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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    9 January 2015 – A mass poisoning at a funeral in Mozambique involving beer that was contaminated with Burkholderia gladioli leaves 75 dead and over 230 people ill.

    Mozambique funeral beer poisoning

    On 9 January 2015, 75 people died and 230 were made ill after drinking contaminated beer at a funeral in Mozambique. All of the people affected had consumed the local beer, pombe, on 9 January, which had been contaminated with the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli which produced the toxic compound bongkrekic acid.[2]

    Early speculation on the source of the illness by Mozambique officials blamed crocodile bile. A Forbes article opposed this hypothesis and instead pointed to the toxic flowering plant foxglove as the likely source of the poison.[3][4] Only in November 2015 was it determined that the deaths and illnesses were a result of bacterial contamination of the beer.[5]

    1. ^ "Where is Chitima in Tete, Mozambique Located?". GoMapper. n.d. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
    2. ^ a b Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Cook, Kyla; Kasper, Amelia M; Vergara, Alfredo; Salomão, Cristolde; Oliveira, Fernanda; Ismael, Hamida; Saeze, Cristovão; Mosse, Carla; Fernandes, Quinhas; Viegas, Sofia Omar; Baltazar, Cynthia S; Doyle, Timothy J; Yard, Ellen; Steck, Alaina; Serret, Mayda; Falconer, Travis M; Kern, Sara E; Brzezinski, Jennifer L; Turner, James A; Boyd, Brian L; Jani, Ilesh V (2018). "Description of a Mass Poisoning in a Rural District in Mozambique: The First Documented Bongkrekic Acid Poisoning in Africa" (PDF). Clinical Infectious Diseases. 66 (9): 1400–1406. doi:10.1093/cid/cix1005. PMC 5908738. PMID 29155976.
    3. ^ "At least 69 die after drinking contaminated beer at Mozambique funeral". The Guardian. Associated Press. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
    4. ^ Camillo, Emmanuel (12 January 2015). "At Least 52 Dead After Drinking Poisoned Beer In Mozambique". The Huffington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
    5. ^ "Mozambique: Mass Poisoning Caused By Bacterial Contamination". allafrica.com. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
     
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    10 January 1920 – The Treaty of Versailles takes effect, officially ending World War I.

    Treaty of Versailles

    Events leading to World War II
    1. Treaty of Versailles 1919
    2. Polish–Soviet War 1919
    3. Treaty of Trianon 1920
    4. Treaty of Rapallo 1920
    5. Franco-Polish alliance 1921
    6. March on Rome 1922
    7. Corfu incident 1923
    8. Occupation of the Ruhr 1923–1925
    9. Mein Kampf 1925
    10. Second Italo-Senussi War 1923–1932
    11. Dawes Plan 1924
    12. Locarno Treaties 1925
    13. Young Plan 1929
    14. Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1931
    15. Pacification of Manchukuo 1931–1942
    16. January 28 incident 1932
    17. Geneva Conference 1932–1934
    18. Defense of the Great Wall 1933
    19. Battle of Rehe 1933
    20. Nazis' rise to power in Germany 1933
    21. Tanggu Truce 1933
    22. Italo-Soviet Pact 1933
    23. Inner Mongolian Campaign 1933–1936
    24. German–Polish declaration of non-aggression 1934
    25. Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance 1935
    26. Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance 1935
    27. He–Umezu Agreement 1935
    28. Anglo-German Naval Agreement 1935
    29. December 9th Movement
    30. Second Italo-Ethiopian War 1935–1936
    31. Remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936
    32. Spanish Civil War 1936–1939
    33. Italo-German "Axis" protocol 1936
    34. Anti-Comintern Pact 1936
    35. Suiyuan campaign 1936
    36. Xi'an Incident 1936
    37. Second Sino-Japanese War 1937–1945
    38. USS Panay incident 1937
    39. Anschluss Mar. 1938
    40. May Crisis May 1938
    41. Battle of Lake Khasan July–Aug. 1938
    42. Bled Agreement Aug. 1938
    43. Undeclared German–Czechoslovak War Sep. 1938
    44. Munich Agreement Sep. 1938
    45. First Vienna Award Nov. 1938
    46. German occupation of Czechoslovakia Mar. 1939
    47. Hungarian invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine Mar. 1939
    48. German ultimatum to Lithuania Mar. 1939
    49. Slovak–Hungarian War Mar. 1939
    50. Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War Mar.–Apr. 1939
    51. Danzig Crisis Mar.–Aug. 1939
    52. British guarantee to Poland Mar. 1939
    53. Italian invasion of Albania Apr. 1939
    54. Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations Apr.–Aug. 1939
    55. Pact of Steel May 1939
    56. Battles of Khalkhin Gol May–Sep. 1939
    57. Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Aug. 1939
    58. Invasion of Poland Sep. 1939

    The Treaty of Versailles (French: Traité de Versailles; German: Versailler Vertrag, pronounced [vɛʁˈzaɪ̯ɐ fɛɐ̯ˈtʁaːk] (listen)) was the most important of the peace treaties of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in the Palace of Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which led to the war. The other Central Powers on the German side signed separate treaties.[i] Although the armistice of 11 November 1918 ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919.

    Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial was: "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies." The other members of the Central Powers signed treaties containing similar articles.

    This article, Article 231, became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty required Germany to disarm, make ample territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion gold marks (then $31.4 billion or £6.6 billion, roughly equivalent to US$442 billion or UK£284 billion in 2022).

    Prominent economists such as John Maynard Keynes declared the treaty too harsh—a "Carthaginian peace"—and said the reparations were excessive and counter-productive. On the other hand, prominent Allied figures such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently. This is still the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists.

    The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one satisfied. In particular, Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened. The problems that arose from the treaty would lead to the Locarno Treaties, which improved relations between Germany and the other European powers, and the re-negotiation of the reparation system resulting in the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, and the indefinite postponement of reparations at the Lausanne Conference of 1932. The treaty has sometimes been cited as a cause of World War II: although its actual impact was not as severe as feared, its terms led to great resentment in Germany which powered the rise of the Nazi Party.

    Although it is often referred to as the "Versailles Conference", only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace. Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the "Big Four" meetings taking place generally at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the Quai d'Orsay.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=n.> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=n.}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Slavicek 2010, p. 114.
    2. ^ Slavicek 2010, p. 107.
    3. ^ Boyer et al. 2009, p. 153.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-roman> tags or {{efn-lr}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-roman}} template or {{notelist-lr}} template (see the help page).

     
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    11 January 1942World War II: Japanese forces capture Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the Federated Malay States.

    Battle of Kuala Lumpur

    The Battle of Kuala Lumpur was a battle between Japanese invasion forces and the British forces in Kuala Lumpur, in the then capital of the Federated Malay States, a British protectorate.

    1. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011.
     
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    12 January 2006A stampede during the Stoning of the Devil ritual on the last day at the Hajj in Mina, Saudi Arabia, kills at least 362 Muslim pilgrims.

    Stoning of the Devil

    A stoning of the Devil from 1942

    The Stoning of the Devil (Arabic: رمي الجمرات ramy al-jamarāt, lit. "throwing of the jamarāt [place of pebbles]")[1][2][3] is part of the annual Islamic Hajj pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. During the ritual, Muslim pilgrims throw pebbles at three walls (formerly pillars), called jamarāt, in the city of Mina just east of Mecca. It is one of a series of ritual acts that must be performed in the Hajj. It is a symbolic reenactment of Ibrahim's (or Abraham's) hajj, where he stoned three pillars representing the temptation to disobey God.

    On Eid al-Adha (the 10th day of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah), pilgrims must strike the Big Jamarah or Al-Jamrah Al-Aqaba with seven pebbles. After the stoning is completed on the day of Eid, every pilgrim must cut or shave their hair.[4] On each of the following two days, they must hit all three walls with seven pebbles each, going in order from east to west. Thus at least 49 pebbles are needed for the ritual, more if some throws miss. Some pilgrims stay at Mina for an additional day, in which case they must again stone each wall seven times. The pebbles used in the stoning are traditionally gathered at Muzdalifah, a plain southeast of Mina, on the night before the first throwing, but can also be collected at Mina.

    1. ^ Burton, Richard Francis (1857). Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El Medinah and Meccah. Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts. p. 226. Retrieved 2016-10-23. The word jamrah is applied to the place of stoning, as well as to the stones.
    2. ^ Abū Dāʼūd (1984). Sunan Abu Dawud: Chapters 519-1337. Sh. M. Ashraf. Archived from the original on 2017-04-09. Retrieved 2016-10-23. 1204. Jamrah originally means a pebble. It is applied to the heap of stones or a pillar.
    3. ^ Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1995) [1885]. Dictionary of Islam. p. 225. ISBN 978-81-206-0672-2. Archived from the original on 2016-05-08. Retrieved 2016-10-23. Literally "gravel, or small pebbles." The three pillars [...] placed against a rough wall of stones [...]
    4. ^ "Day 3: 10th of Dhul Hijjah | Hajj & Umrah Planner". hajjumrahplanner.com. Archived from the original on 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
     
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    13 January 2018 – A false emergency alert warning of an impending missile strike in Hawaii causes widespread panic in the state.

    2018 Hawaii false missile alert

    On the morning of Saturday, January 13, 2018, a ballistic missile alert was accidentally issued via the Emergency Alert System and Wireless Emergency Alert System over television, radio, and cellphones in the U.S. state of Hawaii. The alert stated that there was an incoming ballistic missile threat to Hawaii, advised residents to seek shelter, and concluded: "This is not a drill". The message was sent at 8:07 a.m. local time. Civil defense outdoor warning sirens were not authorized by the state.

    Thirty-eight minutes and 13 seconds later, state officials blamed a miscommunication during a drill at the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency for the first message. Governor David Ige publicly apologized for the erroneous alert. The Federal Communications Commission and the Hawaii House of Representatives launched investigations into the incident, leading to the resignation of the state's emergency management administrator.

     
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    14 January 1967Counterculture of the 1960s: The Human Be-In takes place in San Francisco, California's Golden Gate Park, launching the Summer of Love

    Human Be-In

    The Human Be-In was an event held in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park Polo Fields on January 14, 1967.[1][2][3] It was a prelude to San Francisco's Summer of Love, which made the Haight-Ashbury district a symbol of American counterculture and introduced the word "psychedelic" to suburbia.

    1. ^ "American Experience Summer of Love". PBS. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2017-08-31.[dead link]
    2. ^ Goldberg, Danny (13 January 2017). "All the Human Be-In Was Saying 50 Years Ago, Was Give Peace a Chance". The Nation. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
    3. ^ Palmer, Steven. "The Human Be-In Teach-In". Oral History Masters of Arts. Columbia University. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
     
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    15 January 2001Wikipedia, a free wiki content encyclopedia, goes online.

    Wikipedia

    Wikipedia (/ˌwɪkɪˈpdiə/ (listen) wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or /ˌwɪki-/ (listen) wik-ee-) is a multilingual free online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through open collaboration and a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. Wikipedia is the largest and most-read reference work in history.[3] It is consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2022, Wikipedia was ranked the 10th most popular site.[3][4] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through donations.[5]

    On January 15, 2001, Jimmy Wales[6] and Larry Sanger launched Wikipedia; Sanger coined its name as a portmanteau of "wiki" and "encyclopedia."[7][8] Wales was influenced by the "spontaneous order" ideas associated with Friedrich Hayek and the Austrian School of economics, after being exposed to these ideas by Austrian economist and Mises Institute Senior Fellow Mark Thornton.[9] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 58 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second) as of November 2020.[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world."[6]

    Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[12][13] Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s but has improved over time; it has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][12][14] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. Nevertheless, it has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films, and academic studies. In April 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[15][16]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference autogenerated1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Chapman, Roger (September 6, 2011). "Top 40 Website Programming Languages". rogchap.com. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
    3. ^ a b c "Wikipedia is 20, and its reputation has never been higher". The Economist. January 9, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Alexa siteinfo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ McGregor, Jena (March 17, 2020). "Wikimedia's approach to coronavirus: Staffers can work 20 hours a week, get paid for full time". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
    6. ^ a b Anderson, Chris (May 8, 2006). "Jimmy Wales – The 2006 Time 100". Time. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference MiliardWho was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference J Sidener was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "Wikipedia's Model Follows Hayek". The Wall Street Journal. April 15, 2009.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference small screen was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ "Wikistats – Statistics For Wikimedia Projects". stats.wikimedia.org. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
    12. ^ a b "Happy Birthday, Wikipedia". The Economist. January 9, 2021.
    13. ^ Harrison, Stephen (June 9, 2020). "How Wikipedia Became a Battleground for Racial Justice". Slate. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
    14. ^ Cooke, Richard (February 17, 2020). "Wikipedia Is the Last Best Place on the Internet". Wired. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
    15. ^ Cohen, Noam (April 7, 2018). "Conspiracy videos? Fake news? Enter Wikipedia, the 'good cop' of the Internet". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018.
    16. ^ "Facebook fights fake news with author info, rolls out publisher context". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 15, 2021.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    16 January 1979 – The last Iranian Shah flees Iran with his family for good and relocates to Egypt.

    Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

    Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا پهلوی, pronounced [mohæmˈmæd reˈzɒː pæhlæˈviː]; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980),[1] also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (محمدرضا شاه), was the last Shah (King/Sultan) of the Imperial State of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow in the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Due to his status as the last Shah of Iran, he is often referred to simply as the Shah.

    Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah ("King of Kings")[2] on 26 October 1967 and held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr ("Light of the Aryans") and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilization" (Persian: تمدن بزرگ, romanized: tamadon-e bozorg) in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernization, as well as economic and social reforms.[3][4]

    Mohammad Reza came to power during World War II after an Anglo-Soviet invasion forced the abdication of his father, Reza Shah Pahlavi. During Mohammad Reza's reign, the British owned oil industry was briefly nationalized by Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh until a Army coup d'état supported by the UK and the US deposed Mosaddegh, reinstalled the Shah, and brought back foreign oil firms under the Consortium Agreement of 1954.[5] The Shah went on to become a dominant figure in OPEC, promoting a surge in oil prices crippling Western economies.

    Mohammad Reza introduced the White Revolution, a series of economic, social, and political reforms aimed at transforming Iran into a global power and modernizing the nation by nationalizing key industries and land redistribution. The regime implemented many Iranian nationalist policies leading to the establishment of Cyrus the Great, Cyrus Cylinder, and Tomb of Cyrus the Great as popular symbols of Iran.

    The Shah initiated major investments in infrastructure, subsidies and land grants for peasant populations, profit sharing for industrial workers, construction of nuclear facilities, the nationalization of Iran’s natural resources, and literacy programs which were considered some of the most effective in the world. The Shah also instituted economic policy tariffs and preferential loans to Iranian businesses which sought to create an independent economy for the nation. Manufacturing of cars, appliances, and other goods in Iran increased substantially leading to the creation of a new industrialist class that was considered insulated from threats of foreign competition. By the 1970s, the Shah was seen as mastered statesman and used his growing power to pass the 1973 Sale and Purchase Agreement.

    These reforms culminated in decades of sustained economic growth that would make Iran one of the fastest-growing economies of both developed and undeveloped nations. During his 38-year rule, Iran spent billions on industry, education, health, and armed forces and enjoyed economic growth rates exceeding the United States, Britain, and France. National income rose 423 times over. The nation saw an unprecedented rise in per capita income rising to the highest level at any point in Iran's history and high levels of urbanization. By 1977, Iran's armed services spending, which the Shah saw as a means to end foreign intervention in Iran, had made the nation the world's fifth strongest military.[6]

    By 1978, political unrest metamorphosed into a popular revolution leading to the monarchy's overthrow.[7] The Jaleh Square massacre, where his military killed and wounded dozens of protestors[8] and the Cinema Rex fire, an arson attack in Abadan, largely but erroneously blamed on SAVAK, leading to protests across Iran, made his position in Iran untenable. The true perpetrators of the Cinema Rex fire, and whether they were pro- or anti-Shah remain unclear. A meeting of western leaders was perceived by the Shah as a withdrawal of their support. He left Iran for exile[9] on 17 January 1979. While the Shah told his contemporaries in the West that he would rather leave than fire on his people,[10] the number of protesters killed by his military is disputed, with the total number of people killed during the revolution ranging from 540 to 2,000 (historian figures) to 60,000 (figures of the Islamic Republic of Iran).[11] Soon thereafter, the Iranian monarchy was formally abolished, and Iran was declared an Islamic republic led by Ruhollah Khomeini. The Shah died in exile in Egypt, where he had been granted asylum by President Anwar Sadat.

    1. ^ "Historic Personalities of Iran: Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi". www.iranchamber.com. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
    2. ^ D. N. MacKenzie. A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. Routledge Curzon, 2005.
    3. ^ Reza Gholami (2016). Secularism and Identity: Non-Islamiosity in the Iranian Diaspora. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-317-05827-4.
    4. ^ Leila Alikarami (2019). Women and Equality in Iran: Law, Society and Activism. Bloomsbury. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-78831-887-7.
    5. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (2003). All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 195 f. ISBN 0-471-26517-9.
    6. ^ Cooper, Andrew. The Fall of Heaven. p. 21,22.
    7. ^ Razipour, Suzanne Maloney and Keian (24 January 2019). "The Iranian revolution—A timeline of events". Brookings. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
    8. ^ Staff, IFP Editorial (7 September 2016). "Iran's Black Friday: Massacre of Thousands in 1978". Iran Front Page. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
    9. ^ Kabalan, Marwan J. (2020). "Iran-Iraq-Syria". In Mansour, Imad; Thompson, William R. (eds.). Shocks and Rivalries in the Middle East and North Africa. Georgetown University Press. p. 113. After more than a year of civil strife and street protests, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi left Iran for exile in January 1979.
    10. ^ Cooper, Andrew. The Fall of Heaven. p. 10,36.
    11. ^ "Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF).
     
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    17 January 1873 – A group of Modoc warriors defeats the United States Army in the First Battle of the Stronghold, part of the Modoc War.

    Modoc War

    The Modoc War, or the Modoc Campaign (also known as the Lava Beds War), was an armed conflict between the Native American Modoc people and the United States Army in northeastern California and southeastern Oregon from 1872 to 1873.[3] Eadweard Muybridge photographed the early part of the US Army's campaign.

    Kintpuash, also known as Captain Jack, led 52 warriors in a band of more than 150 Modoc people who left the Klamath Reservation. Occupying defensive positions throughout the lava beds south of Tule Lake (in present-day Lava Beds National Monument), those few warriors resisted for months the more numerous United States Army forces sent against them, which were reinforced with artillery. In April 1873 at a peace commission meeting, Captain Jack and others killed General Edward Canby and Rev. Eleazer Thomas, and wounded two others, mistakenly believing this would encourage the Americans to leave. The Modoc fled back to the lava beds. After U.S. forces were reinforced, some Modoc warriors surrendered and Captain Jack and the last of his band were captured. Jack and five warriors were tried for the murders of the two peace commissioners. Jack and three warriors were executed and two others sentenced to life in prison.

    The remaining 153 Modoc of the band were sent to Indian Territory (pre-statehood Oklahoma), where they were held as prisoners of war until 1909, settled on reservation land with the Shawnee. Some at that point were allowed to return to the Klamath Reservation in Oregon. Most Modoc (and their descendants) stayed in what became the state of Oklahoma. They achieved separate federal recognition and were granted some land in Oklahoma. There are two federally recognized Modoc tribes: in Oregon and Oklahoma.

    1. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-08-08. Retrieved 2010-07-12.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    2. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-08-11. Retrieved 2016-06-22.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    3. ^ Beck, Warren A. and Ynez D. Hasse. The Modoc War, 1872 to 1873. Archived 2006-11-08 at the Wayback Machine California State Military Museum. (10 Feb 2008)
     
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    18 January 1919World War I: The Paris Peace Conference opens in Versailles, France.

    Paris Peace Conference (1919–1920)

    Johannes Bell of Germany is portrayed as signing the peace treaties on 28 June 1919 in The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, by Sir William Orpen.

    The Paris Peace Conference was the formal meeting in 1919 and 1920 of the victorious Allies after the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers. Dominated by the leaders of Britain, France, the United States and Italy, it resulted in five treaties that rearranged the maps of Europe and parts of Asia, Africa and the Pacific Islands, and also imposed financial penalties. Germany and the other losing nations had no voice in the Conference's deliberations; this gave rise to political resentments that lasted for decades.

    The conference involved diplomats from 32 countries and nationalities. Its major decisions were the creation of the League of Nations and the five peace treaties with the defeated states; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates", chiefly to Britain and France; the imposition of reparations upon Germany; and the drawing of new national boundaries, sometimes involving plebiscites, to reflect ethnic boundaries more closely.

    Wilson's liberal internationalist foreign policy goals, stated in the Fourteen Points, became the basis for the terms of the German surrender during the conference, as it had earlier been the basis of the German governments negotiations in the Armistice of 11 November 1918.

    The main result was the Treaty of Versailles with Germany; Article 231 of the treaty placed the whole guilt for the war on "the aggression of Germany and her allies". That provision proved very humiliating for Germany, and set the stage for the expensive reparations that Germany was intended to pay (it paid only a small portion before its last payment in 1931). The five great powers (France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the United States) controlled the Conference. The "Big Four" were French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, US President Woodrow Wilson, and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando. They met informally 145 times and made all major decisions before they were ratified.[1]

    The conference began on 18 January 1919. With respect to its end, Professor Michael Neiberg noted, "Although the senior statesmen stopped working personally on the conference in June 1919, the formal peace process did not really end until July 1923, when the Treaty of Lausanne was signed."[2]

    It is often referred to as the "Versailles Conference", but only the signing of the first treaty took place there, in the historic palace; the negotiations occurred at the Quai d'Orsay, in Paris.

    1. ^ Rene Albrecht-Carrie, Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna (1958) p. 363
    2. ^ Neiberg, Michael S. (2017). The Treaty of Versailles: A Concise History. Oxford University Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-19-065918-9.
     
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    19 January 1839 – The British East India Company captures Aden.

    East India Company

    The East India Company (EIC)[a] was an English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600.[4] It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies (the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), and later with East Asia. The company seized control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong, and kept trading posts and colonies in the Persian Gulf Residencies.[5] At its peak, the company was the largest corporation in the world, competing with the Dutch East India Company, and had its own private army of around 260,000 soldiers, twice the size of the army of Britain. [6][7]

    Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East-Indies",[8][9] the company rose to account for half of the world's trade during the mid-1700s and early 1800s,[10] particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, sugar, salt, spices, saltpetre, tea, and opium. The company also ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India.[10][11]

    The company eventually came to rule large areas of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey and lasted until 1858 when, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown assuming direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj.

    Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances. The company was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act enacted one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by then rendered it vestigial, powerless, and obsolete. The official government machinery of the British Raj had assumed its governmental functions and absorbed its armies.

    1. ^ "East India Company | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica".
    2. ^ Carey, W. H. (1882). 1882 – The Good Old Days of Honourable John Company. Simla: Argus Press. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
    3. ^ "Company Bahadur". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
    4. ^ The Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock.
    5. ^ Henige, David P. (1970). Colonial governors from the fifteenth century to the present : a comprehensive list. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-05440-3. OCLC 299459478. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
    6. ^ https://press.princeton.edu/books/hardcover/9780691159065/between-monopoly-and-free-trade |Between Monopoly and Free Trade: The English East India Company, 1600–1757 Emily Erikson
    7. ^ Roos, Dave (23 October 2020). "How the East India Company Became the World's Most Powerful Monopoly". History. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
    8. ^ Scott, William. "East India Company, 1817–1827". archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk. Senate House Library Archives, University of London. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
    9. ^ Parliament of England (31 December 1600). "Charter granted by Queen Elizabeth to the East India Company". en.wikisource.org. Wikimedia. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019. Governor and Company of Merchants of London, Trading into the East-Indies
    10. ^ a b Farrington, Anthony (2002). Trading Places: The East India Company and Asia 1600–1834. British Library. ISBN 9780712347563. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    11. ^ "Books associated with Trading Places – the East India Company and Asia 1600–1834, an Exhibition". Archived from the original on 30 March 2014.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    21 January 1981 – Production of the iconic DeLorean sports car begins in Dunmurry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

    DMC DeLorean

    The DMC DeLorean is a rear-engine two-passenger sports car manufactured and marketed by John DeLorean's DeLorean Motor Company (DMC) for the American market from 1981 until 1983—ultimately the only car brought to market by the fledgling company. The DeLorean is sometimes referred to by its internal DMC pre-production designation, DMC-12.[10][11][12] However, the DMC-12 name was never used in sales or marketing material for the production model.[13]

    Designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro and noted for its gull-wing doors and brushed stainless-steel outer body panels, the sports car was also noted for a lack of power and performance incongruous with its looks and price. Though its production was short-lived, it became widely known when it was featured as the time machine in the Back to the Future films.

    With the first production car completed on January 21, 1981, the design incorporated numerous minor revisions to the hood, wheels and interior before production ended in late December 1982, shortly after DMC filed for bankruptcy and after total production reached about 9,000 units.

    Despite the car having a reputation for poor build quality and an unsatisfactory driving experience, the DeLorean continues to have a strong following driven in part by the popularity of Back to the Future. An estimated 6,500 DeLoreans are still on the road.[14]

    1. ^ Lamm 2003, p. 112.
    2. ^ Espey 2014, p. 115–117.
    3. ^ Lamm 2003, pp. 78–82.
    4. ^ Prisco, Jacopo (August 23, 2019). "Giorgetto Giugiaro, the 20th century's most influential car designer". CNN Style. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
    5. ^ a b Clarke 1995, p. 94.
    6. ^ Clarke 1995, p. 46.
    7. ^ a b c d Espey 2014, p. 15.
    8. ^ Gunnell, John A., ed. (1982). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause. ISBN 0-87341-027-0.
    9. ^ a b c d Espey 2014, p. 16.
    10. ^ Wills 2015, p. 4.
    11. ^ "Seventeenth Board Meeting of De Lorean Motor Cars Limited". DeLorean Museum. October 30, 1979. p. 2. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
    12. ^ Lander, D. H. (April 22, 1981). "Managing Director's Report No.35". DeLorean Museum. p. 2. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lamm9495 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Phelan, Mark. "DeLoreans still ply the roads – and memories". USA Today. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
     
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    21 January 1981 – Production of the iconic DeLorean sports car begins in Dunmurry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

    DMC DeLorean

    The DMC DeLorean is a rear-engine two-passenger sports car manufactured and marketed by John DeLorean's DeLorean Motor Company (DMC) for the American market from 1981 until 1983—ultimately the only car brought to market by the fledgling company. The DeLorean is sometimes referred to by its internal DMC pre-production designation, DMC-12.[10][11][12] However, the DMC-12 name was never used in sales or marketing material for the production model.[13]

    Designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro and noted for its gull-wing doors and brushed stainless-steel outer body panels, the sports car was also noted for a lack of power and performance incongruous with its looks and price. Though its production was short-lived, it became widely known when it was featured as the time machine in the Back to the Future films.

    With the first production car completed on January 21, 1981, the design incorporated numerous minor revisions to the hood, wheels and interior before production ended in late December 1982, shortly after DMC filed for bankruptcy and after total production reached about 9,000 units.

    Despite the car having a reputation for poor build quality and an unsatisfactory driving experience, the DeLorean continues to have a strong following driven in part by the popularity of Back to the Future. An estimated 6,500 DeLoreans are still on the road.[14]

    1. ^ Lamm 2003, p. 112.
    2. ^ Espey 2014, p. 115–117.
    3. ^ Lamm 2003, pp. 78–82.
    4. ^ Prisco, Jacopo (August 23, 2019). "Giorgetto Giugiaro, the 20th century's most influential car designer". CNN Style. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
    5. ^ a b Clarke 1995, p. 94.
    6. ^ Clarke 1995, p. 46.
    7. ^ a b c d Espey 2014, p. 15.
    8. ^ Gunnell, John A., ed. (1982). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause. ISBN 0-87341-027-0.
    9. ^ a b c d Espey 2014, p. 16.
    10. ^ Wills 2015, p. 4.
    11. ^ "Seventeenth Board Meeting of De Lorean Motor Cars Limited". DeLorean Museum. October 30, 1979. p. 2. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
    12. ^ Lander, D. H. (April 22, 1981). "Managing Director's Report No.35". DeLorean Museum. p. 2. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lamm9495 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Phelan, Mark. "DeLoreans still ply the roads – and memories". USA Today. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
     
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    22 January 1915 – Over 600 people are killed in Guadalajara, Mexico, when a train plunges off the tracks into a deep canyon.

    Guadalajara train disaster

    The Guadalajara train disaster occurred around January 22, 1915, in Mexico and killed over 600 people.

    The Mexican Revolution was in full swing by 1915. After the assassination of Francisco Madero two years earlier, the presidency of the country was assumed by Victoriano Huerta, but revolutionary forces led by Venustiano Carranza and Pancho Villa overthrew him and Carranza became president in 1914. Villa however wanted to continue the revolution and an armed struggle ensued. On January 18, 1915 Carranza's troops captured Guadalajara in southwestern Mexico. He immediately ordered that the families of his troops be transported by train from Colima on the Pacific coast to his newly captured stronghold.

    Around January 22, 1915, a special train of twenty cars left Colima. It was packed, with people even clinging to the roofs and undercarriages. Somewhere between Colima and Guadalajara the engineer lost control on a long steep descent. As the train gathered speed many people were thrown off as the train negotiated curves. Eventually the entire train plunged off the tracks and into a deep canyon, with fewer than 300 of the 900 on board surviving the disaster. Some of Carranza's troops, Yaqui Indians committed suicide when hearing of the death of their families. Others swore vengeance on the train crew, but they had also been killed in the disaster.

    The tragedy remains the deadliest railway accident in North American history.

     
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    23 January 1986 – The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducts its first members: Little Richard, Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, Fats Domino, The Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis and Elvis Presley.

    Rock and Roll Hall of Fame

    The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (RRHOF), sometimes simply referred to as the Rock Hall, is a museum and hall of fame located in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States, on the shore of Lake Erie. The museum documents the history of rock music and the artists, producers, engineers, and other notable figures who have influenced its development.

    The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation was established on April 20, 1983, by Ahmet Ertegun, founder and chairman of Atlantic Records. After a long search for the right city, Cleveland was chosen in 1986 as the Hall of Fame's permanent home. Architect I. M. Pei designed the new museum, and it was dedicated on September 1, 1995.

    1. ^ "2015–16 Annual Report". Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. 2016. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
     
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    24 January 1908 – The first Boy Scout troop is organized in England by Robert Baden-Powell.

    Scouting

    Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide youth movement employing the Scout method, a program of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking, and sports. Another widely recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as merit badges and other patches.

    In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell, a Lieutenant General in the British Army, held a Scouting encampment on Brownsea Island in England. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys (London, 1908), partly based on his earlier military books. The Scout Movement of both Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts was well established in the first decade of the twentieth century. Later, programs for younger children, such as Wolf Cubs (1916), now Cubs, and for older adolescents, such as Rovers (1918), were adopted by some Scout organizations. In 1910, Baden-Powell formed the Girl Guides, for girls in the United Kingdom which spread internationally as Girl Guides and includes age programs of (Brownie Guide, Girl Guide and Girl Scout, Ranger Guide).

    In 2007, Scouting and Guiding together had over 38 million members in 216 countries. International umbrella organizations include:

     
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    25 January 1915Alexander Graham Bell inaugurates U.S. transcontinental telephone service, speaking from New York to Thomas Watson in San Francisco.

    Alexander Graham Bell

    Alexander Graham Bell (/ˈɡr.əm/, born Alexander Bell; March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922)[4] was a Scottish-born[N 1] inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone. He also co-founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in 1885.[7]

    Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf; profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.[8] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone, on March 7, 1876.[N 2] Bell considered his invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.[9][N 3]

    Many other inventions marked Bell's later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoils, and aeronautics. Although Bell was not one of the 33 founders[11] of the National Geographic Society, he had a strong influence on the magazine while serving as the second president from January 7, 1898, until 1903.[12]

    Beyond his work in engineering, Bell had a deep interest in the emerging science of heredity.[13]

    1. ^ Boileau, John (2004). Fastest in the World: The Saga of Canada's Revolutionary Hydrofoils. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-88780-621-6.
    2. ^ [Is the following a quote from the source referenced?:] While Bell worked in many scientific, technical, professional and social capacities throughout his life he would remain fondest of his earliest vocation. To the end of his days, when discussing himself, Bell would always add with pride "I am a teacher of the deaf".[1]
    3. ^ "Particle Physics Resurrects Alexander Graham Bell's Voice". IEEE Spectrum. April 30, 2018. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
    4. ^ "The Bell Family". Bell Homestead National Historic Site. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
    5. ^ Gray 2006, p. 228.
    6. ^ Reville, F. Douglas (1920). History of the County of Brant: Illustrated With Fifty Half-Tones Taken From Miniatures And Photographs (PDF). Brantford, Ontario: Brantford Historical Society & Hurley Printing. p. 319. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 19, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
    7. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 291.
    8. ^ Bruce, Robert V. (1990). Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. p. 419. ISBN 978-0-8014-9691-2.
    9. ^ MacLeod, Elizabeth (1999). Alexander Graham Bell: An Inventive Life. Toronto, Ontario: Kids Can Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-55074-456-9.
    10. ^ Bell, Mabel (October 1922). "Dr. Bell's Appreciation of the Telephone Service". Bell Telephone Quarterly. 1 (3): 65. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
    11. ^ "National Geographic founders". National Geographic Society. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
    12. ^ Howley, Andrew (May 26, 2011). "NGS Celebrates 23rd Founders Day". NGS. National Geographic Society. Retrieved January 18, 2016. Though he wasn't one of the original 33 founders, Bell had a major influence on the Society.
    13. ^ Stansfield, W. D. (January 1, 2005). "The Bell Family Legacies". Journal of Heredity. 96 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1093/jhered/esi007. ISSN 0022-1503. PMID 15618310.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=N> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=N}} template (see the help page).

     
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    26 January 1952Black Saturday in Egypt: rioters burn Cairo's central business district, targeting British and upper-class Egyptian businesses.

    Cairo fire

    The Cairo fire (Arabic: حريق القاهرة), also known as Black Saturday,[3][4] was a series of riots that took place on 26 January 1952, marked by the burning and looting of some 750 buildings[5]—retail shops, cafes, cinemas, hotels, restaurants, theatres, nightclubs, and the city's Opera House—in downtown Cairo. The direct trigger of the riots was the attack on an Egyptian government building in the city of Ismaïlia by British Army troops the day prior, which killed 50 Egyptian auxiliary policemen.[4] The spontaneous anti-British protests that followed these deaths were quickly seized upon by organized elements in the crowd, who burned and ransacked large sectors of Cairo amidst the unexplained absence of security forces.[3] The fire is thought by some to have signalled the end of the Kingdom of Egypt.[5][6] The perpetrators of the Cairo Fire remain unknown to this day, and the truth about this important event in modern Egyptian history has yet to be established.[7]

    The disorder that befell Cairo during the 1952 fire has been compared to the chaos that followed the anti-government protests of 25 January 2011, which saw demonstrations take place amidst massive arson and looting, an inexplicable withdrawal of the police, and organized prison-breaking.[8]

    1. ^ a b خسائر الحريق [The Fire Damage]. Al-Ahram (in Arabic). 12 May 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-05-12. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
    2. ^ King 1989, p. 208
    3. ^ a b King 1989, p. 207
    4. ^ a b Goldschmidt & Johnston 2004, p. 83
    5. ^ a b The Rebellion Within, An Al Qaeda mastermind questions terrorism. by Lawrence Wright. newyorker.com, June 2, 2008
    6. ^ Egypt on the Brink by Tarek Osman, Yale University Press, 2010, p.39
    7. ^ Hassan, Fayza (24–30 January 2002). "Burning down the house". Al-Ahram Weekly (570). Archived from the original on 2009-11-08. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
    8. ^ Muhammad, Mohsen (3 February 2011). خسارة [Khusara]. Al Gomhuria (in Arabic). Archived from the original (Reprint) on 6 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
     
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    27 January 1973 – The Paris Peace Accords officially ends the Vietnam War.

    Paris Peace Accords

    The Paris Peace Accords, (Vietnamese: Hiệp định Paris về Việt Nam) officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam (Hiệp định về chấm dứt chiến tranh, lập lại hòa bình ở Việt Nam), was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973, to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War. The treaty included the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Republic of South Vietnam (PRG) that represented South Vietnamese communists. US ground forces up to that point had been sidelined with deteriorating morale and gradually withdrawn to coastal regions, not taking part in offensive operations or much direct combat for the preceding two-year period.[1][2] The Paris Agreement Treaty would in effect remove all remaining US Forces, including air and naval forces in exchange. Direct U.S. military intervention was ended, and fighting between the three remaining powers temporarily stopped for less than a day.[2] The agreement was not ratified by the United States Senate.[3][4]

    The negotiations that led to the accord began in 1968, after various lengthy delays. As a result of the accord, the International Control Commission (ICC) was replaced by the International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS) to fulfill the agreement. The main negotiators of the agreement were United States National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese politburo member Lê Đức Thọ; the two men were awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts, although Lê Đức Thọ refused to accept it.

    The agreement's provisions were immediately and frequently broken by both North and South Vietnamese forces with no official response from the United States. Open fighting broke out in March 1973, and North Vietnamese offenses enlarged their control by the end of the year. Two years later, a massive North Vietnamese offensive conquered South Vietnam on April 30, 1975, after which the two countries, separated since 1954, united once more on July 2, 1976, as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.[2]

    Part of the negotiations took place in the former residence of French painter Fernand Léger which was bequeathed to the French Communist Party. Ironically the street of the house was named after Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque who had commanded French forces in Vietnam after the Second World War.[5]

    1. ^ Stanton, Shelby L. (2007-12-18). The Rise and Fall of an American Army: U.S. Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1963-1973. Random House Publishing Group. pp. 358–362. ISBN 9780307417343.
    2. ^ a b c Ward & Burns 2017, pp. 508–513.
    3. ^ The Paris Agreement on Vietnam: Twenty-five Years Later Conference Transcript, The Nixon Center, Washington, DC, April 1998. Reproduced on mtholyoke.edu. Accessed 5 September 2012.
    4. ^ The Constitution - Executive agreements Accessed 29 July 2014.
    5. ^ Breakthrough in Paris Blocked in Saigon, October 8–23, 1972 Retrieved December 11, 2021
     
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    28 January 1985 – Supergroup USA for Africa (United Support of Artists for Africa) records the hit single We Are the World, to help raise funds for Ethiopian famine relief.

    Guantanamo Bay Naval Base

    Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (Spanish: Base Naval de la Bahía de Guantánamo), officially known as Naval Station Guantanamo Bay or NSGB, (also called GTMO, pronounced Gitmo as a jargon, by the U.S. military[1]) is a United States military base located on 45 square miles (117 km2) of land and water[2] on the shore of Guantánamo Bay at the southeastern end of Cuba. It has been permanently leased to the United States since 1903 as a coaling station and naval base; it is the oldest overseas U.S. naval base in the world.[3] The lease was $2,000 in gold per year until 1934, when the payment was set to match the value in gold in dollars;[4] in 1974, the yearly lease was set to $4,085.[5]

    Since taking power in 1959, the Cuban communist government has consistently protested against the U.S. presence on Cuban soil, arguing that the base "was imposed on Cuba by force" and is illegal under international law. Since 2002, the naval base has contained a military prison, for alleged unlawful combatants captured in Afghanistan, Iraq, and other places during the War on Terror.[6] Cases of alleged torture of prisoners[7] by the U.S. military, and their denial of protection under the Geneva Conventions, have been criticized.[8][9]

    The 1903 Cuban lease of Guantanamo Bay to the United States has no fixed expiration date,[10] it can only be ended if the US Navy decided to abandon the area or both countries agreed mutually to end the lease.

    1. ^ "File:US Navy 040813-N-6939M-002 Commissions building courtroom at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.jpg". 13 August 2004.
    2. ^ Rosenberg, Carol (25 October 2018). "Guantánamo By the Numbers". Miami Herald. Retrieved 15 April 2021. Size of Navy base: 45 square miles, straddling Guantánamo Bay, from prison camp to air strip.
    3. ^ "Why the U.S. base at Cuba's Guantanamo Bay is probably doomed". Washington Post. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
    4. ^ Sweeney, Joseph C. (2006). "Guantanamo and U.S. Law". Fordham International Law Journal. 30 (3): 22.
    5. ^ Elsea, Jennifer K.; Else, Daniel H. (17 November 2016). Naval Station Guantanamo Bay: History and Legal Issues Regarding Its Lease Agreements (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
    6. ^ "Guantanamo Bay – Camp Delta". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
    7. ^ "GTMO CTD Inspection Special Inquiry" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
    8. ^ "Article 10: Right to fair public hearing by independent tribunal". BBC World Service. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
    9. ^ "Agenda Item 17 base naval". cubaminrex.cu. Archived from the original on 4 June 2004.
    10. ^ Suellentrop, Chris (18 January 2002). "How Did the U.S. Get a Naval Base in Cuba?". Slate. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
     
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    29 January 1980 – The Rubik's Cube makes its international debut at the Ideal Toy Corp. in Earl's Court, London.

    Rubik's Cube

    The Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974[2][3] by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik. Originally called the Magic Cube,[4] the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Ideal Toy Corp. in 1980[5] via businessman Tibor Laczi and Seven Towns founder Tom Kremer.[6] Rubik's Cube won the 1980 German Game of the Year special award for Best Puzzle. As of January 2009, 350 million cubes had been sold worldwide,[7][8][needs update] making it the world's bestselling puzzle game[9][10] and bestselling toy.[11]

    On the original classic Rubik's Cube, each of the six faces was covered by nine stickers, each of one of six solid colours: white, red, blue, orange, green, and yellow. Some later versions of the cube have been updated to use coloured plastic panels instead, which prevents peeling and fading.[12] In models as of 1988, white is opposite yellow, blue is opposite green, and orange is opposite red, and the red, white, and blue are arranged in that order in a clockwise arrangement.[13] On early cubes, the position of the colours varied from cube to cube.[14] An internal pivot mechanism enables each face to turn independently, thus mixing up the colours. For the puzzle to be solved, each face must be returned to have only one colour. Similar puzzles have now been produced with various numbers of sides, dimensions, and stickers, not all of them by Rubik.

    Although the Rubik's Cube reached its height of mainstream popularity in the 1980s, it is still widely known and used. Many speedcubers continue to practice it and similar puzzles; they also compete for the fastest times in various categories. Since 2003, the World Cube Association, the international governing body of the Rubik's Cube, has organised competitions worldwide and recognises world records.

    1. ^ Evans, Pete (27 October 2020). "Canadian company that owns classic toys Etch A Sketch and Aerobie buys Rubik's Cube for $50M". CBC News.
    2. ^ William Fotheringham (2007). Fotheringham's Sporting Pastimes. Anova Books. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-86105-953-6.
    3. ^ de Castella, Tom (28 April 2014). "The people who are still addicted to the Rubik's Cube". BBC News Magazine. BBC. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Daintith, John (1994). A Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists. Bristol: Institute of Physics Pub. p. 771. ISBN 0-7503-0287-9.
    6. ^ Michael Shanks (8 May 2005). "History of the Cube". Stanford University. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
    7. ^ William Lee Adams (28 January 2009). "The Rubik's Cube: A Puzzling Success". Time. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
    8. ^ Alastair Jamieson (31 January 2009). "Rubik's Cube inventor is back with Rubik's 360". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
    9. ^ "eGames, Mindscape Put International Twist on Rubik's Cube PC Game". Reuters. 6 February 2008. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
    10. ^ Marshall, Ray. Squaring up to the Rubchallenge. icNewcastle. Retrieved 15 August 2005.
    11. ^ "Rubik's Cube 25 years on: crazy toys, crazy times". The Independent. London. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
    12. ^ "Rubik's 3x3x3". Retrieved 12 April 2018.
    13. ^ Michael W. Dempsey (1988). Growing up with science: The illustrated encyclopedia of invention. London: Marshall Cavendish. p. 1245. ISBN 0-87475-841-6.
    14. ^ Ewing, John; Czes Kosniowski (1982). Puzzle It Out: Cubes, Groups and Puzzles. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p. 4. ISBN 0-521-28924-6. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
     
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    30 January 1862 – The first American ironclad warship, the USS Monitor is launched.

    Ironclad warship

    The first battle between ironclads: CSS Virginia (left) vs. USS Monitor, in the March 1862 Battle of Hampton Roads

    An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates, constructed from 1859 to the early 1890s. The ironclad was developed as a result of the vulnerability of wooden warships to explosive or incendiary shells. The first ironclad battleship, Gloire, was launched by the French Navy in November 1859 - narrowly pre-empting the British Royal Navy.[1] After the first clashes of ironclads (both with wooden ships and with one another) took place in 1862 during the American Civil War, it became clear that the ironclad had replaced the unarmored ship of the line as the most powerful warship afloat. This type of ship came to be very successful in the American Civil War.[2]

    Ironclads were designed for several roles, including as high seas battleships, long-range cruisers, and coastal defense ships. Rapid development of warship design in the late 19th century transformed the ironclad from a wooden-hulled vessel that carried sails to supplement its steam engines into the steel-built, turreted battleships and cruisers familiar in the 20th century. This change was pushed forward by the development of heavier naval guns, more sophisticated steam engines, and advances in metallurgy which made steel shipbuilding possible.

    The quick pace of change meant that many ships were obsolete almost as soon as they were finished, and that naval tactics were in a state of flux. Many ironclads were built to make use of the ram, the torpedo, or sometimes both (as in the case with smaller ships and later torpedo boats), which a number of naval designers considered the important weapons of naval combat. There is no clear end to the ironclad period, but towards the end of the 1890s the term ironclad dropped out of use. New ships were increasingly constructed to a standard pattern and designated battleships or armored cruisers.

    1. ^ Sondhaus, Lawrence. Naval Warfare 1815–1914 ISBN 0-415-21478-5, pp. 73–74.
    2. ^ Sondhaus, Naval Warfare 1815–1914 p. 86.
     
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    31 January 1968 – Nauru gains independence from Australia.

    Nauru

    Nauru (/nɑːˈr/ nah-OO-roo[9] or /ˈnr/ NOW-roo;[10] Nauruan: Naoero), officially the Republic of Nauru (Nauruan: Repubrikin Naoero) and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country and microstate in Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 km (190 mi) to the east.[11] It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, 1,300 km (810 mi) northeast of Solomon Islands,[12] east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With only a 21 km2 (8.1 sq mi) area, Nauru is the third-smallest country in the world behind Vatican City and Monaco, making it the smallest republic as well as the smallest island nation. Its population of about 10,000 is the world's second-smallest (not including colonies or overseas territories), after Vatican City.

    Settled by people from Micronesia circa 1000 BCE, Nauru was annexed and claimed as a colony by the German Empire in the late 19th century. After World War I, Nauru became a League of Nations mandate administered by Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. During World War II, Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops, and was bypassed by the Allied advance across the Pacific. After the war ended, the country entered into United Nations trusteeship. Nauru gained its independence in 1968, and became a member of the Pacific Community (SPC) in 1969.

    Nauru is a phosphate-rock island with rich deposits near the surface, which allowed easy strip mining operations. Its remaining phosphate resources are not economically viable for extraction.[13] Since the phosphate reserves were exhausted in the 1990s, and the island's environment has been seriously harmed by mining, the trust established to manage the island's wealth has diminished in value. To earn income, Nauru briefly became a tax haven and illegal money laundering centre.[14] From 2001 to 2008, and again from 2012, it accepted aid from the Australian Government in exchange for hosting the Nauru Regional Processing Centre, a controversial offshore Australian immigration detention facility. As a result of heavy dependence on Australia, some sources have identified Nauru as a client state of Australia.[15][16][17] The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States.

    1. ^ Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations. CQ Press. 2013. p. 1131.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference state was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    5. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    6. ^ "National Report on Population ad Housing" (PDF). Nauru Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
    7. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
    8. ^ Department of Justice and Border Control (21 December 1978). "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978" (PDF). Retrieved 11 September 2020. Because of the peculiar way the legislation is worded the legal time is not GMT+12.
    9. ^ "Nauru Pronunciation in English". Cambridge English Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
    10. ^ "Nauru – Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes". Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
    11. ^ "Nauru and Ocean Island". II(8) Pacific Islands Monthly. 15 March 1932. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
    12. ^ "Yaren | district, Nauru". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
    13. ^ Hogan, C Michael (2011). "Phosphate". Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
    14. ^ Hitt, Jack (10 December 2000). "The Billion-Dollar Shack". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
    15. ^ "Pacific correspondent Mike Field". Radio New Zealand. 18 June 2015. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
    16. ^ "Nauru's former chief justice predicts legal break down". Special Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
    17. ^ Ben Doherty (28 October 2015). "This is Abyan's story, and it is Australia's story". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2016.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    1 February 2003Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated during the reentry of mission STS-107 into the Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts aboard.

    STS-107

    STS-107 was the disastrous 113th flight of the Space Shuttle program, and the 28th and final flight of Space Shuttle Columbia. The mission launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on January 16, 2003 and during its 15 days, 22 hours, 20 minutes, 32 seconds in orbit conducted a multitude of international scientific experiments.[1]

    An in-flight break up during reentry into the atmosphere on February 1 killed all seven crew members and disintegrated Columbia. Immediately after the disaster, NASA convened the Columbia Accident Investigation Board to determine the cause of the disintegration. The source of the failure was determined to have been caused by a piece of foam that broke off during launch and damaged the thermal protection system (reinforced carbon-carbon panels and thermal protection tiles) on the leading edge of the orbiter's left wing. During re-entry the damaged wing slowly overheated and came apart, eventually leading to loss of control and disintegration of the vehicle. The cockpit window frame is now exhibited in a memorial inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis Pavilion at the Kennedy Space Center.

    The damage to the thermal protection system on the wing was similar to that Atlantis had sustained in 1988 during STS-27, the second mission after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. However, the damage on STS-27 occurred at a spot that had more robust metal (a thin steel plate near the landing gear), and that mission survived the re-entry.

    1. ^ "HSF - STS-107 Science". NASA. 30 May 2003. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
     
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    2 February 1922Ulysses by James Joyce is published.

    Ulysses (novel)

    Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce. It was first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 and then published in its entirety in Paris by Sylvia Beach on 2 February 1922, Joyce's 40th birthday. It is considered one of the most important works of modernist literature[1] and has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement."[2] According to Declan Kiberd, "Before Joyce, no writer of fiction had so foregrounded the process of thinking".[3]

    Ulysses chronicles the appointments and encounters of the itinerant Leopold Bloom in Dublin in the course of an ordinary day, 16 June 1904.[4][5] Ulysses is the Latinised name of Odysseus, the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey, and the novel establishes a series of parallels between the poem and the novel, with structural correspondences between the characters and experiences of Bloom and Odysseus, Molly Bloom and Penelope, and Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus, in addition to events and themes of the early 20th-century context of modernism, Dublin, and Ireland's relationship to Britain. The novel is highly allusive and also imitates the styles of different periods of English literature.

    Since its publication, the book has attracted controversy and scrutiny, ranging from an obscenity trial in the United States in 1921 to protracted textual "Joyce Wars". The novel's stream of consciousness technique, careful structuring, and experimental prose—replete with puns, parodies, and allusions—as well as its rich characterisation and broad humour have led it to be regarded as one of the greatest literary works in history; Joyce fans worldwide now celebrate 16 June as Bloomsday.

    1. ^ Harte, Tim (Summer 2003). "Sarah Danius, The Senses of Modernism: Technology, Perception, and Aesthetics". Bryn Mawr Review of Comparative Literature. 4 (1). Archived from the original on 5 November 2003. Retrieved 10 July 2001. (review of Danius book).
    2. ^ Beebe (1971), p. 176.
    3. ^ Kiberd, Declan (16 June 2009). "Ulysses, modernism's most sociable masterpiece". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
    4. ^ Keillor, Garrison, "The Writer's Almanac", 2 February 2010.
    5. ^ Menand, Louis (2 July 2012). "Silence, exile, punning". The New Yorker. 16 June 2014 is the date of Joyce's first outing with his wife-to-be, Nora Barnacle; they walked to the Dublin suburb of Ringsend, where Nora masturbated him.
     
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    2 February 1922Ulysses by James Joyce is published.

    Ulysses (novel)

    Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce. It was first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 and then published in its entirety in Paris by Sylvia Beach on 2 February 1922, Joyce's 40th birthday. It is considered one of the most important works of modernist literature[1] and has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement."[2] According to Declan Kiberd, "Before Joyce, no writer of fiction had so foregrounded the process of thinking".[3]

    Ulysses chronicles the appointments and encounters of the itinerant Leopold Bloom in Dublin in the course of an ordinary day, 16 June 1904.[4][5] Ulysses is the Latinised name of Odysseus, the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey, and the novel establishes a series of parallels between the poem and the novel, with structural correspondences between the characters and experiences of Bloom and Odysseus, Molly Bloom and Penelope, and Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus, in addition to events and themes of the early 20th-century context of modernism, Dublin, and Ireland's relationship to Britain. The novel is highly allusive and also imitates the styles of different periods of English literature.

    Since its publication, the book has attracted controversy and scrutiny, ranging from an obscenity trial in the United States in 1921 to protracted textual "Joyce Wars". The novel's stream of consciousness technique, careful structuring, and experimental prose—replete with puns, parodies, and allusions—as well as its rich characterisation and broad humour have led it to be regarded as one of the greatest literary works in history; Joyce fans worldwide now celebrate 16 June as Bloomsday.

    1. ^ Harte, Tim (Summer 2003). "Sarah Danius, The Senses of Modernism: Technology, Perception, and Aesthetics". Bryn Mawr Review of Comparative Literature. 4 (1). Archived from the original on 5 November 2003. Retrieved 10 July 2001. (review of Danius book).
    2. ^ Beebe (1971), p. 176.
    3. ^ Kiberd, Declan (16 June 2009). "Ulysses, modernism's most sociable masterpiece". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
    4. ^ Keillor, Garrison, "The Writer's Almanac", 2 February 2010.
    5. ^ Menand, Louis (2 July 2012). "Silence, exile, punning". The New Yorker. 16 June 2014 is the date of Joyce's first outing with his wife-to-be, Nora Barnacle; they walked to the Dublin suburb of Ringsend, where Nora masturbated him.
     
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    3 February 1984 – Doctor John Buster and a research team at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center in the United States announce history's first embryo transfer, from one woman to another resulting in a live birth.

    Embryo transfer

    Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.

    Embryo transfer can be done at day two or day three, or later in the blastocyst stage, which was first performed in 1984.[1]

    Factors that can affect the success of embryo transfer include the Endometrial receptivity, Embryo quality and Embryo transfer technique.

    1. ^ Cohen J, Simons RF, Fehilly CB, Fishel SB, Edwards RG, Hewitt J, Rowlant GF, Steptoe PC, Webster JM (March 1985). "Birth after replacement of hatching blastocyst cryopreserved at expanded blastocyst stage". Lancet. 1 (8429): 647. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(85)92194-4. PMID 2857991. S2CID 32746730.
     
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    4 February 1555John Rogers is burned at the stake, becoming the first English Protestant martyr under Mary I of England.

    John Rogers (Bible editor and martyr)

    John Rogers (c. 1505 – 4 February 1555) was an English clergyman, Bible translator and commentator. He guided the development of the Matthew Bible in vernacular English during the reign of Henry VIII and was the first English Protestant executed as a heretic under Mary I of England, who was determined to restore Roman Catholicism.

     
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    6 January 1895Dreyfus affair: French army officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island

    Dreyfus affair

    The Dreyfus affair (French: l'affaire Dreyfus, pronounced [lafɛːʁ dʁɛfys]) was a political scandal that divided the French Third Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. "L'Affaire", as it is known in French, has come to symbolise modern injustice in the Francophone world,[1] and it remains one of the most notable examples of a complex miscarriage of justice and antisemitism. The role played by the press and public opinion proved influential in the conflict.

    The scandal began in December 1894 when Captain Alfred Dreyfus was convicted of treason. Dreyfus was a 35-year-old Alsatian French artillery officer of Jewish descent. He was falsely convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for communicating French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, and was imprisoned on Devil's Island in French Guiana, where he spent nearly five years.

    In 1896, evidence came to light—primarily through an investigation made by Georges Picquart, head of counter-espionage—which identified the real culprit as a French Army major named Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy. When high-ranking military officials suppressed the new evidence, a military court unanimously acquitted Esterhazy after a trial lasting only two days. The Army laid additional charges against Dreyfus, based on forged documents. Subsequently, Émile Zola's open letter J'Accuse…! on the newspaper L'Aurore stoked a growing movement of support for Dreyfus, putting pressure on the government to reopen the case.

    In 1899, Dreyfus was returned to France for another trial. The intense political and judicial scandal that ensued divided French society between those who supported Dreyfus (now called "Dreyfusards"), such as Sarah Bernhardt, Anatole France, Charles Péguy, Henri Poincaré and Georges Clemenceau, and those who condemned him (the anti-Dreyfusards), such as Édouard Drumont, the director and publisher of the antisemitic newspaper La Libre Parole. The new trial resulted in another conviction and a 10-year sentence, but Dreyfus was pardoned and released. In 1906, Dreyfus was exonerated and reinstated as a major in the French Army. He served during the whole of World War I, ending his service with the rank of lieutenant colonel. He died in 1935.

    The affair from 1894 to 1906 divided France into pro-republican, anticlerical Dreyfusards and pro-Army, mostly Catholic "anti-Dreyfusards". It embittered French politics and encouraged radicalisation.[2]

    1. ^ Guy Canivet, first President of the Supreme Court, Justice from the Dreyfus Affair, p. 15.
    2. ^ Daughton, James Patrick (2006). An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the making of French Colonialism, 1880–1914. Oxford University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-19-530530-2. OCLC 644094069.
     
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    6 February 1843 – The first minstrel show in the United States

    Minstrel show

    Four-member band in blackface make-up playing tambourine, fiddle, banjo and percussion in exaggerated poses.
    Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843

    The minstrel show, also called minstrelsy, was an American form of racist entertainment developed in the early 19th century. Each show consisted of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music performances that depicted people specifically of African descent. The shows were performed by mostly white people in make-up or blackface for the purpose of playing the role of black people. There were also some African-American performers and black-only minstrel groups that formed and toured. Minstrel shows lampooned black people as dim-witted, lazy, buffoonish, superstitious, and happy-go-lucky.[1][2]

    Minstrel shows emerged as brief burlesques and comic entr'actes in the early 1830s in the Northeastern states. They were developed into full-fledged form in the next decade. By 1848, blackface minstrel shows were the national artform, translating formal art such as opera into popular terms for a general audience.[3]

    By the turn of the 20th century, the minstrel show enjoyed but a shadow of its former popularity, having been replaced for the most part by vaudeville. The form survived as professional entertainment until about 1910; amateur performances continued until the 1960s in high schools and local theaters.[4]

    The genre has had a lasting legacy and influence and was featured in a television series as recently as the mid-1970s. Generally, as the civil rights movement progressed and gained acceptance, minstrelsy lost popularity.

    The typical minstrel performance followed a three-act structure. The troupe first danced onto stage then exchanged wisecracks and sang songs. The second part featured a variety of entertainments, including the pun-filled stump speech. The final act consisted of a slapstick musical plantation skit or a send-up of a popular play.

    Minstrel songs and sketches featured several stock characters, most popularly the slave and the dandy. These were further divided into sub-archetypes such as the mammy, her counterpart the old darky, the provocative mulatto wench, and the black soldier. Minstrels claimed that their songs and dances were authentically black,[5] although the extent of the black influence remains debated. Spirituals (known as jubilees) entered the repertoire in the 1870s, marking the first undeniably black music to be used in minstrelsy.

    Blackface minstrelsy was the first theatrical form that was distinctly American. During the 1830s and 1840s at the height of its popularity, it was at the epicenter of the American music industry. For several decades, it provided the means through which American whites viewed black people. On the one hand, it had strong racist aspects; on the other, it afforded white Americans more awareness, albeit distorted, of some aspects of black culture in America.[6][7]

    Although the minstrel shows were extremely popular, being "consistently packed with families from all walks of life and every ethnic group",[8] they were also controversial. Integrationists decried them as falsely showing happy slaves while at the same time making fun of them; segregationists thought such shows were "disrespectful" of social norms as they portrayed runaway slaves with sympathy and would undermine slavery.[9]

    1. ^ The Coon Character Archived 2012-04-14 at the Wayback Machine, Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, Ferris State University. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
    2. ^ John Kenrick, A History of the Musical: Minstrel Shows Archived 2012-06-11 at the Wayback Machine, musicals101.com. 1996, revised 2003. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
    3. ^ Behind the Burnt Cork Mask: Early Blackface Minstrelsy and Antebellum American Popular Culture by William J. Mahar, University of Illinois Press (1998) p. 9 ISBN 0-252-06696-0.
    4. ^ Meehan, Sarah. "Blackface photos found in old University of Maryland yearbooks". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
    5. ^ Nowatzki, Robert (2010). Representing African Americans in Transatlantic Abolitionism and Blackface Minstrelsy. Baton Rouge: LSU Press. p. 36. ISBN 9780807137451.
    6. ^ Lott 1993, pp. 17–18
    7. ^ Watkins 1999, p. 82
    8. ^ Sweet, Frank W. A History of the Minstrel Show, p27.
    9. ^ A History of the Minstrel Show (2000) By Frank W. Sweet, Backintyme, p. 28 Retrieved 18 March 2010.
     
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    7 February 1962 – The United States bans all Cuban imports and exports.

    United States embargo against Cuba

    US president Dwight D. Eisenhower (left) and Cuban leader Fidel Castro

    The United States embargo against Cuba prevents American businesses, and businesses organized under U.S. law or majority-owned by American citizens, from conducting trade with Cuban interests. It is the most enduring trade embargo in modern history. The US first imposed an embargo on the sale of arms to Cuba on March 14, 1958, during the Fulgencio Batista regime. Again on October 19, 1960, almost two years after the Cuban Revolution had led to the deposition of the Batista regime, the US placed an embargo on exports to Cuba except for food and medicine after Cuba nationalized the US-owned Cuban oil refineries without compensation. On February 7, 1962, the embargo was extended to include almost all exports. The United Nations General Assembly has passed a resolution every year since 1992 demanding the end of the US economic embargo on Cuba, with the US and Israel being the only nations to consistently vote against the resolutions.[2]

    As of 2022, the embargo is enforced mainly through the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, the Cuban Assets Control Regulations of 1963, the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992, the Helms–Burton Act of 1996, and the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000.[3] The stated purpose of the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 is to maintain sanctions on Cuba as long as the Cuban government refuses to move toward "democratization and greater respect for human rights."[4] The Helms-Burton Act further restricted United States citizens from doing commerce in or with Cuba, and mandated restrictions on giving public or private assistance to any successor government in Havana unless and until certain claims against the Cuban government were met. In 1999, President Bill Clinton expanded the trade embargo by also disallowing foreign subsidiaries of U.S. companies to trade with Cuba. In 2000, Clinton authorized the sale of food and humanitarian products to Cuba.[5]

    William M. LeoGrande summarized that the embargo against Cuba is "the oldest and most comprehensive US economic sanctions regime against any country in the world" imposed over half a century ago. According to LeoGrande, "the embargo has never been effective at achieving its principal purpose: forcing Cuba's revolutionary regime out of power or bending it to Washington's will."[6]

    1. ^ "U.S. issues new Cuba sanctions, Biden promises more to come". Reuters. July 31, 2021. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
    2. ^ "UN General Assembly calls for US to end Cuba embargo for 40th consecutive year". United Nations General Assembly. June 23, 2021.
    3. ^ "The US Embargo Against Cuba: Its Impact on Economic and Social Rights". Amnesty International. September 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
    4. ^ "Cuban Democracy Act of 1992". U.S. Department of State.
    5. ^ "Case Studies in Economic Sanctions and Terrorism: US v. Gta 5 (1960– : Castro)" (PDF). Peterson Institute for International Economics. October 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
    6. ^ LeoGrande, William M. (Winter 2015). "A Policy Long Past Its Expiration Date: US Economic Sanctions Against Cuba". Social Research. 82 (4): 939–966. ISSN 0037-783X. JSTOR 44282148.
     
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    8 February 1879 – The England cricket team led by Lord Harris is attacked in a riot during a match in Sydney

    Sydney Riot of 1879

    An 1887 cricket match in progress at Sydney's Association Ground, the site of the riot

    The Sydney Riot of 1879 was an instance of civil disorder that occurred at an early international cricket match. It took place on 8 February 1879 at what is now the Sydney Cricket Ground (at the time known as the Association Ground), during a match between New South Wales, captained by Dave Gregory, and a touring English team, captained by Lord Harris.

    The riot was sparked by a controversial umpiring decision, when star Australian batsman Billy Murdoch was given out by George Coulthard, a Victorian employed by the Englishmen. The dismissal caused an uproar among the spectators, many of whom surged onto the pitch and assaulted Coulthard and some English players. It was alleged that illegal gamblers in the New South Wales pavilion, who had bet heavily on the home side, encouraged the riot because the tourists were in a dominant position and looked set to win. Another theory given to explain the anger was that of intercolonial rivalry, that the New South Wales crowd objected to what they perceived to be a slight from a Victorian umpire.

    The pitch invasion occurred while Gregory halted the match by not sending out a replacement for Murdoch. The New South Wales skipper called on Lord Harris to remove umpire Coulthard, whom he considered to be inept or biased, but his English counterpart declined. The other umpire, future prime minister Edmund Barton, defended Coulthard and Lord Harris, saying that the decision against Murdoch was correct and that the English had conducted themselves appropriately. Eventually, Gregory agreed to resume the match without the removal of Coulthard. However, the crowd continued to disrupt proceedings, and play was abandoned for the day. Upon resumption after the Sunday rest day, Lord Harris's men won convincingly by an innings.

    In the immediate aftermath of the riot, the England team cancelled the remaining games they were scheduled to play in Sydney. The incident also caused much press comment in England and Australia. In Australia, the newspapers were united in condemning the unrest, viewing the chaos as a national humiliation and a public relations disaster. An open letter by Lord Harris about the incident was later published in English newspapers, and caused fresh outrage in New South Wales when it was reprinted by the Australian newspapers. A defensive letter written in response by the New South Wales Cricket Association further damaged relations. The affair led to a breakdown of goodwill that threatened the future of Anglo-Australian cricket relations. However, friction between the cricketing authorities finally eased when Lord Harris agreed to lead an England representative side at The Oval in London against the touring Australians in 1880; this match became the fourth-ever Test and cemented the tradition of Anglo-Australian Test matches.

     
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    9 February 1941World War II: Bombing of Genoa: The Cathedral of San Lorenzo in Genoa, Italy, is struck by a bomb which fails to detonate.

    Bombing of Genoa in World War II

    Owing to the importance of its port (the largest and busiest port in Italy) and industries (such as the Ansaldo shipyard and Piaggio), the Italian port city of Genoa, the regional capital and largest city of Liguria, was heavily bombarded by both Allied air and naval forces during Second World War, suffering heavy damage.

     
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    10 February 1906HMS Dreadnought, the first of a revolutionary new breed of battleships, is christened

    HMS Dreadnought (1906)

    HMS Dreadnought was a Royal Navy battleship whose design revolutionised naval power. The ship's entry into service in 1906 represented such an advance in naval technology that her name came to be associated with an entire generation of battleships, the "dreadnoughts", as well as the class of ships named after her. Likewise, the generation of ships she made obsolete became known as "pre-dreadnoughts". Admiral Sir John "Jacky" Fisher, First Sea Lord of the Board of Admiralty, is credited as the father of Dreadnought. Shortly after he assumed office in 1904, he ordered design studies for a battleship armed solely with 12 in (305 mm) guns and a speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph). He convened a "Committee on Designs" to evaluate the alternative designs and to assist in the detailed design work.

    Dreadnought was the first battleship of her era to have a uniform main battery, rather than having a few large guns complemented by a heavy secondary armament of smaller guns. She was also the first capital ship to be powered by steam turbines, making her the fastest battleship in the world at the time of her completion.[1] Her launch helped spark a naval arms race as navies around the world, particularly the Imperial German Navy, rushed to match it in the build-up to the First World War.[2]

    Ironically for a vessel designed to engage enemy battleships, her only significant action was the ramming and sinking of German submarine SM U-29, becoming the only battleship confirmed to have sunk a submarine.[3] Dreadnought did not participate in the Battle of Jutland in 1916 as she was being refitted. Nor did Dreadnought participate in any of the other First World War naval battles. In May 1916 she was relegated to coastal defence duties in the English Channel, before rejoining the Grand Fleet in 1918. The ship was reduced to reserve in 1919 and sold for scrap two years later.

    1. ^ Sturton, pp. 76–77
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference g1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference b38 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    11 February 2001 – A Dutch programmer launched the Anna Kournikova virus infecting millions of emails via a trick photo of the tennis star.

    Anna Kournikova (computer virus)

    Anna Kournikova (named Vbs.OnTheFly by its author, and also known as VBS/SST and VBS_Kalamar)[1] was a computer virus that spread worldwide on the Internet in February 2001. The virus program was contained in an email attachment, purportedly an image of tennis player Anna Kournikova.

    1. ^ Alijo, Hernan. "Purported 'Anna' virus toolkit author yanks files from site". ZDNet. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
     
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    12 February 1993 – Two-year-old James Bulger is abducted from New Strand Shopping Centre by two ten-year-old boys, who later torture and murder him.

    Murder of James Bulger

    James Patrick Bulger (16 March 1990[2] – 12 February 1993) was a two-year-old boy from Kirkby, Merseyside, England, who was abducted, tortured, and murdered by two 10-year-old boys, Robert Thompson and Jon Venables, on 12 February 1993.[3][4] Thompson and Venables led Bulger away from the New Strand Shopping Centre in Bootle, after his mother had taken her eyes off him momentarily. His mutilated body was found on a railway line 2+12 mi (4 km) away in Walton, Liverpool, two days after his abduction.

    Thompson and Venables were charged on 20 February 1993 with abduction and murder. They were found guilty on 24 November, making them the youngest convicted murderers in modern British history. They were sentenced to detention at Her Majesty's pleasure, and remained in custody until a Parole Board decision in June 2001 recommended their release on a lifelong licence aged 18.[5] Venables was sent to prison in 2010 for breaching the terms of his licence, was released on parole again in 2013, and in November 2017 was again sent to prison for possessing child abuse images on his computer.

    The Bulger case has prompted widespread debate about how to handle young offenders when they are sentenced or released from custody.[6][7]

    1. ^ Paterson, Stewart (26 November 2017). "James Bulger's father demands son's killer Jon Venables is stripped of anonymity". Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2020 – via www.nzherald.co.nz.
    2. ^ "The killers and the victims". CNN. 22 June 2001. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
    3. ^ Smith, David James (3 April 2011). "The Secret Life of a Killer" (PDF). The Sunday Times Magazine: 22–34. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2013.
    4. ^ "Bulger killers to be released on parole". The Independent. 22 June 2001. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
    5. ^ Firth, Paul (3 March 2010). "A question of release and redemption as Bulger killer goes back into custody". Yorkshire Post. Johnston Press. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
    6. ^ Anna-Louise Taylor (21 April 2011). "How should young killers be treated?". BBC. Archived from the original on 22 April 2011.
     
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    13 February 1990German reunification: An agreement is reached on a two-stage plan to reunite Germany.

    German reunification

    Map showing the division of East (red) and West Germany (blue) until 3 October 1990, with Berlin in yellow
    Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, national symbol of today's Germany and its reunification in 1990

    German reunification (German: Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany.

    The end of the unification process is officially referred to as German unity (Deutsche Einheit), celebrated each year on 3 October as German Unity Day (Tag der deutschen Einheit).[1] East and West Berlin were reunited into a single city and again became the capital of united Germany.

    The East German government started to falter in May 1989, when the removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria opened a hole in the Iron Curtain. The border was still closely guarded, but the Pan-European Picnic and the indecisive reaction of the rulers of the Eastern Bloc set in motion an irreversible peaceful movement.[2][3] It allowed an exodus of thousands of East Germans fleeing to West Germany via Hungary. The Peaceful Revolution, a series of protests by East Germans, led to the GDR's first free elections on 18 March 1990 and to the negotiations between the GDR and FRG that culminated in a Unification Treaty.[1] Other negotiations between the GDR and FRG and the four occupying powers produced the so-called "Two Plus Four Treaty" (Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany), granting full sovereignty to a unified German state, whose two parts were previously bound by a number of limitations stemming from their post-World War II status as occupied regions.

    The West German government of Konrad Adenauer rejected proposals of the 1952 Stalin note to reunify under terms of neutrality. The government instead pursued a policy of West German rearmament, while ending the process of denazification and declaring an amnesty. This led to the 1952 establishment of the European Defense Community, and West Germany joined NATO in 1955.

    The 1945 Potsdam Agreement had specified that a full peace treaty concluding World War II, including the exact delimitation of Germany's postwar boundaries, was required to be "accepted by the Government of Germany when a government adequate for the purpose is established." The Federal Republic had always maintained that no such government could be said to have been established until East and West Germany had been united within a free democratic state; but, in 1990, a range of opinions continued to be maintained over whether a unified West Germany, East Germany, and Berlin could be said to represent "Germany as a whole" for this purpose. The key question was whether a Germany that remained bounded to the east by the Oder–Neisse line (the international border with Poland) could act as a "united Germany" in signing the peace treaty without qualification. Under the "Two Plus Four Treaty", both the Federal Republic and the Democratic Republic committed themselves and their unified continuation to the principle that their joint pre-1990 boundaries constituted the entire territory that could be claimed by a Government of Germany, and hence that there were no further lands outside those boundaries that were parts of Germany as a whole.

    The post-1990 united Germany is not a successor state, but an enlarged continuation of the former West Germany. The enlarged Federal Republic of Germany retained the West German seats in international organizations including the European Economic Community (later the European Union), NATO, and the United Nations. Memberships in the Warsaw Pact and other international organizations to which East Germany belonged ended because East Germany ceased to exist.

    1. ^ a b "EinigVtr - Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik über die Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands". www.gesetze-im-internet.de (in German). Retrieved 6 March 2022.
    2. ^ Brait, Andrea; Gehler, Michael (6 July 2014), "Grenzöffnung 1989 – Offene Grenzen?", Grenzöffnung 1989, Wien: Böhlau Verlag, pp. 9–44, doi:10.7767/boehlau.9783205793236.9, ISBN 978-3-205-79496-7, retrieved 6 March 2022
    3. ^ Sardemann, Gerhard (1 August 2010). "Die Welt aus den Angeln heben". TATuP: Zeitschrift für Technikfolgenabschätzung in Theorie und Praxis. 19 (2): 8–17. doi:10.14512/tatup.19.2.8. ISSN 2199-9201.
     
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    14 February 2018Jacob Zuma resigns as President of South Africa.

    Jacob Zuma

    Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (Zulu: [geɮʱejiɬeˈkisa ˈzʱuma]; born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician and the fourth president of South Africa from 2009 to 2018. He is also referred to by his initials JZ and his clan name Msholozi.[1][2][3] A former anti-apartheid activist and a member of Umkhonto we Sizwe, he was also the president of the African National Congress (ANC) between 2007 and 2017.

    Zuma was born in the rural region of Nkandla in what is now the province of KwaZulu-Natal, still the centre of Zuma's support base. He joined the ANC as a teenager in 1959 and spent ten years as a political prisoner on Robben Island. He went into exile in 1975 and was ultimately appointed head of the ANC's intelligence department. After the ANC was unbanned in 1990, he rose quickly through the party's national leadership, becoming deputy secretary general in 1991, national chairperson in 1994, and deputy president in 1997. He was deputy president of South Africa from 1999 to 2005 under President Thabo Mbeki, Nelson Mandela's successor. Mbeki dismissed him on 14 June 2005, after his financial adviser, Schabir Shaik, was convicted of making corrupt payments to him in connection with the Arms Deal. Zuma was charged with corruption, and was also acquitted on rape charges in a highly publicised 2006 trial. Nevertheless, he retained the support of a left-wing coalition inside the ANC, which helped him depose Mbeki as ANC president in December 2007 at the ANC's Polokwane elective conference.

    He was elected president of South Africa in the 2009 general election and took office on 9 May 2009; the criminal charges against him were formally withdrawn in the same week. As president, Zuma launched the R4-trillion National Infrastructure Plan and signed a controversial nuclear power deal with the Russian government, blocked by the Western Cape High Court in 2017. A former member of the South African Communist Party, he increasingly relied on left-wing populist rhetoric, and in his 2017 State of the Nation address announced a new policy of "radical economic transformation." Few of the attendant policy initiatives were implemented before the end of his presidency, but they included land expropriation without compensation, free higher education, and a series of attempted structural reforms in key sectors, involving restrictions on foreign ownership and more stringent black economic empowerment requirements. In the international arena, Zuma emphasised South-South solidarity and economic diplomacy. The admission of South Africa to the BRICS grouping has been described as a major triumph for Zuma, and he has also been praised for his HIV/AIDS policy.

    However, his presidency was beset by controversy, especially during his second term. In 2014, the Public Protector found that Zuma had improperly benefited from state expenditure on upgrades to his Nkandla homestead, and in 2016 the Constitutional Court ruled that Zuma had thereby failed to uphold the Constitution, leading to calls for his resignation and a failed impeachment attempt in the National Assembly. By early 2016, there were also widespread allegations – investigated by the Zondo Commission between 2018 and 2021 – that the Gupta family had acquired immense and corrupt influence over Zuma's administration, amounting to state capture. Several weeks after Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa was elected to succeed Zuma as ANC president in December 2017, the ANC National Executive Committee recalled Zuma. Facing his fifth vote of no confidence in Parliament, he resigned on 14 February 2018 and was replaced by Ramaphosa the next day.

    Shortly after his resignation, on 16 March 2018, the National Prosecuting Authority announced that Zuma would again face prosecution on corruption charges relating to the 1999 Arms Deal. He pleaded not guilty on 26 May 2021, and the trial is set to resume on 11 April 2022. In a separate legal matter, in July 2021 Zuma was imprisoned in Estcourt, KwaZulu-Natal for contempt of court. After testifying for less than three days at the Zondo Commission into state capture allegations, he refused to return, violating summonses and a Constitutional Court order compelling his testimony. On 29 June 2021, the Constitutional Court sentenced him to fifteen months' imprisonment. He was arrested on 7 July and then released on medical parole two months later, on 5 September. The high court rescinded his parole on 15 December, but he has been granted leave to appeal the ruling in the Supreme Court of Appeal.

    1. ^ Mbuyazi, Nondumiso (13 September 2008). "JZ receives 'death threat'". The Star. p. 4. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
    2. ^ Kaiser, Hein (30 June 2021). "Zuma is going to jail, but what will prison life be like for Msholozi?". The Citizen. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
    3. ^ Lander, Alice (19 December 2007). "Durban basks in Zuma's ANC victory". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
     
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    14 February 2018Jacob Zuma resigns as President of South Africa.

    Jacob Zuma

    Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (Zulu: [geɮʱejiɬeˈkisa ˈzʱuma]; born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician and the fourth president of South Africa from 2009 to 2018. He is also referred to by his initials JZ and his clan name Msholozi.[1][2][3] A former anti-apartheid activist and a member of Umkhonto we Sizwe, he was also the president of the African National Congress (ANC) between 2007 and 2017.

    Zuma was born in the rural region of Nkandla in what is now the province of KwaZulu-Natal, still the centre of Zuma's support base. He joined the ANC as a teenager in 1959 and spent ten years as a political prisoner on Robben Island. He went into exile in 1975 and was ultimately appointed head of the ANC's intelligence department. After the ANC was unbanned in 1990, he rose quickly through the party's national leadership, becoming deputy secretary general in 1991, national chairperson in 1994, and deputy president in 1997. He was deputy president of South Africa from 1999 to 2005 under President Thabo Mbeki, Nelson Mandela's successor. Mbeki dismissed him on 14 June 2005, after his financial adviser, Schabir Shaik, was convicted of making corrupt payments to him in connection with the Arms Deal. Zuma was charged with corruption, and was also acquitted on rape charges in a highly publicised 2006 trial. Nevertheless, he retained the support of a left-wing coalition inside the ANC, which helped him depose Mbeki as ANC president in December 2007 at the ANC's Polokwane elective conference.

    He was elected president of South Africa in the 2009 general election and took office on 9 May 2009; the criminal charges against him were formally withdrawn in the same week. As president, Zuma launched the R4-trillion National Infrastructure Plan and signed a controversial nuclear power deal with the Russian government, blocked by the Western Cape High Court in 2017. A former member of the South African Communist Party, he increasingly relied on left-wing populist rhetoric, and in his 2017 State of the Nation address announced a new policy of "radical economic transformation." Few of the attendant policy initiatives were implemented before the end of his presidency, but they included land expropriation without compensation, free higher education, and a series of attempted structural reforms in key sectors, involving restrictions on foreign ownership and more stringent black economic empowerment requirements. In the international arena, Zuma emphasised South-South solidarity and economic diplomacy. The admission of South Africa to the BRICS grouping has been described as a major triumph for Zuma, and he has also been praised for his HIV/AIDS policy.

    However, his presidency was beset by controversy, especially during his second term. In 2014, the Public Protector found that Zuma had improperly benefited from state expenditure on upgrades to his Nkandla homestead, and in 2016 the Constitutional Court ruled that Zuma had thereby failed to uphold the Constitution, leading to calls for his resignation and a failed impeachment attempt in the National Assembly. By early 2016, there were also widespread allegations – investigated by the Zondo Commission between 2018 and 2021 – that the Gupta family had acquired immense and corrupt influence over Zuma's administration, amounting to state capture. Several weeks after Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa was elected to succeed Zuma as ANC president in December 2017, the ANC National Executive Committee recalled Zuma. Facing his fifth vote of no confidence in Parliament, he resigned on 14 February 2018 and was replaced by Ramaphosa the next day.

    Shortly after his resignation, on 16 March 2018, the National Prosecuting Authority announced that Zuma would again face prosecution on corruption charges relating to the 1999 Arms Deal. He pleaded not guilty on 26 May 2021, and the trial is set to resume on 11 April 2022. In a separate legal matter, in July 2021 Zuma was imprisoned in Estcourt, KwaZulu-Natal for contempt of court. After testifying for less than three days at the Zondo Commission into state capture allegations, he refused to return, violating summonses and a Constitutional Court order compelling his testimony. On 29 June 2021, the Constitutional Court sentenced him to fifteen months' imprisonment. He was arrested on 7 July and then released on medical parole two months later, on 5 September. The high court rescinded his parole on 15 December, but he has been granted leave to appeal the ruling in the Supreme Court of Appeal.

    1. ^ Mbuyazi, Nondumiso (13 September 2008). "JZ receives 'death threat'". The Star. p. 4. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
    2. ^ Kaiser, Hein (30 June 2021). "Zuma is going to jail, but what will prison life be like for Msholozi?". The Citizen. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
    3. ^ Lander, Alice (19 December 2007). "Durban basks in Zuma's ANC victory". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
     

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