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Epigenetics and diabetic foot complications

Discussion in 'Diabetic Foot & Wound Management' started by NewsBot, Jun 28, 2012.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic foot ulcers
    Haloom Rafehi, Assam El-Osta, Tom C. Karagiannisemail
    Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications (published online 27 June 2012)
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    Epigenetics

    Epigenetic mechanisms

    In biology, epigenetics is the study of heritable phenotype changes that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence.[1] The Greek prefix epi- (ἐπι- "over, outside of, around") in epigenetics implies features that are "on top of" or "in addition to" the traditional genetic basis for inheritance.[2] Epigenetics most often involves changes that affect gene activity and expression, but the term can also be used to describe any heritable phenotypic change. Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of normal development. The standard definition of epigenetics requires these alterations to be heritable [3][4] in the progeny of either cells or organisms.

    The term also refers to the changes themselves: functionally relevant changes to the genome that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA. These epigenetic changes may last through cell divisions for the duration of the cell's life, and may also last for multiple generations, even though they do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism;[5] instead, non-genetic factors cause the organism's genes to behave (or "express themselves") differently.[6]

    One example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesis, totipotent stem cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryo, which in turn become fully differentiated cells. In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell – the zygote – continues to divide, the resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an organism, including neurons, muscle cells, epithelium, endothelium of blood vessels, etc., by activating some genes while inhibiting the expression of others.[7]

    Historically, some phenomena not necessarily heritable have also been described as epigenetic. For example, the term "epigenetic" has been used to describe any modification of chromosomal regions, especially histone modifications, whether or not these changes are heritable or associated with a phenotype. The consensus definition now requires a trait to be heritable for it to be considered epigenetic.[4]

    1. ^ Dupont C, Armant DR, Brenner CA (September 2009). "Epigenetics: definition, mechanisms and clinical perspective". Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 27 (5): 351–57. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1237423. PMC 2791696. PMID 19711245. In the original sense of this definition, epigenetics referred to all molecular pathways modulating the expression of a genotype into a particular phenotype. Over the following years, with the rapid growth of genetics, the meaning of the word has gradually narrowed. Epigenetics has been defined and today is generally accepted as 'the study of changes in gene function that are mitotically and/or meiotically heritable and that do not entail a change in DNA sequence.'
    2. ^ Rutherford, Adam (19 July 2015). "Beware the pseudo gene genies". The Guardian.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference nature2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference pmid19339683 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Bird A (May 2007). "Perceptions of epigenetics". Nature. 447 (7143): 396–98. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..396B. doi:10.1038/nature05913. PMID 17522671.
    6. ^ Hunter P (1 May 2008). "What genes remember". Prospect Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
    7. ^ Reik W (May 2007). "Stability and flexibility of epigenetic gene regulation in mammalian development". Nature. 447 (7143): 425–32. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..425R. doi:10.1038/nature05918. PMID 17522676.
     
  4. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    Not exactly a diabetic foot, but:

    Press Release:
    Epigenetics alters genes in rheumatoid arthritis
     
  5. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    Metabolic Memory and Chronic Diabetes Complications: Potential Role for Epigenetic Mechanisms.
    Intine RV, Sarras MP Jr.
    Curr Diab Rep. 2012 Jul 4
     
  6. Rob Kidd

    Rob Kidd Well-Known Member

    Come back Lamarck, all is forgiven! Rob
     
  7. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

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    Bob, I actually find this whole topic very interesting. I had to do some searching to see what you meant by Lamarck. I assume you meant this:

    Inheritance of acquired characteristics

    Redirect to:

     
  8. Rob Kidd

    Rob Kidd Well-Known Member

    When I was a student of evolutionary biology (1985), the white-anting of Lamark was beginning to turn. No one is suggesting the inheritance of acquired characteristics is his sense, typified by the Blacksmith who got big and strong, so that his future kids would be also big and strong. Waddington in the 50's suggested that we lived on an "epigenetic lanscape" where we were simply a mixture of our genetics and out environment (he coined the term epigenetics); years later genetic assimilation was put forward, and like most astounding ideas, was originally laughed out of town (sound familiar?). Later, a UK biologist, Ted Steele, that eventually finished up at Wollongong, reconned he could measure, with multivariate stats (which is why it caught my attention) diploid/haploid transition. THAT IS, the crossing of Weisman's barrier. Genetic assimilation is now accepted, and the last time I talked about it on this arena, I used terms like "though an exact mechanism has yet to be identified". Through talking to brains far greater than mine at last years Human Biology conference, I gather that at the molecular level, this is no longer true, they are identified. I got into this stuff 20 years ago to study squatting facets on the homo talus; it is no less and no more valid there than anywhere else. However, In a recent study of ours into "cold adaptations" in eskimos from Cagamill Island in Alaska, and Pre-contact American Indian from South Dakota, we may well be look at the same thing: within a very few generations (far too small for natural selection, I think), we see a reduction in the surface area touching the ground, and thus able to loose heat through conduction. All my specimens for this study came from the Smith - I cannot speak to highly of them - they even let my wife play in Apollo 11 while I worked! Rob
     
  9. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Epigenetic Cause of Osteoarthritis Identified
    New research in the FASEB Journal suggests that DNA methylation is responsible for switching on and off a gene that produces the MMP13 enzyme that is known to be important in the destruction of cartilage
     
  10. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

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    "Epigentics" appears to be gaining a lot of traction. Form nowhere, its now turning up in my alerts with increasing frequency. This press release on osteoporosis just showed up:

     
  11. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    Multigenerational epigenetic adaptation of the hepatic wound-healing response
    Müjdat Zeybel, Timothy Hardy, Yi K Wong, John C Mathers, Christopher R Fox, Agata Gackowska, Fiona Oakley, Alastair D Burt, Caroline L Wilson, Quentin M Anstee, Matt J Barter, Steven Masson, Ahmed M Elsharkawy, Derek A Mann & Jelena Mann
    Nature Medicine (2012) Published online 02 September 2012
     
  12. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Epigenetics emerges strongly as a clinical tool
     
  13. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    New evidence for epigenetic effects of diet on healthy aging
     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    Press Release:
    More than 3,000 epigenetic switches control daily liver cycles

    Salk findings may help explain connections between dietary schedules and chronic disease
     
  15. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
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    Not exactly relevant to Podiatry or the diabetic foot, but this press release caught my eye this morning:

    Study finds epigenetics, not genetics, underlies homosexuality
     
  16. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Scientists discover how epigenetic information could be inherited
    Research reveals the mechanism of epigenetic reprogramming

     
  17. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Epigenetics in Sports
    Ehlert, Tobias; Simon, Perikles; Moser, Dirk A.
    Sports Medicine. 43(2):93-110, February 2013.
     
  18. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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  19. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Why is epigenetics important in understanding the pathogenesis of inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases?
    Udo Oppermann
    Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013, 15:209 doi:10.1186/ar4186
     
  20. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Epigenetic changes to fat cells following exercise
    03 July 2013 Lund University
     
  21. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    How an 1836 Famine Altered the Genes of Children Born Decades Later
     
  22. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Possible links: Epigenetics, aging, nucleus protein mutations to cancer, rare disorders
     
  23. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Chronic aggressive behavior in boys: Epigenetic sources?
    Genes related to self-control could be 'disabled' by the prenatal environment
     
  24. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Epigenetics: A Key to Controlling Acute and Chronic Pain
     
  25. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Epigenetics enigma resolved

     
  26. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Epigenetic changes could explain type 2 diabetes
     
  27. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
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  28. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
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    Couple of good vids on epigenetics


     
    Last edited by a moderator: Sep 22, 2016
  29. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Epigenetic Changes in Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells Influence the Inflammatory Phenotype and Alter Wound Healing in Type 2 Diabetes
    Katherine A. Gallagher, M.D, Amrita Joshi, Ph.D, William F. Carson, Ph.D, Matthew Schaller, Ph.D, Ronald Allen, Ph.D, Sumanta Mukerjee, Ph.D, Nico Kittan, M.D, Eva L. Feldman, M.D, Ph.D., Peter K. Henke, M.D, Cory Hogaboam, Ph.D, Charles F. Burant, M.D., Ph.D and Steven L. Kunkel, Ph.D
    Diabetes November 3, 2014
     
  30. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Genetic and Epigenetic alterations in Toll like Receptor 2 and wound healing impairment in type 2 diabetes patients
    Kanhaiya Singh, Neeraj K. Agrawal, Sanjeev K. Gupta, Gyanendra Mohan, Sunanda Chaturvedi, Kiran Singh
    Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications; Articles in Press
     
  31. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Epigenomics analysis reveals surprising new clues to insulin resistance
    Findings offer a promising new direction for drug development
     
  32. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    The epigenetic switchboard
    Epigenetic signals help determine which genes are activated at which time in a given cell. A novel analytical method enables systematic characterization of the relevant epigenetic tags, and reveals that the system adapts to the loss of single epigenetic writer and eraser enzymes.
     
  33. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Torpid Diabetic Wound Healing: Evidence on the Role of Epigenetic Forces
    Berlanga-Acosta J, Mendoza-Mari Y, Fernandez-Mayola M, Garcia-Ojalvo A, Valdes-Perez C, et al
    Int J Diabetes Clin Res ijdcr-2-020 (Vol 2, Issue 1) January 29, 2015
     
  34. NewsBot

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    Press Release:
    Epigenetic discovery suggests DNA modifications more diverse than previously thought
    UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
     
  35. NewsBot

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    PUBLIC RELEASE: 28-JAN-2016
    Epigenetic switch for obesity
     
  36. NewsBot

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    Epigenetics and Peripheral Artery Disease
    Jonathan Golledge , Erik Biros, John Bingley, Vikram Iyer, Smriti M. Krishna
    Genetics April 2016, 18:15
     
  37. NewsBot

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    Public Release: 8-Jul-2016
    An epigenetic mechanism is involved in the development of autoinflammatory diseases
    The observed epigenetic changes open up possibilities for the development of novel biomarkers with clinical uses
     
  38. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    PUBLIC RELEASE: 17-JAN-2017
    Epigenetic factors linked to obesity-related disease
    DNA methylation differs with body mass; may help explain why some overweight people develop cholesterol problems, diabetes and heart disease

     
  39. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    How to stop pain from serious burns using epigenetics
    The unpleasant sensation sparked by the nervous system when confronted with a harmful stimulus can be alleviated by blocking a genetic marker that switches off the activity of the neurons involved. Jose Vicente Torres Pérez, a Spanish researcher who works at Imperial College in London, has trialled this innovative pain relief therapy on mice with serious burns. The aim is to use his findings to help burn victims.
     
  40. NewsBot

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    Targeting epigenetic mechanisms in diabetic wound healing.
    den Dekker A et al
    Transl Res. 2019 Feb;204:39-50
     
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