Air Force Sixtieth Anniversary Commemorative Edition: The Flying Tigers pp. 33 Retrieved 20 March 2016
    10. ^ a b Allen (1984), p.638
    11. ^ Beevor, Antony (2012). "16". The Second World War. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-316-08407-9.
    12. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2003). The Second World War. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-230-62966-0. (includes 15,000 missing)
    13. ^ Zaloga, Steven. "M3 and M5 Stuart Light Tank 1940–45". Osprey Publishing, 18 Nov 1999. p. 14. According to Zaloga, all but one tank of the two regiments of the 7th Armoured Brigade had been lost.
    14. ^ Black, Jeremy. Air Power: A Global History pp. 108
     
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    20 January 2009 – A protest movement in Iceland culminates as the 2009 Icelandic financial crisis protests start.

    2009 Icelandic financial crisis protests

    Some of the 6000 protesters in front of the Alþingishús, seat of the Icelandic parliament, on 15 November 2008

    The 2009–2011 Icelandic financial crisis protests, also referred to as the Kitchenware, Kitchen Implement or Pots and Pans Revolution[1][2] (Icelandic: Búsáhaldabyltingin), occurred in the wake of the Icelandic financial crisis. There had been regular and growing protests since October 2008 against the Icelandic government's handling of the financial crisis. The protests intensified on 20 January 2009 with thousands of people protesting at the parliament (Althing) in Reykjavík.[3][4][5] These were at the time the largest protests in Icelandic history.[6]

    Protesters were calling for the resignation of government officials and for new elections to be held.[7] The protests stopped for the most part with the resignation of the old government led by the right-wing Independence Party.[8] A new left-wing government was formed after elections in late April 2009. It was supportive of the protestors and initiated a reform process that included the judicial prosecution before the Landsdómur of the former Prime Minister Geir Haarde.

    Several referenda were held to ask the citizens about whether to pay the Icesave debt of their banks. From a complex and unique process, 25 common people, of no political party, were to be elected to form an Icelandic Constitutional Assembly that would write a new Constitution of Iceland. After some legal problems, a Constitutional Council, which included those people, presented a Constitution Draft to the Iceland Parliament on 29 July 2011.[9]

    1. ^ Leigh Phillips (27 April 2009). "Iceland Turns Left and Edges Toward EU". Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
    2. ^ Magnússon, Sigurdur: Wasteland With Words, 2010. Reaktion Books, London. p. 265.
    3. ^ Gunnarsson, Valur (21 January 2009). "Icelandic lawmakers return to work amid protests". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009.
    4. ^ "Iceland protesters demand government step down". Reuters. 20 January 2009. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009.
    5. ^ Gunnarsson, Valur; Lawless, Jill (22 January 2009). "Icelandic police tear gas protesters". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009.
    6. ^ Önnudóttir, Eva H. (19 December 2016). "The "Pots and Pans" protests and requirements for responsiveness of the authorities". Icelandic Review of Politics & Administration. 12 (2): 195–214. doi:10.13177/irpa.a.2016.12.2.1. ISSN 1670-679X.
    7. ^ "Opposition attempts to call Iceland elections, bypassing PM". icenews.is. 22 January 2009. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009.
    8. ^ Nyberg, Per (26 January 2009). "Icelandic government falls; asked to stay on". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
    9. ^ "Stjórnlagaráð 2011 – English". Stjornlagarad.is. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
     
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    21 January 1976 – Commercial service of Concorde begins with the London-Bahrain and Paris-Rio routes.

    Concorde

    The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde (/ˈkɒŋkɔːrd/) is a British–French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated until 2003. It had a maximum speed over twice the speed of sound, at Mach 2.04 (1,354 mph or 2,180 km/h at cruise altitude), with seating for 92 to 128 passengers. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and operated for 27 years. It is one of only two supersonic transports to have been operated commercially; the other is the Soviet-built Tupolev Tu-144, which operated in the late 1970s.[4][5]

    Concorde was jointly developed and manufactured by Sud Aviation (later Aérospatiale) and the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) under an Anglo-French treaty. Twenty aircraft were built, including six prototypes and development aircraft. Air France and British Airways were the only airlines to purchase and fly Concorde. The aircraft was used mainly by wealthy passengers who could afford to pay a high price in exchange for the aircraft's speed and luxury service. For example, in 1997, the round-trip ticket price from New York to London was $7,995 (equivalent to $12,700 in 2019),[6] more than 30 times the cost of the cheapest option to fly this route.[7]

    The original programme cost estimate was £70 million.[8] The programme experienced huge overruns and delays, with the program eventually costing £1.3 billion.[9] It was this extreme cost that became the main factor in the production run being much smaller than anticipated.[10] Later, another factor, which affected the viability of all supersonic transport programmes, was that supersonic flight could be used only on ocean-crossing routes, to prevent sonic boom disturbance over populated areas. With only seven airframes each being operated by the British and French, the per-unit cost was impossible to recoup, so the French and British governments absorbed the development costs. British Airways and Air France were able to operate Concorde at a profit after purchasing their aircraft from their respective governments at a steep discount in comparison to the program's development and procurement costs. [11]

    Among other destinations, Concorde flew regular transatlantic flights from London's Heathrow Airport and Paris's Charles de Gaulle Airport to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York, Washington Dulles International Airport in Virginia and Grantley Adams International Airport in Barbados; it flew these routes in less than half the time of other airliners.

    Concorde won the 2006 Great British Design Quest, organised by the BBC and the Design Museum of London, beating other well-known designs such as the BMC Mini, the miniskirt, the Jaguar E-Type, the London Tube map and the Supermarine Spitfire. The type was retired in 2003, three years after the crash of Air France Flight 4590, in which all passengers and crew were killed. The general downturn in the commercial aviation industry after the September 11 attacks in 2001 and the end of maintenance support for Concorde by Airbus (the successor company of Aérospatiale) also contributed to the retirement.[12]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference jlfin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Towey 2007, p. 359.
    3. ^ "Ageing luxury jet". BBC News. 25 July 2000.
    4. ^ Gordon and Rigmant 2005
    5. ^ Melik-Karamov [Мелик-Карамов], Vitaly [Виталий] (January 2000). "Life and Death of the Tu-144, [Жизнь и смерть самолёта Ту-144]". No. 3. Flame [Огонёк]. Archived from the original on 15 November 2000.
    6. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved 1 January 2020.
    7. ^ New Design Concepts for High Speed Air Transport edited by H. Sobieczky (1997)
    8. ^ "Concorde", BBC Timewatch documentary, 2003, By 1962, the cost estimates had already soared from 70 to 150 million pounds."
      "[By 1964], costs had doubled yet again to nearly 300 million pounds."
    9. ^ Other estimates of total program cost exceeded £2 billion.
      New Design Concepts for High Speed Air Transport edited by H. Sobieczky (1997)
      Quote:
      "The program's cost, through March 1976, was put at between 1.5 and 2.1 billion in 1976 pounds sterling, or between 3.6 and 5.1 billion in 1977 U.S. dollars (yearly weighted exchange rates)."
    10. ^ In Concorde (BBC Timewatch, 2003) Chris Benjamin, Concorde Administrator (UK) 1971–74 said: "It's really a matter of great regret that an enormous amount of creativity, effort and resources were used to produce this aeroplane which has actually no sustainable benefit at all."
    11. ^ https://apnews.com/article/fa1e281d544267a8afe77afceaf3f03f
    12. ^ "Concorde grounded for good". BBC News. 10 April 2003. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
     
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    Articles:
    1
    21 January 1976 – Commercial service of Concorde begins with the London-Bahrain and Paris-Rio routes.

    Concorde

    The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde (/ˈkɒŋkɔːrd/) is a British–French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated until 2003. It had a maximum speed over twice the speed of sound, at Mach 2.04 (1,354 mph or 2,180 km/h at cruise altitude), with seating for 92 to 128 passengers. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and operated for 27 years. It is one of only two supersonic transports to have been operated commercially; the other is the Soviet-built Tupolev Tu-144, which operated in the late 1970s.[4][5]

    Concorde was jointly developed and manufactured by Sud Aviation (later Aérospatiale) and the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) under an Anglo-French treaty. Twenty aircraft were built, including six prototypes and development aircraft. Air France and British Airways were the only airlines to purchase and fly Concorde. The aircraft was used mainly by wealthy passengers who could afford to pay a high price in exchange for the aircraft's speed and luxury service. For example, in 1997, the round-trip ticket price from New York to London was $7,995 (equivalent to $12,700 in 2019),[6] more than 30 times the cost of the cheapest option to fly this route.[7]

    The original programme cost estimate was £70 million.[8] The programme experienced huge overruns and delays, with the program eventually costing £1.3 billion.[9] It was this extreme cost that became the main factor in the production run being much smaller than anticipated.[10] Later, another factor, which affected the viability of all supersonic transport programmes, was that supersonic flight could be used only on ocean-crossing routes, to prevent sonic boom disturbance over populated areas. With only seven airframes each being operated by the British and French, the per-unit cost was impossible to recoup, so the French and British governments absorbed the development costs. British Airways and Air France were able to operate Concorde at a profit after purchasing their aircraft from their respective governments at a steep discount in comparison to the program's development and procurement costs. [11]

    Among other destinations, Concorde flew regular transatlantic flights from London's Heathrow Airport and Paris's Charles de Gaulle Airport to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York, Washington Dulles International Airport in Virginia and Grantley Adams International Airport in Barbados; it flew these routes in less than half the time of other airliners.

    Concorde won the 2006 Great British Design Quest, organised by the BBC and the Design Museum of London, beating other well-known designs such as the BMC Mini, the miniskirt, the Jaguar E-Type, the London Tube map and the Supermarine Spitfire. The type was retired in 2003, three years after the crash of Air France Flight 4590, in which all passengers and crew were killed. The general downturn in the commercial aviation industry after the September 11 attacks in 2001 and the end of maintenance support for Concorde by Airbus (the successor company of Aérospatiale) also contributed to the retirement.[12]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference jlfin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Towey 2007, p. 359.
    3. ^ "Ageing luxury jet". BBC News. 25 July 2000.
    4. ^ Gordon and Rigmant 2005
    5. ^ Melik-Karamov [Мелик-Карамов], Vitaly [Виталий] (January 2000). "Life and Death of the Tu-144, [Жизнь и смерть самолёта Ту-144]". No. 3. Flame [Огонёк]. Archived from the original on 15 November 2000.
    6. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved 1 January 2020.
    7. ^ New Design Concepts for High Speed Air Transport edited by H. Sobieczky (1997)
    8. ^ "Concorde", BBC Timewatch documentary, 2003, By 1962, the cost estimates had already soared from 70 to 150 million pounds."
      "[By 1964], costs had doubled yet again to nearly 300 million pounds."
    9. ^ Other estimates of total program cost exceeded £2 billion.
      New Design Concepts for High Speed Air Transport edited by H. Sobieczky (1997)
      Quote:
      "The program's cost, through March 1976, was put at between 1.5 and 2.1 billion in 1976 pounds sterling, or between 3.6 and 5.1 billion in 1977 U.S. dollars (yearly weighted exchange rates)."
    10. ^ In Concorde (BBC Timewatch, 2003) Chris Benjamin, Concorde Administrator (UK) 1971–74 said: "It's really a matter of great regret that an enormous amount of creativity, effort and resources were used to produce this aeroplane which has actually no sustainable benefit at all."
    11. ^ https://apnews.com/article/fa1e281d544267a8afe77afceaf3f03f
    12. ^ "Concorde grounded for good". BBC News. 10 April 2003. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
     
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    22 January 1917American entry into World War I: President Wilson of the still-neutral United States calls for "peace without victory" in Europe.

    American entry into World War I

    President Woodrow Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917

    The American entry into World War I came in April 1917, after more than two and a half years of efforts by President Woodrow Wilson to keep the United States out of the war.

    Apart from an Anglophile element urging early support for the British and an anti-Tsarist element sympathizing with Germany's war against Russia, American public opinion reflected that of the president: the sentiment for neutrality was particularly strong among Irish Americans, German Americans, and Scandinavian Americans,[1] as well as among church leaders and women in general. On the other hand, even before World War I had broken out, American opinion had been overall more negative toward Germany than toward any other country in Europe.[2] Over time, especially after reports of German atrocities in Belgium in 1914 and following the sinking of the passenger liner RMS Lusitania in 1915, American citizens increasingly came to see Germany as the aggressor in Europe.

    While the country was at peace, American banks made huge loans to the Entente powers, which were used mainly to buy munitions, raw materials, and food from across the Atlantic. Wilson made minimal preparations for a land war but he did authorize a major ship-building program for the United States Navy. The president was narrowly re-elected in 1916 on an anti-war ticket.

    In 1917, with Russia experiencing political upheaval, and with the remaining Entente nations low on credit, Germany appeared to have the upper hand in Europe,[3] while the Ottoman Empire, Germany's ally, held on to its territory in modern-day Iraq, Syria and Palestine. However, an Entente economic embargo and naval blockade was by now causing shortages of fuel and food in Germany, at which point Germany decided to resume unrestricted submarine warfare. The aim was to break the transatlantic supply chain to Britain from other nations, although the German high command realized that sinking American-flagged ships would almost certainly bring the United States into the war.

    Germany also made a secret offer to help Mexico regain territories lost in the Mexican–American War in an encoded telegram known as the Zimmermann Telegram, which was intercepted by British intelligence. Publication of that communique outraged Americans just as German submarines started sinking American merchant ships in the North Atlantic. Wilson then asked Congress for "a war to end all wars" that would "make the world safe for democracy", and Congress voted to declare war on Germany on April 6, 1917.[4] U.S. troops began major combat operations on the Western Front under General John J. Pershing in the summer of 1918.

    1. ^ Jeanette Keith (2004). Rich Man's War, Poor Man's Fight: Race, Class, and Power in the Rural South during the First World War. U. of North Carolina Press. pp. 1–5. ISBN 978-0-8078-7589-6.
    2. ^ Barnes, Harry Elmer. The Genesis of the World War (1925) pp. 590–591
    3. ^ "World War One". BBC History.
    4. ^ Link, Arthur S. (1972). Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 252–282.
     
  12. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    22 January 1917American entry into World War I: President Wilson of the still-neutral United States calls for "peace without victory" in Europe.

    American entry into World War I

    President Woodrow Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917

    The American entry into World War I came in April 1917, after more than two and a half years of efforts by President Woodrow Wilson to keep the United States out of the war.

    Apart from an Anglophile element urging early support for the British and an anti-Tsarist element sympathizing with Germany's war against Russia, American public opinion reflected that of the president: the sentiment for neutrality was particularly strong among Irish Americans, German Americans, and Scandinavian Americans,[1] as well as among church leaders and women in general. On the other hand, even before World War I had broken out, American opinion had been overall more negative toward Germany than toward any other country in Europe.[2] Over time, especially after reports of German atrocities in Belgium in 1914 and following the sinking of the passenger liner RMS Lusitania in 1915, American citizens increasingly came to see Germany as the aggressor in Europe.

    While the country was at peace, American banks made huge loans to the Entente powers, which were used mainly to buy munitions, raw materials, and food from across the Atlantic. Wilson made minimal preparations for a land war but he did authorize a major ship-building program for the United States Navy. The president was narrowly re-elected in 1916 on an anti-war ticket.

    In 1917, with Russia experiencing political upheaval, and with the remaining Entente nations low on credit, Germany appeared to have the upper hand in Europe,[3] while the Ottoman Empire, Germany's ally, held on to its territory in modern-day Iraq, Syria and Palestine. However, an Entente economic embargo and naval blockade was by now causing shortages of fuel and food in Germany, at which point Germany decided to resume unrestricted submarine warfare. The aim was to break the transatlantic supply chain to Britain from other nations, although the German high command realized that sinking American-flagged ships would almost certainly bring the United States into the war.

    Germany also made a secret offer to help Mexico regain territories lost in the Mexican–American War in an encoded telegram known as the Zimmermann Telegram, which was intercepted by British intelligence. Publication of that communique outraged Americans just as German submarines started sinking American merchant ships in the North Atlantic. Wilson then asked Congress for "a war to end all wars" that would "make the world safe for democracy", and Congress voted to declare war on Germany on April 6, 1917.[4] U.S. troops began major combat operations on the Western Front under General John J. Pershing in the summer of 1918.

    1. ^ Jeanette Keith (2004). Rich Man's War, Poor Man's Fight: Race, Class, and Power in the Rural South during the First World War. U. of North Carolina Press. pp. 1–5. ISBN 978-0-8078-7589-6.
    2. ^ Barnes, Harry Elmer. The Genesis of the World War (1925) pp. 590–591
    3. ^ "World War One". BBC History.
    4. ^ Link, Arthur S. (1972). Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 252–282.
     
  13. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    23 January 393Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his eight-year-old son Honorius co-emperor.

    Theodosius I

    Theodosius I (Greek: Θεοδόσιος; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also called Theodosius the Great, was Roman emperor from 379 to 395. He is best known for making Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire and great architecture projects in Constantinople.

    After a military career and a governorship under his father Theodosius the Elder – a comes rei militaris – he became magister equitum and was then elevated to the imperial rank of augustus by the emperor Gratian (r. 367–383). He replaced the latter's uncle and senior augustus Valens (r. 364–378), who had been killed in the Battle of Adrianople. He was the first emperor of the Theodosian dynasty (r. 379–457), and married into the ruling Valentinianic dynasty (r. 364–455). On accepting his elevation, he campaigned with limited success against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire. He was not able to destroy them or drive them out, as had been Roman policy for centuries in dealing with invaders. The Gothic War ended with the Goths established as autonomous allies of the Empire, within the Empire's borders, south of the Danube. They were given lands and allowed to remain under their own leaders, not assimilated as had been normal Roman practice.

    He issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire, including the Edict of Thessalonica.[3][4] He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome's Temple of Vesta. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympic Games. His decrees made Nicene Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire and punished Roman paganism, Hellenistic religion, and Arianism. He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. At his capital Constantinople he commissioned the honorific Column of Theodosius, the Theodosian Walls, and the Golden Gate, among the greatest surviving works of ancient Roman architecture. His management of the empire was marked by heavy tax exactions, and by a court in which "everything was for sale".[5]

    Theodosius married Gratian's half-sister Galla, daughter of Valentinian the Great (r. 364–375), and defeated the rebellion of Magnus Maximus (r. 383–388) on behalf of his new brother-in-law, Valentinian II (r. 375–392). This victory came at heavy cost to the strength of the Empire. When Valentinian II died, Theodosius became the senior emperor, having already made his eldest son Arcadius his co-augustus. Theodosius then defeated the usurper Eugenius (r. 392–394), in another destructive civil war. He died a few months later, without having consolidated control of his armies or of his Gothic allies. After his death, Theodosius's young and incapable sons were the two augusti. Arcadius (r. 383–408) inherited the eastern empire and reigned from Constantinople, and Honorius (r. 393–423) the western empire. The two courts spent much of their effort in attacking each other or in vicious internal power struggles. The administrative division endured until the fall of the western Roman empire in the late 5th century.

    Theodosius is considered a saint by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches, and his feast day is on January 17.[6]

    1. ^ Cooley, Alison E. (2012). The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy. Cambridge University Press. p. 506. ISBN 978-0-521-84026-2.
    2. ^ Kienast, Dietmar (2017) [1990]. "Theodosius". Römische Kaisertabelle: Grundzüge einer römischen Kaiserchronologie (in German). WBG. pp. 323–329. ISBN 978-3-534-26724-8.
    3. ^ Cf. decree, infra.
    4. ^ "Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2
    5. ^ Brown, Peter (2012). Through the Eye of a Needle. Princeton University Press. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-0-691-16177-8. Quoting Paulinus of Milan's Life of Ambrose.
    6. ^ http://www.saint.gr/1118/saint.aspx
     

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