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Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 July 2014Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, a Boeing 777, crashes near the border of Ukraine and Russia after being shot down. All 298 people on board are killed.

    Malaysia Airlines Flight 17

    Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (MH17/MAS17)[a] was a scheduled passenger flight from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur that was shot down on 17 July 2014 while flying over eastern Ukraine, killing all 283 passengers and 15 crew on board.[2] Contact with the aircraft, a Boeing 777-200ER, was lost about 50 km (31 mi) from the Ukraine–Russia border and wreckage of the aircraft landed near Torez in Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine, 40 km (25 mi) from the border.[3] The crash occurred in an area controlled by the Donbass People's Militia during the Battle in Shakhtarsk Raion, part of the ongoing war in Donbass.[4] The crash is the deadliest airliner shootdown, eighth-deadliest aviation disaster, and was Malaysia Airlines' second aircraft loss during 2014 after Flight 370 on March 8.[5]

    In October 2015, the Dutch Safety Board (DSB) concluded that the airliner was downed by a Buk surface-to-air missile (NATO reporting name: SA-11 Gadfly) launched from pro-Russian separatist-controlled territory in Ukraine.[6][7] In September 2016, the Dutch-led Joint Investigation Team (JIT) confirmed the missile type which had downed the aircraft and said that the Buk missile system had been transported from Russia on the day of the crash, fired from a field in a rebel controlled area and returned to Russia after the Buk was used to shoot down MH17. The JIT had established the identities of approximately 100 people, witnesses or suspects, who were linked to the transporting of the Buk, but said that their evidence "must stand before a court".[8]

    The DSB and JIT findings confirmed earlier claims by American and German intelligence sources and the Ukrainian government as to the missile type and launch area. In 2014, Ukraine and US intelligence had also said that Russia had supplied the Buk missile to pro-Russian insurgents, who had mistakenly shot down the aircraft.[9][10][11][12] Also in 2014, German intelligence sources reported that they believed insurgents had stolen the missile from the Ukrainian military.[13][14][15]

    Russian government sources initially claimed that the aircraft was being followed by a Ukrainian military jet at the time of the shootdown[10] and later that Ukraine was responsible since the crash had happened in Ukrainian airspace.[16]Several theories about the crash have since appeared in Russian media, and as of September 2016, the Russian government continues to deny responsibility for the crash.[8]

    Immediately after the crash, a post appeared on the VKontakte social media profile attributed to Russian Colonel Igor Girkin, leader of the Donbass separatist militia, claiming responsibility for shooting down an AN-26 near Torez,[17] but later the same day the separatists denied involvement and the post was removed.[18][19][20] In late July 2014, communications intercepts were made public in which, it is claimed, separatists are heard discussing an aircraft that they had downed and later, their realisation that it was a civilian aircraft.[21][22][23]

    Between November 2014 and May 2016, UK-based investigative collective Bellingcat made a series of conclusions, based on their examination of photos in social media and other open-source information. Bellingcat said that the launcher used to shoot down the aircraft was Buk 332 of the Russian 53rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Brigade based in Kursk, Russia, which had been transported from Donetsk to Snizhne and was controlled by separatists in Ukraine on the day of the attack.[24][25][26][27][28]

    In July 2015, Malaysia proposed that the United Nations Security Council set up an international tribunal to prosecute those deemed responsible for the downing of the plane. The Malaysian resolution gained a majority on the Security Council, but was vetoed by Russia.[29][30]

    1. ^ "Statement Malaysia Airlines MH17". KLM. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference dsb1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Alexander, Harriet (17 July 2014). "Malaysia Airlines plane crashes on Ukraine-Russia border – live". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014. 
    4. ^ Higgins, Andrew; Clark, Nicola (9 September 2014). "Malaysian Jet Over Ukraine Was Downed by 'High-Energy Objects,' Dutch Investigators Say". The New York Times. 
    5. ^ "Saturday, July 19, 07:30 pm GMT +0800 Media Statement 7 : MH17 Incident". Malaysia Airlines. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference DSB_Final_Report was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Weaver, Matthew. "MH17 crash report: Dutch investigators confirm Buk missile hit plane – live updates". the Guardian. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
    8. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference SMH_JIT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference LAtimes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ a b Greg Miller (22 July 2014), U.S. discloses intelligence on downing of Malaysian jet The Washington Post
    11. ^ "Yatsenyuk: 'We need to survive first'". Kyiv Post. 22 August 2014. 
    12. ^ "The evidence that may prove pro-Russian separatists shot down MH17". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
    13. ^ "Ostukraine: BND macht Separatisten für MH17-Absturz verantwortlich" [Eastern Ukraine: BND says separatists are responsible for MH17 crash]. Der Spiegel. 19 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
    14. ^ "Deadly Ukraine Crash: German Intelligence Claims Pro-Russian Separatists Downed MH17". Der Spiegel. 19 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
    15. ^ Kumar, Kalyan (21 October 2014), "MH17 Crash: German Spy Agency Blames Ukraine Rebels And Refutes All Theories Mooted By Ukraine, West and Russia", International Business Times Australia, archived from the original on 13 November 2014, retrieved 21 October 2014 
    16. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Poroshenko offers rebels more autonomy". BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference VK_Wall was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference vk.com was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference Arthur_Bright was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Alec Luhn. "The Guardian 20 July 2014". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
    21. ^ Landay, Jonathan S. "WASHINGTON: U.S. officials still don't know who shot down Malaysian airliner | World". The Bellingham Herald. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
    22. ^ "Militants admit to shooting down MH17 – reports". ONE News. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
    23. ^ Demirjian, Karoun. "Watch: Ukraine's pro-Russian rebels discuss MH17′s black box in secret recording". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
    24. ^ Bellingcat MH17 Investigation Team (8 November 2014). "MH17: Source of the Separatists' Buk" (PDF). Bellingcat. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 November 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
    25. ^ Gorchinskaya, Katya; Lavrov, Vlad (9 November 2014). "Journalists find 'solid' Russian ties to missile that hit MH17". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 18 June 2015. 
    26. ^ Tucker, Maxim (22 June 2015). "Meet Eliot Higgins, Putin's MH17 Nemesis". Newsweek. Retrieved 24 June 2015. 
    27. ^ "Bellingcat: New evidence against Russian soldiers on MH17". DW.COM. Retrieved 4 May 2016. 
    28. ^ "bellingcat – The Lost Digit: Buk 3x2 – bellingcat". bellingcat. Retrieved 4 May 2016. 
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference churkin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ Cite error: The named reference veto was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 July 1841 – Coronation of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil.

    Pedro II of Brazil

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox royalty with unknown parameter "royal anthem" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous",[1] was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.[A] Born in Rio de Janeiro, he was the seventh child of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. His father's abrupt abdication and departure to Europe in 1831 left a five-year-old Pedro II as Emperor and led to a grim and lonely childhood and adolescence. Obliged to spend his time studying in preparation for rule, he knew only brief moments of happiness and encountered few friends of his age. His experiences with court intrigues and political disputes during this period greatly affected his later character; he grew into a man with a strong sense of duty and devotion toward his country and his people, yet increasingly resentful of his role as monarch.

    Inheriting an Empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II turned Portuguese-speaking Brazil into an emerging power in the international arena. The nation grew to be distinguished from its Hispanic neighbors on account of its political stability, zealously guarded freedom of speech, respect for civil rights, vibrant economic growth and especially for its form of government: a functional, representative parliamentary monarchy. Brazil was also victorious in three international conflicts (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the Paraguayan War) under his rule, as well as prevailing in several other international disputes and domestic tensions. Pedro II steadfastly pushed through the abolition of slavery despite opposition from powerful political and economic interests. A savant in his own right, the Emperor established a reputation as a vigorous sponsor of learning, culture and the sciences. He won the respect and admiration of scholars such as Charles Darwin, Victor Hugo and Friedrich Nietzsche, and was a friend to Richard Wagner, Louis Pasteur and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, among others.

    Although there was no desire for a change in the form of government among most Brazilians, the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état that had almost no support outside a clique of military leaders who desired a form of republic headed by a dictator. Pedro II had become weary of emperorship and despaired over the monarchy's future prospects, despite its overwhelming popular support. He did not allow his ouster to be opposed and did not support any attempt to restore the monarchy. He spent the last two years of his life in exile in Europe, living alone on very little money.

    The reign of Pedro II thus came to an unusual end—he was overthrown while highly regarded by the people and at the pinnacle of his popularity, and some of his accomplishments were soon brought to naught as Brazil slipped into a long period of weak governments, dictatorships, and constitutional and economic crises. The men who had exiled him soon began to see in him a model for the Brazilian republic. A few decades after his death, his reputation was restored and his remains were returned to Brazil with celebrations nationwide. Historians have regarded the Emperor in an extremely positive light and several have ranked him as the greatest Brazilian.

    1. ^ Barman 1999, p. 85.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=upper-alpha> tags or {{efn-ua}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=upper-alpha}} template or {{notelist-ua}} template (see the help page).

     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 July 1553Lady Jane Grey is replaced by Mary I of England as Queen of England after only nine days on the throne.

    Lady Jane Grey

    Lady Jane Grey (c. 1537[3] – 12 February 1554), known as Lady Jane Dudley after her marriage[4] or the Nine Days Queen,[5] was an English noblewoman and de facto Queen of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553.

    The great-granddaughter of Henry VII through his younger daughter Mary Tudor, Jane was a first cousin once removed of Edward VI, King of England and Ireland from 1547. In May 1553, she was married to Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of Edward's chief minister, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. When the 15-year-old king lay dying in June 1553, he wrote his will, nominating Jane and her male heirs as successor to the Crown partly because his half-sister Mary was Roman Catholic while Jane was Protestant and would support the religion whose foundation Edward claimed to have laid. The will named his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth illegitimate and removed them from succession. This step subverted their claims under the Third Succession Act.

    After Edward's death, Jane was proclaimed queen on 10 July 1553 and awaited coronation in the Tower of London. Support for Mary grew very quickly and most of Jane's supporters abandoned her. The Privy Council decided to change sides and proclaimed Mary as queen on 19 July 1553, deposing Lady Jane. Her primary supporter, the Duke of Northumberland, was accused of treason and executed less than a month later. Jane was held as a prisoner at the Tower and was convicted of high treason in November 1553, which carried a sentence of death, although her life was initially spared by Mary. After her father Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, became part of Wyatt's rebellion of January and February 1554 against Queen Mary's plans to marry Philip of Spain, Jane was viewed as a threat to the crown; both Jane and her husband were executed on 12 February 1554.

    Lady Jane Grey had an excellent humanist education and a reputation as one of the most learned young women of her day.[6] A committed Protestant, she was posthumously regarded as not only a political victim but akin to a martyr.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference guardian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Williamson, David (2010). Kings & Queens. National Portrait Gallery Publications. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-85514-432-3
    3. ^ Her exact date of birth is uncertain; many historians agree on the long-held estimate of 1537 while others set it at 1536 based on newer research.[1][2]
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference odnbJane was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Ives 2009, p. 2
    6. ^ Ascham 1863, p. 213
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 July 1189Richard I of England officially invested as Duke of Normandy.

    Duke of Normandy

    Family tree of the early dukes of Normandy and Norman kings of England

    In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in northwestern France. The duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking leader Rollo by the French king Charles III in 911. In 924 and again in 933, Normandy was expanded by royal grant. Rollo's male-line descendants continued to rule it down to 1135. In 1202 the French king Philip II declared Normandy forfeit and by 1204 his army had conquered it. It remained a French royal province thereafter, still called the Duchy of Normandy, but only occasionally granted to a duke of the royal house as an apanage.

    There is no record of Rollo holding or using any title. His son and grandson, William I and Richard I, used the titles "count" (Latin comes or consul) and "prince" (princeps).[1] Prior to 1066, the most common title of the ruler of Normandy was "Count of Normandy" (comes Normanniae) or "Count of the Normans" (comes Normannorum).[2] The title Count of Rouen (comes Rotomagensis) was never used in any official document, but it was used of William I and his son by the anonymous author of a lament (planctus) on his death. Defying Norman pretensions to the ducal title, Adhemar of Chabannes was still referring to the Norman ruler as "Count of Rouen" as late as the 1020s. In the 12th century, the Icelandic historian Ari Þorgilsson in his Landnámabók referred to Rollo as Ruðu jarl (earl of Rouen), the only attested form in Old Norse, although too late to be evidence for 10th-century practice.[3] The late 11th-century Norman historian William of Poitiers used the title "Count of Rouen" for the Norman rulers down to Richard II. Although references to the Norman rulers as counts of Rouen are relatively sparse and confined to narrative sources, there is a lack of documentary evidence about Norman titles before the late 10th century.[4]

    The first recorded use of the title duke (dux) is in a act in favour of the Abbey of Fécamp in 1006 by Richard II. Earlier, the writer Richer of Reims had called Richard I a dux pyratorum, but which only means "leader of pirates" and was not a title. During the reign of Richard II, the French king's chancery began also called the Norman ruler "Duke of the Normans" (dux Normannorum) for the first time.[1] As late as the reign of William II (1035–87), the ruler of Normandy could style himself "prince and duke, count of Normandy" as if unsure what his title should be.[2] The literal Latin equivalent of "Duke of Normandy", dux Normanniae, was in use by 1066,[5] but it did not supplant dux Normannorum until the Angevin period (1144–1204), at a time when Norman identity was fading.[6]

    Richard I experimented with the title "marquis" (marchio) as early as 966, when it was also used in a diploma of King Lothair.[7] Richard II occasionally used it, but he seems to have preferred the title duke. It is his preference for the ducal title in his own charters that has led historians to believe that it was the chosen title of the Norman rulers. Certainly it was not granted to them by the French king. In the twelfth century, the Abbey of Fécamp spread the legend that it had been granted to Richard II by Pope Benedict VIII (ruled 1012–24). The French chancery did not regularly employ it until after 1204, when the duchy had been seized by the crown and Normandy lost its autonomy and its native rulers.[2]

    The actual reason for the adoption of a higher title than that of count was that the rulers of Normandy began to grant the comital title to members of their own family. The creation of Norman counts subject to the ruler of Normandy necessitated the latter taking a higher title. The same process was at work in other principalities of France in the eleventh century, as the comital title came into wider use and thus depreciated. The Normans nevertheless kept the title of count for the ducal family and no non-family member was granted a county until Helias of Saint-Saens was made Count of Arques by Henry I in 1106.[2]

    From 1066, when William II conquered England, becoming King William I, the title Duke of Normandy was often held by the King of England. In 1087, William died and the title passed to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, while his second surviving son, William Rufus, inherited England. In 1096, Robert mortgaged Normandy to William, who was succeeded by another brother, Henry I, in 1100. In 1106, Henry conquered Normandy. It remained with the King of England down to 1144, when, during the civil war known as the Anarchy, it was conquered by Geoffrey Plantagenet, the Count of Anjou. Geoffrey's son, Henry II, inherited Normandy (1150) and then England (1154), reuniting the two titles. In 1202, King Philip II of France, as feudal suzerain, declared Normandy forfeit and by 1204 his armies had conquered it. Henry III finally renounced the English claim in the Treaty of Paris (1259).

    Thereafter, the duchy formed an integral part of the French royal demesne. The kings of the House of Valois started a tradition of granting the title to their heirs apparent. The title was granted four times (1332, 1350, 1465, 1785) between the French conquest of Normandy and the dissolution of the French monarchy in 1792. The French Revolution brought an end to the Duchy of Normandy as a political entity, by then a province of France, and it was replaced by several départements.

    1. ^ a b Marjorie Chibnall, The Normans (Blackwell, 2006), pp. 15–16.
    2. ^ a b c d David Crouch, The Image of Aristocracy in Britain, 1000–1300 (Taylor and Francis, 1992), pp. 40–41.
    3. ^ David C. Douglas, "The Earliest Norman Counts", The English Historical Review, 61, 240 (1946): 129–56.
    4. ^ Elizabeth van Houts (ed.), The Normans in Europe (Manchester University Press, 2000), p. 41, n. 58.
    5. ^ George Beech, "The Participation of Aquitanians in the Conquest of England 1066–1100", in R. Allen Brown, ed., Anglo-Norman Studies IX: Proceedings of the Battle Conference, 1986 (Boydell Press, 1987), p. 16.
    6. ^ Nick Webber, The Evolution of Norman Identity, 911–1154 (Boydell Press, 2005), p. 178.
    7. ^ David Crouch, The Normans: The History of a Dynasty (Hambledon Continuum, 2002), p. 19.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 July 2005July 2005 London bombings occur.

    21 July 2005 London bombings

    On Thursday 21 July 2005, four attempted bomb attacks disrupted part of London's public transport system two weeks after the 7 July 2005 London bombings. The explosions occurred around midday at Shepherd's Bush, Warren Street and Oval stations on the London Underground, and on a bus in Bethnal Green. A fifth bomber dumped his device without attempting to set it off.[1]

    Connecting lines and stations were closed and evacuated. Metropolitan Police later said the intention was to cause large-scale loss of life, but only the detonators of the bombs exploded, probably causing the popping sounds reported by witnesses, and only one minor injury was reported. The suspects fled the scenes after their bombs failed to explode.

    On Friday 22 July, CCTV images of four suspects wanted in connection with the bombings were released.[2] Two of the men shown in these images were identified by police on Monday 25 July as Muktar Said Ibrahim and Yasin Hassan Omar.[3] The resultant manhunt was described by the Metropolitan police commissioner Sir Ian Blair as "the greatest operational challenge ever faced" by the Met.[4] During the manhunt, police misidentified Jean Charles de Menezes as one of the suspected bombers and shot and killed him.[5]

    By 29 July, police had arrested all four of the main bombing suspects from 21 July attempted bombings. Yasin Hassan Omar was arrested by police on 27 July, in Birmingham. On 29 July, two more suspects were arrested in London. A fourth suspect, Osman Hussein, was arrested in Rome, Italy, and later extradited to the UK.[6][7] Police also arrested numerous other people in the course of their investigations.

    On 9 July 2007, four defendants, Muktar Said Ibrahim, 29, Yasin Hassan Omar, 26, Ramzi Mohammed, 25, and Hussain Osman, 28, were found guilty of conspiracy to murder.[8] The four attempted bombers were each sentenced to life imprisonment, with a minimum of 40 years' imprisonment.[9]

    1. ^ "21 July: Attacks, escapes and arrests". BBC News. 11 July 2007. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. 
    2. ^ "London alerts: At-a-glance". BBC News. 29 July 2005. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. 
    3. ^ "Timeline: London bombing developments". BBC News. 1 November 2005. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. 
    4. ^ "London alerts: At-a-glance". (Timeline for 22 July 2005 at 15:31): BBC News. 29 July 2005. Retrieved 7 July 2015. Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Ian Blair describes the investigation into the London bombings as the greatest operational challenge ever faced by the Met. 
    5. ^ "What happened: Death of Jean Charles de Menezes". BBC News. 1 November 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2010. 
    6. ^ "Bomb Suspect May Spend Months in Rome". Sky UK. 31 July 2005. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
    7. ^ "Police hold four 21 July suspects". BBC News. 30 July 2005. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. 
    8. ^ "Four guilty over 21/7 bomb plot". BBC News. 10 July 2007. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
    9. ^ Percival, Jenny (11 July 2007). "Patient wait for life behind bars". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. 
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 July 2003 – Members of 101st Airborne of the United States, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein's sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay's 14-year-old son, and a bodyguard.

    Saddam Hussein

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox officeholder with unknown parameter "Cause of death" (this message is shown only in preview).
    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox officeholder with unknown parameter "religion" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (/hʊˈsn/;[3]Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي Ṣaddām Ḥusayn ʿAbd al-Maǧīd al-Tikrītī;[a] 28 April 1937[b] – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.[8] A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq.

    As vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, and at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam created security forces through which he tightly controlled conflicts between the government and the armed forces. In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and other industries. The state-owned banks were put under his control, leaving the system eventually insolvent mostly due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, and UN sanctions.[9] Through the 1970s, Saddam cemented his authority over the apparatus of government as oil money helped Iraq's economy to grow at a rapid pace. Positions of power in the country were mostly filled with Sunni Arabs, a minority that made up only a fifth of the population.[citation needed]

    Saddam formally rose to power in 1979, although he had already been the de facto head of Iraq for several years. He suppressed several movements, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements, which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence,[10] and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War. Whereas some in the Arab world lauded Saddam for opposing the United States and attacking Israel[11][12]—he was widely condemned for the brutality of his dictatorship. The total number of Iraqis killed by the security services of Saddam's government in various purges and genocides is conservatively estimated to be 250,000.[13] Saddam's invasions of Iran and Kuwait also resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths.

    In 2003, a coalition led by the U.S. invaded Iraq to depose Saddam, in which U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair falsely accused him of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda. Saddam's Ba'ath party was disbanded and elections were held. Following his capture on 13 December 2003, the trial of Saddam took place under the Iraqi Interim Government. On 5 November 2006, Saddam was convicted of crimes against humanity related to the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqi Shi'ites, and sentenced to death by hanging. His execution was carried out on 30 December 2006.[14]

    1. ^ "National Progressive Front". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
    2. ^ "The Middle East and North Africa 2003". google.jo. 
    3. ^ "Hussein". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    4. ^ Burns, John F. (2 July 2004). "Defiant Hussein Rebukes Iraqi Court for Trying Him". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 July 2004. 
    5. ^ "Saddam Hussein". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
    6. ^ Shewchuk, Blair (February 2003). "Saddam or Mr. Hussein?". CBC News Online. 
    7. ^ Con Coughlin, Saddam: The Secret Life Pan Books, 2003 (ISBN 0-330-39310-3).
    8. ^ "Online NewsHour Update: Coalition Says Iraqi Regime Has Lost Control of Baghdad — 9 April 2003". Pbs.org. 9 April 2003. Archived from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
    9. ^ "Banking in Iraq – A tricky operation". The Economist. 24 June 2004. 
    10. ^ "U.S. Relations With Anti-Saddam Groups" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 15 April 2012. 
    11. ^ Finkelstein, Norman G., "Reflections on Palestinian Attitudes During the Gulf War," Journal of Palestine Studies, Spring 1992
    12. ^ "Analysis: Instability benefits Saddam Hussein". BBC News. 16 October 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference 250k was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ "Saddam Hussein executed in Iraq". BBC News. 30 December 2006. 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 July 1903 – The Ford Motor Company sells its first car.

    Ford Motor Company

    Coordinates: 42°18′55″N 83°12′37″W / 42.315278°N 83.210278°W / 42.315278; -83.210278

    The Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer, Troller, and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV. In the past, it has also produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and a 49% stake in Jiangling of China. It also has a number of joint-ventures, one in China (Changan Ford), one in Taiwan (Ford Lio Ho), one in Thailand (AutoAlliance Thailand), one in Turkey (Ford Otosan), and one in Russia (Ford Sollers). It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, although they have minority ownership (but majority of the voting power).[4][3]

    Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914, these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010.[5] In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Middle East since 1938.

    During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability.

    Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker (preceded by General Motors) and the fifth-largest in the world (behind Toyota, VW, Hyundai-Kia and General Motors) based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe.[6] Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion.[7] In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles[8] and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide.

    The company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights.[9][3]

    1. ^ a b c d e f "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). USA: Ford Motor Company. February 11, 2016. 
    2. ^ a b "Ford Motor Company company : Shareholders, managers and business summary". 4-Traders. France. Retrieved May 15, 2016. 
    3. ^ a b c Rogers, Christina (May 12, 2016). "Shareholders Again Back Ford Family". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 16, 2016. 
    4. ^ Joann Muller (December 2, 2010). "Ford Family's Stake Is Smaller, But They're Richer And Still Firmly In Control". Forbes. Retrieved August 31, 2016. 
    5. ^ "Ford Motor Company Completes Sale of Volvo to Geely". Ford Motor Co. August 2, 2010. Retrieved August 2, 2010. 
    6. ^ ACEA. "New Passenger Car Registrations by Manufacturer European Union (EU)". ACEA. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved January 28, 2011. 
    7. ^ "Fortune 500". CNN. Retrieved November 27, 2010. 
    8. ^ "Ford Motor Company / 2008 Annual Report, Operating Highlights" (PDF). p. 1. Retrieved September 19, 2010. 
    9. ^ Joann Muller (March 9, 2014). "William Clay Ford's Legacy Cemented Family's Dynasty". Forbes. 
     
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    24 July 1977 – End of a four-day-long Libyan–Egyptian War.

    Libyan–Egyptian War

    The Libyan–Egyptian War was a short border war between Libya and Egypt in July 1977.

    On July 21, 1977, there were first gun battles between troops on the border, followed by land and air strikes. On July 24, the combatants agreed to a ceasefire under the mediation of the President of Algeria Houari Boumediène and the Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat.

    1. ^ Countrystudies - Libya and Arab Unity "Libya and Arab Unity" Check |url= value (help). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
    2. ^ Cooper, Tom (13 November 2003). "Libyan Mirage-Order". Western & Northern Africa Database. Air Combat Information Group. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
    3. ^ Pollack, Kenneth M. (2004-09-01). Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991. Bison Books. p. 365. ISBN 0-8032-8783-6. 
    4. ^ Pollack p.368
     
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    25 July 2007Pratibha Patil is sworn in as India's first female president.

    Pratibha Patil

    Pratibha Devisingh Patil (About this sound pronunciation ) (born 19 December 1934) is an Indian politician who served as the 12th President of India from 2007 to 2012. A member of the Indian National Congress, Patil is the only woman to hold the office.[1] She previously served as the Governor of Rajasthan from 2004 to 2007.

    1. ^ Reals, Tucker (21 July 2007). "India's First Woman President Elected". CBS News. Retrieved 2015-07-30. 
     
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    27 July 1694 – A Royal charter is granted to the Bank of England.

    Royal charter

    Charter granted by King George IV in 1827, establishing King's College, Toronto, now the University of Toronto
    Coloured engraving by H. D. Smith, commemorating the grant of a charter to King's College London in 1829

    A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate. They were, and are still, used to establish significant organisations such as cities (with municipal charters) or universities and learned societies. Charters should be distinguished from warrants and letters of appointment, as they have perpetual effect. Typically, a Royal Charter is produced as a high-quality work of calligraphy on vellum. The British monarchy has issued over 980 royal charters.[1] Of these about 750 remain in existence. The earliest was to the town of Tain in 1066, making it the oldest Royal Burgh in Scotland, followed by the University of Cambridge in 1231. Charters continue to be issued by the British Crown, a recent example being that awarded to The Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors, in 2014.

    Charters have been used in Europe since medieval times to create cities (that is, localities with recognised legal rights and privileges). The date that such a charter is granted is considered to be when a city is 'founded', regardless of when the locality originally began to be settled (which is often impossible to determine).

    At one time, a royal charter was the sole means by which an incorporated body could be formed, but other means (such as the registration process for limited companies) are generally used nowadays instead.

    Among the past and present groups formed by royal charter are the Company of Merchants of the Staple of England (13th Century), the British East India Company (1600), the Hudson's Bay Company, Standard Chartered, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O), the British South Africa Company, and some of the former British colonies on the North American mainland, City livery companies, the Bank of England and the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).[2]

    1. ^ Chartered bodies | Privy Council. Privycouncil.independent.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
    2. ^ BBC Trust | Charter and Agreement.
     
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    28 July 1896 – The city of Miami, Florida is incorporated.

    Miami

    Miami (/mˈæmi/; Spanish pronunciation: [miˈami]) is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States. As the seat of Miami-Dade County, the municipality is the principal, central, and the most populous city of the Miami metropolitan area and part of the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States.[8] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Miami's metro area is the eighth-most populous and fourth-largest urban area in the U.S., with a population of around 5.5 million.[9][10]

    Miami is a major center, and a leader in finance, commerce, culture, media, entertainment, the arts, and international trade.[11][12] In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha−World City in the World Cities Study Group's inventory.[13] In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, and political engagement.[14][15] In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, and citywide recycling programs.[16] According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, and the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power.[17] Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America"[1] and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality.[18]

    Miami has the third tallest skyline in the U.S. with over 300 high-rises. Downtown Miami is home to the largest concentration of international banks in the United States, and many large national and international companies.[19][20] The Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, and biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world. It accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, and is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.[21][22] Metropolitan Miami is a major tourism hub in the American South for international visitors, ranking number two in the U.S. after New York City.[23]

    1. ^ a b "Miami: the Capital of Latin America". Time. December 2, 1993. 
    2. ^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 7, 2017. 
    3. ^ "American Factfinder, Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2011. 
    4. ^ American Community Survey Archived October 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Miami Urbanized Area (2008 estimate)
    5. ^ "Population Estimates". Retrieved August 10, 2015. 
    6. ^ "2009 City Estimates", US Census Bureau. (CSV format)
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference USCensusEst2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "Population Estimates for Florida Municipalities". Retrieved April 20, 2016. 
    9. ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012" (CSV). 2012 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013. 
    10. ^ Demographia: World Urban Areas.
    11. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network, Loughborough University. Retrieved March 3, 2009. 
    12. ^ "Inventory of World Cities". Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2007. 
    13. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2012". Retrieved August 10, 2015. 
    14. ^ "The Global Cities Index 2010". Archived from the original on December 2, 2014. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
    15. ^ Larson, Christina (August 25, 2010). "Global Cities Index Methodology: How we compiled the 2010 Index". Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017. 
    16. ^ Van Riper, Tom (March 17, 2008). "America's cleanest cities". Forbes. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2008. 
    17. ^ "City Mayors: World's richest cities by purchasing power". City Mayors. Retrieved September 19, 2009. 
    18. ^ U.S. Census, 2010 (Ethnicity) and Census American Community Survey 2008 (language).
    19. ^ Nest Seekers International. Nestseekers.com. Retrieved on September 5, 2015.
    20. ^ Brickell – Downtown Miami, Florida Archived January 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. Madduxco.com. Retrieved on October 8, 2012.
    21. ^ Miami-Dade.gov Port of Miami. Miamidade.gov. Retrieved on October 8, 2012. Archived September 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
    22. ^ Cruise lines departing from the Port of Miami. Gomiami.about.com (April 10, 2012). Retrieved on October 8, 2012.
    23. ^ "Miami Is The Second Most Popular Destination For International Visitors (And Growing Fast)". TheNextMiami.com. Retrieved November 5, 2016. 
     
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    29 July 1957 – The International Atomic Energy Agency is established.

    International Atomic Energy Agency

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute,[1] the IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council.

    The IAEA has its headquarters in Vienna. The IAEA has two "Regional Safeguards Offices" which are located in Toronto, Canada, and in Tokyo, Japan. The IAEA also has two liaison offices which are located in New York City, United States, and in Geneva, Switzerland. In addition, the IAEA has three laboratories located in Vienna and Seibersdorf, Austria, and in Monaco.

    The IAEA serves as an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology and nuclear power worldwide. The programs of the IAEA encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear technology, provide international safeguards against misuse of nuclear technology and nuclear materials, and promote nuclear safety (including radiation protection) and nuclear security standards and their implementation.

    The IAEA and its former Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on 7 October 2005. The IAEA's current Director General is Yukiya Amano.

    1. ^ "Statute of the IAEA". IAEA. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
     
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    3o July 1626 – An earthquake in Naples, Italy, kills about 10,000 people.

    1626 Naples earthquake

    The 1626 Naples earthquake struck Naples, Italy on July 30. A major earthquake, it killed about 70,000 people in Naples and surrounding villages.[2]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NGDC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Gates, Alexander E.; Ritchie, David (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of Earthquakes and Volcanoes. Infobase Publishing. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-8160-7270-5. 
     
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    31 July 1588 – The Spanish Armada is spotted off the coast of England.

    Spanish Armada

    The Spanish Armada (Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from La Coruña in August 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England. The strategic aim was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I of England and the Tudor establishment of Protestantism in England, with the expectation that this would put a stop to English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and to the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering.

    The Armada chose not to attack the English fleet at Plymouth, then failed to establish a temporary anchorage in the Solent, after one Spanish ship had been captured by Francis Drake in the English Channel. The Armada finally dropped anchor off Calais.[22] While awaiting communications from the Duke of Parma's army, the Armada was scattered by an English fireship attack. In the ensuing Battle of Gravelines the Spanish fleet was damaged and forced to abandon its rendezvous with Parma's army, who were blockaded in harbour by Dutch flyboats. The Armada managed to regroup and, driven by southwest winds, withdrew north, with the English fleet harrying it up the east coast of England. The commander ordered a return to Spain, but the Armada was disrupted during severe storms in the North Atlantic and a large number of the vessels were wrecked on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Of the initial 130 ships over a third failed to return.[23] As Martin and Parker explain, "Philip II attempted to invade England, but his plans miscarried, partly because of his own mismanagement, unfortunate weather, and partly because the opportunistic defensive naval efforts of the English and their Dutch allies (the use of ships set afire and sailed into the anchored Armada to create panic) prevailed."[24]

    The expedition was the largest engagement of the undeclared Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). The following year, England organised a similar large-scale campaign against Spain, the Drake–Norris Expedition or "counter-Armada of 1589", which was unsuccessful and resulted in serious economic consequences and the loss of many English lives and ships.

    1. ^ Mattingly p. 401 the defeat of the Spanish armada really was decisive
    2. ^ Parker & Martin p. 5 an unmitigated disaster
    3. ^ Vego p. 148 the decisive defeat of the Spanish armada.
    4. ^ Lucy Hughes-Hallett notes that the action off Gravelines "was the fight which would enter English history books as “the defeat of the Spanish Armada,” but to those who took part in it the engagement appeared inconclusive. By the end of it the Armada was battered but still battleworthy, while the English were almost entirely out of ammunition". Hughes-Hallett, Lucy: Heroes: A History of Hero Worship. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2010. ISBN 9780307485908, p. 327.
    5. ^ "The 1588 campaign was a major English propaganda victory, but in strategic terms it was essentially indecisive". Holmes, Richard; Marix Evans, Martin: Battlefield: Decisive Conflicts in History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780191501173, p. 108.
    6. ^ According to José Alcalá-Zamora Queipo de Llano, "the confused and partial news of the indecisive naval actions fought between both naval formations in the English Channel were transformed into adulatory, courtier and political victorious reports". Alcalá-Zamora, José N.: La empresa de Inglaterra: (la "Armada invencible": fabulación y realidad). Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia, 2004. ISBN 9788495983374, p. 20.
    7. ^ Parker & Martin p. 245
    8. ^ Alcalá-Zamora p 56
    9. ^ Richard Holmes 2001, Battlefield: Decisive Conflicts in History, p. 858: "The 1588 campaign was a major English propaganda victory, but in strategic terms it was essentially indecisive"
    10. ^ Mattingly 362
    11. ^ a b Colin Martin, Geoffrey Parker, The Spanish Armada, Penguin Books, 1999, ISBN 1-901341-14-3, p. 40.
    12. ^ Colin Martin, Geoffrey Parker,The Spanish Armada, Penguin Books, 1999, ISBN 1-901341-14-3, pp. 10, 13, 19, 26.
    13. ^ Lewis, Michael.The Spanish Armada, New York: T.Y. Crowell Co., 1968, p. 184.
    14. ^ John Knox Laughton,State Papers Relating to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, Anno 1588, printed for the Navy Records Society, MDCCCXCV, Vol. II, pp. 8–9, Wynter to Walsyngham: indicates that the ships used as fire-ships were drawn from those at hand in the fleet and not hulks from Dover.
    15. ^ Lewis, p. 182.
    16. ^ Aubrey N. Newman, David T. Johnson, P.M. Jones (1985) The Eighteenth Century Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature 69 (1), 108 doi:10.1111/j.1467-8314.1985.tb00698.
    17. ^ Casado Soto, José L.: Atlantic shipping in sixteenth-century Spain and the 1588 Armada, in Rodríguez-Salgado, M. J. and Simon Adams (eds.): England, Spain and the Gran Armada, 1585–1604. Edinburgh: John Donald, 1991. ISBN 9780859763004, p. 122.
    18. ^ Garrett Mattingly rejects old estimations, makes a recount and concludes: "So, lost, at most, 31 ships (not 41), 10 pinnaces at most (not 20), 2 galleasses (not 3), 1 galley. Total, not more than 44 (not 65), probably five or six and perhaps a doze less." Mattingly, Garrett: The Armada. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987. ISBN 9780395083666, p. 426.
    19. ^ Lewis p. 208
    20. ^ Lewis pp. 208–09
    21. ^ Hanson p. 563
    22. ^ "The Safeguard of the Sea, A Naval History of Britain, 660–1649", N. A. M. Rodgers, Penguin, 2004, pp. 263–69
    23. ^ John A. Wagner (2010). Voices of Shakespeare's England: Contemporary Accounts of Elizabethan Daily Life: Contemporary Accounts of Elizabethan Daily Life. ABC-CLIO. p. 91. 
    24. ^ Colin Martin; Geoffrey Parker (1999). The Spanish Armada (revised ed.). Manchester University Press. p. 5. 
     
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    1 August 1936 – The Olympics opened in Berlin with a ceremony presided over by Adolf Hitler.

    1936 Summer Olympics

    The 1936 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1936), officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona (two years before the Nazis came to power). It marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city that was bidding to host those Games.

    To outdo the Los Angeles games of 1932, Adolf Hitler had built a new 100,000-seat track and field stadium, six gymnasiums, and many other smaller arenas. The games were the first to be televised, and radio broadcasts reached 41 countries.[1] Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl was commissioned by the German Olympic Committee to film the Games for $7 million.[1] Her film, titled Olympia, pioneered many of the techniques now common in the filming of sports.

    Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler saw the Games as an opportunity to promote his government and ideals of racial supremacy and antisemitism, and the official Nazi party paper, the Völkischer Beobachter, wrote in the strongest terms that Jews should not be allowed to participate in the Games.[2][3] When threatened with a boycott of the Games by other nations, Hitler appeared to allow athletes of other ethnicities from other countries to participate.[4] However German Jewish athletes were barred or prevented from taking part by a variety of methods[5] and Jewish athletes from other countries (notably the US) seem to have been side-lined in order not to offend the Nazi government.[6]

    Total ticket revenues were 7.5 million Reichsmark, generating a profit of over one million marks. The official budget did not include outlays by the city of Berlin (which issued an itemized report detailing its costs of 16.5 million marks) or outlays of the German national government (which did not make its costs public, but is estimated to have spent US$30 million).[7]

    Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump events and became the most successful athlete to compete in Berlin while the host country was the most successful country overall with 89 medals total, with the United States coming in second with 56 medals. These were the final Olympics under the presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour and the final Olympic Games for 12 years because of World War II. The next Olympic Games would be held in 1948 (the Winter in Switzerland and then the Summer in London).

    1. ^ a b Rader, Benjamin G. "American Sports: From the Age of Folk Games to the Age of Televised Sports" --5th Ed.
    2. ^ Hitlerland. p. 188.
    3. ^ David Clay Large, Nazi Games: The Olympics of 1936, p. 58.
    4. ^ "The Movement to Boycott the Berlin Olympics of 1936". www.ushmm.org. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 7 October 2016. 
    5. ^ "The Nazi Olympics Berlin 1936". www.ushmm.org. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 7 October 2016. 
    6. ^ "Jewish Athletes — Marty Glickman & Sam Stoller". www.ushmm.org. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 7 October 2016. 
    7. ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 24 March 2007. 
     
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    3 August 1795Treaty of Greenville is signed.

    Treaty of Greenville

    1805 map showing western "Indian Boundary" between Port William and Fort Recovery, as well as the northern "Gen Wayne Treaty 1793" boundary between Fort Recovery and the Muskingum River near Salem. Much of the land east and south of these boundaries was open to settlement after the Treaty of Greenville.
    1805 map showing western "Indian Boundary" between Port William and Fort Recovery, as well as the northern "Gen Wayne Treaty 1793" boundary between Fort Recovery and the Muskingum River near Salem. Much of the land east and south of these boundaries was open to settlement after the Treaty of Greenville.
    First page of the Treaty of Greenville.
    This depiction of the treaty negotiations may have been painted by one of Anthony Wayne's officers, c. 1795.

    The Treaty of Greenville was signed on August 3, 1795, at Fort Greenville, now Greenville, Ohio; it followed negotiations after the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers a year earlier. It ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country and limited strategic parcels of land to the north and west. The parties to the treaty were a coalition of Native American tribes, known as the Western Confederacy, and United States government represented by General Anthony Wayne for local frontiersmen. The treaty is considered "the beginning of modern Ohio history."[1]

    The treaty established what became known as the Greenville Treaty Line, which was for several years a boundary between Native American territory and lands open to European-American settlers. The latter frequently disregarded the treaty line as they continued to encroach on Native American lands.[citation needed]

    The treaty also established the "annuity" system: yearly grants of federal money and supplies of calico cloth to Native American tribes and thus institutionalized continuing government influence in tribal affairs, giving outsiders considerable control over Native American life.[2]

    1. ^ "Capitol Ohio : 113 - Treaty of Greenville". The Ohio Statehouse. Retrieved 2015-09-13. 
    2. ^ Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty
     
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    4 August 1824 – The Battle of Kos is fought between Turkish and Greek forces.

    Kos

    Kos or Cos (English: /kɒs/ or /kɔːs/) (Greek: Κως, Greek pronunciation: [kos]) is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. Kos is the third largest island of the Dodecanese by area, after Rhodes and Karpathos; it has a population of 33,388 (2011 census), making it the second most populous of the Dodecanese, after Rhodes.[1] The island measures 40 by 8 kilometres (25 by 5 miles), and is 4 km (2 miles) from the coast of the ancient region of Caria in Turkey. Administratively, Kos constitutes a municipality within the Kos regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Kos town.[2]

    1. ^ a b c "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 
    2. ^ Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
     
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    5 August 1620 – The Mayflower departs from Southampton, England on its first attempt to reach North America.

    Mayflower

    The Mayflower was an English ship that famously transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England to the New World in 1620.[1] There were 102 passengers, and the crew is estimated to have been about 30, but the exact number is unknown.[2] This voyage has become an iconic story in some of the earliest annals of American history, with its story of death and of survival in the harsh New England winter environment. The culmination of the voyage in the signing of the Mayflower Compact was an event which established a rudimentary form of democracy, with each member contributing to the welfare of the community.[3] There was a second ship named Mayflower that made the London to Plymouth, Massachusetts voyage several times.

    1. ^ Folsom, George. et al. Historical Magazine: and Notes and Queries Concerning the Antiquities, History, and Biography of America. (C. B. Richardson, 1867) page 277
    2. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers (Indiana: Xlibris Corp., 2006), p. 33
    3. ^ Bertrand Brown, 'To Celebrate the 300th Anniversary of America's Origin', The Journal of Education", Vol. 92, No. 6 (Trustees of Boston University, August 1920), p. 151
     
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    6 August 1825Bolivia gains independence from Spain.

    Bolivia

    Coordinates: 16°42′43″S 64°39′58″W / 16.712°S 64.666°W / -16.712; -64.666

    Bolivia (/bəˈlɪviə/; Spanish: [boˈliβi̯a]; Guarani: Mborivia [ᵐboˈɾiʋja]; Quechua: Buliwya [bʊlɪwja]; Aymara: Wuliwya [wʊlɪwja]), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia),[8][9] is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is the Andean mountain range.

    The largest city and principal economic and financial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales (Tropical lowlands) mostly flat region in the East of Bolivia. Bolivia is one of two landlocked countries (the other is Paraguay) that lie outside Afro-Eurasia. Bolivia is geographically the largest landlocked country in the Americas, but remains a relatively small country in economic and military terms.[10]

    Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in great part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivia's mines.

    After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825. Since independence, Bolivia has endured periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of various peripheral territories to its neighbors, such as Acre and parts of the Gran Chaco. It has been landlocked since the annexation of its Pacific coast territory by Chile following the War of the Pacific (1879–84), but agreements with neighboring countries have granted it indirect access to the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.

    The country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages also have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, Aymara and Quechua languages.

    Modern Bolivia is constitutionally a unitary state, divided into nine departments. Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index and a poverty level of 53 percent.[11] Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin.

    1. ^ "Moneda de 10 Centavos" [10 Cent Coins] (in Spanish). Central Bank of Bolivia. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2014. 
    2. ^ Political Constitution of the State – Article 5
    3. ^ "South America :: Bolivia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
    4. ^ [1]. Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Bolivia.
    5. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. 
    6. ^ "Gini index". World Bank. Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
    7. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
    8. ^ "Bolivia (Plurinational State of)". Who.int. 11 May 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
    9. ^ "Bolivia (Plurinational State of)". UNdata. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
    10. ^ Schenoni, Luis (2017) "Subsystemic Unipolarities?" in Strategic Analysis, 41(1): 74–86 [2]
    11. ^ "Bolivia baja sus índices de pobreza en 8 años" [Bolivia lowers its poverty levels]. El Deber. 30 November 2011. Archived from the original on 5 December 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
     
  22. Admin2

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    7 August 1933 – The Simele massacre: The Iraqi government slaughters over 3,000 Assyrians in the village of Simele.

    Simele massacre

    The Simele massacre (Syriac: ܦܪܡܬܐ ܕܣܡܠܐpramta d-Simele, Arabic: مذبحة سميل‎‎ maḏbaḥat Summayl) was a massacre committed by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Iraq led by Bakr Sidqi during a campaign systematically targeting the Assyrians of northern Iraq in August 1933. The term is used to describe not only the massacre in Simele, but also the killing spree that took place among 63 Assyrian villages in the Dohuk and Mosul districts that led to the deaths of between 5,000[1] and 6,000[2][3] Assyrians.

    During the Assyrian genocide during and after World War I, more than half of Turkey's Assyrian population was massacred under the Ottoman Empire.[4] The term 'genocide' was coined by Raphael Lemkin, who was directly influenced by the story of this massacre and the Armenian Genocide.[5]

    1. ^ Zubaida 2000, p. 370
    2. ^ "Displaced persons in Iraqi Kurdistan and Iraqi refugees in Iran" (PDF). fidh.org. International Federation for Human Rights. January 2003. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
    3. ^ DeKelaita, Robert (22 November 2009). "The Origins and Developments of Assyrian Nationalism" (PDF). Committee on International Relations Of the University of Chicago. Assyrian International News Agency. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
    4. ^ Yacoub, Joseph (July 1988). "La Question Assyro-Chaldéenne, Les Puissances Européennes et la Société des Nations". Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains (151): 103–120. JSTOR 25730513. 
    5. ^ "Raphael Lemkin". EuropeWorld. 22 June 2001. Archived from the original on 2010-04-16. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
     
  23. Admin2

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    8 August 1929 – The German airship Graf Zeppelin begins a round-the-world flight.

    LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin

    LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin (Deutsches Luftschiff Zeppelin #127; Registration: D-LZ 127) was a German-built and -operated, passenger-carrying, hydrogen-filled, rigid airship which operated commercially from 1928 to 1937. When it entered commercial service in 1928, it became the first commercial passenger transatlantic flight service in the world. It was named after the German pioneer of airships, Ferdinand von Zeppelin, who was a count (Graf) in the German nobility. During its operating life, the airship made 590 flights covering more than 1.7 million kilometers (over 1 million miles). It was designed to be operated by a crew of 36 officers and men. The LZ 127 was the longest rigid airship at the time of its completion and was only surpassed by the USS Akron in 1931. It was scrapped for fighter plane parts in 1940.[1]

    1. ^ http://www.airships.net/lz127-graf-zeppelin/history
     
  24. Admin2

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    9 August 1854Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden.

    Walden

    Walden (/ˈwɔːldən/; first published as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) is a book by noted transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau. The text is a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings.[2] The work is part personal declaration of independence, social experiment, voyage of spiritual discovery, satire, and (to some degree) manual for self-reliance.[3]

    First published in 1854, Walden details Thoreau's experiences over the course of two years, two months, and two days in a cabin he built near Walden Pond, amidst woodland owned by his friend and mentor Ralph Waldo Emerson, near Concord, Massachusetts. Thoreau used this time to write his first book, A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers. The experience later inspired Walden, in which Thoreau compresses the time into a single calendar year and uses passages of four seasons to symbolize human development.

    By immersing himself in nature, Thoreau hoped to gain a more objective understanding of society through personal introspection. Simple living and self-sufficiency were Thoreau's other goals, and the whole project was inspired by transcendentalist philosophy, a central theme of the American Romantic Period.

    1. ^ Alfred, Randy (August 9, 2010). "Aug. 9, 1854: Thoreau Warns, ‘The Railroad Rides on Us’". Wired News. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
    2. ^ Henry David Thoreau
    3. ^ Transcendentalism and Social Reform by Philip F. Gura], Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
     
  25. Admin2

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    10 August 1990 – The Magellan space probe reaches Venus.

    Magellan (spacecraft)

    The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a 1,035-kilogram (2,282 lb) robotic space probe launched by NASA on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field.

    The Magellan probe was the first interplanetary mission to be launched from the Space Shuttle, the first one to use the Inertial Upper Stage booster for launching, and the first spacecraft to test aerobraking as a method for circularizing its orbit. Magellan was the fifth successful NASA mission to Venus, and it ended an eleven-year gap in U.S. interplanetary probe launches.

     
  26. Admin2

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    11 August 1804Francis II assumes the title of first Emperor of Austria.

    Emperor of Austria

    The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was a hereditary imperial title and position proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and continually held by him and his heirs until Emperor Charles relinquished power in 1918. The emperors retained the title of Archduke of Austria. The wives of the emperors bore the title of empress, while other members of the family bore the title archduke or archduchess.

     
  27. Admin2

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    12 August 1944Waffen-SS troops massacre 560 people in Sant'Anna di Stazzema.

    Waffen-SS

    The Waffen-SS (German pronunciation: [ˈvafən.ɛs.ɛs], Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation. Its formations included men from Nazi Germany, along with volunteers and conscripts from both occupied and un-occupied lands.[2]

    The Waffen-SS grew from three regiments to over 38 divisions during World War II, and served alongside the Heer (regular army), Ordnungspolizei (uniformed police) and other security units. Prior to the war, it was under the control of the SS Führungshauptamt (SS operational command office) beneath Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. With the start of World War II, tactical control was exercised by the High Command of the Armed Forces (OKW),[3] with some units being subordinated to Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS (Command Staff Reichsführer-SS) directly under Himmler's control.[4]

    Initially, in keeping with the racial policy of Nazi Germany, membership was only open to people of Germanic origin (so-called Aryan ancestry).[5] The rules were partially relaxed in 1940,[6][7] and later the formation of units composed largely or solely of foreign volunteers and conscripts was authorised. These SS units were made up of men mainly from among the nationals of Nazi-occupied Europe. Despite relaxation of the rules, the Waffen-SS was still based on the racist ideology of Nazism, and ethnic Poles (who were viewed as subhumans) were barred specifically from the formations.[8][9][10]

    At the post-war Nuremberg trials the Waffen-SS was judged to be a criminal organisation due to its connection to the Nazi Party and involvement in numerous war crimes and crimes against humanity. Former Waffen-SS members were denied many of the rights afforded to the military veterans. An exception was made for Waffen-SS conscripts, who were exempted because they were not volunteers.[11][12] About a third of the total membership were conscripts.[13]

    1. ^ Neitzel & Welzer 2012, p. 290.
    2. ^ Stein 1984, pp. xxiv, xxv, 150, 153.
    3. ^ Stein 1984, p. 23.
    4. ^ The Nazi Holocaust. Part 3: The "Final Solution": The Implementation of Mass Murder. Volume 2, p. 459, De Gruyter, 1989
    5. ^ Stackelberg 2002, p. 116.
    6. ^ Langer & Rudowski 2008, p. 263.
    7. ^ Król 2006, pp. 452, 545.
    8. ^ W. Borodziej, Ruch oporu w Polsce w świetle tajnych akt niemieckich, Część IX, Kierunki 1985, nr 16.
    9. ^ Polska i Polacy w propagandzie narodowego socjalizmu w Niemczech 1919-1945 Eugeniusz Cezary Król Instytut Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 2006, page 452
    10. ^ Terror i polityka: policja niemiecka a polski ruch oporu w GG 1939-1944 Włodzimierz Borodziej Instytut Wydawniczy Pax, 1985, p. 86.
    11. ^ Nuremberg Trial Proceedings, Volume 22, September 1946
    12. ^ Laar, Mart (2005). "Battles in Estonia in 1944". Estonia in World War II. Tallinn: Grenamder. pp. 32–59. 
    13. ^ McDonald, Gabrielle Kirk; Swaak-Goldman, Olivia (2000). Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law: The Experience of International and National Courts: Materials. BRILL. p. 695. 
     
  28. Admin2

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    13 August 1905 – Norwegians vote to end the union with Sweden.

    Norwegian union dissolution referendum, 1905

    A referendum on dissolving the union with Sweden was held in Norway on 13 August 1905.[1] It was approved by almost 100% of voters, with just 184 voting against the proposal.[2]

    1. ^ Henriksen, Petter, ed. (2007). "unionsoppløsningen". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 4 April 2009. 
    2. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1446 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
     
  29. Admin2

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    14 August 2007 – The Kahtaniya bombings kills at least 334 people.

    2007 Yazidi communities bombings

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    The 2007 Yazidi communities bombings occurred at around 7:20 pm local time on August 14, 2007, when four co-ordinated suicide bomb attacks detonated in the Yazidi towns of Kahtaniya and Jazeera (Siba Sheikh Khidir), near Mosul.

    The Iraqi Red Crescent estimated that the bombs killed at least 500 and wounded 1,500 people,[3][4] making this the Iraq War's most deadly car bomb attack.

    It was also the second deadliest act of terrorism in history, following only behind the September 11 attacks in the United States.[5]

    1. ^ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 8 August 2015.
    2. ^ "Al-Qaeda blamed for Yazidi carnage". The Scotsman. 16 August 2007. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2015. 
    3. ^ "Toll in Iraq Bombings Is Raised to More Than 500". Retrieved 11 December 2014. 
    4. ^ [dead link]Reuters AlertNet – FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Jan 20
    5. ^ "Worst terrorist strikes—worldwide". www.johnstonsarchive.net. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
     
  30. Admin2

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    15 August 1483Pope Sixtus IV consecrates the Sistine Chapel.

    Sistine Chapel

    The Sistine Chapel (/ˌsɪstn ˈæpəl/; Latin: Sacellum Sixtinum; Italian: Cappella Sistina [kapˈpɛlla siˈstiːna]) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City. Originally known as the Cappella Magna, the chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, who restored it between 1477 and 1480. Since that time, the chapel has served as a place of both religious and functionary papal activity. Today it is the site of the Papal conclave, the process by which a new pope is selected. The fame of the Sistine Chapel lies mainly in the frescos that decorate the interior, and most particularly the Sistine Chapel ceiling and The Last Judgment by Michelangelo.

    During the reign of Sixtus IV, a team of Renaissance painters that included Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Pinturicchio, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Cosimo Roselli, created a series of frescos depicting the Life of Moses and the Life of Christ, offset by papal portraits above and trompe l’oeil drapery below. These paintings were completed in 1482, and on 15 August 1483 Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel for the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.[3][4]

    Between 1508 and 1512, under the patronage of Pope Julius II, Michelangelo painted the chapel's ceiling, a project which changed the course of Western art and is regarded as one of the major artistic accomplishments of human civilization.[5][6] In a different climate after the Sack of Rome, he returned and between 1535 and 1541, painted The Last Judgment for Popes Clement VII and Paul III.[7] The fame of Michelangelo's paintings has drawn multitudes of visitors to the chapel ever since they were revealed five hundred years ago.

    1. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference EHT2006_313 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Vatican City, Whc.unesco.org, retrieved 9 August 2011 
    3. ^ Pietrangeli 1986, p. 28
    4. ^ Monfasani, John (1983), "A Description of the Sistine Chapel under Pope Sixtus IV", Artibus et Historiae, IRSA s.c., 4 (7): 9–18, ISSN 0391-9064, JSTOR 1483178, doi:10.2307/1483178. 
    5. ^ Helen Gardner, p. 469
    6. ^ Robert Coughlan, The World of Michelangelo, Time-Life International, (1966) p. 116
    7. ^ Robert Coughlan, p. 127
     
  31. Admin2

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    16 August 1960Cyprus gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

    Cyprus

    Cyprus (/ˈsprəs/; Greek: Κύπρος, translit. Kýpros IPA: [ˈcipros]; Turkish: Kıbrıs IPA: [ˈkɯbɾɯs]), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Greek: Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία, translit. Kypriakí Demokratía; Turkish: Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. It is located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece.

    The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, and Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world.[9] Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. As a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878 (de jure until 1914).[10]

    Cyprus was placed under British administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them; while, since the 19th century,[11][12] the majority Greek Cypriot population and its Orthodox church had been pursuing union with Greece, which became a Greek national policy in the 1950s.[13] Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960.[14] In 1963, the 11-year intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots started, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots[15][16] and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists[17][18] and elements of the Greek military junta[19] in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece. This action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July,[20] which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, and the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots[21][22] and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.[23] A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983; the move was widely condemned by the international community, with Turkey alone recognizing the new state. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute.

    The Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under British control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, and comprising about 59% of the island's area; and the north,[24] administered by the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, covering about 36% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone. The international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces.[25][26][27][28][29] The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union.[30]

    Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean.[31][32][33] With an advanced,[34]high-income economy and a very high Human Development Index,[35][36] the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004.[37] On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone.

    1. ^ "National Anthem". www.presidency.gov.cy. Retrieved 3 June 2015. 
    2. ^ "Cyprus". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 15 January 2016. 
    3. ^ United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013). "World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Highlights and Advance Tables (ESA/P/WP.220)" (PDF). New York: 52. 
    4. ^ "Statistical Service – Population and Social Conditions – Population Census – Announcements – Preliminary Results of the Census of Population, 2011" (in Greek). Statistical Service of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Cyprus. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
    5. ^ United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013). "World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, DB02: Stock Indicators". New York. 
    6. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2017. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017. 
    7. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". Luxembourg: Eurostat. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017. 
    8. ^ "Table 1: Human Development Index and its components". Human Development Reports. Stockholm: United Nations Development Programme. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017. 
    9. ^ "Stone Age wells found in Cyprus". BBC News. 25 June 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
    10. ^ "Treaty of Lausanne". 
    11. ^ Faustmann, Hubert; Ker-Lindsay, James (2008). The Government and Politics of Cyprus. Peter Lang. p. 48. ISBN 978-3-03911-096-4. 
    12. ^ Mirbagheri, Farid (2009). Historical Dictionary of Cyprus. Scarecrow Press. p. 25. 
    13. ^ Trimikliniotis, Nicos (2012). Beyond a Divided Cyprus: A State and Society in Transformation. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-137-10080-1. 
    14. ^ Cyprus date of independence Archived 13 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine. (click on Historical review)
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference hoff was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ "U.S. Library of Congress – Country Studies – Cyprus – Intercommunal Violence". Countrystudies.us. 21 December 1963. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
    17. ^ Mallinson, William (2005). Cyprus: A Modern History. I. B. Tauris. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-85043-580-8. 
    18. ^ "website". BBC News. 4 October 2002. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
    19. ^ Constantine Panos Danopoulos; Dhirendra K. Vajpeyi; Amir Bar-Or (2004). Civil-military Relations, Nation Building, and National Identity: Comparative Perspectives. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-275-97923-2. 
    20. ^ Eyal Benvenisti (23 February 2012). The International Law of Occupation. Oxford University Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-19-958889-3. 
    21. ^ Barbara Rose Johnston, Susan Slyomovics. Waging War, Making Peace: Reparations and Human Rights (2009), American Anthropological Association Reparations Task Force, p. 211
    22. ^ Morelli, Vincent. Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive (2011), DIANE Publishing, p. 10
    23. ^ Borowiec, Andrew. Cyprus: A Troubled Island (2000), Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 125
    24. ^ "According to the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 550 and 541". United Nations. Retrieved 27 March 2009. 
    25. ^ European Consortium for Church-State Research. Conference (2007). Churches and Other Religious Organisations as Legal Persons: Proceedings of the 17th Meeting of the European Consortium for Church and State Research, Höör (Sweden), 17–20 November 2005. Peeters Publishers. p. 50. ISBN 978-90-429-1858-0. There is little data concerning recognition of the 'legal status' of religions in the occupied territories, since any acts of the 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' are not recognized by either the Republic of Cyprus or the international community. 
    26. ^ Quigley. The Statehood of Palestine. Cambridge University Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-139-49124-2. The international community found this declaration invalid, on the ground that Turkey had occupied territory belonging to Cyprus and that the putative state was therefore an infringement on Cypriot sovereignty. 
    27. ^ Nathalie Tocci (January 2004). EU Accession Dynamics and Conflict Resolution: Catalysing Peace Or Consolidating Partition in Cyprus?. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-7546-4310-4. The occupied territory included 70 percent of the island's economic potential with over 50 percent of the industrial ... In addition, since partition Turkey encouraged mainland immigration to northern Cyprus. ... The international community, excluding Turkey, condemned the unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) as a. 
    28. ^ Dr Anders Wivel; Robert Steinmetz (28 March 2013). Small States in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-4094-9958-9. To this day, it remains unrecognised by the international community, except by Turkey 
    29. ^ Peter Neville (22 March 2013). Historical Dictionary of British Foreign Policy. Scarecrow Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-8108-7371-1. ...Ecevit ordered the army to occupy the Turkish area on 20 July 1974. It became the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, but Britain, like the rest of the international community, except Turkey, refused to extend diplomatic recognition to the enclave. British efforts to secure Turkey's removal from its surrogate territory after 1974 failed. 
    30. ^ James Ker-Lindsay; Hubert Faustmann; Fiona Mullen (15 May 2011). An Island in Europe: The EU and the Transformation of Cyprus. I.B.Tauris. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-84885-678-3. Classified as illegal under international law, and now due to Cyprus' accession into the European Union is also an illegal occupation of EU territory. 
    31. ^ Lesley Pender; Richard Sharpley (2005). The Management of Tourism. SAGE. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-7619-4022-7. 
    32. ^ Richard Sharpley (16 May 2012). Tourism Development and the Environment: Beyond Sustainability?. Routledge. p. 296. ISBN 978-1-136-57330-9. 
    33. ^ Sharpley, Richard; Telfer, David John (2002). Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues. Channel View Publications. p. 334. ISBN 978-1-873150-34-4. 
    34. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database May 2001". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
    35. ^ "Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
    36. ^ "Human Development Index (HDI)–2011 Rankings". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
    37. ^ "The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information". Non-Aligned Movement. 21 September 2001. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2010. 


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  32. Admin2

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    17 August 2005 – The first forced evacuation of settlers, as part of Israeli disengagement from Gaza, starts.

    Israeli disengagement from Gaza

    The Israeli disengagement from Gaza (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות‎, Tokhnit HaHitnatkut; in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as "Gaza expulsion" and "Hitnatkut", was the withdrawal of the Israeli army from Gaza, and the dismantling of all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip in 2005. Four settlements in the northern West Bank were also evacuated.

    The disengagement was proposed in 2003 by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the Government in June 2004, approved by the Knesset in February 2005 and enacted in August 2005. Israeli citizens who refused to accept government compensation packages and voluntarily vacate their homes prior to the August 15, 2005 deadline, were evicted by Israeli security forces over a period of several days.[1] The eviction of all residents, demolition of the residential buildings and evacuation of associated security personnel from the Gaza Strip was completed by September 12, 2005.[2] The eviction and dismantlement of the four settlements in the northern West Bank was completed ten days later. A total of 8,000 Jewish settlers from all 21 settlements in the Gaza Strip were relocated. The average settler received compensation of over U.S $200,000.[3]

    Post-disengagement, Israel continued to exercise control over the external perimeter of Gaza, including seaports, air space, and the passage of people and goods.[4]

    1. ^ "Jewish Settlers Receive Hundreds of Thousands in Compensation for Leaving Gaza". Democracy Now. 16 August 2005. Archived from the original on 9 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
    2. ^ "Demolition of Gaza Homes Completed". Ynetnews.com. 1 September 2005. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
    3. ^ Rivlin, Paul (2010). The Israeli Economy from the Foundation of the State through the 21st Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 245. ISBN 9781139493963. 
    4. ^ Peters, Joel (2012). "Gaza". In Caplan, Richard. Exit Strategies and State Building. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 234. ISBN 9780199760114. 
     
  33. Admin2

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    18 August 1868 – French astronomer Pierre Janssen discovers helium.

    Pierre Janssen

    Photo taken by Janssen, from the Meudon observatory, of Renard and Krebs' La France dirigible (1885)

    Pierre Jules César Janssen (22 February 1824 – 23 December 1907), also known as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gaseous nature of the solar chromosphere, and with some justification the element helium.

     
  34. Admin2

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    19 August 1934 – The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio.

    Soap Box Derby

    1984 Augusta, Georgia Champion
    An official Soap Box Derby racer from 1967, including a "Snoopy as the flying ace" picture.
    Senior Seifenkiste - Deutsches Seifenkisten Derby e.V. - soap box car from Germany

    The Soap Box is a youth soapbox car racing program which has been run in the United States since 1934. World Championship finals are held each July at Derby Downs in Akron, Ohio. Cars competing in this and related events are unpowered, relying completely upon gravity to move.

     
  35. Admin2

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    20 August 1866President Andrew Johnson formally declares the American Civil War over.

    American Civil War

    The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The result of a long-standing controversy over slavery and states' rights, war broke out in April 1861, when Confederates attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, shortly after Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated. The nationalists of the Union proclaimed loyalty to the U.S. Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States of America, who advocated for states’ rights to perpetual slavery and its expansion in the Americas.

    Among the 34 U.S. states in February 1861, seven Southern slave states individually declared their secession from the U.S. to form the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy grew to include eleven states; it claimed two more border states (Kentucky and Missouri), the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the Union's western territories of Arizona and New Mexico, which was organized and incorporated into the Confederacy as Confederate Arizona. The Confederacy was never diplomatically recognized by the United States government, nor was it recognized by any foreign country (although Britain and France granted it belligerent status). The states that remained loyal, including the border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North.

    The North and South quickly raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought mostly in the South over four years. During this time many innovations in warfare occurred, including the development and use of iron-clad ships, ultimately changing naval strategy around the world. The Union finally won the war when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the battle of Appomattox, which triggered a series of surrenders by Confederate generals throughout the southern states. Four years of intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 soldiers dead, a higher number than the number of American military deaths in both World Wars, Korea, Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan combined, and much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed. The Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, and 4 million slaves were freed. The Reconstruction Era (1863–1877) overlapped and followed the war, with the process of restoring national unity, strengthening the national government, and granting civil rights to freed slaves throughout the country. The Civil War is arguably the most studied and written about episode in American history.

    1. ^ "The Belligerent Rights of the Rebels at an End. All Nations Warned Against Harboring Their Privateers. If They Do Their Ships Will be Excluded from Our Ports. Restoration of Law in the State of Virginia. The Machinery of Government to be Put in Motion There.". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 10, 1865. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
    2. ^ a b Total number that served
    3. ^ a b c d e "Facts". National Park Service. 
    4. ^ "Size of the Union Army in the American Civil War": Of which 131,000 were in the Navy and Marines, 140,000 were garrison troops and home defense militia, and 427,000 were in the field army.
    5. ^ Long, E. B. The Civil War Day by Day: An Almanac, 1861–1865. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971. OCLC 68283123. p. 705.
    6. ^ "The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.; Series 4 – Volume 2", United States. War Dept 1900.
    7. ^ a b c Fox, William F. Regimental losses in the American Civil War (1889)
    8. ^ a b c Official DOD data Archived February 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
    9. ^ Chambers & Anderson 1999, p. 849.
    10. ^ 211,411 Union soldiers were captured, and 30,218 died in prison. The ones who died have been excluded to prevent double-counting of casualties.
    11. ^ 462,634 Confederate soldiers were captured and 25,976 died in prison. The ones who died have been excluded to prevent double-counting of casualties.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference StatsWarCost was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Professor James Downs. "Color blindness in the demographic death toll of the Civil War". University of Connecticut, April 13th 2012. "The rough 19th century estimate was that 60,000 former slaves died from the epidemic, but doctors treating black patients often claimed that they were unable to keep accurate records due to demands on their time and the lack of manpower and resources. The surviving records only include the number of black patients whom doctors encountered; tens of thousands of other slaves who died had no contact with army doctors, leaving no records of their deaths." 60,000 documented plus 'tens of thousands' undocumented gives a minimum of 80,000 slave deaths.
    14. ^ Recounting the dead, Associate Professor J. David Hacker, "estimates, based on Census data, indicate that the [military] death toll was approximately 750,000, and may have been as high as 850,000"
    15. ^ Professor James Downs. "Color blindness in the demographic death toll of the Civil War". Oxford University Press, April 13th 2012. "An 2 April 2012 New York Times article, "New Estimate Raises Civil War Death Toll," reports that a new study ratchets up the death toll from an estimated 650,000 to a staggering 850,000 people. As horrific as this new number is, it fails to reflect the mortality of former slaves during the war. If former slaves were included in this figure, the Civil War death toll would likely be over a million casualties ..."
     
  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 August 1991 – Coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev collapses.

    1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt

    The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (Russian: Августовский путч, tr. Avgustovsky Putch "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. The coup leaders were hard-line members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) who were opposed to Gorbachev's reform program and the new union treaty that he had negotiated which decentralised much of the central government's power to the republics. They were opposed, mainly in Moscow, by a short but effective campaign of civil resistance.[8] Although the coup collapsed in only two days and Gorbachev returned to government, the event destabilised the Soviet Union and is widely considered to have contributed to both the demise of the CPSU and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

    After the capitulation of the State Committee on the State of Emergency (GKChP), popularly referred to as the "Gang of Eight", both the Supreme Court of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and the President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev described their actions as a coup attempt.

    1. ^ a b Ольга Васильева, «Республики во время путча» в сб.статей: «Путч. Хроника тревожных дней». // Издательство «Прогресс», 1991. (in Russian). Accessed 14 June 2009. Archived 17 June 2009.
    2. ^ Solving Transnistria: Any Optimists Left? by Cristian Urse. p. 58. Available at http://se2.isn.ch/serviceengine/Files/RESSpecNet/57339/ichaptersection_singledocument/7EE8018C-AD17-44B6-8BC2-8171256A7790/en/Chapter_4.pdf
    3. ^ a party led by the nationalist politician Vladimir Zhirinovskyhttp://www.lenta.ru/lib/14159799/full.htm. Accessed 13 September 2009. Archived 16 September 2009-.
    4. ^ a b "Би-би-си - Россия - Хроника путча. Часть II". news.bbc.co.uk. 
    5. ^ Р. Г. Апресян. Народное сопротивление августовскому путчу (recuperato il 27 novembre 2010 tramite Internet Archive)
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference SovietCoup_Intl was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gupta was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Mark Kramer, "The Dialectics of Empire: Soviet Leaders and the Challenge of Civil Resistance in East-Central Europe, 1968–91", in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009 pp. 108–09.
     
  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 August 1972Rhodesia is expelled by the IOC for its racist policies.

    Rhodesia

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country with unknown parameter "country" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Rhodesia (/rˈdʒə/), commonly known from 1970 onwards as the Republic of Rhodesia, was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territorial terms to modern Zimbabwe. With its capital in Salisbury (now Harare), Rhodesia was considered a de facto successor state to the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia (which had achieved responsible government in 1923).

    During an effort to delay an immediate transition to black majority rule, Rhodesia's predominantly white government issued its own Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965. The UDI administration initially sought recognition as an autonomous realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, but reconstituted itself as a republic in 1970.

    Following a brutal guerrilla war fought with two African nationalist organisations (Robert Mugabe's ZANU and Joshua Nkomo's ZAPU), Rhodesian premier Ian Smith conceded to bi-racial democracy in 1978. However, a provisional government subsequently headed by Smith and his moderate colleague Abel Muzorewa failed in appeasing international critics or halting the bloodshed. By December 1979, Muzorewa had replaced Smith as Prime Minister and secured an agreement with the militant nationalists, allowing Rhodesia to briefly revert to colonial status pending elections under a universal franchise. It finally achieved internationally recognised independence in April 1980; the nation was concurrently renamed the Republic of Zimbabwe.

    A wholly landlocked area, Rhodesia was bordered by South Africa to the south, Bechuanaland (later Botswana) to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique (a Portuguese province until 1975) to the east. The state was named after Cecil Rhodes, whose British South Africa Company acquired the land in the late 19th century.

     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 August 1305Sir William Wallace is executed for high treason at Smithfield, London.

    William Wallace

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox officeholder with unknown parameter "religion" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Sir William Wallace (Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas [ˈɯʎam ˈuəl̪ˠəs̪]; Norman French: William le Waleys;[2] died 23 August 1305) was a Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence.[3]

    Along with Andrew Moray, Wallace defeated an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297. He was appointed Guardian of Scotland and served until his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk in July 1298. In August 1305, Wallace was captured in Robroyston, near Glasgow, and handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged, drawn, and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians.

    Since his death, Wallace has obtained an iconic status far beyond his homeland. He is the protagonist of Blind Harry's 15th-century epic poem The Wallace and the subject of literary works by Sir Walter Scott and Jane Porter, and of the Academy Award-winning film Braveheart (1995).

    1. ^ Editors, The. "Sir William Wallace | Scottish hero". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2015-11-26. 
    2. ^ Stevenson, Joseph. ''Documents illustrative of Sir William Wallace: his life and times''. Books.google.com. Retrieved 1 September 2013. 
    3. ^ "William Wallace (c. 1270–1305)". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
     

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