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New foot remains from the Gran Dolina-TD6 Early Pleistocene site

Discussion in 'General Issues and Discussion Forum' started by NewsBot, Aug 28, 2012.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.


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    New foot remains from the Gran Dolina-TD6 Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).
    Pablos A, Lorenzo C, Martínez I, Bermúdez de Castro JM, Martinón-Torres M, Carbonell E, Arsuaga JL.
    J Hum Evol. 2012 Aug 23.
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    Homo antecessor

    Homo antecessor is an extinct human species (or subspecies) dating from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago, that was discovered by Eudald Carbonell, Juan Luis Arsuaga and J. M. Bermúdez de Castro.[1] "The unique mix of modern and primitive traits led the researchers to deem the fossils a new species, H. antecessor, in 1997". Regarding its great age the species must be related to Out of Africa I, the first series of hominin expansions into Eurasia, making it one of the earliest-known human species in Europe.[2]

    The genus name Homo is the Latin word for "human" whereas the species name antecessor is a Latin word meaning "explorer", "pioneer" or "early settler", assigned to emphasize the belief that these people belonged to the earliest known wave of migration to the European continent.

    Various archaeologists and anthropologists have debated how H. antecessor relates to other Homo species in Europe, with suggestions that it was an evolutionary link between H. ergaster and H. heidelbergensis. Some anthropologists suggest H. antecessor may be the last common ancestor of modern humans and Neanderthals (via Homo heidelbergensis) because H. antecessor has a combination of primitive traits typical of earlier Homo and unique features seen in neither Neanderthals nor Homo sapiens. Author Richard Klein argues that it was a separate species evolved from H. ergaster.[3]

    Some scientists consider H. antecessor to be the same species as H. heidelbergensis, who inhabited Europe from 600,000 to 250,000 years ago in the Pleistocene.[4] As a complete skull has yet to be unearthed, with only fourteen fragments and lower jaw bones known, these scholars point out that "most of the known H. antecessor specimens represent children"; as "most of the features tying H. antecessor to modern people were found in juveniles, whose bodies and physical features change as they grow up and go through puberty. It’s possible that H. antecessor adults didn't really look much like H. sapiens at all".[2][5]

    The best-preserved fossil is a maxilla that belonged to a ten-year-old individual found in Spain. Based on palaeomagnetic measurements, it is thought to be older than 857–780 ka.[6] In 1994 and 1995, 80 fossils of six individuals who may have belonged to the species were found in Atapuerca, Spain. At the site were numerous examples of cuts where the flesh had been flensed from the bones, which indicates that H. antecessor may have practiced cannibalism.[7]

    Footprints presumed to be from H. antecessor dating to more than 800,000 years ago have been found at Happisburgh on the coast of Norfolk, England.[8][9][10][11]

    1. ^ Bermudez de Castro; Arsuaga; Carbonell; Rosas; Martinez; Mosquera (1997). "A hominid from the Lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: possible ancestor to neandertals and modern humans". Science. 276: 1392–1395. doi:10.1126/science.276.5317.1392. PMID 9162001. 
    2. ^ a b "Homo antecessor: Common Ancestor of Humans and Neanderthals?". Smithsonian. November 26, 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2015. 
    3. ^ Klein, Richard. 2009. "Hominin Disperals in the Old World" in The Human Past, ed. Chris Scarre, 2nd ed., p. 108.
    4. ^ "Homo antecessor". Australian Museum. November 26, 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2015. 
    5. ^ "The Last Human: A Guide to Twenty-two Species of Extinct Humans By Esteban E. Sarmiento, Gary J. Sawyer, Richard Milner, Viktor Deak, Ian Tattersall". Google Books. Retrieved December 10, 2015. 
    6. ^ Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, J.; Yokoyama, Y.; Arsuaga, J.; Bermudez de Castro, J.; Carbonell, E.; Bischoff, J.; Dolo, J. (1999). "Earliest humans in Europe: the age of TD6 Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain". Journal of Human Evolution. 37 (3–4): 343–352 [351]. doi:10.1006/jhev.1999.0326. PMID 10496991. 
    7. ^ Fernández-Jalvo, Y.; Díez, J. C.; Cáceres, I.; Rosell, J. (September 1999). "Human cannibalism in the Early Pleistocene of Europe (Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain)". Journal of Human Evolution. Academic Press. 37 (34): 591–622. doi:10.1006/jhev.1999.0324. PMID 10497001. 
    8. ^ Lawless, Jill (7 February 2014). "Scientists find 800,000-year-old footprints in UK". AP News. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
    9. ^ Ghosh, Pallab (7 February 2014). "Earliest footprints outside Africa discovered in Norfolk". BBC. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
    10. ^ Ashton, N; Lewis, SG; De Groote, I; Duffy, SM; Bates, M; et al. (2014). "Hominin Footprints from Early Pleistocene Deposits at Happisburgh, UK". PLoS ONE. 9 (2): e88329. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088329. PMC 3917592Freely accessible. PMID 24516637. 
    11. ^ Ashton, Nicholas (7 February 2014). "The earliest human footprints outside Africa". British Museum. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    Earlier reference on this:
    Earliest humans in Europe: the age of TD6 Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain
    Falguères, Christophe; J. Bahain; Y. Yokoyama, J. Arsuaga, J. Bermudez de Castro, E. Carbonell, J. Bischoff and J. Dolo
    Journal of Human Evolution 37 (3-4): 343-352 (351) 1999

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