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Leg strength in runners over 50 yrs declines significantly

Discussion in 'Biomechanics, Sports and Foot orthoses' started by NewsBot, Sep 24, 2013.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    This was covered in Runners World:
    Why Older Runners Need Strength Training

    Here is the research:
    Leg Strength Declines with Advancing Age Despite Habitual Endurance Exercise in Active Older Adults
    Marcell, Taylor J. Ph.D.; Hawkins, Steven A. Ph.D.; Wiswell, Robert A. Ph.D.
    Published Ahead-of-Print
    Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: 14 September 2013
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  3. NewsBot

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    Flexibility, muscle strength and running biomechanical adaptations in older runners
    Reginaldo K. Fukuchi
    Clinical Biomechanics; Available online 14 December 2013
     
  4. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Press Release:
    Marathon runners' times develop in a U shape
    Men recorded their best time at 27 years old while women did so at 29
     
  5. If high school coaches allowed their cross country and track athletes to do marathon style training, or if marathons were a high school competitive distance race, then I'm sure you would find many more 18 year old boys easily beating the times of 55-60 year old men. I think the authors of the study are reading too much into their data. Of course, what else is new these days?!
     
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    Which muscles compromise human locomotor performance with age?
    Juha-Pekka Kulmala, Marko T. Korhonen, Sami Kuitunen, Harri Suominen, Ari Heinonen, Aki Mikkola and Janne Avela
    J. R. Soc. Interface 6 November 2014 vol. 11 no. 100 20140858
     
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  7. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    Running Mechanics and Variability with Aging.
    Silvernail, Julia Freedman; Boyer, Katherine; Rohr, Eric; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Hamill, Joseph
    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: February 9, 2015
     
  8. NewsBot

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    Which muscles compromise human locomotor performance with age?
    Kulmala JP, Korhonen MT, Kuitunen S, Suominen H, Heinonen A, Mikkola A, Avela J
    J R Soc Interface. 2014 Nov 6;11(100):20140858
     
  9. NewsBot

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    Press Release:
    McMaster researchers discover key to
    maintaining muscle strength while we age

     
  10. NewsBot

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    Observation of Age-related Decline in the Performance of the Transverse Abdominis Muscle
    Paul Davies, Fergal M. Grace, Mark P. Lewis, Nicholas Sculthorpe
    PM&R; Article in Press
     
  11. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    The Relationships between Age and Running Biomechanics.
    DeVita, Paul; Fellin, Rebecca E.; Seay, Joseph F.; Ip, Edward; Stavro, Nicole; Messier, Stephen P.
    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: August 7, 2015
     
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  13. efuller

    efuller MVP

    I need to read the article they cite, It appears that they were looking at Joint Power (Moment x angular velocity). Winter described the concept of a trade off bettween hip power and ankle power. Those that used more ankle, used less hip, and vice versa. That choice is an unconscious one. One factor that the article did not mention is that foot discomfort could lead to a choice of less ankle power. Ankle power increases as gastroc soleus muscle activation increases. That will put more strain on the foot.

    My 2 cents on podiatry's possible contribution to lessening the decrease in running speed with aging.

    Eric.
     
  14. BEN-HUR

    BEN-HUR Well-Known Member

    I have read all posts along with their associated articles/research papers quite thoroughly & not once seen any reference to plyometric training for the older runner... particularly when most of the above data/views is pointing to the alleged fact that it is primarily the ankle/lower leg muscles which are the first to be deteriorating when one ages.

    The above cited article i.e. Why Runners Get Slower With Age (and How Strength Training May Help)... also state the above deteriorating trend of the lower leg muscles...

    The article then recommends the following...

    Those referenced exercises are found here: Foot and Ankle Conditioning Program... of which are primarily stretches, massage & mild ROM exercise routines. These may well be helpful for an elderly invalid wanting to become more active but not all that much beneficial for an aging (> 50 +) athlete/runner... which was the crux of the article in question... as well as this thread. Whilst plyometrics can potentially be a more riskier form of exercise routine due to the greater dynamic (velocity, eccentric loading) activity involved, it is activity (running) specific & hence more suitable in conditioning aging athletes/runners in not only remaining injury free but retaining their performance potential.

    I would have thought that there would be more specific information pertaining to effectively addressing the above researched findings (i.e. weakened lower leg muscles)... & subsequently performing the science in researching the potential benefits... particularly when masters (> 35 +) competitions are becoming more popular worldwide.

    The following is a video which I feel has some valid plyometric (conditioning) related information (& instruction) for the aging athlete...

     
    Last edited by a moderator: Sep 22, 2016
  15. NewsBot

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    AGE MATTERS: MOLECULAR MECHANISMS CONTRIBUTING TO TENDON SENESCENCE
    R Gehwolf, A Wagner, C Lehner, H Tempfer, AD Bradshaw, J Niestrawska, GA Holzapfel, HC Bauer and A Traweger
    Bone Joint J 2015 vol. 97-B no. SUPP 11 20
     
  16. NewsBot

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    Older Runners Retain Youthful Running Economy Despite Biomechanical Differences.
    Beck, Owen N.; Kipp, Shalaya; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger; Ortega, Justus D.
    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: November 19, 2015
     
  17. BEN-HUR

    BEN-HUR Well-Known Member

    It would be interesting reading the full article (abstract doesn't give much away).

    Hence why (specific) plyometric exercises would potentially be a conducive regular addition to a training program for elder athletes... even such a program (lessor intensity) to elder non-athletes (in helping prevention of falls... which becomes more frequent/consistent >65 years... & potentially debilitating).
     
  18. NewsBot

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    Effects of Normal Aging on Lower Extremity Loading and Coordination during Running in Males and Females
    Kline PW, Williams DSB
    The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy | Volume 10, Number 6 | November 2015 | Page 901
     
  19. NewsBot

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    Press Release:
    Still a Champion Runner at 80: Do Elite Athletes Have an Anti-Aging Secret in Their Muscles?
     
  20. NewsBot

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    Effect of calendar age on physical performance: A comparison of standard clinical measures with instrumented measures in middle-aged to older adults
    M. Stijntjes, C.G.M. Meskers, A.J.M. de Craen, R.C. van Lummel, S.M. Rispens, P.E. Slagboom, A.B. Maier
    Gait and Posture; Article in Press
     
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    PUBLIC RELEASE: 28-DEC-2015
    Researchers see promising results in treating age-related decline in muscle mass and power
     
  22. NewsBot

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    Effects of strengthening and stretching exercise programmes on kinematics and kinetics of running in older adults: a randomised controlled trial
    Reginaldo K. Fukuchi, Darren J. Stefanyshyn, Lisa Stirling & Reed Ferber
    Journal of Sports Sciences
     
  23. NewsBot

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  24. BEN-HUR

    BEN-HUR Well-Known Member

    Interesting topic (albeit, potentially sombre... pending how one looks at the issues &/or accepts the implications thereof i.e. advanced aging & declining performance).

    Whilst this thread is titled:

    "Leg strength in runners over 50 yrs declines significantly"

    Another way of looking at this is:

    "Leg spring in runners over 50 yrs declines significantly"

    Hence my previous posts pertaining to the importance of Plyometric work... to help build & maintain (for as long as possible) that more optimal muscle/tendon unit integrity (i.e. strength & elasticity)... hence the likes of optimal force/power, speed & spring/recoil attributes being maintained for as long as possible. That old saying "if you don't use it, you'll lose it" is more significant within the elder age groups (yet what do these elder age groups habitually do? "Don't use it"... or significantly reduce activity level :confused:).

    That age/performance table is found here: Aging in Sports and Chess (https://fairmodel.econ.yale.edu/aging/index.htm)

    The above is an important issue for sincere consideration i.e. that transition phase (from elite to 'normality')... of which can be quite challenging for many. Challenging? Well the physical challenges are obvious, after all, this is the crux of the issue (all too obvious for the one experiencing it) - but just as important are the associated emotional/psychological challenges that this issue potentially evokes. I've seen it within some runners (trying to come to grips with slowing down... the best is behind you scenario)... & Australia has likely seen it of late with a few of their male ex-elite (ex-Olympic champion) swimmers. Whilst this particular reasoning has not been given... I'm willing to speculate that the surfaced (publicised) behavioural/social problems that has caused such incidents to appear within the media might well be (in part) the result of the above issues (underlying unresolved issues often evoke other issues i.e. lessor tolerance, aggression). Reduced performance (& recovery) due to age & being unable to transition (to the realm of 'normality') could be a psychological problem as well as a physical one - & this may well affect males more than females (i.e. due to the perceived need for males to fulfil certain "manly" requirements within society). I feel it's probably worthy of further investigation [I take off my psychiatrist hat for now].

    Maybe this is one of the reasons why some elite athletes give up partaking in their sport (& sometimes physical activity altogether) when they retire... some revealing dramatic physical changes within a relatively short period of time (i.e. weight gain & subsequent risk of metabolic issues). Then there is the issue with the heart (cardiac muscle) i.e. atrophy from dramatic reduction in exercise level to sedentary life which could raise the risk of arrhythmias (as well as other cardiovascular issues).

    However, there are ways of slowing down the aging process ;)... & maybe even... reversing it (to some extent) :cool:.
     
  25. BEN-HUR

    BEN-HUR Well-Known Member

    Bernard Lagat at age 41 breaks the 10 000 meters World masters Record... now at 27:49.

    Bernard Lagat Debuts at 10,000 Meters and Smashes World Masters Record (http://www.runnersworld.com/elite-r...10000-meters-and-smashes-world-masters-record)

    Post race interview with FloTrack: http://www.flotrack.org/video/97666...ing-masters-10k-world-record-at-payton-jordan
     
  26. NewsBot

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    PUBLIC RELEASE: 5-JUL-2016
    Why do aged muscles heal slowly?
    Found: Promising therapeutic target to combat muscle aging or disease

     
  27. NewsBot

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    Impact of Aging on Endurance and Neuromuscular Physical Performance: The Role of Vascular Senescence
    Goncalo V. Mendonca , Pedro Pezarat-Correia, Jo?o R. Vaz, Lu?s Silva, Kevin S. Heffernan
    Sports Medicine; pp 1-16; 26 July 2016
     
  28. NewsBot

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    Neural and Muscular Contributions to the Age-related Reductions in Rapid Strength.
    Gerstner, Gena R.; Thompson, Brennan J.; Rosenberg, Joseph G.; Sobolewski, Eric J.; Scharville, Michael J.; Ryan, Eric D.
    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: February 4, 2017
     
  29. NewsBot

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    The age-related performance decline in Ironman triathlon starts earlier in swimming than in cycling and running.
    Käch, Ilja; Rüst, Christoph A.; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat
    Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: February 21, 2017
     
  30. NewsBot

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    Changes in Vertical and Joint Stiffness in Runners with Advancing Age.
    Powel, Douglas W. PhD; Williams, D.S. Bliase MPT, PhD
    Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: February 23, 2017
     
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    PUBLIC RELEASE: 28-FEB-2017
    Differences in sex and running ability influence declines in marathon performance, study finds
    GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY
     
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    The Achilles tendon is mechanosensitive in older adults: adaptations following 14 weeks versus 1.5 years of cyclic strain exercise
    Gaspar Epro, Andreas Mierau, Jonas Doerner, Julian A. Luetkens, Lukas Scheef, Guido M. Kukuk, Henning Boecker, Constantinos N. Maganaris, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
    Journal of Experimental Biology 2017 220: 1008-1018; doi: 10.1242/jeb.146407
     
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    The age-related performance decline in marathon cross-country skiing – the Engadin Ski Marathon
    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis & Beat Knechtle
    Journal of Sports Sciences 22 May 2017
     
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    Biomechanical Implications of Training Volume and Intensity in Aging Runners.
    Paquette, Max R.; DeVita, Paul; Williams, D.S. Blaise III
    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: Post Acceptance: October 9, 2017
     
  36. NewsBot

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    Press Release:
    Ageing has opposite effects on male and female tendons
    New research from the University of Liverpool, published in the journal ‘Nature Scientific Reports’, has identified that ageing has distinct and opposite effects on the genes expressed in the tendons of males and females.

    Tendons are bundles or bands of strong fibres that attach muscles to bones. Tendons transfer force from the muscle to the bone to produce the movement of joints.

    Tendinopathy is a set of tendon disease that results in the tendons not functioning normally. Its development increases in frequency with age.

    Gene expression
    In this, the first study of its kind, researchers from the University’s Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, analysed in parallel a number of gene datasets from male and females from two age groups (20-24 and 54-70 years) to identify sex-specific gene expression changes with age.

    Every cell in a human body contains a complete set of chromosomes with every gene needed to make every protein that that organism will ever make. However only a very small fraction of these genes are ever expressed in specific tissues at any one time.

    Each cell is specialised to carry out certain tasks and will only need to express certain genes. Gene expression is the process by which specific genes are activated to produce a required protein.

    Distinct
    The researchers analysed these genes and identified distinct molecular pathways which affect ageing in tendon dependant on gender.

    The results identify that in old males decreased expression of the binding protein CRABP2 leads to rapid reproduction of cells (cellular proliferation), whereas in old females it leads to the loss of a cell’s power of division and growth (cellular senescence).

    The results highlight the importance of gender differences which are frequently neglected in gene expression studies.

    Lead researcher Dr Mandy Peffers, said: “Our research highlights the possible need to treat tendon disease differently in males and females because alternative mechanisms may be involved.

    “Our findings could help in the treatment of more bespoke treatments for this large patient group.”

    Dr Peffers is funded through a Wellcome Trust Clinical Intermediate fellowship. This research was supported by the Medical Research Council (MRC) and Arthritis Research UK as part of the MRC – Arthritis Research UK Centre for Integrated research into Musculoskeletal Ageing (CIMA).

    The full study, entitled ‘Cross platform analysis of transcriptomic data identifies ageing has distinct and opposite effects on tendon in males and females’, can be found here.

    DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-14650-z
     
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    PUBLIC RELEASE: 14-DEC-2017
    Researchers track muscle stem cell dynamics in response to injury and aging
    Distinct differences found in how skeletal muscle stem cells cope with different stimuli


    La Jolla, Calif., December 14, 2017 - A new study led by researchers at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) describes the biology behind why muscle stem cells respond differently to aging or injury. The findings, published in Cell Stem Cell, have important implications for therapeutic strategies to regenerate skeletal muscle in response to the normal wear and tear of aging, or in cases of injury or muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy.

    "Our study is one of the first to look at muscle stem cells in their native tissue with resolution at the level of a single clone," says Alessandra Sacco, Ph.D., professor at SBP. "This allowed us to probe the dynamic heterogeneity of the cells, a measure of their flexibility to respond to exercise, injury, and the normal wear and tear that occurs with aging. Using this approach, we found surprising differences in the degree to which stem cells can maintain this heterogeneity, depending on what they are asked to do."

    Adult muscle stem cells are essential for repairing and regenerating muscle throughout life. These cells are located between muscle fibers and exist as a heterogeneous population that need to "self-renew" to maintain the stem cell population, as well as differentiate into myogenic cells that proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to create new muscle fibers.

    "Muscle stem cells must maintain a spectrum of functional abilities to be prepared for the overall changes that occur from injuries, diseases and aging," says Sacco. "Here, we focused on studying how the pool of muscle stem cells responds to age or after an injury to the muscle.

    "Our goal is to understand how stem cells uniquely cope with or yield to these different pressures. Then, we can use this information to create new approaches designed to specifically prevent muscle stem cell loss and/or dysfunction linked to sarcopenia--the medical term for age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength--or in association with muscle diseases that are characterized by chronic tissue damage, such as dystrophies," adds Sacco.

    Sacco's research team used a technology called in vivo multi lineage tracing to follow the self-renewal capacity and range of progeny produced by individual stem cells. Repetitive injuries cause muscles to undergo multiple rounds of repair, and are used as a model for diseases characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness, such as muscular dystrophies.

    "The results were quite different from what we expected--aged muscle stem cells maintained a diverse assortment of cells in the overall pool, despite being less able to proliferate and multiply sufficiently. The outcome was flipped when we caused an injury and watched how the pool responded to tissue damage," explains Matthew Tierney, Ph.D., a former graduate student of Sacco, now a postdoctoral researcher at The Rockefeller University. "In the case of injury, the stem cell pool becomes less diverse, but maintains its proliferative capacity.

    "Our findings lead to several interesting questions about the potential causes of these observed differences--muscle stem cells are asked to function in a very different local environment with age or during regeneration due to injury, and we suspect this may contribute to some of the distinct behaviors we observed," adds Tierney.

    "This study has shown clear-cut differences in the dynamics of muscle stem cell pools during the aging process compared to a sudden injury," says Sacco. "This means that there probably isn't a 'one size fits all' approach to prevent the decline of muscle stem cells. Therapeutic strategies to maintain muscle mass and strength in seniors will most likely need to differ from those for patients with degenerative diseases."
     
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